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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 896 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 445)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 218)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 238)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 146)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access  
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Autism Research
  [SJR: 2.126]   [H-I: 39]   [36 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1939-3792 - ISSN (Online) 1939-3806
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Sensitivity to audio-visual synchrony and its relation to language
           abilities in children with and without ASD
    • Authors: Giulia Righi; Elena J. Tenenbaum, Carolyn McCormick, Megan Blossom, Dima Amso, Stephen J. Sheinkopf
      Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is often accompanied by deficits in speech and language processing. Speech processing relies heavily on the integration of auditory and visual information, and it has been suggested that the ability to detect correspondence between auditory and visual signals helps to lay the foundation for successful language development. The goal of the present study was to examine whether young children with ASD show reduced sensitivity to temporal asynchronies in a speech processing task when compared to typically developing controls, and to examine how this sensitivity might relate to language proficiency. Using automated eye tracking methods, we found that children with ASD failed to demonstrate sensitivity to asynchronies of 0.3s, 0.6s, or 1.0s between a video of a woman speaking and the corresponding audio track. In contrast, typically developing children who were language-matched to the ASD group, were sensitive to both 0.6s and 1.0s asynchronies. We also demonstrated that individual differences in sensitivity to audiovisual asynchronies and individual differences in orientation to relevant facial features were both correlated with scores on a standardized measure of language abilities. Results are discussed in the context of attention to visual language and audio-visual processing as potential precursors to language impairment in ASD. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummarySpeech processing relies heavily on the integration of auditory and visual information, and it has been suggested that the ability to detect correspondence between auditory and visual signals helps to lay the foundation for successful language development. The goal of the present study was to explore whether children with ASD process audio-visual synchrony in ways comparable to their typically developing peers, and the relationship between preference for synchrony and language ability. Results showed that there are differences in attention to audiovisual synchrony between typically developing children and children with ASD. Preference for synchrony was related to the language abilities of children across groups.
      PubDate: 2018-01-13T10:25:24.844885-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1918
       
  • Relationships between autism spectrum disorder and intolerance of
           uncertainty
    • Authors: Roma A. Vasa; Nicole L. Kreiser, Amy Keefer, Vini Singh, Stewart H. Mostofsky
      Abstract: Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a dispositional risk factor involving maladaptive responding under conditions of uncertainty. Recent data indicate that IU is likely elevated in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is positively correlated with anxiety. This study examined whether IU may be associated with ASD independent of anxiety. Relationships between anxiety, ASD, and IU were examined in 57 children with ASD without co-occurring intellectual disability and 32 control participants, ages 7–16 years. Hierarchal linear regressions were run to examine whether ASD variables, including emotion dysregulation, were predictive of IU when controlling for anxiety. Severity of social communication deficits, repetitive behaviors, and emotion dysregulation were each related to IU when controlling for the effects of anxiety. When these variables were entered into the regression model together, emotion dysregulation was the only significant predictor of IU. These findings suggest that IU is directly related to features of ASD possibly due to shared genetic, neurological, or psychological underpinnings. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryYouth with ASD without co-occurring intellectual disability experience high levels of intolerance of uncertainty (IU), which is related to anxiety. This study found that IU may also have a relationship with certain aspects of ASD, particularly emotion dysregulation.
      PubDate: 2018-01-07T23:55:31.808097-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1916
       
  • Enhancing interactions during daily routines: A randomized controlled
           trial of a web-based tutorial for parents of young children with ASD
    • Authors: Lisa V. Ibañez; Kenneth Kobak, Amy Swanson, Lisa Wallace, Zachary Warren, Wendy L. Stone
      Abstract: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often experience difficulty participating in everyday home routines, such as bed time or bath time. This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of an interactive, web-based parenting tutorial for improving children's engagement in daily routines (i.e., proximal outcomes) as well improving children's social communication and parenting efficacy and stress (i.e., broad outcomes). Parents of children with ASD between 18 and 60 months were randomly assigned to the Tutorial group (n = 52) or the Control group (n = 52). All parents completed questionnaires at baseline (T1), 1 month after T1 (T2; post-tutorial completion), and 2 months after T1 (T3). Relative to the Control group, parents in the Tutorial group reported significantly higher use of evidence-based instructional strategies and higher levels of child engagement during routines at T2 and T3. In addition, parents in the Tutorial group reported significantly lower parenting stress and higher parenting efficacy at T3, as well as higher ratings of child social communication at T2 and T3, compared to the Control group. Parents reported being highly satisfied with both the clinical content and technical aspects of the tutorial. These improvements in both proximal and broad parent-child outcomes suggest that this tutorial may be a promising and accessible way for empowering some parents and improving parent-child interactions. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryThis web-based tutorial helped parents of children with ASD use proven strategies to improve their child's participation in daily routines at home. Parents who used the tutorial reported less parenting stress, felt better about their parenting skills, and reported better child social interactions compared to parents who did not use the tutorial. This tutorial may be especially helpful for families who have limited access to services, as it can be completed at home.
      PubDate: 2018-01-07T23:55:22.152741-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1919
       
  • Cognitive enhancement therapy for adult autism spectrum disorder: Results
           of an 18‐month randomized clinical trial
    • Authors: Shaun M. Eack; Susan S. Hogarty, Deborah P. Greenwald, Maralee Y. Litschge, Shannondora A. Porton, Carla A. Mazefsky, Nancy J. Minshew
      Abstract: Cognitive remediation is a promising approach to treating core cognitive deficits in adults with autism, but rigorously controlled trials of comprehensive interventions that target both social and non‐social cognition over a sufficient period of time to impact functioning are lacking. This study examined the efficacy of cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) for improving core cognitive and employment outcomes in adult autism. Verbal adult outpatients with autism spectrum disorder (N = 54) were randomized to an 18‐month, single‐blind trial of CET, a cognitive remediation approach that integrates computer‐based neurocognitive training with group‐based training in social cognition, or an active enriched supportive therapy (EST) comparison focused on psychoeducation and condition management. Primary outcomes were composite indexes of neurocognitive and social‐cognitive change. Competitive employment was a secondary outcome. Intent‐to‐treat analyses indicated that CET produced significant differential increases in neurocognitive function relative to EST (d = .46, P = .013). Both CET and EST were associated with large social‐cognitive improvements, with CET demonstrating an advantage at 9 (d = .58, P = 0.020), but not 18 months (d = .27, P = 0.298). Effects on employment indicated that participants treated with CET were significantly more likely to gain competitive employment than those in EST, OR = 6.21, P = 0.023, which was mediated by cognitive improvement. CET is a feasible and potentially effective treatment for core cognitive deficits in adult autism spectrum disorder. The treatment of cognitive impairments in this population can contribute to meaningful improvements in adult outcomes. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryCognitive enhancement therapy (CET), an 18‐month cognitive remediation intervention designed to improve thinking and social understanding, was found to be more effective than supportive therapy at improving mental quickness, attention, and employment in adults living with autism. Social understanding was equally improved in CET and supportive therapy. Cognitive remediation interventions are feasible and may confer significant functional benefits to adults with autism.
      PubDate: 2017-12-29T10:45:24.920768-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1913
       
  • Utility of an abbreviated version of the stanford-binet intelligence
           scales (5th ed.) in estimating ‘full scale’ IQ for young children with
           autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Conal Twomey; Helen O'Connell, Mary Lillis, Sarah Louise Tarpey, Gary O'Reilly
      Abstract: The fifth edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence scales allows ‘full scale’ IQ (FSIQ) to be estimated using an abridged version of the test—the abbreviated battery IQ (ABIQ). Set within a public early intervention team service, the current cross-sectional study investigated the utility of the ABIQ in estimating FSIQ for 40 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 3–5 years. A strong ABIQ-FSIQ association was yielded (r = 0.89; r2 = 0.808) and the ABIQ did not over-estimate mean FSIQ above a clinically-relevant threshold; however, clinically significant over-estimation occurred in 17.5% of individual cases. While the findings provide support for the utility of the ABIQ in estimating FSIQ for young children with ASD, caution relating to the over-estimation of FSIQ is warranted. Careful clinical judgment–ideally based on examination of previous cognitive assessment results (if available), thorough interactional observations, and close multi-disciplinary consultation—is necessary to determine the applicability of the ABIQ to individual cases. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryWe investigated the utility of a shortened version of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales in estimating IQ for 40 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The findings provide qualified support for the instrument: acceptably accurate IQ estimation was achieved for most cases; but not so for a sizeable minority (17.5%). Careful clinical judgment is necessary to determine the applicability of the ABIQ to individual cases.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T00:06:15.457208-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1911
       
  • Is food refusal in autistic children related to TAS2R38 genotype'
    • Authors: Maria Pia Riccio; Chiara Franco, Rossella Negri, Roberta Ida Ferrentino, Roberta Maresca, Elisa D'alterio, Luigi Greco, Carmela Bravaccio
      Abstract: Several studies suggest that atypical eating behaviors, in particular food selectivity, are more frequent in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A link between bitter taste perception, namely PROP/PTC sensitivity and food preferences is known in healthy children. The aim of this study is to investigate whether genetic variants of the TAS2R38 taste receptor responsible for different bitter sensitivity could affect foods preferences and consequently food refusal in ASD children. We recruited 43 children with ASD and 41 with normotypic development (TD) with or without food selectivity, aged between 2 and 11 years. Children were characterized for bitter sensitivity by means of PROP strips and FACS analysis and genotyped for TAS2R38 polymorphisms. Food selectivity was assessed by a validated food preference questionnaire filled by parents. A statistically significant correlation between PROP sensitivity and food refusal was observed. Furthermore, a prevalence of the PAV-sensitive haplotype compared to the AVI-insensitive one was seen in ASD children with food selectivity. In agreement with the initial hypothesis the results show that food refusal in ASD children is mediated by bitter taste sensitivity thus suggesting that the bitter sensitivity test may be used as a device to orientate tailored food proposals for the practical management of food selectivity in ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryA variation of the gene TAS2R38, associated with bitter taste sensitivity, can cause a different perception of some foods. In particular, some children are hypersensitive to bitterness and show a more restricted repertoire of accepted foods. We evaluate bitter sensitivity in ASD children with or without food selectivity, through a simple bitter taste test with edible strips. The results show that food refusal in ASD children can be mediated by bitter taste sensitivity thus suggesting that the bitter sensitivity test may be used as a device to orientate tailored food proposals for the practical management of food selectivity in ASD.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T00:05:51.932364-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1912
       
  • Visual Motion Prediction and Verbal False Memory Performance in Autistic
           Children
    • Authors: Furtuna G. Tewolde; Dorothy V. M. Bishop, Catherine Manning
      Abstract: Recent theoretical accounts propose that atypical predictive processing can explain the diverse cognitive and behavioral features associated with autism, and that difficulties in making predictions may be related to reduced contextual processing. In this pre‐registered study, 30 autistic children aged 6–14 years and 30 typically developing children matched in age and non‐verbal IQ completed visual extrapolation and false memory tasks to assess predictive abilities and contextual processing, respectively. In the visual extrapolation tasks, children were asked to predict when an occluded car would reach the end of a road and when an occluded set of lights would fill up a grid. Autistic children made predictions that were just as precise as those made by typically developing children, across a range of occlusion durations. In the false memory task, autistic and typically developing children did not differ significantly in their discrimination between items presented in a list and semantically related, non‐presented items, although the data were insensitive, suggesting the need for larger samples. Our findings help to refine theoretical accounts by challenging the notion that autism is caused by pervasively disordered prediction abilities. Further studies will be required to assess the relationship between predictive processing and context use in autism, and to establish the conditions under which predictive processing may be impaired. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 The
      Authors Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryIt has been suggested that autistic individuals have difficulties making predictions and perceiving the overall gist of things. Yet, here we found that autistic children made similar predictions about hidden objects as non‐autistic children. In a memory task, autistic children were slightly less confused about whether they had heard a word before, when words were closely related in meaning. We conclude that autistic children do not show difficulties with this type of prediction.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T22:55:28.135058-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1915
       
  • Comparing growth in linguistic comprehension and reading comprehension in
           school‐aged children with autism versus typically developing children
    • Authors: Ryan P. Grimm; Emily J. Solari, Nancy S. McIntyre, Matthew Zajic, Peter C. Mundy
      Abstract: Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) struggle with reading comprehension. Linguistic comprehension is an important predictor of reading comprehension, especially as children progress through elementary school and later grades. Yet, there is a dearth of research examining longitudinal relations between linguistic comprehensions in school‐age children with ASD compared to typically‐developing peers (TD). This study compared the developmental trajectories of linguistic and reading comprehension in samples of children with ASD and age‐matched TD peers. Both groups were administered measures of linguistic and reading comprehension multiple times over a 30‐month period. Latent growth curve modeling demonstrated children with ASD performed at significantly lower levels on both measures at the first timepoint and these deficits persisted across time. Children with ASD exhibited growth in both skills comparable to their TD peers, but this was not sufficient to enable them to eventually achieve at a level similar to the TD group. Due to the wide age range of the sample, age was controlled and displayed significant effects. Findings suggest linguistic comprehension skills are related to reading comprehension in children with ASD, similar to TD peers. Further, intervention in linguistic comprehension skills for children with ASD should begin early and there may be a finite window in which these skills are malleable, in terms of improving reading comprehension skills. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryThere is relatively little research concerning reading comprehension development in children with ASD and how they compare to TD peers. This study found children with ASD began at lower achievement levels of linguistic comprehension and reading comprehension than TD peers, but the skills developed at a similar rate. Intervening early and raising initial levels of linguistic and reading comprehension may enable children with ASD to perform similarly to TD peers over time.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T01:49:37.543779-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1914
       
  • Mid‐life social outcomes for a population‐based sample of
           adults with ASD
    • Authors: Megan Farley; Kristina J. Cottle, Deborah Bilder, Joseph Viskochil, Hilary Coon, William McMahon
      Abstract: Adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) fall short of social outcomes of non‐ASD peers in mid‐life, as documented by currently published research. The aim of the current study was to extend what is known about social functioning, employment, independent living, and use of social services by examining details of the current life status for a population‐based sample of adults with ASD (mean age = 35.5 years, range = 22.2–51.4). We collected outcome data via direct assessment and informant report for 169 individuals. Three‐fourths of the sample had cognitive abilities in the intellectually disabled range. Social functioning outcomes, as a single measure, mirror those reported previously for other samples, including samples with a high proportion of individuals with normal range intellectual abilities, with 20% achieving the most independent outcomes and 46% requiring high levels of support across most life areas. Participant subgroups who achieved maximal outcomes represented a range of social and intellectual abilities for several outcome metrics. Participants used high levels of public and private supports, yet specific areas of clear, unmet need were also identified. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryThis paper describes the social functioning outcomes for 169 adults with autism spectrum disorders in mid‐life. Adult participants spanned the full range of functional and cognitive ability levels, with over 75% functioning in the cognitively impaired range. While summary descriptions of outcomes for this sample were similar to those reported for other groups of adults, this report provides detailed information regarding employment outcomes, social relationships, leisure activities, participation in the community, residential situations, public service use, and involvement with law enforcement.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T00:01:03.025493-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1897
       
  • Longitudinal development of thalamic and internal capsule microstructure
           in autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Kristine McLaughlin; Brittany G. Travers, Olga I. Dadalko, Douglas C. Dean, Do Tromp, Nagesh Adluru, Daniel Destiche, Abigail Freeman, Molly D. Prigge, Alyson Froehlich, Tyler C. Duffield, Brandon A. Zielinski, Erin D. Bigler, Nicholas Lange, Jeff S. Anderson, Andrew L. Alexander, Janet E. Lainhart
      Abstract: The thalamus is a key sensorimotor relay area that is implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unknown how the thalamus and white‐matter structures that contain thalamo‐cortical fiber connections (e.g., the internal capsule) develop from childhood into adulthood and whether this microstructure relates to basic motor challenges in ASD. We used diffusion weighted imaging in a cohort‐sequential design to assess longitudinal development of the thalamus, and posterior‐ and anterior‐limbs of the internal capsule (PLIC and ALIC, respectively) in 89 males with ASD and 56 males with typical development (3–41 years; all verbal). Our results showed that the group with ASD exhibited different developmental trajectories of microstructure in all regions, demonstrating childhood group differences that appeared to approach and, in some cases, surpass the typically developing group in adolescence and adulthood. The PLIC (but not ALIC nor thalamus) mediated the relation between age and finger‐tapping speed in both groups. Yet, the gap in finger‐tapping speed appeared to widen at the same time that the between‐group gap in the PLIC appeared to narrow. Overall, these results suggest that childhood group differences in microstructure of the thalamus and PLIC become less robust in adolescence and adulthood. Further, finger‐tapping speed appears to be mediated by the PLIC in both groups, but group differences in motor speed that widen during adolescence and adulthood suggest that factors beyond the microstructure of the thalamus and internal capsule may contribute to atypical motor profiles in ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryMicrostructure of the thalamus, a key sensory and motor brain area, appears to develop differently in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Microstructure is important because it informs us of the density and organization of different brain tissues. During childhood, thalamic microstructure was distinct in the ASD group compared to the typically developing group. However, these group differences appeared to narrow with age, suggesting that the thalamus continues to dynamically change in ASD into adulthood.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18T10:50:42.68978-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1909
       
  • Child and family characteristics moderate agreement between caregiver and
           clinician report of autism symptoms
    • Authors: Emily Neuhaus; Theodore P. Beauchaine, Raphael A. Bernier, Sara J. Webb
      Abstract: Rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age at first diagnosis vary considerably across the United States and are moderated by children's sex, race, ethnicity, and availability of services. We additionally suggest that degree of caregiver–clinician agreement on ASD symptoms may play a role in ASD assessment. Since gold standard ASD assessment integrates caregiver‐reported developmental history with clinician observations, differential agreement between reporters across demographic groups may contribute to a host of detrimental outcomes. Here, we investigate whether caregiver–clinician agreement on ASD symptoms varies according to child and family characteristics. Comprehensive data from 2,759 families in the Simons Simplex Collection were analyzed. Linear models were created with caregiver reports predicting clinician reports, and moderating effects of child characteristics and family factors were examined. Poorer reporter correspondence was observed when children had higher IQ scores, stronger adaptive behavior, and more behavioral difficulties. Greater disagreement was also associated with African American racial status (for younger children), lower household income, and paternal social difficulties (for older children). Children's biological sex did not moderate caregiver–clinician agreement. Marked disagreement between caregivers and clinicians could lead to suboptimal or insufficient intervention services and negative experiences for families throughout development. Such families may also be less likely to qualify for research studies, and therefore be underrepresented in the ASD literature. Modified assessment procedures may be required to improve assessment accuracy and family experiences. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryEvaluation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) incorporates both caregiver and clinician perspectives of symptoms, and disagreement between these perspectives could lead to poorer outcomes for families. Using data from 2,759 families, we show that caregiver–clinician agreement on ASD symptoms is poorer for children with higher cognitive and adaptive skills, more behavioral difficulties, lower household income, and African American racial status. These children may be at higher risk for misdiagnosis, poorer family experiences during evaluations, and poorer representation in ASD research.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18T10:50:33.339412-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1907
       
  • Patterns of altered neural synchrony in the default mode network in autism
           spectrum disorder revealed with magnetoencephalography (MEG): Relationship
           to clinical symptomatology
    • Authors: Renée Lajiness-O'Neill; Jonathan R. Brennan, John E. Moran, Annette E. Richard, Ana-Mercedes Flores, Casey Swick, Ryan Goodcase, Tiffany Andersen, Kaitlyn McFarlane, Kenneth Rusiniak, Ioulia Kovelman, Neelima Wagley, Maggie Ugolini, Jeremy Albright, Susan M Bowyer
      Abstract: Disrupted neural synchrony may be a primary electrophysiological abnormality in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), altering communication between discrete brain regions and contributing to abnormalities in patterns of connectivity within identified neural networks. Studies exploring brain dynamics to comprehensively characterize and link connectivity to large‐scale cortical networks and clinical symptoms are lagging considerably. Patterns of neural coherence within the Default Mode Network (DMN) and Salience Network (SN) during resting state were investigated in 12 children with ASD (MAge = 9.2) and 13 age and gender‐matched neurotypicals (NT) (MAge = 9.3) with magnetoencephalography. Coherence between 231 brain region pairs within four frequency bands (theta (4–7 Hz), alpha, (8–12 Hz), beta (13–30 Hz), and gamma (30–80 Hz)) was calculated. Relationships between neural coherence and social functioning were examined. ASD was characterized by lower synchronization across all frequencies, reaching clinical significance in the gamma band. Lower gamma synchrony between fronto‐temporo‐parietal regions was observed, partially consistent with diminished default mode network (DMN) connectivity. Lower gamma coherence in ASD was evident in cross‐hemispheric connections between: angular with inferior/middle frontal; middle temporal with middle/inferior frontal; and within right‐hemispheric connections between angular, middle temporal, and inferior/middle frontal cortices. Lower gamma coherence between left angular and left superior frontal, right inferior/middle frontal, and right precuneus and between right angular and inferior/middle frontal cortices was related to lower social/social‐communication functioning. Results suggest a pattern of lower gamma band coherence in a subset of regions within the DMN in ASD (angular and middle temporal cortical areas) related to lower social/social‐communicative functioning. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryCommunication between different areas of the brain was observed in children with ASD and neurotypical children while awake, but not working on a task. Magnetoencephalography was used to measure tiny magnetic fields naturally generated via brain activity. The brains of children with ASD showed less communication between areas that are important for social information processing compared to the brains of neurotypical children. The amount of communication between these areas was associated with social and social communication difficulties.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18T10:50:25.698227-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1908
       
  • Loss of skills and onset patterns in neurodevelopmental disorders:
           Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms
    • Authors: Audrey Thurm; Elizabeth M. Powell, Jeffrey L. Neul, Ann Wagner, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum
      Abstract: Patterns of onset in Autism Spectrum Disorder, including a pattern that includes loss of previously acquired skills, have been identified since the first reports of the disorder. However, attempts to study such “regression” have been limited to clinical studies, that until recently mostly involved retrospective reports. The current report reflects discussion that occurred at an NIMH convened meeting in 2016 with the purpose of bridging clinical autism research with basic and translational work in this area. This summary describes the state of the field with respect to clinical studies, describing gaps in knowledge based on limited methods and prospective data collected. Biological mechanisms that have been shown to account for regression early in development in specific conditions are discussed, as well as potential mechanisms that have not yet been explored. Suggestions include use of model systems during the developmental period and cutting‐edge methods, including non‐invasive imaging that may afford opportunities for a better understanding of the neurobiological pathways that result in loss of previously‐attained skills. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryLoss of previously acquired skills, or regression, has been reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder since Kanner's reports in the 1950's. The current report reflects discussion from an NIMH convened meeting in 2016 with the purpose of bridging clinical autism research with basic and translational work in this area. This summary describes the state of the field regarding clinical studies and suggests use of model systems during the developmental period and cutting‐edge methods, for a better understanding of the neurobiological pathways that result in loss of previously‐attained skills.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T02:08:07.517005-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1903
       
  • An international qualitative study of functioning in autism spectrum
           disorder using the World Health Organization international classification
           of functioning, disability and health framework
    • Authors: Soheil Mahdi; Marisa Viljoen, Tamara Yee, Melissa Selb, Nidhi Singhal, Omar Almodayfer, Mats Granlund, Petrus J. de Vries, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Sven Bölte
      Abstract: This is the third in a series of four empirical studies designed to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The present study aimed to describe functioning in ASD (as operationalized by the ICF) derived from the perspectives of diagnosed individuals, family members, and professionals. A qualitative study using focus groups and semi‐structured interviews were conducted with 19 stakeholder groups (N = 90) from Canada, India, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, and Sweden. Meaningful concepts from the focus groups and individual interviews were linked to ICF categories using a deductive qualitative approach with standardized linking procedures. The deductive qualitative content analysis yielded meaningful functioning concepts that were linked to 110 ICF categories across all four ICF components. Broad variation of environmental factors and activities and participation categories were identified in this study, while body functions consisted mainly of mental functions. Body structures were sparsely mentioned by the participants. Positive aspects of ASD included honesty, attention to detail, and memory. The experiences provided by international stakeholders support the need to understand individuals with ASD in a broader perspective, extending beyond diagnostic criteria into many areas of functioning and environmental domains. This study is part of a larger systematic effort that will provide the basis to define ICF Core Sets for ASD, from which assessment tools can be generated for use in clinical practice, research, and health care policy making. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 The
      Authors Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryThe study findings support the need to understand the living experiences of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from a broader perspective, taking into account many areas of an individual's functioning and environment. The ICF can serve as foundation for exploring these living experiences more extensively by offering tools that enable wide variety of individual difficulties and strengths to be captured along with important environmental influences. As such, these tools can facilitate interventions that meet the needs and goals of the individual.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T02:06:16.222297-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1905
       
  • Behavior profiles of children with autism spectrum disorder in
           kindergarten: Comparison with other developmental disabilities and
           typically developing children
    • Authors: Magdalena Janus; Emma Mauti, Matt Horner, Eric Duku, Ayesha Siddiqua, Scott Davies
      Abstract: Monitoring behavior patterns that may be specific to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at a population level has the potential to improve the allocation of intervention strategies and reduction of the burden of the disease. In Ontario, Canada, developmental data are regularly collected for all kindergarten children with the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher‐completed questionnaire that provides information on children's status in five domains: physical, social, emotional, language/cognitive, and communication/general knowledge. Our main research questions are: (a) are there differences in kindergarten EDI domain scores between children who are diagnosed with ASD by Grade 3 and those who develop typically or have other disabilities'; (b) do these differences show a different pattern in relation to an early (by kindergarten) or late (by Grade 3) diagnosis'; and (c) are there specific subdomains on the EDI that demonstrate a consistent pattern of differences' EDI domain and subdomain scores were compared among groups using multivariate analysis of variance controlling for age, gender, EDI year, and EDI year by age interaction. Children with ASD, regardless of timing of identification, had significantly lower scores on all domains of the EDI than typically developing children. Children with later ASD diagnosis had higher scores in kindergarten in cognitive areas but lower scores in social‐emotional areas than children with other disabilities. These findings support the potential of the EDI to monitor ASD‐like behaviors at the population level. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryIdentifying behavior patterns among kindergarten children that may be specific to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at a population level has the potential to improve intervention strategies and thus reduce the burden of the disease. In Ontario, Canada, developmental data are regularly collected with the Early Development Instrument (EDI) for all kindergarten children. The behavior in kindergarten of a sub‐population of children diagnosed with developmental disabilities by age 9 is investigated here for patterns that may distinguish children with ASD from those with other disorders. Children with later ASD diagnosis had higher scores in kindergarten in cognitive areas but lower scores in social‐emotional areas than children with other disabilities, indicating meaningful differences between those groups even before diagnosis. These results support the potential of using the EDI to monitor ASD‐like behaviors at the population level.
      PubDate: 2017-12-08T08:10:47.676481-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1904
       
  • Error‐related brain activity and anxiety symptoms in youth with
           autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Tamara E. Rosen; Matthew D. Lerner
      Abstract: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often experience symptoms associated with generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive‐compulsive disorder, and social anxiety disorder. In other populations, these same symptoms are associated with a larger error‐related negativity (ERN), an event‐related potential that reflects endogenous threat sensitivity. As such, it is possible that the ERN may relate to the clinical presentation of anxiety in ASD. However, studies examining these associations in youth with ASD have yielded mixed results. The present study aimed to clarify this relationship by examining the ERN in relation to these specific anxiety symptoms in ASD, and by accounting for typical covariates (e.g., age, verbal abilities, depression, ASD symptoms) of the ERN. Fifty‐one youth, ages 8–17, with ASD and intact cognitive ability completed a modified Flanker task, from which the ERN component was obtained. Measures of anxiety, verbal abilities, depression, and ASD symptoms were collected from participants and parents. Results revealed that greater self‐reported social anxiety symptoms, specifically performance fears but not humiliation/rejection fears, were associated with an increased neural response to errors, as measured by the ERN. This relationship remained after controlling for other anxiety symptoms, as well as age, verbal IQ, depression symptoms, and ASD symptoms. Findings suggest that heightened threat sensitivity may be characteristic of individuals with ASD who exhibit social fearfulness. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryThe error‐related negativity (ERN) is a physiological measure of the brain's response to errors which is thought to reflect threat sensitivity and has been implicated in anxiety disorders in individuals without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study revealed that the ERN is related to social anxiety symptoms, specifically performance fears, in a sample of youth with ASD. Findings suggest that heightened threat sensitivity may be characteristic of individuals with ASD who exhibit social fearfulness.
      PubDate: 2017-12-06T00:01:06.387084-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1898
       
  • Implementing and evaluating early intervention for children with autism:
           Where are the gaps and what should we do'
    • Authors: Giacomo Vivanti; Connie Kasari, Jonathan Green, David Mandell, Melissa Maye, Kristelle Hudry
      Abstract: Despite recent advances, the evidence base supporting early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains relatively sparse. The International Society for Autism Research (INSAR) recently sponsored a Special Interest Group (SIG) on Implementing and Evaluating Community-Based Early Intervention. Across three meetings, in 2015, 2016, and 2017, conveners of this SIG engaged>200 members to identify knowledge gaps and research priorities for moving the field forward. Here, we summarize the perspectives that emerged from group discussion at the SIG meetings as represented by scholars working actively in the field. Despite encouraging progress, critical gaps and research priorities were identified across all the stages of intervention development and testing from conceptualization to community implementation. Key issues include the need for (a) formal theories to guide early intervention development, evaluation, and implementation; and alignment of intervention goals with scientific knowledge and societal changes that have occurred in the decades since interventions were originally developed; (b) increased focus on feasibility of treatment procedures and alignment with stakeholder values during pilot evaluations; (c) use of research designs that allow for comparisons of different interventions and formats, analyses of active ingredients of treatment, and identification of moderators and mediators of outcome; (d) use of community-partnered participatory research to guide adaptation of intervention models to community settings; (e) inclusion of constructs related to implementation processes and outcomes in treatment trials and; (f) an iterative approach to the progression of knowledge from intervention development to implementation. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryIn this article, we summarize the themes discussed at the INSAR Special Interest Group (SIG) on Implementing and Evaluating Community-Based Early Intervention. Priorities for moving the field forward identified in the SIG included the need for (a) formal theories to guide the development and evaluation of interventions, (b) pilot evaluations that investigate feasibility and acceptability of interventions, (c) methodologies that allow us to determine for whom different interventions bring most benefit and why this is so, (d) strategies to include community members and other stakeholders in the process of developing and evaluating interventions, and (e) understanding of factors that make interventions more likely to be adopted and successfully implemented in the real world.
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T08:50:21.005383-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1900
       
  • Sleep patterns predictive of daytime challenging behavior in individuals
           with low-functioning autism
    • Authors: Simonne Cohen; Ben D. Fulcher, Shantha M. W. Rajaratnam, Russell Conduit, Jason P. Sullivan, Melissa A. St Hilaire, Andrew J. K. Phillips, Tobias Loddenkemper, Sanjeev V. Kothare, Kelly McConnell, Paula Braga-Kenyon, William Ahearn, Andrew Shlesinger, Jacqueline Potter, Frank Bird, Kim M. Cornish, Steven W. Lockley
      Abstract: Increased severity of problematic daytime behavior has been associated with poorer sleep quality in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. In this work, we investigate whether this relationship holds in a real-time setting, such that an individual's prior sleep can be used to predict their subsequent daytime behavior. We analyzed an extensive real-world dataset containing over 20,000 nightly sleep observations matched to subsequent challenging daytime behaviors (aggression, self-injury, tantrums, property destruction and a challenging behavior index) across 67 individuals with low-functioning autism living in two U.S. residential facilities. Using support vector machine classifiers, a statistically significant predictive relationship was found in 81% of individuals studied (P 
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T20:10:44.909872-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1899
       
  • Dissociation between executed and imagined bimanual movements in autism
           spectrum conditions
    • Authors: Alessandro Piedimonte; Massimiliano Conson, Alessandro Frolli, Stefania Bari, Francesco Della Gatta, Marco Rabuffetti, Roberto Keller, Anna Berti, Francesca Garbarini
      Abstract: Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterized by social-communicative deficits and repetitive stereotyped behaviors. Altered motor coordination is also observed and a dysfunction of motor imagery has been recently reported on implicit tasks. However, no information on explicit motor imagery abilities is available in ASC. Here, we employed a spatial bimanual task to concurrently assess motor coordination and explicit motor imagery in autism. A secondary objective of the study was to evaluate these abilities across two populations of ASC, namely adolescents and adults with ASC. To this aim, we took advantage of the circles-lines task in which where participants were asked to continuously draw: right hand lines (unimanual condition); right hand lines and left hand circles (bimanual condition); right hand lines while imagining to draw left hand circles (imagery condition). For each participant, an Ovalization Index (OI) was calculated as a deviation of the right hand drawing trajectory from an absolute vertical axis. Results showed a significant and similar coupling effect in the bimanual condition (i.e., a significant increase of the OI values with respect to the unimanual condition) in both controls and ASC participants. On the contrary, in the imagery condition, a significant coupling effect was found only in controls. Furthermore, adult controls showed a significantly higher imagery coupling effect in comparison to all the other groups. These results demonstrate that atypical motor imagery processes in ASC are not limited to implicit tasks and suggest that development of neural structures involved in motor imagery are immature in ASC. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryAutism spectrum conditions (ASC) are characterized by social-communicative and motor coordination difficulties but in many cases also by an impaired capability to imagine movements. In this study we found that while two handed coordination in ASC can be developed as well as in typically developed persons, the development of motor imagery could still be immature in ASC, leading to difficulties in imagining, understanding as well as programming and coordinating complex movements.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T20:10:39.228385-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1902
       
  • The adenosine A2A receptor agonist, CGS 21680, attenuates a probabilistic
           reversal learning deficit and elevated grooming behavior in BTBR mice
    • Authors: Dionisio A. Amodeo; Laura Cuevas, Jeffrey T. Dunn, John A. Sweeney, Michael E. Ragozzino
      Abstract: Restricted interests and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a defining feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date there are limited options for treating this core symptomology. Treatments that stimulate adenosine A2A receptors may represent a promising approach for reducing RRBs in ASD. This is because A2A receptors are expressed on striatal neurons of the basal ganglia indirect pathway. Under activation of this pathway has been associated with RRBs while activation of A2A receptors leads to increased activity of the indirect basal ganglia pathway. The present studies investigated whether acute, systemic treatment with CGS21680, an A2A receptor agonist attenuates elevated self-grooming and a probabilistic reversal learning deficit in the BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mouse model of idiopathic autism. The effects of this treatment were also investigated in C57BL/6J (B6) mice as a comparison strain. Using a spatial reversal learning test with 80/20 probabilistic feedback, comparable to one in which ASD individuals exhibit deficits, CGS 21680 (0.005 and 0.01mg/kg) attenuated a reversal learning deficit in BTBR mice. Enhancement in probabilistic reversal learning performance resulted from CGS 21680 improving the consistent maintenance of new adaptive behavioral choice patterns after reversal. CGS 21680 at 0.01 mg, but not 0.005 mg, also reduced self-grooming behavior in BTBR mice. CGS 21680 did not affect self-grooming or reversal learning in B6 mice. These findings demonstrate that A2A receptor agonists may be a promising receptor target in the treatment of RRBs in ASD. Autism Res 2017,. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryThe present experiments determined whether the drug, CGS 21680, that facilitates activation of adenosine A2A receptors in the brain, would reduce repetitive and inflexible behaviors in the BTBR mouse model of idiopathic autism. CGS 21680 treatment in BTBR mice reduced repetitive and inflexible behaviors. In the control C57BL/6J (B6) mouse strain, CGS 21680 did not affect performance. These findings suggest that stimulation of brain adenosine A2A receptors may be a promising therapeutic strategy in ASD.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29T08:31:51.719556-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1901
       
  • Validation of eye-tracking measures of social attention as a potential
           biomarker for autism clinical trials
    • Authors: Michael Murias; Samantha Major, Katherine Davlantis, Lauren Franz, Adrianne Harris, Benjamin Rardin, Maura Sabatos-DeVito, Geraldine Dawson
      Abstract: Social communication impairments are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and this class of symptoms is a target for treatments for the disorder. Measures of social attention, assessed via eye-gaze tracking (EGT), have been proposed as an early efficacy biomarker for clinical trials targeting social communication skills. EGT measures have been shown to differentiate children with ASD from typical children; however, there is less known about their relationships with social communication outcome measures that are typically used in ASD clinical trials. In the present study, an EGT task involving viewing a videotape of an actor making bids for a child's attention was evaluated in 25 children with ASD aged 24–72 months. Children's attention to the actor during the dyadic bid condition measured via EGT was found to be strongly associated with five well-validated caregiver-reported outcome measures that are commonly used to assess social communication in clinical trials. These results highlight the convergent validity of EGT measures of social attention in relation to caregiver-reported clinical measures. EGT holds promise as a non-invasive, quantitative, and objective biomarker that is associated with social communication abilities in children with ASD. Autism Res 2017,. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryLay Summary: Eye-gaze tracking (EGT), an automated tool that tracks eye-gaze patterns, might help measure outcomes in clinical trials investigating interventions to treat autism spectrum disorders. In this study, an EGT task was evaluated in children with ASD, who watched a video with an actor talking directly to them. Patterns of eye-gaze were associated with caregiver-reported measures of social communication that are used in clinical trials. We show EGT may be a promising objective tool measuring outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29T08:30:47.17202-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1894
       
  • Autism spectrum disorder and birth spacing: Findings from the study to
           explore early development (SEED)
    • Authors: Laura A. Schieve; Lin H. Tian, Carolyn Drews-Botsch, Gayle C. Windham, Craig Newschaffer, Julie L. Daniels, Li-Ching Lee, Lisa A. Croen, M. Danielle Fallin
      Abstract: Previous studies of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and birth spacing had limitations; few examined phenotypic case subtypes or explored underlying mechanisms for associations and none assessed whether other (non‐ASD) developmental disabilities (DDs) were associated with birth spacing. We assessed associations between inter‐pregnancy interval (IPI) and both ASD and other DDs using data from the Study to Explore Early Development, a multi‐site case‐control study with rigorous case‐finding and case‐classification methods and detailed data collection on maternal reproductive history. Our sample included 356 ASD cases, 627 DD cases, and 524 population (POP) controls born in second or later births. ASD and DD cases were further sub‐divided according to whether the child had intellectual disability (ID). ASD cases were also sub‐divided by ASD symptom severity, and DD cases were subdivided by presence of some ASD symptoms (indicated on an autism screener). Odds ratios, adjusted for maternal‐child sociodemographic factors, (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were derived from logistic regression models. Among term births, ASD was associated with both IPI
      PubDate: 2017-11-22T01:01:02.748806-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1887
       
  • The Self‐Reference Effect on Perception: Undiminished in Adults with
           Autism and No Relation to Autism Traits
    • Authors: David M. Williams; Toby Nicholson, Catherine Grainger
      Abstract: Memory for (and perception of) information about the self is superior to memory for (and perception of) other kinds of information. This self‐reference effect (SRE) in memory appears diminished in ASD and related to the number of ASD traits manifested by neurotypical individuals (fewer traits = larger SRE). Here, we report the first experiments exploring the relation between ASD and the SRE in perception. Using a “Shapes” Task (Sui et al., Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 1105, 2012), participants learned to associate three different shapes (triangle, circle, square) with three different labels representing self, a familiar other, or an unfamiliar other (e.g., “you”, “mother”, “stranger”). Participants then completed trials during which they were presented with one shape and one label for 100 ms, and made judgments about whether the shape and label was a match. In Experiment 1, neurotypical participants (n = 124) showed the expected SRE, detecting self‐related matches more reliably and quickly than matches involving familiar or unfamiliar other. Most important, number of ASD traits was unrelated to the size of the SRE for either accuracy or RT. Bayesian association analyses strongly supported the null hypothesis. In Experiment 2, there were no differences between 22 adults with ASD and 21 matched comparison adults in performance on the Shapes Task. Despite showing large and significant theory of mind impairments, participants with ASD showed the typical SRE and there were no associations with ASD traits in either group. In every case, Bayesian analyses favored the null hypothesis. These findings challenge theories about self‐representation in ASD, as discussed in the article. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 The
      Authors Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryNeurotypical people tend to find it easier to perceive and remember information that relates to themselves than information that relates to others. Research suggests that people with ASD show a diminished (or absent) self‐bias in memory and that severity of ASD predicts the extent of this diminution (more severe ASD = smaller self‐bias in memory). However, the current research suggests strongly that people with ASD do show a self‐bias in their perception. This research informs our understanding of psychological functioning in ASD and challenges theories regarding self‐awareness in this disorder.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T01:35:31.520502-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1891
       
  • Sexual Orientation in Autism Spectrum Disorder
    • Authors: R. George; M.A. Stokes
      Abstract: Clinical impressions suggest a different sexual profile between individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Little is presently known about the demographics of sexual orientation in ASD. Sexual Orientation was surveyed using the Sell Scale of Sexual Orientation in an international online sample of individuals with ASD (N = 309, M = 90, F= 219), aged (M = 32.30 years, SD = 11.93) and this was compared to sexual orientation of typically‐developing individuals (N = 310, M = 84, F= 226), aged (M = 29.82 years, SD = 11.85). Findings suggested that sexual orientation was contingent on diagnosis (N = 570, χ2(9)=104.05, P 
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T01:35:23.299033-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1892
       
  • Modulating attentional biases of adults with autistic traits using
           transcranial direct current stimulation: A pilot study
    • Authors: Michael C. W. English; Emma S. Kitching, Murray T. Maybery, Troy A. W. Visser
      Abstract: While neurotypical individuals over‐attend to the left‐side of centrally‐presented visual stimuli, this bias is reduced in individuals with autism/high levels of autistic traits. Because this difference is hypothesized to reflect relative reductions in right‐hemisphere activation, it follows that increasing right‐hemisphere activation should increase leftward bias. We administered transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right posterior parietal cortex to individuals with low levels (n = 19) and high levels (n = 19) of autistic traits whilst they completed a greyscales task. Anodal tDCS increased leftward bias for high‐trait, but not low‐trait, individuals, while cathodal tDCS had no effect. This outcome suggests that typical attentional patterns driven by hemispheric lateralization could potentially be restored following right‐hemisphere stimulation in high‐trait individuals. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryAttentional differences between individuals with and without autism may reflect differences in underlying activation of the left and right hemispheres. In this study, we combine an attentional task that reflects relative hemispheric activation with non‐invasive cortical stimulation, and show that attentional differences between healthy individuals with low and high levels of autistic‐like traits can be reduced. This outcome is encouraging, and suggests that other aspects of attention in autism (e.g., face processing) may stand to benefit from similar stimulation techniques.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T09:55:25.258562-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1895
       
  • The prevalence of gluten free diet use among preschool children with
           autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Eric Rubenstein; Laura Schieve, Chyrise Bradley, Carolyn DiGuiseppi, Eric Moody, Kathleen Thomas, Julie Daniels
      Abstract: Our objective was to estimate prevalence of current or ever use of a gluten free diet (GFD) in children aged 30–68 months with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and population controls (POP); and to identify characteristics associated with ever having used GFD among children with ASD. We used data from the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multi‐site, case‐control study of children with ASD. Caregivers reported GFD use by their children through structured questionnaires about diet patterns, gastrointestinal (GI) issues, and ASD‐specific treatments. Prevalence was estimated and compared using log‐Poisson regression, adjusting for confounders. In children with ASD, we examined whether child or mother's GI conditions or child's phenotypic traits were associated with ever trying a GFD. In SEED, 71 children with ASD (11.1% prevalence after adjustment) were on a GFD at time of the study and 130 (20.4%) had ever used a GFD, a greater percentage than in POP children (N = 11, 0.9% current use). Of current users with ASD, 50.7% had a dietary intervention that was prescribed by a medical professional. Among children with ASD, child GI conditions and developmental regression were positively and independently associated with having ever used a GFD. Current use and ever use of a GFD were prevalent in children with ASD identified in SEED. GFD usage was associated with GI issues and child phenotype. Clinicians may consider advising parents on how best to use these diets in the context of the child's GI presentation and current scientific knowledge about effectiveness in relation to ASD symptoms. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryGluten free diets (GFDs) are commonly used as an alternative therapy for autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, the effectiveness is still uncertain which makes it important to know who tries this type of diet. We found that one in five preschool aged children with ASD had ever used a GFD. Children with gastrointestinal conditions and developmental regression were more likely to have tried a GFD.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T09:55:22.090592-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1896
       
  • Early executive dysfunction in ASD: Simple versus complex skills
    • Authors: Nancy Garon; Isabel M. Smith, Susan E. Bryson
      Abstract: Despite the strong evidence of executive function (EF) impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), findings in the preschool period have been inconsistent. Whereas some research has supported an early deficit, many studies have not found early differences in EF. The present study assessed simple and complex components of three EF abilities: working memory, inhibition, and shifting, using a novel battery, the Preschool EF Battery (PEFB; Garon, Smith & Bryson, Child Neuropsychology, 20, 713–736, 2014). Previous research has indicated that the PEFB is sensitive to age differences in typically developing (TD) children aged 18–60 months. Current participants were 34 preschoolers (M = 54.79 months) diagnosed with ASD and 255 TD preschoolers (M = 42.98 months). Results indicated significant differences between the two groups in the three EF abilities, but specific findings were moderated by mental and chronological age. The findings highlight the importance of testing simpler EF skills in very young children with ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryGiven that executive functions (EF) have been found to predict various outcomes such as academic ability and occupational success, sensitive early assessment is important. The current study suggests the presence of early EF deficits in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder. The study highlights the importance of considering how EF develops during early life in typically developing children in order to design sensitive EF measures.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T16:00:22.140042-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1893
       
  • Virtual Environment for Social Information Processing: Assessment of
           Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders
    • Authors: Nicole Russo-Ponsaran; Clark McKown, Jason Johnson, Jaclyn Russo, Jacob Crossman, Ilana Reife
      Abstract: Social information processing (SIP) skills are critical for developing and maintaining peer relationships. Building on existing assessment techniques, Virtual Environment for SIP (VESIPTM), a simulation‐based assessment that immerses children in social decision‐making scenarios, was developed. This study presents preliminary evidence of VESIP's usefulness for measuring SIP skills in children with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Twenty‐one children with ASD and 29 control children participated. It was hypothesized that (a) children (8–12 years old), with and without ASD, would understand and interact effectively with VESIP; (b) VESIP scores would be reliable in both populations; and (c) children with ASD would score lower on SIP domains than typically developing peers. Results supported these hypotheses. Finally, response bias was also evaluated, showing that children with ASD have different problem‐solving strategies than their peers. VESIP has great potential as a scalable assessment of SIP strengths and challenges in children with and without ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryChildren with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often struggle interpreting and responding to social situations. The present study suggests that an animated, simulation‐based assessment approach is an effective way to measure how children with or without ASDs problem‐solve challenging social situations. VESIP is an easy‐to‐use assessment tool that can help practitioners understand a child's particular strengths and weaknesses.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T10:30:30.886134-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1889
       
  • Joint effects of prenatal air pollutant exposure and maternal folic acid
           supplementation on risk of autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Amanda J. Goodrich; Heather E. Volk, Daniel J. Tancredi, Rob McConnell, Fred W. Lurmann, Robin L. Hansen, Rebecca J. Schmidt
      Abstract: Independent studies report that periconceptional folic acid (FA) may decrease the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) while exposure to air pollution may increase ASD risk. We examined the joint effects of gestational FA and air pollution exposures in association with ASD. We studied 346 ASD cases and 260 typically developing controls from the CHARGE case‐control study. Self‐reported FA intake for each month of pregnancy was quantified. Estimates of exposure to near roadway air pollution (NRP) and criteria air pollutant measures were assigned based on maternal residential history. Among mothers with high FA intake (>800 μg) in the first pregnancy month, exposure to increasing levels of all air pollutants, except ozone, during the first trimester was associated with decreased ASD risk, while increased ASD risk was observed for the same pollutant among mothers with low FA intake (≤800 μg). This difference was statistically significant for NO2 (e.g., NO2 and low FA intake: OR = 1.53 (0.91, 2.56) vs NO2 and high FA intake: OR = 0.74 (0.46, 1.19), P‐interaction = 0.04). Mothers exposed to higher levels (≥ median) of any air pollutant during the first trimester of pregnancy and who reported low FA intake were at a higher ASD risk compared to mothers exposed to lower levels of that air pollutant and who reported high first month FA intake. Joint effects showed significant (alpha 
      PubDate: 2017-11-09T09:45:25.51435-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1885
       
  • Pupillary Response and Phenotype in ASD: Latency to Constriction
           Discriminates ASD from Typically Developing Adolescents
    • Authors: Georgina T.F. Lynch; Stephen M. James, Mark VanDam
      Abstract: Brain imaging data describe differences in the ASD brain, including amygdala overgrowth, neural interconnectivity, and a three‐phase model of neuroanatomical changes from early post‐natal development through late adolescence. The pupil reflex test (PRT), a noninvasive measure of brain function, may help improve early diagnosis and elucidate underlying physiology in expression of ASD endophenotype. Commonly observed characteristics of ASD include normal visual acuity but difficulty with eye gaze and photosensitivity, suggesting deficient neuromodulation of cranial nerves. Aims of this study were to confirm sensitivity of the PRT for identifying adolescents with ASD, determine if a phenotype for a subtype of ASD marked by pupil response is present in adolescence, and determine whether differences could be observed on a neurologic exam testing cranial nerves II and III (CNII; CNIII). Using pupillometry, constriction latency was measured serving as a proxy for recording neuromodulation of cranial nerves underlying the pupillary reflex. The swinging flashlight method, used to perform the PRT for measuring constriction latency and return to baseline, discriminated ASD participants from typically developing adolescents on 72.2% of trials. Results further confirmed this measure's sensitivity within a subtype of ASD in later stages of development, serving as a correlate of neural activity within the locus–coeruleus norepinephrine (LC–NE) system. A brainstem model of atypical PRT in ASD is examined in relation to modulation of cranial nerves and atypical arousal levels subserving the atypical pupillary reflex. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryMilder forms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be difficult to diagnose based on behavioral testing alone. This study used eye‐tracking equipment and a hand‐held penlight to measure the pupil reflex in adolescents with “high functioning” ASD and in adolescents without ASD. The ASD group showed a delay in pupil response. This is the first eye‐tracking study to conduct this test as typically performed by a clinical provider, demonstrating differences in older individuals with a subtype of ASD.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31T05:20:24.000286-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1888
       
  • Auditory brainstem response in infants and children with autism spectrum
           disorder: A meta‐analysis of wave V
    • Authors: Oren Miron; Andrew L. Beam, Isaac S. Kohane
      Abstract: Infants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were recently found to have prolonged auditory brainstem response (ABR); however, at older ages, findings are contradictory. We compared ABR differences between participants with ASD and controls with respect to age using a meta‐analysis. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, HOLLIS, and ScienceDirect from their inception to June 2016. The 25 studies that were included had a total of 1349 participants (727 participants with ASD and 622 controls) and an age range of 0–40 years. Prolongation of the absolute latency of wave V in ASD had a significant negative correlation with age (R2 = 0.23; P = 0.01). The 22 studies below age 18 years showed a significantly prolonged wave V in ASD (Standard Mean Difference = 0.6 [95% CI, 0.5–0.8]; P 
      PubDate: 2017-10-31T05:15:30.523628-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1886
       
  • What will my child's future hold' phenotypes of intellectual
           development in 2–8‐year‐olds with autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Marjorie Solomon; Ana-Maria Iosif, Vanessa P. Reinhardt, Lauren E. Libero, Christine W. Nordahl, Sally Ozonoff, Sally J. Rogers, David G. Amaral
      Abstract: We examined phenotypes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on trajectories of intellectual development from early (ages 2–3 ½) to middle (ages 5–8) childhood in a recent clinically ascertained cohort. Participants included 102 children (82 males) initially diagnosed with ASD from the Autism Phenome Project longitudinal sample. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct IQ trajectories. Baseline and developmental course differences among groups were assessed using univariate techniques and repeated measures regression models, respectively. A four class model best represented the data. Using the highest posterior probability, participants were assigned to High Challenges (25.5%), Stable Low (17.6%), Changers (35.3%), and Lesser Challenges (21.6%) groups. The High Challenges and Stable Low groups exhibited persistently low IQ, although, the High Challenges group experienced declines while the Stable Low group's scores remained more constant. Changers showed IQ improvement of > 2 standard deviations. The Lesser Challenges group had IQs in the average range at both times that were about 1 standard deviation higher at T2. In summation, 75% of the participants experienced some relative improvements in intellectual and/or other areas of functioning between ages 2 and 8 years. The Changers group demonstrated the most significant IQ change that was accompanied by adaptive communication improvement and declining externalizing symptoms. Only the Lesser Challenges group showed a significant reduction in ASD symptom severity, such that by age 8, 14% of them no longer met ADOS‐2 criteria for ASD. All groups showed reductions in internalizing symptoms. Intervention history was not associated with group status. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryWe examined how the IQs of children with autism spectrum disorder change between ages 2 and 8, and identified four patterns. Two groups exhibited persistently lower IQs. One group showed IQ increases of greater than 30 points with improved communicate abilities and declining disruptive behaviors. The final group had IQs in the average or better range at both time points, and 14% of them lost their diagnoses. Over half of the children experienced improved intellectual functioning between ages 2 and 8, whereas about 25% showed declines. Findings were not associated with intervention history.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T01:20:34.743489-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1884
       
  • Shank3‐Deficient rats exhibit degraded cortical responses to sound
    • Authors: Crystal T. Engineer; Kimiya C. Rahebi, Michael S. Borland, Elizabeth P. Buell, Kwok W. Im, Linda G. Wilson, Pryanka Sharma, Sven Vanneste, Hala Harony-Nicolas, Joseph D. Buxbaum, Michael P. Kilgard
      Abstract: Individuals with SHANK3 mutations have severely impaired receptive and expressive language abilities. While brain responses are known to be abnormal in these individuals, the auditory cortex response to sound has remained largely understudied. In this study, we document the auditory cortex response to speech and non‐speech sounds in the novel Shank3‐deficient rat model. We predicted that the auditory cortex response to sounds would be impaired in Shank3‐deficient rats. We found that auditory cortex responses were weaker in Shank3 heterozygous rats compared to wild‐type rats. Additionally, Shank3 heterozygous responses had less spontaneous auditory cortex firing and were unable to respond well to rapid trains of noise bursts. The rat model of the auditory impairments in SHANK3 mutation could be used to test potential rehabilitation or drug therapies to improve the communication impairments observed in individuals with Phelan‐McDermid syndrome. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryIndividuals with SHANK3 mutations have severely impaired language abilities, yet the auditory cortex response to sound has remained largely understudied. In this study, we found that auditory cortex responses were weaker and were unable to respond well to rapid sounds in Shank3‐deficient rats compared to control rats. The rat model of the auditory impairments in SHANK3 mutation could be used to test potential rehabilitation or drug therapies to improve the communication impairments observed in individuals with Phelan‐McDermid syndrome.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20T01:05:41.150622-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1883
       
  • Sensorimotor learning and associated visual perception are intact but
           unrelated in autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Spencer J. Hayes; Matthew Andrew, Nathan C. Foster, Digby Elliott, Emma Gowen, Simon J. Bennett
      Abstract: Humans show an astonishing capability to learn sensorimotor behaviours. However, data from sensorimotor learning experiments suggest the integration of efferent sensorimotor commands, afferent sensorimotor information, and visual consequences of a performed action during learning is different in autism, leading to atypical representation of internal action models. Here, we investigated the generalization of a sensorimotor internal action model formed during sensorimotor learning to a different, but associated, visual perception task. Although motor timing was generally less accurate in adults with autism, following practice with feedback both autistic adults, and controls, significantly improved performance of the movement sequence timing task by reducing timing error. In a subsequent perception task, both groups demonstrated similar temporal‐discrimination accuracy (autism = 75%; control = 76%). Significant correlations between motor timing error, and temporal‐discrimination during a perception task, was found for controls. No significant correlations were found for autistic adults. Our findings indicate that autistic adults demonstrated adaptation by reducing motor timing error through sensorimotor learning. However, the finding of significant correlations between motor timing error and temporal‐discrimination accuracy in the control group only suggests sensorimotor processes underpinning internal action model formation operate differently in autism. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryWe showed autistic adults learned a new motor skill, and visually judged moving objects, to a similar level of accuracy as a control group. Unlike the control group, there was no relationship between how well autistic adults learned the motor skill, and how well they judged objects. The lack of a relationship might be one of the reasons autistic adults interact differently in the social world.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20T01:05:23.86372-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1882
       
  • Neurexin gene family variants as risk factors for autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Jia Wang; Jianhua Gong, Li Li, Yanlin Chen, Lingfei Liu, HuaiTing Gu, Xiu Luo, Fang Hou, Jiajia Zhang, Ranran Song
      Abstract: Increasing evidence suggests that abnormal synaptic function leads to neuronal developmental disorders and is an important component of the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Neurexins are presynaptic cell‐adhesion molecules that affect the function of synapses and mediate the conduction of nerve signals. Thus, neurexins are attractive candidate genes for autism. Since gene families have greater power to reveal genetic association than single genes, we designed this case‐control study to investigate six genetic variants in three neurexin genes (NRXN1, NRXN2, and NRXN3) in a Chinese population including 529 ASD patients and 1,923 healthy controls. We found that two SNPs were significantly associated with ASD after false discovery rate (FDR) adjustment for multiple comparisons. The NRXN2 rs12273892 polymorphism T allele and AT genotype were significantly associated with increased risk of ASD (respectively: OR = 1.328, 95% CI = 1.133–1.557, P 
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T10:06:52.877886-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1881
       
  • Comparing the effects of age, pubertal development, and symptom profile on
           
    • Authors: Rachael A. Muscatello; Blythe A. Corbett
      Abstract: Previous studies in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have shown elevated evening cortisol; however, few studies have examined diurnal rhythm in adolescents with ASD. Adolescence is a time of significant physical and psychological change, and dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis may put adolescents with ASD at increased risk for internalizing disorders, such as anxiety and depression. The extent to which cortisol levels are associated with age, puberty and symptom profile was examined in 113 youth (ages 7–17) with ASD and typical development. Salivary samples were collected over 3 days in the home, 4 times per day (waking, 30‐min post‐waking, afternoon, evening). Results showed youth with ASD had higher evening cortisol and a blunted diurnal slope relative to TD youth. Pubertal development and age were significant predictors of evening cortisol, and adolescents with ASD had higher evening cortisol levels compared to children with ASD. The study extends previous reports of elevated evening cortisol in children with ASD to reveal high levels in adolescence as well. Adolescents with ASD also show a significantly blunted diurnal slope, which may be associated with risk of internalizing symptoms. Findings suggest elevated evening cortisol persists across development in youth with ASD, thus emphasizing a need to identify potential negative effects of excess cortisol exposure on health in ASD individuals.Lay SummaryElevations in stress hormone, cortisol, during the evening may indicate increased stress from changes throughout the day in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study shows that age and pubertal development are also related to increases in evening cortisol, and this maladaptive elevation in cortisol in ASD is not going away with age. These cortisol elevations may also be associated with other psychological symptoms and warrant further investigation in adolescents with ASD. Autism Res 2017, 0: 000–000. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-10-14T01:05:29.067089-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1879
       
  • Disrupted integration of exteroceptive and interoceptive signaling in
           autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Jean-Paul Noel; Marisa Lytle, Carissa Cascio, Mark T. Wallace
      Abstract: In addition to deficits in social communication, individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) frequently exhibit changes in sensory and multisensory function. Recent evidence has focused on changes in audiovisual temporal processing, and has sought to relate these sensory‐based changes to weaknesses in social communication. These changes in audiovisual temporal function manifest as differences in the temporal epoch or “window” within which paired auditory and visual stimuli are integrated or bound, with those with ASD exhibiting expanded audiovisual temporal binding windows (TBWs). However, it is unknown whether this impairment is unique to audiovisual pairings, perhaps because of their relevance for speech processing, or whether it generalizes across pairings in different sensory modalities. In addition to the exteroceptive senses, there has been growing interest in ASD research in interoception (e.g., the monitoring of respiration, heartbeat, hunger, etc.), as these internally directed sensory processes appear to be altered as well in autism. In the current study, we sought to examine both exteroception and interoception in individuals with ASD and a group of typically developing (TD) matched controls, with an emphasis on temporal perception of audiovisual (exteroceptive) and cardiovisual (interoceptive to exteroceptive) cues. Results replicate prior findings showing expanded audiovisual TBWs in ASD in comparison to TD. In addition, strikingly, cardiovisual TBWs were fourfold larger in ASD than in TD, suggesting a putative complete lack of cardiovisual temporal acuity in ASD individuals. Results are discussed in light of recent evidence indicating a reduced tendency to rely on sensory priors in ASD. Autism Res 2017, 0: 000–000. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryStudies have shown that individuals with autism have difficulty in separating auditory and visual events in time. People with autism also weight sensory evidence originating from the external world and from their body differently. We measured simultaneity judgments regarding visual and auditory events and between visual and heartbeat events. Results suggest that while individuals with autism show unusual temporal function across the senses in a general manner, this deficit is greater when pairings bridged between the external world and the internal body.
      PubDate: 2017-10-14T01:05:25.252793-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1880
       
  • Genetic background effects in Neuroligin‐3 mutant mice: Minimal
           behavioral abnormalities on C57 background
    • Authors: Thomas C. Jaramillo; Christine Ochoa Escamilla, Shunan Liu, Lauren Peca, Shari G. Birnbaum, Craig M. Powell
      Abstract: Neuroligin‐3 (NLGN3) is a postsynaptic cell adhesion protein that interacts with presynaptic ligands including neurexin‐1 (NRXN1) [Ichtchenko et al., Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271, 2676–2682, 1996]. Mice harboring a mutation in the NLGN3 gene (NL3R451C) mimicking a mutation found in two brothers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were previously generated and behaviorally phenotyped for autism‐related behaviors. In these NL3R451C mice generated and tested on a hybrid C57BL6J/129S2/SvPasCrl background, we observed enhanced spatial memory and reduced social interaction [Tabuchi et al., Science, 318, 71–76, 2007]. Curiously, an independently generated second line of mice harboring the same mutation on a C57BL6J background exhibited minimal aberrant behavior, thereby providing apparently discrepant results. To investigate the origin of the discrepancy, we previously replicated the original findings of Tabuchi et al. by studying the same NL3R451C mutation on a pure 129S2/SvPasCrl genetic background. Here we complete the behavioral characterization of the NL3R451C mutation on a pure C57BL6J genetic background to determine if background genetics play a role in the discrepant behavioral outcomes involving NL3R451C mice. NL3R451C mutant mice on a pure C57BL6J background did not display spatial memory enhancements or social interaction deficits. We only observed a decreased startle response and mildly increased locomotor activity in these mice suggesting that background genetics influences behavioral outcomes involving the NL3R451C mutation. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryBehavioral symptoms of autism can be highly variable, even in cases that involve identical genetic mutations. Previous studies in mice with a mutation of the Neuroligin‐3 gene showed enhanced learning and social deficits. We replicated these findings on the same and different genetic backgrounds. In this study, however, the same mutation in mice on a different genetic background did not reproduce our previous findings. Our results suggest that genetic background influences behavioral symptoms of this autism‐associated mutation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T10:05:50.82138-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1857
       
  • Everyday executive function predicts adaptive and internalizing behavior
           among children with and without autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Emily Gardiner; Grace Iarocci
      Abstract: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate challenges with executive function (EF), adaptive behavior, and mental health, all of which place long‐term wellbeing at risk. In the current study we examined the relation between parent‐rated EF and adaptive functioning and internalizing symptoms (anxiety, depression), as we expected that identifying the specific EF domains most closely related to these indices of functioning would illuminate opportunities for targeted intervention. Participants included 59 children and adolescents with ASD (M = 10.1 years) and 67 who were typically developing (TD) (M = 9.4 years) matched on age, IQ, mental age, and maternal education. Caregivers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of EF (BRIEF) and Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC‐2). Parents rated children with ASD as demonstrating significantly more challenges across most of the examined BRIEF and BASC‐2 indices and scales, with the exception of organization of materials (BRIEF) and anxiety (BASC‐2). For both groups, metacognitive EF processes emerged as strongly associated with practical, conceptual, and social skills, though different BRIEF scales emerged as significant across the component subdomains. In terms of the relation with mental health, BRIEF index scores were unrelated to anxiety for both groups. Behavior regulation, however, was significantly associated with depression symptoms for children with and without ASD. The findings highlight the possibility that targeting particular EF domains among individuals with and without ASD may not only have direct benefit for behavior regulation and metacognitive abilities, but may also extend to other areas of life, including adaptive behavior and concomitant internalizing symptomatology. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryWe examined whether parents' ratings of their children's flexibility and ability to monitor their behavior predicted adaptive skills (e.g., ability to complete day‐to‐day personal tasks, communicate, and socialize) and symptoms of anxiety and depression among children with and without autism spectrum disorder. For both groups, children's abilities to manage and monitor their behavior were strongly related to adaptive skills. Children's flexibility and ability to inhibit inappropriate behavior and control their emotions was associated with depression symptoms for both groups.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T10:15:24.80786-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1877
       
  • The association between theory of mind, executive function, and the
           symptoms of autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Catherine R. G. Jones; Emily Simonoff, Gillian Baird, Andrew Pickles, Anita J. S. Marsden, Jenifer Tregay, Francesca Happé, Tony Charman
      Abstract: It has been strongly argued that atypical cognitive processes in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) contribute to the expression of behavioural symptoms. Comprehensive investigation of these claims has been limited by small and unrepresentative sample sizes and the absence of wide‐ranging task batteries. The current study investigated the cognitive abilities of 100 adolescents with ASD (mean age = 15 years 6 months), using 10 tasks to measure the domains of theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF). We used structural equation modelling as a statistically robust way of exploring the associations between cognition and parent‐reported measures of social communication and restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRBs). We found that ToM ability was associated with both social communication symptoms and RRBs. EF was a correlate of ToM but had no direct association with parent‐reported symptom expression. Our data suggest that in adolescence ToM ability, but not EF, is directly related to autistic symptom expression. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryThe behaviours that are common to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been linked to differences in thinking ability. We assessed autistic adolescents and found that social communication difficulties and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviours related to difficulties in understanding other peoples’ minds (theory of mind). In contrast, these behaviours were not associated with the general thinking abilities involved in planning and executing tasks (executive function).
      PubDate: 2017-09-25T10:37:25.432085-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1873
       
  • Adaptive behavior in autism: Minimal clinically important differences on
           the Vineland‐II
    • Authors: C. H. Chatham; K. I. Taylor, T. Charman, X. Liogier D'ardhuy, E. Eule, A. Fedele, A. Y. Hardan, E. Loth, L. Murtagh, M. del Valle Rubido, A. San Jose Caceres, J. Sevigny, L. Sikich, L. Snyder, J. E. Tillmann, P. E. Ventola, K. L. Walton-Bowen, P. P. Wang, T. Willgoss, F. Bolognani
      Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is associated with persistent impairments in adaptive abilities across multiple domains. These social, personal, and communicative impairments become increasingly pronounced with development, and are present regardless of IQ. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland‐II) is the most commonly used instrument for quantifying these impairments, but minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) on Vineland‐II scores have not been rigorously established in ASD. We pooled data from several consortia/registries (EU‐AIMS LEAP study, ABIDE‐I, ABIDE‐II, INFOR, Simons Simplex Collection and Autism Treatment Network [ATN]) and clinical investigations and trials (Stanford, Yale, Roche) resulting in a data set of over 9,000 individuals with ASD. Two approaches were used to estimate MCIDs: distribution‐based methods and anchor‐based methods. Distribution‐based MCID [d‐MCID] estimates included the standard error of the measurement, as well as one‐fifth and one‐half of the covariate‐adjusted standard deviation (both cross‐sectionally and longitudinally). Anchor‐based MCID [a‐MCID] estimates include the slope of linear regression of clinician ratings of severity on the Vineland‐II score, the slope of linear regression of clinician ratings of longitudinal improvement category on Vineland‐II change, the Vineland‐II change score maximally differentiating clinical impressions of minimal versus no improvement, and equipercentile equating. Across strata, the Vineland‐II Adaptive Behavior Composite standardized score MCID estimates range from 2.01 to 3.2 for distribution‐based methods, and from 2.42 to 3.75 for sample‐size‐weighted anchor‐based methods. Lower Vineland‐II standardized score MCID estimates were observed for younger and more cognitively impaired populations. These MCID estimates enable users of Vineland‐II to assess both the statistical and clinical significance of any observed change. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryThe Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (2nd edition; Vineland‐II) is the most widely used scale for assessing day‐to‐day “adaptive” skills. Yet, it is unknown how much Vineland‐II scores must change for those changes to be regarded as clinically significant. We pooled data from over 9,000 individuals with ASD to show that changes of 2–3.75 points on the Vineland‐II Composite score represent the “minimal clinically‐important difference.” These estimates will help evaluate the benefits of potential new treatments for ASD.
      PubDate: 2017-09-21T09:21:28.512312-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1874
       
  • The Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale: Factor structure and
           psychometric properties in older adolescents and young adults with autism
           spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Mirko Uljarević; Amanda L. Richdale, Helen McConachie, Darren Hedley, Ru Ying Cai, Hannah Merrick, Jeremy R. Parr, Ann Le Couteur
      Abstract: Despite the high frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and a significant impact of these comorbidities on both individuals with ASD and their families, research on the validity of anxiety and depression measures in the ASD population is currently lacking. The aim of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS; Zigmond & Snaith, ] in a sample of older adolescents and young adults with ASD. One hundred and fifty one participants (UK Transition longitudinal study: N = 106; 75 males, Mage = 16.04 years, SD = 1.28; Longitudinal Study of Australian Schools Leavers with ASD: N = 45, 30 males; Mage = 18.35 years, SD = 2.55) completed the HADS and a range of mental health and well‐being measures. Combination of the Principal Component Analysis and Parallel Analysis indicated two factors as an optimal solution in our sample, accounting for 43.77% of variance with factors being identical in terms of content with the structure found in the general population. Internal consistency was good for the HADS anxiety scale (HADS‐A; .82–.84) and acceptable for the HADS depression scale (HADS‐D; .60–.72). Convergent validity of both HADS‐A and HADS‐D scales was excellent and divergent validity was acceptable. Our study represents a significant contribution to the literature by providing an initial validation of the HADS in older adolescents and younger adults with ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryResearch on the validity of measurement of anxiety and depression in ASD is currently lacking. The aim of this study was to explore the properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in a sample of 151 young people with ASD. Participants completed HADS and a range of mental health and well‐being measures. Encouragingly, our findings suggest that HADS provides a reliable and valid assessment of anxiety and depression in ASD.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T09:50:29.887851-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1872
       
  • Altered task‐related modulation of long‐range connectivity in
           children with autism
    • Authors: Ajay S. Pillai; Danielle McAuliffe, Balaji M. Lakshmanan, Stewart H. Mostofsky, Nathan E. Crone, Joshua B. Ewen
      Abstract: Functional connectivity differences between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing children have been described in multiple datasets. However, few studies examine the task‐related changes in connectivity in disorder‐relevant behavioral paradigms. In this paper, we examined the task‐related changes in functional connectivity using EEG and a movement‐based paradigm that has behavioral relevance to ASD. Resting‐state studies motivated our hypothesis that children with ASD would show a decreased magnitude of functional connectivity during the performance of a motor‐control task. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, however, we observed that task‐related modulation of functional connectivity in children with ASD was in the direction opposite to that of TDs. The task‐related connectivity changes were correlated with clinical symptom scores. Our results suggest that children with ASD may have differences in cortical segregation/integration during the performance of a task, and that part of the differences in connectivity modulation may serve as a compensatory mechanism. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryDecreased connectivity between brain regions is thought to cause the symptoms of autism. Because most of our knowledge comes from data in which children are at rest, we do not know how connectivity changes directly lead to autistic behaviors, such as impaired gestures. When typically developing children produced complex movements, connectivity decreased between brain regions. In children with autism, connectivity increased. It may be that behavior‐related changes in brain connectivity are more important than absolute differences in connectivity in autism.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T08:20:27.358651-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1858
       
  • Children with autism spectrum disorder who improve with fever: Insights
           from the Simons Simplex Collection
    • Authors: Rebecca Grzadzinski; Catherine Lord, Stephan J. Sanders, Donna Werling, Vanessa H. Bal
      Abstract: Literature indicates that some children with ASD may show behavioral improvements during fever; however, little is known about the behavioral profiles of these children. This study aims to (a) investigate the subset of children who show parent‐reported behavioral improvements associated with fever and (b) compare the demographic, behavioral, and genetic characteristics of this subset of children to children whose parents report no change during fever. Parents of 2,152 children from the Simons Simplex Collection provided information about whether and in which areas their child improved during fever. Children were randomly assigned into discovery or replication samples. In discovery analyses, children who reportedly improved with fever (Improve Group) were compared to those who reportedly did not improve (No Improve Group) on demographics, medical history, ASD symptoms, adaptive skills, and presence of de novo ASD‐associated mutations. Significant and marginal results from discovery analyses were tested in the replication sample. Parent reports of 17% of children indicated improvements during fever across a range of domains. Discovery and replication analyses revealed that the Improve Group had significantly lower non‐verbal cognitive skills (NVIQ) and language levels and more repetitive behaviors. Groups did not differ on demographic variables, parent‐report of current ASD symptoms or the presence of de novo mutations. Understanding the profiles of children who improve during episodes of fever may provide insights into innovative treatments for ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryThis study explored characteristics of children with ASD who are reported to improve during fever. Parents of 17% of children with ASD report improvements across a range of domains during fever including cognition, communication, repetitive behaviors, social interaction, and behavior. Children who are reported to improve during fever have significantly lower non‐verbal cognitive skills and language levels and more repetitive behaviors. Understanding the profiles of children who improve during episodes of fever may provide insights into new treatments for ASD.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T21:40:43.527349-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1856
       
  • Pivotal response treatment for preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder:
           Defining a predictor profile
    • Authors: Kristin-Lee Fossum; Loriann Williams, Nancy Garon, Susan E. Bryson, Isabel M. Smith
      Abstract: Behavioral characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who respond positively to Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) have been described previously, based on single‐subject design research. The present study examined several such characteristics, as well as positive affect, as predictors of expressive language (EL) gains in a representative sample of preschoolers with ASD (n = 57) enrolled in a PRT‐based community early intervention program. Children's cognitive ability, positive affect, and levels of appropriate toy contact measured at the start of intervention each contributed significantly to the prediction of EL outcomes. Together these variables accounted for 40% of the total outcome variance. In addition, a profile of increased EL ability, positive affect and appropriate toy contact, and decreased social avoidance and stereotyped and repetitive vocalizations was associated with greater gains during intervention. Results are discussed in relation to their implications for understanding both the variable treatment response documented in children with ASD and how to tailor treatment to optimize individual benefit. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryThe study examined behavior of 57 preschoolers who made the greatest and least gains from 1 year of a community Pivotal Response Treatment program. Using pre‐treatment videos, we saw that children who made the most progress showed more language, positive affect, and appropriate interactions with toys, also less avoidance of people and fewer repetitive vocalizations. Behavior profiles can be used to match treatment to individual children's needs.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T21:40:33.773387-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1859
       
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms in autism spectrum disorder: A review of the
           literature on ascertainment and prevalence
    • Authors: Calliope Holingue; Carol Newill, Li-Ching Lee, Pankaj J. Pasricha, M. Daniele Fallin
      Abstract: There is no standard approach to measuring GI symptoms in individuals with ASD, despite postulated interactions. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe the range of GI symptom ascertainment approaches in studies of ASD, (b) describe the range of prevalence estimates across studies, and (c) assess associations between ascertainment approach and prevalence estimates. Studies published from 1/1/1980 to 1/31/2017 were collected via PubMed. Eligibility included studies with at least ten individuals with ASD that measured GI symptoms or conditions. We excluded review and hypothesis papers. We extracted information on study design, GI symptom ascertainment method, demographics, and ASD diagnostic criteria. From a subset of studies, we extracted GI symptom estimates. Out of a possible 386 titles, 144 were included. The prevalence range for constipation was 4.3–45.5% (median 22%), for diarrhea was 2.3–75.6% (median 13.0%), and for any or more than one symptom was 4.2–96.8% (median 46.8%). GI symptoms differed significantly by age of individuals, primary goal of study, study design, study sample, and who reported symptoms (P 
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T00:05:32.986898-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1854
       
  • Characterization of early communicative behavior in mouse models of
           neurofibromatosis type 1
    • Authors: Susan E. Maloney; Krystal C. Chandler, Corina Anastasaki, Michael A. Rieger, David H. Gutmann, Joseph D. Dougherty
      Abstract: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a monogenic neurodevelopmental disease caused by germline loss-of-function mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. Cognitive impairments are observed in approximately 80% of children with this disease, with 45–60% exhibiting autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology. In light of the high comorbidity rate between ASD and NF1, we assessed early communicative behavior by maternal-separation induced pup ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) and developmental milestones in two distinct Nf1 genetically engineered models, one modeling clinical germline heterozygous loss of Nf1 function (Nf1+/– mice), and a second with somatic biallelic Nf1 inactivation in neuroglial progenitor cells (Nf1GFAPCKO mice). We observed altered USV production in both models: Nf1+/– mice exhibited both increased USVs across development and alterations in aspects of pitch, while Nf1GFAPCKO mice demonstrated a decrease in USVs. Developmental milestones, such as weight, pinnae detachment, and eye opening, were not disrupted in either model, indicating the USV deficits were not due to gross developmental delay, and likely reflected more specific alterations in USV circuitry. In this respect, increased whole-brain serotonin was observed in Nf1+/– mice, but whole-brain levels of dopamine and its metabolites were unchanged at the age of peak USV disruption, and USV alterations did not correlate with overall level of neurofibromin loss. The early communicative phenotypes reported herein should motivate further studies into the risks mediated by haploinsufficiency and biallelic deletion of Nf1 across a full battery of ASD-relevant behavioral phenotypes, and a targeted analysis of underlying circuitry disruptions. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryNeurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common neurogenetic disorder caused by mutation of the NF1 gene, in which 80% of affected children exhibit cognitive and behavioral issues. Based on emerging evidence that NF1 may be an autism predisposition gene, we examined autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-relevant early communicative behavior in Nf1 mouse models and observed alterations in both models. The changes in early communicative behavior in Nf1 mutant mice should motivate further studies into the causative factors and potential treatments for ASD arising in the context of NF1.
      PubDate: 2017-08-26T00:40:27.029661-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1853
       
  • Issue Information
    • First page: 1905
      PubDate: 2017-12-18T01:37:46.05624-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1705
       
  • Investigating facial phenotype in autism spectrum conditions: The
           importance of a hypothesis driven approach
    • Authors: Maryam Boutrus; Murray T. Maybery, Gail A. Alvares, Diana Weiting Tan, Kandice J. Varcin, Andrew J. O. Whitehouse
      First page: 1910
      Abstract: Atypical facial characteristics have been observed in many disorders associated with developmental disability. While autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have not previously been thought to be associated with a distinct facial phenotype, an emerging research literature is casting doubt on this assumption. The identification of differences in the facial phenotype of individuals with ASC may contribute to efforts to promote early identification of the condition and help elucidate etiological pathways. With the aim of identifying facial phenotypes associated with ASC, this commentary evaluated facial features purported to distinguish ASC from typical development. Although there is little consensus across the reviewed studies for the majority of facial characteristics described, preliminary evidence suggests increased facial asymmetry may be more common in ASC. There is also evidence to suggest that there are morphologically distinct subgroups within ASC that correspond with different cognitive and behavioral symptomatology. However, in light of the various inconsistencies in the reported literature, and based on an accumulating understanding of etiological pathways proposed to be associated with ASC, we propose an alternative paradigm for investigating facial phenotypes in ASC. A series of studies are outlined to demonstrate the promise of a research program that has taken a hypothesis-driven approach to examine facial phenotypes associated with increased exposure to prenatal testosterone and to ASC. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryThis commentary reviewed studies that found differences in the facial features of individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) compared to typically developing individuals. While there is little agreement between studies, there is some support for asymmetrical facial features associated with ASC, and preliminary evidence that particular facial features relate to specific patterns of cognitive and behavioral symptoms. However, in light of inconsistencies between studies and based on accumulating understanding of etiological pathways, we propose an alternative approach to investigating facial differences in ASC.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T02:23:15.127843-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1824
       
  • Analysis and functional characterization of sequence variations in ligand
           binding domain of thyroid hormone receptors in autism spectrum disorder
           (ASD) patients
    • Authors: Mahesh Kumar Kalikiri; Madhu Poornima Mamidala, Ananth N. Rao, Vidya Rajesh
      First page: 1919
      Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neuro developmental disorder, reported to be on a rise in the past two decades. Thyroid hormone‐T3 plays an important role in early embryonic and central nervous system development. T3 mediates its function by binding to thyroid hormone receptors, TRα and TRβ. Alterations in T3 levels and thyroid receptor mutations have been earlier implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders and have been linked to environmental toxins. Limited reports from earlier studies have shown the effectiveness of T3 treatment with promising results in children with ASD and that the thyroid hormone levels in these children was also normal. This necessitates the need to explore the genetic variations in the components of the thyroid hormone pathway in ASD children. To achieve this objective, we performed genetic analysis of ligand binding domain of THRA and THRB receptor genes in 30 ASD subjects and in age matched controls from India. Our study for the first time reports novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the THRA and THRB receptor genes of ASD individuals. Autism Res 2017. ©2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryThyroid hormone (T3) and thyroid receptors (TRα and TRβ) are the major components of the thyroid hormone pathway. The link between thyroid pathway and neuronal development is proven in clinical medicine. Since the thyroid hormone levels in Autistic children are normal, variations in their receptors needs to be explored. To achieve this objective, changes in THRA and THRB receptor genes was studied in 30 ASD and normal children from India. The impact of some of these mutations on receptor function was also studied.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T00:31:03.717994-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1838
       
  • Altered attentional processing in male and female rats in a prenatal
           valproic acid exposure model of autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Kumari Anshu; Ajay Kumar Nair, U.D. Kumaresan, Bindu M. Kutty, Shoba Srinath, T. Rao Laxmi
      First page: 1929
      Abstract: Attention is foundational to efficient perception and optimal goal driven behavior. Intact attentional processing is crucial for the development of social and communication skills. Deficits in attention are therefore likely contributors to the core pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Clinical evidence in ASD is suggestive of impairments in attention and its control, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We examined sustained, spatially divided attention in a prenatal valproic acid (VPA) model of ASD using the 5‐choice serial reaction time task (5‐CSRTT). As compared to controls, male and female VPA rats had progressively lower accuracy and higher omissions with increasing attentional demands during 5‐CSRTT training, and showed further performance decrements when subjected to parametric task manipulations. It is noteworthy that although VPA exposure induced attentional deficits in both sexes, there were task parameter specific sex differences. Importantly, we did not find evidence of impulsivity or motivational deficits in VPA rats but we did find reduced social preference, as well as sensorimotor deficits that suggest pre‐attentional information processing impairments. Importantly, with fixed rules, graded difficulty levels, and more time, VPA rats could be successfully trained on the attentional task. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study examining attentional functions in a VPA model. Our work underscores the need for studying both sexes in ASD animal models and validates the use of the VPA model in the quest for mechanistic understanding of aberrant attentional functions and for evaluating suitable therapeutic targets. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryWe studied rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA), an established rodent model of autism. Both male and female VPA rats had a range of attentional impairments with sex‐specific characteristics. Importantly, with fixed rules, graded difficulty levels, and more time, VPA rats could be successfully trained on the attentional task. Our work validates the use of the VPA model in the quest for evaluating suitable therapeutic targets for improving attentional performance.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29T09:10:43.470178-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1852
       
  • Executive function and functional and structural brain differences in
           middle‐age adults with autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: B. Blair Braden; Christopher J. Smith, Amiee Thompson, Tyler K. Glaspy, Emily Wood, Divya Vatsa, Angela E. Abbott, Samuel C. McGee, Leslie C. Baxter
      First page: 1945
      Abstract: There is a rapidly growing group of aging adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who may have unique needs, yet cognitive and brain function in older adults with ASD is understudied. We combined functional and structural neuroimaging and neuropsychological tests to examine differences between middle‐aged men with ASD and matched neurotypical (NT) men. Participants (ASD, n = 16; NT, n = 17) aged 40–64 years were well‐matched according to age, IQ (range: 83–131), and education (range: 9–20 years). Middle‐age adults with ASD made more errors on an executive function task (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test) but performed similarly to NT adults on tests of delayed verbal memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test) and local visual search (Embedded Figures Task). Independent component analysis of a functional MRI working memory task (n‐back) completed by most participants (ASD = 14, NT = 17) showed decreased engagement of a cortico‐striatal‐thalamic‐cortical neural network in older adults with ASD. Structurally, older adults with ASD had reduced bilateral hippocampal volumes, as measured by FreeSurfer. Findings expand our understanding of ASD as a lifelong condition with persistent cognitive and functional and structural brain differences evident at middle‐age. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryWe compared cognitive abilities and brain measures between 16 middle‐age men with high‐functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 17 typical middle‐age men to better understand how aging affects an older group of adults with ASD. Men with ASD made more errors on a test involving flexible thinking, had less activity in a flexible thinking brain network, and had smaller volume of a brain structure related to memory than typical men. We will follow these older adults over time to determine if aging changes are greater for individuals with ASD.
      PubDate: 2017-09-21T09:21:19.665389-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1842
       
  • Normative data and psychometric properties of a farsi translation of the
           strange stories test
    • Authors: Zahra Shahrivar; Mehdi Tehrani-Doost, Anahita Khorrami Banaraki, Azar Mohammadzadeh, Francesca Happe
      First page: 1960
      Abstract: Background and objectiveThe Strange Stories test is one of the most commonly used tests to evaluate advanced “theory of mind,” i.e. attribution of mental states. Normative data and psychometric properties of a new Farsi translation of this test were evaluated in a large community-based sample of Iranian school-aged children. Methods: Through randomized cluster sampling, 398 children aged 9–11 years studying at 20 elementary schools were recruited from 4 central regions of Tehran, Iran. The mean age of the students was 9.96 years (SD = 0.92), and 51% were girls (n = 202). The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was completed by parents. The Strange Stories test was completed by all children and repeated for 20% of them after 2–4 weeks to assess the test-retest reliability. Findings: Students in upper grades had higher scores (P 
      PubDate: 2017-08-11T20:45:34.325046-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1844
       
  • Processing of co-reference in autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Philippa L. Howard; Simon P. Liversedge, Valerie Benson
      First page: 1968
      Abstract: Accuracy for reading comprehension and inferencing tasks has previously been reported as reduced for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relative to typically developing (TD) controls. In this study, we used an eye movements and reading paradigm to examine whether this difference in performance accuracy is underpinned by differences in the inferential work required to compute a co-referential link. Participants read two sentences that contained a category noun (e.g., bird) that was preceded by and co-referred to an exemplar that was either typical (e.g., pigeon) or atypical (e.g., penguin). Both TD and ASD participants showed an effect of typicality for gaze durations upon the category noun, with longer times being observed when the exemplar was atypical, in comparison to typical. No group differences or interactions were detected for target processing, and verbal language proficiency was found to predict general reading and inferential skill. The only difference between groups was that individuals with ASD engaged in more re-reading than TD participants. These data suggest that readers with ASD do not differ in the efficiency with which they compute anaphoric links on-line during reading. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryIndividuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have previously been reported to have difficulties with reading comprehension. This study examined whether a difference in the speed with which individuals with ASD form connections between words (co-reference processing) may contribute to comprehension difficulties. No evidence was found to suggest that ASD readers differ to typically developing readers in the speed of co-reference processing. Therefore, this data would suggest that differences in co-reference processing are unlikely to account for reading comprehension difficulties in ASD.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22T01:52:38.873091-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1845
       
  • Early autism symptoms in infants with tuberous sclerosis complex
    • Authors: Nicole M. McDonald; Kandice J. Varcin, Rujuta Bhatt, Joyce Y. Wu, Mustafa Sahin, Charles A. Nelson, Shafali S. Jeste
      First page: 1981
      Abstract: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare, autosomal dominant genetic syndrome that confers significantly increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with 50–60% of infants with TSC meeting criteria for ASD by 3 years of age. In a previous study of the current longitudinal cohort, we found that infants with TSC who develop ASD (TSC/ASD) evidence decreased cognitive abilities that diverge from infants with TSC and no ASD (TSC/no ASD). We extended this work by asking whether TSC/ASD infants (n = 13) differed from TSC/no ASD infants (n = 10) and infants with low developmental risk and no ASD (LR; n = 21) in their social communication functioning during the first year of life. We measured early ASD symptoms with the Autism Observation Scale for Infants (AOSI) at 9 and 12 months of age. At both ages, infants in the TSC/ASD group had significantly higher AOSI total scores than infants in the TSC/no ASD and LR groups, which were not fully explained by differences in cognitive abilities. Several items on the AOSI at both ages were predictive of ASD outcome, particularly those representing core social communication deficits (e.g., social referencing). Our findings signal the need for further study of this population within the first year and provide strong justification for early identification and early intervention targeting social communication skills in infants with TSC. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryWe examined early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in infants with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), approximately 50% of whom will meet criteria for ASD by age 3. Infants with TSC and ASD showed deficits in social communication behaviors by 9 months of age that were clearly distinguishable from behaviors in infants with TSC who do not develop ASD and low risk infants. Results support the importance of early ASD screening and intervention for infants with TSC.
      PubDate: 2017-08-11T20:45:27.741092-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1846
       
  • Production and perception of emotional prosody by adults with autism
           spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Daniel J. Hubbard; Daniel J. Faso, Peter F. Assmann, Noah J. Sasson
      First page: 1991
      Abstract: This study examined production and perception of affective prosody by adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous research has reported increased pitch variability in talkers with ASD compared to typically developing (TD) controls in grammatical speaking tasks (e.g., comparing interrogative vs. declarative sentences), but it is unclear whether this pattern extends to emotional speech. In this study, speech recordings in five emotion contexts (angry, happy, interested, sad, and neutral) were obtained from 15 adult males with ASD and 15 controls (Experiment 1), and were later presented to 52 listeners (22 with ASD) who were asked to identify the emotion expressed and rate the level of naturalness of the emotion in each recording (Experiment 2). Compared to the TD group, talkers with ASD produced phrases with greater intensity, longer durations, and increased pitch range for all emotions except neutral, suggesting that their greater pitch variability was specific to emotional contexts. When asked to identify emotion from speech, both groups of listeners were more accurate at identifying the emotion context from speech produced by ASD speakers compared to TD speakers, but rated ASD emotional speech as sounding less natural. Collectively, these results reveal differences in emotional speech production in talkers with ASD that provide an acoustic basis for reported perceptions of oddness in the speech presentation of adults with ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryThis study examined emotional speech communication produced and perceived by adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically-developing (TD) controls. Compared to the TD group, talkers with ASD produced emotional phrases that were louder, longer, and more variable in pitch. Both ASD and TD listeners were more accurate at identifying emotion in speech produced by ASD speakers compared to TD speakers, but rated ASD emotional speech as sounding less natural.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T02:15:53.613131-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1847
       
  • Reading comprehension of ambiguous sentences by school-age children with
           autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Meghan M. Davidson; Susan Ellis Weismer
      First page: 2002
      Abstract: Weak central coherence (processing details over gist), poor oral language abilities, poor suppression, semantic interference, and poor comprehension monitoring have all been implicated to affect reading comprehension in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study viewed the contributions of different supporting skills as a collective set of skills necessary for context integration—a multi-component view—to examine individual differences in reading comprehension in school-age children (8–14 years) with ASD (n = 23) and typically developing control peers (n = 23). Participants completed a written ambiguous sentence comprehension task in which participants had to integrate context to determine the correct homonym meaning via picture selection. Both comprehension products (i.e., offline representations after reading) and processes (i.e., online processing during reading) were evaluated. Results indicated that children with ASD, similar to their TD peers, integrated the context to access the correct homonym meanings while reading. However, after reading the sentences, when participants were asked to select the meanings, both groups experienced semantic interference between the two meanings. This semantic interference hindered the children with ASD's sentence representation to a greater degree than their peers. Individual differences in age/development, word recognition, vocabulary breadth (i.e., number of words in the lexicon), and vocabulary depth (i.e., knowledge of the homonym meanings) contributed to sentence comprehension in both children with ASD and their peers. Together, this evidence supports a multi-component view, and that helping children with ASD develop vocabulary depth may have cascading effects on their reading comprehension. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryLike their peers, children with ASD were able to integrate context, or link words while reading sentences with ambiguous words (words with two meanings). After reading the sentences, both groups found it hard to pick the correct meaning of the ambiguous sentence and this decision was more difficult for the participants with ASD. Older children, children with better word reading abilities, and children with higher vocabularies were better at understanding ambiguous sentences. Helping children with ASD to develop richer vocabularies could be important for improving their reading comprehension.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22T01:53:30.161882-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1850
       
  • Toward the identification of adaptive functioning intervention targets for
           intellectually‐able, transition‐aged youth with autism: An examination
           of caregiver responses on the Vineland‐II
    • Authors: Nicole L. Matthews; Amanda Malligo, Christopher J. Smith
      First page: 2023
      Abstract: Little is known about specific adaptive functioning impairments in intellectually‐able individuals with autism spectrum disorder. In adolescents (n = 22) and young adults (n = 22) matched on composite IQ scores, this study examined profiles of cognitive and adaptive functioning, and caregiver responses on individual Vineland‐II items. Adaptive functioning standard scores were significantly lower than IQ scores, and the adult group had significantly lower adaptive functioning standard scores than the adolescent group. Examination of caregiver responses to individual Vineland‐II items identified more than 100 potential intervention targets. Differences favoring the adult group were observed on only 16 items across all three adaptive functioning domains, suggesting that little skill development is occurring during the transition to adulthood. Future research will examine the relevance of identified intervention targets to optimal outcomes. Autism Res 2017,. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryAdolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability demonstrated impaired adaptive functioning skills (i.e., age appropriate skills necessary for independent living). Development of adaptive functioning skills appears to slow with age among individuals without intellectual disability. Findings clarify the specific adaptive functioning skills that transition‐aged youth with ASD have difficulty completing independently and will inform the development of interventions to increase the likelihood of independent living in adulthood.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29T09:05:33.595059-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1855
       
  • Psychiatric comorbidities and use of psychotropic medications in people
           with autism spectrum disorder in the United States
    • Authors: Richard Houghton; Rose C. Ong, Federico Bolognani
      First page: 2037
      Abstract: This study investigated psychotropic medication usage in two large, cohorts of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) throughout the calendar year 2014. The cohorts referred to individuals with commercial (employer‐sponsored) and Medicaid insurance in the United States. We aimed to understand prescribing patterns of such medications across a wide age‐range and in the presence/absence of other clinical and non‐clinical characteristics, including psychiatric comorbidities. We described the prevalence and length of prescriptions by age, psychiatric comorbidity and overall. We also fitted multivariable logistic regression models to describe the relationship between treatments and subject characteristics simultaneously. Eighty percent of the identified population was male, although gender did not impact the odds of receiving medication. Medication use was strongly associated with age, increasing most rapidly before adulthood; generally plateauing thereafter. All psychiatric comorbidities studied also individually increased the chances of medication use, with epilepsy and ADHD having the highest associations in both the commercial (OR > 7) and Medicaid (OR around 12) cohorts. Those in non‐capitated insurance plans, in foster care and white individuals also had increased odds of prescriptions. Overall, slightly more Medicaid enrollees received any psychotropic treatment (commercial: 64%, Medicaid: 69%). Nonetheless in both cohorts, a large proportion of individuals received treatment even without a diagnosis of any other psychiatric comorbidity (commercial: 31%, Medicaid: 33%). In summary, this report sheds new light on the latest patterns of psychiatric comorbidity profile and psycho‐pharmacological treatment patterns in ASD Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay Summarythis study identified a large number of children and adults in the US with autism spectrum disorder (autism) from employer‐sponsored and government funded (Medicaid) health insurance data. Psychotropic medications were used by over two thirds of people, and four in ten people received two medications at the same time. The chances of receiving medication increased for individuals with other psychiatric conditions (e.g., ADHD), and also increased with age.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30T05:51:41.083029-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1848
       
  • Sticking with it: Psychotherapy outcomes for adults with autism spectrum
           disorder in a university counseling center setting
    • Authors: Emily Anderberg; Jonathan C. Cox, E. Shannon Neeley Tass, David M. Erekson, Terisa P. Gabrielsen, Jared S. Warren, Jared Cline, Devin Petersen, Mikle South
      First page: 2048
      Abstract: Young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience high rates of comorbid mental health concerns in addition to distress arising from the core symptoms of autism. Many adults with ASD seek psychological treatment in outpatient facilities in their communities that are not specifically geared toward individuals with ASD. However, few studies have looked at the effectiveness of standard psychotherapeutic care in adults with ASD. This study aimed to discover how individuals with ASD fare in psychotherapy within a college counseling setting, compared to their neurotypical peers. Clients with ASD (n = 76) or possible ASD (n = 91) were retrospectively identified from counseling center case notes. Data from the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ) were retrieved for each therapy session as a measure of client distress. Clients with ASD showed no difference in level of distress at intake compared to their neurotypical peers (n = 21,546), and improved about the same amount from pre- to post-treatment. However, students with ASD stayed in treatment for significantly more sessions than neurotypical clients, and took significantly longer to achieve maximum improvement on OQ reports. Results are discussed with implications for university and other community based treatment settings. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lay SummaryThis study aimed to discover how individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) fare in psychotherapy within a university counseling setting, compared to their neurotypical peers. Clients with ASD showed no difference in level of distress at intake compared to their neurotypical peers, and improved about the same amount from pre- to post-treatment. However, students with ASD stayed in treatment for significantly more sessions than neurotypical clients, and took significantly longer to achieve maximum improvement on Outcome Questionnaire-45 reports.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T02:21:48.588392-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1843
       
  • Erratum to article “Mid‐childhood outcomes of infant siblings at
           familial high‐risk of autism spectrum disorder” Autism Research, 10
           (3), 546–557
    • First page: 2056
      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:49:17.443381-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1851
       
  • INSAR President's Message – December 2017
    • First page: 2058
      PubDate: 2017-12-18T01:37:47.679339-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1890
       
 
 
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