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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 875 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 402)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 176)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 215)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
At-Tajdid : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access  
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 129)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access  
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access  
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Autism Research
  [SJR: 2.126]   [H-I: 39]   [31 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1939-3792 - ISSN (Online) 1939-3806
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1576 journals]
  • Autism: Too eager to learn? Event related potential findings of increased
           dependency on intentional learning in a serial reaction time task
    • Authors: Fenny S. Zwart; Constance W.Th.M Vissers, Roemer van der Meij, Roy P.C. Kessels, Joseph H.R. Maes
      Abstract: It has been suggested that people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an increased tendency to use explicit (or intentional) learning strategies. This altered learning may play a role in the development of the social communication difficulties characterizing ASD. In the current study, we investigated incidental and intentional sequence learning using a Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task in an adult ASD population. Response times and event related potentials (ERP) components (N2b and P3) were assessed as indicators of learning and knowledge. Findings showed that behaviorally, sequence learning and ensuing explicit knowledge were similar in ASD and typically developing (TD) controls. However, ERP findings showed that learning in the TD group was characterized by an enhanced N2b, while learning in the ASD group was characterized by an enhanced P3. These findings suggest that learning in the TD group might be more incidental in nature, whereas learning in the ASD group is more intentional or effortful. Increased intentional learning might serve as a strategy for individuals with ASD to control an overwhelming environment. Although this led to similar behavioral performances on the SRT task, it is very plausible that this intentional learning has adverse effects in more complex social situations, and hence contributes to the social impairments found in ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T09:28:54.014037-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1802
       
  • Long-term memory in older children/adolescents and adults with autism
           spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Diane L. Williams; Nancy J. Minshew, Gerald Goldstein, Carla A. Mazefsky
      Abstract: This study extends prior memory reports in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) by investigating memory for narratives after longer recall periods and by examining developmental aspects of narrative memory using a cross-sectional design. Forty-seven older children/adolescents with ASD and 31 youth with typical development (TD) and 39 adults with ASD and 45 TD adults were compared on memory for stories from standardized measures appropriate for each age group at three intervals (immediate, 30 min, and 2 day). Both the youth with and without ASD had difficulty with memory for story details with increasing time intervals. More of the youths with ASD performed in the range of impairment when recalling the stories 2 days later as compared to the TD group. The adults with ASD had more difficulty on memory for story details with increasing delay and were poorer at recall of thematic information (needed to create a gist) across the three delay conditions as compared to the TD group. Analyses of the individual results suggested that memory for details of most of the adults with ASD was not impaired when applying a clinical standard; however, a significant percentage of the adults with ASD did not make use of thematic information to organize the narrative information, which would have helped them to remember the stories. The youth with and without ASD performed similarly when both were at a stage of development when memory for details is the primary strategy. The adults with ASD had difficulty with use organizational strategies to support episodic memory. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T09:28:48.776518-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1801
       
  • The joint effect of air pollution exposure and copy number variation on
           risk for autism
    • Authors: Dokyoon Kim; Heather Volk, Santhosh Girirajan, Sarah Pendergrass, Molly A. Hall, Shefali S. Verma, Rebecca J. Schmidt, Robin L. Hansen, Debashis Ghosh, Yunin Ludena-Rodriguez, Kyoungmi Kim, Marylyn D. Ritchie, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Scott B. Selleck
      Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder is a complex trait with a high degree of heritability as well as documented susceptibility from environmental factors. In this study the contributions of copy number variation, exposure to air pollutants, and the interaction between the two on autism risk, were evaluated in the population-based case-control Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment (CHARGE) Study. For the current investigation, we included only those CHARGE children (a) who met criteria for autism or typical development and (b) for whom our team had conducted both genetic evaluation of copy number burden and determination of environmental air pollution exposures based on mapping addresses from the pregnancy and early childhood. This sample consisted of 158 cases of children with autism and 147 controls with typical development. Multiple logistic regression models were fit with and without environmental variable-copy number burden interactions. We found no correlation between average air pollution exposure from conception to age 2 years and the child's CNV burden. We found a significant interaction in which a 1SD increase in duplication burden combined with a 1SD increase in ozone exposure was associated with an elevated autism risk (OR 3.4, P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T09:18:59.445654-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1799
       
  • Global and local visual processing in autism: An objective assessment
           approach
    • Authors: Kritika Nayar; Angela C. Voyles, Lynne Kiorpes, Adriana Di Martino
      Abstract: We examined global and local visual processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) via a match-to-sample task using Kanizsa illusory contours (KIC). School-aged children with ASD (n = 28) and age-matched typically developing controls (n = 22; 7–13 years) performed a sequential match-to-sample between a solid shape (sample) and two illusory alternatives. We tracked eye gaze and behavioral performance in two task conditions: one with and one without local interference from background noise elements. While analyses revealed lower accuracy and longer reaction time in ASD in the condition with local interference only, eye tracking robustly captured ASD-related global atypicalities across both conditions. Specifically, relative to controls, children with ASD showed decreased fixations to KIC centers, indicating reduced global perception. Notably, they did not differ from controls in regard to fixations to local elements or touch response location. These results indicate impaired global perception in the absence of heightened local processing in ASD. They also underscore the utility of eye-tracking measures as objective indices of global/local visual processing strategies in ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-04-22T01:46:50.890608-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1782
       
  • Next Generation Sequencing Mitochondrial DNA Analysis in Autism Spectrum
           Disorder
    • Authors: Ashok Patowary; Ryan Nesbitt, Marilyn Archer, Raphael Bernier, Zoran Brkanac
      Abstract: Autism is a complex genetic disorder where both de-novo and inherited genetics factors play a role. Next generation sequencing approaches have been extensively used to identify rare variants associated with autism. To date, all such studies were focused on nuclear genome; thereby leaving the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in autism unexplored. Recently, analytical tools have been developed to evaluate mtDNA in whole-exome data. We have analyzed the mtDNA sequence derived from whole-exome sequencing in 10 multiplex families. In one of the families we have identified two variants of interest in MT-ND5 gene that were previously determined to impair mitochondrial function. In addition in a second family we have identified two VOIs; mtDNA variant in MT-ATP6 and nuclear DNA variant in NDUFS4, where both VOIs are within mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex. Our findings provide further support for the role of mitochondria in ASD and confirm that whole-exome sequencing allows for analysis of mtDNA, which sets a stage for further comprehensive genetic investigations of the role of mitochondria in autism. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 The
      Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T00:55:39.745813-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1792
       
  • MicroRNAs as biomarkers for psychiatric disorders with a focus on autism
           spectrum disorder: Current progress in genetic association studies,
           expression profiling, and translational research
    • Authors: Yubin Hu; Erik A. Ehli, Dorret I. Boomsma
      Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small noncoding RNA molecules, 18–25 nucleotides in length, which can negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by binding to messenger RNAs. About half of all identified miRNAs in humans are expressed in the brain and display regulatory functions important for many biological processes related to the development of the central nervous system (CNS). Disruptions in miRNA biogenesis and miRNA-target interaction have been related to CNS diseases, including psychiatric disorders. In this review, we focus on the role of miRNAs in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and summarize recent findings about ASD-associated genetic variants in miRNA genes, in miRNA biogenesis genes, and miRNA targets. We discuss deregulation of miRNA expression in ASD and functional validation of ASD-related miRNAs in animal models. Including miRNAs in studies of ASD will contribute to our understanding of its etiology and pathogenesis and facilitate the discrimination between different disease subgroups. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T00:55:37.813664-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1789
       
  • Internal noise estimates correlate with autistic traits
    • Authors: Greta Vilidaite; Miaomiao Yu, Daniel H. Baker
      Abstract: Previous neuroimaging research has reported increased internal (neural) noise in sensory systems of autistic individuals. However, it is unclear if this difference has behavioural or perceptual consequences, as previous attempts at measuring internal noise in ASD psychophysically have been indirect. Here, we use a “gold standard” psychophysical double-pass paradigm to investigate the relationship between internal noise and autistic traits in the neurotypical population (n = 43). We measured internal noise in three tasks (contrast perception, facial expression intensity perception, and number summation) to estimate a global internal noise factor using principal components analysis. This global internal noise was positively correlated with autistic traits (rs = 0.32, P = 0.035). This suggests that increased internal noise is associated with the ASD phenotype even in subclinical populations. The finding is discussed in relation to the neural and genetic basis of internal noise in ASD. Autism Res 2017,. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T00:15:29.353558-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1781
       
  • Placebo-like response in absence of treatment in children with Autism
    • Authors: Rebecca M. Jones; Caroline Carberry, Amarelle Hamo, Catherine Lord
      Abstract: Caregiver report is the most common measure of change in pediatric psychiatry. Yet, placebo response rates pose significant challenges to reliably detect a treatment response. The present study simulated an eight-week clinical trial protocol for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) for the purpose of testing the feasibility and validity of several outcome measures. Twenty caregivers answered questions about their child's behavior on their smartphone each week and completed a battery of paper questionnaires during weeks one and eight. No treatment was administered. Caregivers reported a significant decrease in problem behaviors on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) (29% decrease) and general ASD behaviors on the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) (7% decrease). There was also a trend of behavior improvement from smartphone questions but no significant changes in clinical ratings of core diagnostic features of ASD. Participation in a comprehensive protocol in the absence of a particular treatment significantly influenced how caregivers perceived the severity of their children's problem behaviors. These placebo-like effects represent substantial challenges for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that use treatment as usual and have implications for future behavioral and pharmacological treatment trial designs. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T03:55:51.889813-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1798
       
  • The Social Communication Questionnaire for adults with intellectual
           disability: SCQ-AID
    • Authors: Olivia Derks; Manuel Heinrich, Whitney Brooks, Paula Sterkenburg, Jane McCarthy, Lisa Underwood, Tanja Sappok
      Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently co-occurs with intellectual disability (ID) and often remains undiagnosed until adulthood. The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) is a widely used measure to screen for ASD. To improve the utility of the SCQ for adults with ID, the aim of this study was to develop an ID-specific and adult appropriate algorithm for the SCQ using a core set of valid items. These items were identified in one sample (N = 226) and further cross-validated in a second, independent sample (N = 225) from Germany, England and the U.S. The newly developed algorithm has 24 items compared with the 40 items in the original instrument. The reduced item core set yielded similar diagnostic validity as the original algorithm with good sensitivity values (0.81–0.89) and low specificity values (0.62–0.72). Overall, these results suggest that the removed items may not carry diagnostically relevant information in adults with ID; thus, excluding these items may result in a more efficient and age-appropriate screening measure for this population. However, due to the low specificity values, a comprehensive assessment is essential for a final diagnostic assignment. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T03:55:50.289212-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1795
       
  • Is there sexual dimorphism of hyperserotonemia in autism spectrum
           disorder?
    • Authors: Lauren C. Shuffrey; Stephen J. Guter, Shannon Delaney, Suma Jacob, George M. Anderson, James S. Sutcliffe, Edwin H. Cook, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
      Abstract: Approximately 30% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have elevated whole blood serotonin (5-HT) levels. Genetic linkage and association studies of ASD and of whole blood 5-HT levels as a quantitative trait have revealed sexual dimorphism. Few studies have examined the presence of a sex difference on hyperserotonemia within ASD. To assess whether the rate of hyperserotonemia is different in males than in females with ASD, we measured whole blood 5-HT levels in 292 children and adolescents with ASD, the largest sample in which this biomarker has been assessed. Based upon previous work suggesting that hyperserotonemia is more common prior to puberty, we focused our analysis on the 182 pre-pubertal children with ASD. 42% of pre-pubertal participants were within the hyperserotonemia range. In this population, we found that males were significantly more likely to manifest hyperserotonemia than females (P = 0.03). As expected, no significant difference was found in the post-pubertal population. Additional work will be needed to replicate this intriguing finding and to understand whether it could potentially explain differences in patterns of ASD risk between males and females. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T03:55:42.876568-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1791
       
  • Psychophysiological responses to emotions of others in young children with
           autism spectrum disorders: Correlates of social functioning
    • Authors: Gemma Zantinge; Sophie van Rijn, Lex Stockmann, Hanna Swaab
      Abstract: Studying cognitive and affective mechanisms of social behavior could lead to identifying early indicators of derailing social behavior in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The present study combined sensitive and objective techniques, such as eyetracking and psychophysiology, to provide insight into early neurodevelopmental mechanisms that are more difficult to uncover when relying on behavioral measures. Social attention towards faces and changes in affective arousal were investigated together in 28 young children with ASD (42–75 months) and 45 nonclinical controls (41–81 months). Children were shown a social-emotional video clip while eyetracking and heart rate were measured. Children with ASD fixated less on key social-emotional features within the clip as compared to controls, even though both groups attended equally toward the screen. In contrast to the control group, children with ASD did not show an increase or modulation in affective arousal in response to the social-emotional scenes. Severity of ASD symptoms, specifically social problems, was associated with arousal modulation and social attention within the ASD group. Early ASD symptoms are associated with impairments in fundamental building blocks of social behavior as expressed in a lack in spontaneous social attention and affective arousal. Such sensitive and objective measures of underlying mechanisms might serve as indicators for tailored approaches in treatment and may help in evaluating effectiveness of early interventions aimed at positively influencing social development and related quality of life in individuals with ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T04:20:44.489326-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1794
       
  • The Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST): Spanish adaptation and
           validation
    • Authors: Paula Morales-Hidalgo; Joana Roigé-Castellví, Andreu Vigil-Colet, Josefa Canals Sans
      Abstract: The Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST; Scott et al. Autism 2002; 6:9–31) has proved to be a good test for screening autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and social communication problems. This study provides evidence on the statistical properties of the CAST, specifically its validity, factorial structure and discriminative capacity as an ASD screening test, in a Spanish sample of 4–12 year-old children from community and clinical settings. The study concludes that the test was valid and reliable for ASD screening in Spanish clinical and community populations and allowed us to create a new abbreviated version. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T04:20:37.675113-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1793
       
  • Priority service needs and receipt across the lifespan for individuals
           with autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Jonathan K. Y. Lai; Jonathan A. Weiss
      Abstract: Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have a range of health, community, and social support needs across the lifespan that create age-specific challenges in navigating service sectors. In this study, we set out to identify the priority needs of individuals with ASD across the lifespan, and the factors that predict receiving priority services. Participants included 3,317 individuals with ASD from a Canada-wide online caregiver survey, stratified into five age groups (preschool, elementary school age, adolescence, emerging adulthood, adulthood). Priority receipt was calculated as a ratio of current services that corresponded to individualized priority need. Age-stratified Poisson regression analyses were used to identify the sociodemographic, clinical and systemic predictors of priority receipt. Results indicate that the distribution of priority need varied by age, except for social skills programming, which was a high across all groups. The number of high and moderate priority needs diversified with age. Overall, 30% of individuals had none of their priority needs met and priority receipt decreased with age. Systemic factors were most consistently related to priority receipt across the lifespan. Understanding patterns and correlates of priority needs and use that currently exist in different age groups can inform policies to improve service access. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 The
      Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T04:20:35.838083-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1786
       
  • Assessment of presentation patterns, clinical severity, and sensorial
           mechanism of tip-toe behavior in severe ASD subjects with intellectual
           disability: A cohort observational study
    • Authors: Giulio Valagussa; Luca Trentin, Valeria Balatti, Enzo Grossi
      Abstract: We assessed presentation patterns and characteristics of tip-toe behavior (TTB), more commonly known as toe walking, in a cohort of severe autism spectrum disorder (ASD) subjects with intellectual disability in two studies. The first study included 69 consecutive ASD subjects (57 males, mean age = 14 years—3.7 SD) under observation at our institute. A therapist assessed the presence of TTB during standing, walking, and running through direct observation and an interview with the subjects main caregiver. The prevalence of TTB was 32%. We found three clinical presentation patterns of TTB: (1) present when standing, walking and running (45.5%), (2) present when walking and running (18.4%), or (3) present only when running (36.4%). TTB subjects were more frequently nonverbal than those without TTB (72.7% vs. 44.6%-P = 0.03). On the other hand, no significant difference in ASD severity according to the ADOS scale was found between TTB and non-TTB subjects. In the second study, carried out in a subgroup of 14 ASD subjects (7 TTB and 7 non-TTB), we evidenced that a soft floor surface (foam mats) made a substantial difference in reducing the TTB phenomenon. TTB is frequently present in ASD individuals and may occur in three mutually exclusive modalities, which ultimately defines what is commonly known as toe walking. The presence of TTB seems correlated to the severity of language delay. Foot contact on soft surfaces reduces TTB both during static and/or dynamic tasks. Further evaluation is needed to clarify the potential pathophysiological implications of this phenomenon. Autism Res 2017,. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T04:20:33.483948-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1796
       
  • Maternal hirsutism and autism spectrum disorders in offspring
    • Authors: Brian K. Lee; Stefan Arver, Linnea Widman, Renee M. Gardner, Cecilia Magnusson, Christina Dalman, Kyriaki Kosidou
      Abstract: Because animal and human studies indicate that androgen exposure can influence neurodevelopment, it has been hypothesized that prenatal exposure to excess androgens may predispose to disorders with male-skewed ratio such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Therefore, maternal conditions characterized by hyperandrogenism such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or hirsutism may be relevant to child ASD. We previously found in a large Swedish case-control study of 23,748 ASD cases and 208,796 matched controls that PCOS in mothers is associated with increased offspring risk of ASD. In the same sample, we have now examined whether maternal diagnoses of hirsutism were associated with ASD. In both unadjusted logistic regression models and models adjusted for a variety of covariates, hirsutism was associated with higher odds of ASD. The most adjusted odds ratios for associations with ASD for hirsutism diagnosis before birth and lifetime diagnosis of hirsutism were 1.64 (95% CI: 0.94, 2.83) and 1.26 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.57), respectively. The presence of an association of maternal hirsutism with child ASD is consistent with the hypothesis that androgens may be involved in the etiology of ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T04:19:29.1583-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1797
       
  • Auditory spatial attention to speech and complex non-speech sounds in
           children with autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Laura N. Soskey; Paul D. Allen, Loisa Bennetto
      Abstract: One of the earliest observable impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a failure to orient to speech and other social stimuli. Auditory spatial attention, a key component of orienting to sounds in the environment, has been shown to be impaired in adults with ASD. Additionally, specific deficits in orienting to social sounds could be related to increased acoustic complexity of speech. We aimed to characterize auditory spatial attention in children with ASD and neurotypical controls, and to determine the effect of auditory stimulus complexity on spatial attention. In a spatial attention task, target and distractor sounds were played randomly in rapid succession from speakers in a free-field array. Participants attended to a central or peripheral location, and were instructed to respond to target sounds at the attended location while ignoring nearby sounds. Stimulus-specific blocks evaluated spatial attention for simple non-speech tones, speech sounds (vowels), and complex non-speech sounds matched to vowels on key acoustic properties. Children with ASD had significantly more diffuse auditory spatial attention than neurotypical children when attending front, indicated by increased responding to sounds at adjacent non-target locations. No significant differences in spatial attention emerged based on stimulus complexity. Additionally, in the ASD group, more diffuse spatial attention was associated with more severe ASD symptoms but not with general inattention symptoms. Spatial attention deficits have important implications for understanding social orienting deficits and atypical attentional processes that contribute to core deficits of ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01T01:10:38.274929-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1790
       
  • I tawt i taw a puddy tat: Gestures in canary row narrations by
           high-functioning youth with autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Laura B. Silverman; Inge-Marie Eigsti, Loisa Bennetto
      Abstract: This study examined whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) produce co-speech gestures similarly to typically developing (TD) peers. Participants were 20 youth ages 10–18 years with high-functioning ASD and 21 TD controls matched on age, gender, verbal IQ, and handedness. Gestures were elicited using a classic narrative-retelling task, in which participants watched a Tweety and Sylvester cartoon and retold the cartoon to a confederate. Analyses compared gesture rate, type, and viewpoint (character, observer, dual) across groups. Communicative utility of gestures was measured via naïve coder ratings of whether a movement was a gesture, and the clarity of a gesture's meaning. The ASD group produced shorter narratives and fewer total gestures than the TD group. Accounting for narrative length, the ASD group produced fewer gestures per clause than the TD group; however, proportions of gesture types (iconic, deictic, beat, metaphoric, emblems) did not differ. Most notably, the ASD group's gestures were rated as less clearly gestures in terms of timing and well formedness, with lower certainty ratings for gesture meaning. Gesture clarity and gesture meaning scores were related to diagnostic measures of gesture competence in ASD. Findings suggest that although fluent children and adolescents with ASD use the same type of gestures as controls, their gestures are more difficult to understand, which has significant implications for their communicative abilities more broadly. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01T01:10:32.781613-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1785
       
  • Autism spectrum disorders and the amplitude of auditory brainstem response
           wave I
    • Authors: Mariline Santos; Cristina Marques, Ana Nóbrega Pinto, Raquel Fernandes, Miguel Bebiano Coutinho, Cecília Almeida e Sousa
      Abstract: To determine whether children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have an increased number of wave I abnormal amplitudes in auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) than age- and sex-matched typically developing children. This analytical case–control study compared patients with ASDs between the ages of 2 and 6 years and children who had a language delay not associated with any other pathology. Amplitudes of ABR waves I and V; absolute latencies (ALs) of waves I, III, and V; and interpeak latencies (IPLs) I–III, III–IV, and I–V at 90 dB were compared between ASD patients and normally developing children. The study enrolled 40 children with documented ASDs and 40 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Analyses of the ABR showed that children with ASDs exhibited higher amplitudes of wave 1 than wave V (35%) more frequently than the control group (10%), and this difference between groups reached statistical significance by Chi-squared analysis. There were no significant differences in ALs and IPLs between ASD children and matched controls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case–control study testing the amplitudes of ABR wave I in ASD children. The reported results suggest a potential for the use of ABR recordings in children, not only for the clinical assessment of hearing status, but also for the possibility of using amplitude of ABR wave I as an early marker of ASDs allowing earlier diagnosis and intervention. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01T01:10:31.503965-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1771
       
  • Infants at-risk for autism spectrum disorder: Patterns of vocalizations at
           14 months
    • Authors: Dunia Garrido; Linda R. Watson, Gloria Carballo, Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Elizabeth R. Crais
      Abstract: Differences in the early development of children are crucial for early detection of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies have shown large differences between children later diagnosed with ASD and their typically developing peers in the early use of canonical vocalizations (i.e., vocalizations that include well-formed consonant–vowel syllables) and the use of vocalizations for communicative purposes. In this prospective study, we examined the extent to which infant vocalizations at 14 months would predict Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) diagnostic symptom groups, that is, Autism, Spectrum, and Non-ASD, for 82 community-identified at-risk infants at 23 months. Thirty-minute video samples were coded with the intention to categorize and quantify speech (canonical/noncanonical and directed/nondirected) and nonspeech vocalizations (atypical, distress, and pleasure vocalizations). Our results revealed that more canonical directed (OR = 1.039, P = .036), and fewer noncanonical directed (OR=.607, P = .002) and noncanonical nondirected (OR = 1.200, P = .049) vocalizations were associated with a greater likelihood of being in the Non-ASD group versus the Autism group, with no variables significantly predicting Autism versus Spectrum group membership. Despite some statistically significant findings, models performed poorly in classifying children into correct ASD symptom group at age 23 months based on vocalizations at 14 months. Thus, the utility of infant vocalizations alone for predicting toddler clinical outcomes among infants initially identified at an elevated risk for ASD appears limited; however, considering the structure and function of early vocalizations combined with other early developmental and behavioral features may improve the confidence for clinicians in making an early diagnosis of ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01T01:10:26.821479-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1788
       
  • Latent constructs underlying sensory subtypes in children with autism: A
           preliminary study
    • Authors: Brittany N. Hand; Simon Dennis, Alison E. Lane
      Abstract: Recent reports identify sensory subtypes in ASD based on shared patterns of responses to daily sensory stimuli [Ausderau et al., 2014; Lane, Molloy, & Bishop, 2014]. Lane et al. propose that two broad sensory dimensions, sensory reactivity and multisensory integration, best explain the differences between subtypes, however this has yet to be tested. The present study tests this hypothesis by examining the latent constructs underlying Lane's sensory subtypes. Participants for this study were caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 2–12 years. Caregiver responses on the Short Sensory Profile (SSP), used to establish Lane's sensory subtypes, were extracted from two existing datasets (total n = 287). Independent component analyses were conducted to test the fit and interpretability of a two-construct structure underlying the SSP, and therefore, the sensory subtypes. The first construct was largely comprised of the taste/smell sensitivity domain, which describes hyper-reactivity to taste and smell stimuli. The second construct had a significant contribution from the low energy/weak domain, which describes behaviors that may be indicative of difficulties with multisensory integration. Findings provide initial support for our hypothesis that sensory reactivity and multisensory integration underlie Lane's sensory subtypes in ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01T01:10:24.048877-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1787
       
  • Identification of likely associations between cerebral folate deficiency
           and complex genetic- and metabolic pathogenesis of autism spectrum
           disorders by utilization of a pilot interaction modeling approach
    • Authors: Daniel Krsička; Jan Geryk, Markéta Vlčková, Markéta Havlovicová, Milan Macek, Radka Pourová
      Abstract: Recently, cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) was suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the exact role of folate metabolism in the pathogenesis of ASD, identification of underlying pathogenic mechanisms and impaired metabolic pathways remain unexplained. The aim of our study was to develop and test a novel, unbiased, bioinformatics approach in order to identify links between ASD and disturbed cerebral metabolism by focusing on abnormal folate metabolism, which could foster patient stratification and novel therapeutic interventions. An unbiased, automatable, computational workflow interaction model was developed using available data from public databases. The interaction network model of ASD-associated genes with known cerebral expression and function (SFARI) and metabolic networks (MetScape), including connections to known metabolic substrates, metabolites and cofactors involving folates, was established. Intersection of bioinformatically created networks resulted in a limited amount of interaction modules pointing to common disturbed metabolic pathways, linking ASD to CFD. Two independent interaction modules (comprising three pathways) covering enzymes encoded by ASD-related genes and folate cofactors utilizing enzymes were generated. Module 1 suggested possible interference of CFD with serine and lysine metabolism, while module 2 identified correlations with purine metabolism and inosine monophosphate production. Since our approach was primarily conceived as a proof of principle, further amendments of the presented initial model are necessary to obtain additional actionable outcomes. Our modelling strategy identified not only previously known interactions supported by evidence-based analyses, but also novel plausible interactions, which could be validated in subsequent functional and/or clinical studies. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T10:03:40.221676-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1780
       
  • Parental relationship satisfaction in families of children with autism
           spectrum disorder (ASD): A multilevel analysis
    • Authors: Emma Langley; Vasiliki Totsika, Richard P. Hastings
      Abstract: Caring for a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been linked to a range of negative outcomes for parents but less is known about the putative impact upon the parental couple relationship. The relationship satisfaction of parents of children with ASD was investigated using multilevel modeling. Mothers and fathers (146 couples) reported on their relationship satisfaction, their own well-being, and the behavior problems of the child with ASD and a sibling. Results indicated that mothers and fathers reported similar levels of relationship satisfaction and it was significantly and negatively associated with parental depression and the behavior problems of the child with ASD. Relationship satisfaction was unrelated to the behavior problems of a sibling, the number of children in the household, and family socioeconomic position (SEP). Further longitudinal research that captures a broader range of variables is required to build a theoretical understanding of relationship satisfaction in families of children with ASD. Current evidence suggests that early intervention routes targeting either child behavior problems, parental mental health, or the couple relationship have the potential to benefit inter-connected subsystems within the broader family system. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T10:03:35.279687-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1773
       
  • Multisensory speech perception in autism spectrum disorder: From phoneme
           to whole-word perception
    • Authors: Ryan A. Stevenson; Sarah H. Baum, Magali Segers, Susanne Ferber, Morgan D. Barense, Mark T. Wallace
      Abstract: Speech perception in noisy environments is boosted when a listener can see the speaker's mouth and integrate the auditory and visual speech information. Autistic children have a diminished capacity to integrate sensory information across modalities, which contributes to core symptoms of autism, such as impairments in social communication. We investigated the abilities of autistic and typically-developing (TD) children to integrate auditory and visual speech stimuli in various signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Measurements of both whole-word and phoneme recognition were recorded. At the level of whole-word recognition, autistic children exhibited reduced performance in both the auditory and audiovisual modalities. Importantly, autistic children showed reduced behavioral benefit from multisensory integration with whole-word recognition, specifically at low SNRs. At the level of phoneme recognition, autistic children exhibited reduced performance relative to their TD peers in auditory, visual, and audiovisual modalities. However, and in contrast to their performance at the level of whole-word recognition, both autistic and TD children showed benefits from multisensory integration for phoneme recognition. In accordance with the principle of inverse effectiveness, both groups exhibited greater benefit at low SNRs relative to high SNRs. Thus, while autistic children showed typical multisensory benefits during phoneme recognition, these benefits did not translate to typical multisensory benefit of whole-word recognition in noisy environments. We hypothesize that sensory impairments in autistic children raise the SNR threshold needed to extract meaningful information from a given sensory input, resulting in subsequent failure to exhibit behavioral benefits from additional sensory information at the level of whole-word recognition. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T10:03:29.643145-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1776
       
  • Acquisition of voice onset time in toddlers at high and low risk for
           autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Karen Chenausky; Helen Tager-Flusberg
      Abstract: Although language delay is common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research is equivocal on whether speech development is affected. We used acoustic methods to investigate the existence of sub-perceptual differences in the speech of toddlers who developed ASD. Development of the distinction between b and p was prospectively tracked in 22 toddlers at low risk for ASD (LRC), 22 at high risk for ASD without ASD (HRA−), and 11 at high risk for ASD who were diagnosed with ASD at 36 months (HRA+). Voice onset time (VOT), the main acoustic difference between b and p, was measured from spontaneously produced words at 18, 24, and 36 months. Number of words, number of tokens (instances) of syllable-initial b and p produced, error rates, language scores, and motor ability were also assessed. All groups' mean language scores were within the average range or slightly higher. No between-group differences were found in number of words, b's, p's, or errors produced; or in mean or standard deviation of VOT. Binary logistic regression showed that only diagnostic status, not language score, motor ability, number of words, number of b's and p's, or number of errors significantly predicted whether a toddler produced acoustically distinct b and p populations at 36 months. HRA+ toddlers were significantly less likely to produce acoustically distinct b's and p's at 36 months, which may indicate that the HRA+ group may be using different strategies to produce this distinction. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T09:59:13.913815-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1775
       
  • Shorter sleep duration is associated with social impairment and
           comorbidities in ASD
    • Authors: Olivia J. Veatch; James S. Sutcliffe, Zachary E. Warren, Brendan T. Keenan, Melissa H. Potter, Beth A. Malow
      Abstract: Sleep disturbance, particularly insomnia, is common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Furthermore, disturbed sleep affects core symptoms and other related comorbidities. Understanding the causes and consequences of sleep disturbances in children with ASD is an important step toward mitigating these symptoms. To better understand the connection between sleep duration and ASD severity, we analyzed ASD-related symptoms using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), IQ scores, and parent reports of the average amount of time slept per night that were available in the medical histories of 2,714 children with ASD in the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC). The mean (SD) sleep duration was 555 minutes. Sleep duration and severity of core ASD symptoms were negatively correlated, and sleep duration and IQ scores were positively correlated. Regression results indicated that more severe social impairment, primarily a failure to develop peer relationships, is the core symptom most strongly associated with short sleep duration. Furthermore, increased severity for numerous maladaptive behaviors assessed on the Child Behavior Checklist, as well as reports of attention deficit disorder, depressive disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder were associated with short sleep duration. Severity scores for social/communication impairment and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) were increased, and IQ scores were decreased, for children reported to sleep ≤420 minutes per night (lower 5th percentile) compared to children sleeping ≥660 minutes (upper 95th percentile). Our results indicate that reduced amounts of sleep are related to more severe symptoms in children with ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T07:40:46.685361-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1765
       
  • Response to changing contingencies in infants at high and low risk for
           autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Jessie B. Northrup; Klaus Libertus, Jana M. Iverson
      Abstract: One recently proposed theory of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) hypothesizes that individuals with the disorder may have difficulty using prior experiences to predict future events [Hellendoorn et al., 2015; Northrup, 2016; Sinha et al., 2014]. To date, this theory has not been tested in infancy. The current study analyzed how young infants at heightened (HR; older sibling with ASD) vs. low risk (LR; no first degree relatives with ASD) for ASD responded to changing contingencies when interacting with two visually identical rattles—one that produced sounds during shaking (Sound), and one that did not (Silent). Infants were given the rattles in a Sound-Silent-Sound order at 6 and 10 months, and shaking behavior was coded. Results indicated that LR and HR infants (regardless of ASD diagnosis) did not differ from each other in shaking behavior at 6 months. However, by 10 months, LR infants demonstrated high initial shaking with all three rattles, indicating expectations for rattle affordances, while HR infants did not. Significantly, HR infants, and particularly those with an eventual ASD diagnosis, did not demonstrate an “extinction burst”—or high level of shaking—in the first 10 sec with the “silent” rattle, indicating that they may have difficulty generalizing learning from one interaction to the next. Further, individual differences in the strength of this “extinction burst” predicted cognitive development in toddlerhood among HR infants. Difficulty forming expectations for new interactions based on previous experiences could impact learning and behavior in a number of domains. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T07:40:35.010792-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1770
       
  • Variations of stereotypies in individuals with Rett syndrome: A nationwide
           cross-sectional study in Taiwan
    • Authors: Lee Chin Wong; Pi-Lien Hung, Tz-Yun Jan, Wang-Tso Lee,
      Abstract: Individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT) can have variable manifestations of stereotypies. In this nation-wide cross-sectional study, we recruited all individuals with RTT in Taiwan diagnosed as RTT by neurologists based on genetic findings and diagnostic criteria. The data were collected using questionnaire. A total 43 cases of typical RTT and 15 cases of atypical RTT, aged from 2.1 to 40.1 years, were enrolled. They included 3 (5.2%) in stage II, 42 (72.4%) in stage III, and 13 (22.4%) in stage IV. All individuals presented with at least one stereotypy. Individuals with atypical RTT had more varied stereotypies (mean: 14 ± 6) compared to those with typical RTT (mean: 9 ± 5) (P = 0.003). Flapping (73.3%) and wringing (58.1%) were the most common hand stereotypies in atypical and typical RTT, respectively. Compared with typical RTT, hair pulling, bruxism, retropulsion, and protrusion of lips were more common in atypical RTT (P = 0.003, P = 0.006, P = 0.003 and
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T05:36:31.176537-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1774
       
  • Ensemble perception in autism spectrum disorder: Member-identification
           versus mean-discrimination
    • Authors: Ruth Van der Hallen; Lisa Lemmens, Jean Steyaert, Ilse Noens, Johan Wagemans
      Abstract: To efficiently represent the outside world our brain compresses sets of similar items into a summarized representation, a phenomenon known as ensemble perception. While most studies on ensemble perception investigate this perceptual mechanism in typically developing (TD) adults, more recently, researchers studying perceptual organization in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have turned their attention toward ensemble perception. The current study is the first to investigate the use of ensemble perception for size in children with and without ASD (N = 42, 8–16 years). We administered a pair of tasks pioneered by Ariely [2001] evaluating both member-identification and mean-discrimination. In addition, we varied the distribution types of our sets to allow a more detailed evaluation of task performance. Results show that, overall, both groups performed similarly in the member-identification task, a test of “local perception,” and similarly in the mean identification task, a test of “gist perception.” However, in both tasks performance of the TD group was affected more strongly by the degree of stimulus variability in the set, than performance of the ASD group. These findings indicate that both TD children and children with ASD use ensemble statistics to represent a set of similar items, illustrating the fundamental nature of ensemble coding in visual perception. Differences in sensitivity to stimulus variability between both groups are discussed in relation to recent theories of information processing in ASD (e.g., increased sampling, decreased priors, increased precision). Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T05:30:45.089322-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1767
       
  • Social communication in children with autism spectrum disorder (asd):
           Correlation between DSM-5 and autism classification system of
           functioning—social communication (ACSF:SC)
    • Authors: Francesco Craig; Isabella Fanizza, Luigi Russo, Elisabetta Lucarelli, Alessandro Lorenzo, Maria Grazia Pasca, Antonio Trabacca
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to classify children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) according to Autism Classification System of Functioning: Social Communication (ACSF:SC) criteria, in order to investigate the association between social communication ability, ASD severity, adaptive functioning, cognitive abilities and psychoeducational profile. The severity of social communication impairment was specified through Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th edition (DSM-5) and ACSF:SC tool. The ADOS-2, Vineland-II and PEP-3 were administered to all participants. We found a positive correlation between DSM-5 levels and ACSF:SC-Typical Performance (r = 0.35; P = 0.007) and ACSF:SC-Capacity (r = 0.31; P = 0.01) levels. Children included in the five levels of ACSF:SC (Typical Performance and Capacity) showed statistically significant differences in ADOS-2 (Social Affect), Vineland-II (Communication and Socialization), and PEP-3 (Communication, motor skills, maladaptive behavior) scores. The results of this study indicate that ACSF:SC provide a better understanding of functional profile of children with ASD based on the social communication abilities. Children with greater severity of social communication showed more difficulty in adaptive behavior and psychoeducational profiles. In conclusion, the ACSF:SC could help clinicians and therapists not only to understand the strength and weakness of preschool children with ASD but also to devise specific treatment in order to promote their social integration. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T05:30:42.192622-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1772
       
  • Short report: Symptom overlap on the srs-2 adult self-report between
           adults with asd and adults with high anxiety
    • Authors: Mikle South; AnnaLisa W. Carr, Kevin G. Stephenson, Max E. Maisel, Jonathan C. Cox
      Abstract: Many people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) also experience significant symptoms of anxiety, while many people with anxiety disorders likewise experience social difficulties. These concerns can be difficult to tease apart in general clinical settings. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is one of the most frequently used measures of dimensional ASD symptoms. In order to investigate the overlap of autism and anxiety on the SRS, we compared three groups of adults (an ASD group, n = 40; a high anxious group, n = 56; and a typical comparison group, n = 29) using the new Adult Self Report version of the SRS-2nd Edition (SRS-2-ASR) alongside a battery of anxiety questionnaires. Based on previous research with children from the parent-report SRS (first edition), we hypothesized that the SRS-2-ASR would have difficulty discriminating between the ASD and high anxious groups. Results showed that both these clinical groups scored significantly higher on the SRS than a typical control group. Discriminant validity was poor, including sensitivity of 0.65 when including all participants and 0.48 when only the two clinical groups were included. In particular, the Social Motivation subscale of the SRS-ASR failed to distinguish between ASD and anxiety groups. As recommended in the SRS-2 manual, we highlight the need for caution when using the SRS-2-ASR to support diagnostic decision making, especially in clinical settings involving anxiety, ADHD, or other concerns that can affect reciprocal social communication and/or behavioral flexibility. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T05:30:39.192617-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/aur.1764
       
  • Basal ganglia and autism – a translational perspective
    • Abstract: The basal ganglia are a collection of nuclei below the cortical surface that are involved in both motor and non-motor functions, including higher order cognition, social interactions, speech, and repetitive behaviors. Motor development milestones that are delayed in autism such as gross motor, fine motor and walking can aid in early diagnosis of autism. Neuropathology and neuroimaging findings in autism cases revealed volumetric changes and altered cell density in select basal ganglia nuclei. Interestingly, in autism, both the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are impacted both in their motor and non-motor domains and recently, found to be connected via the pons through a short disynaptic pathway. In typically developing individuals, the basal ganglia plays an important role in: eye movement, movement coordination, sensory modulation and processing, eye-hand coordination, action chaining, and inhibition control. Genetic models have proved to be useful toward understanding cellular and molecular changes at the synaptic level in the basal ganglia that may in part contribute to these autism-related behaviors. In autism, basal ganglia functions in motor skill acquisition and development are altered, thus disrupting the normal flow of feedback to the cortex. Taken together, there is an abundance of emerging evidence that the basal ganglia likely plays critical roles in maintaining an inhibitory balance between cortical and subcortical structures, critical for normal motor actions and cognitive functions. In autism, this inhibitory balance is disturbed thus impacting key pathways that affect normal cortical network activity. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Shared atypical default mode and salience network functional connectivity
           between autism and schizophrenia
    • Abstract: Schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are two prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders sharing some similar genetic basis and clinical features. The extent to which they share common neural substrates remains unclear. Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 35 drug-naïve adolescent participants with first-episode schizophrenia (15.6 ± 1.8 years old) and 31 healthy controls (15.4 ± 1.6 years old). Data from 22 participants with ASD (13.1 ± 3.1 years old) and 21 healthy controls (12.9 ± 2.9 years old) were downloaded from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange. Resting-state functional networks were constructed using predefined regions of interest. Multivariate pattern analysis combined with multi-task regression feature selection methods were conducted in two datasets separately. Classification between individuals with disorders and controls was achieved with high accuracy (schizophrenia dataset: accuracy = 83%; ASD dataset: accuracy = 80%). Shared atypical brain connections contributing to classification were mostly present in the default mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN). These functional connections were further related to severity of social deficits in ASD (p = 0.002). Distinct atypical connections were also more related to the DMN and SN, but showed different atypical connectivity patterns between the two disorders. These results suggest some common neural mechanisms contributing to schizophrenia and ASD, and may aid in understanding the pathology of these two neurodevelopmental disorders. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Decreased parvalbumin mRNA levels in cerebellar Purkinje cells in autism
    • Abstract: Recent neuropathology studies in human brains indicate that several areas of the prefrontal cortex have decreased numbers of parvalbumin interneurons or decreased parvalbumin expression in Autism Spectrum disorders (ASD) [Hashemi, Ariza, Rogers, Noctor, & Martinez-Cerdeno, 2017; Zikopoulos & Barbas, ]. These data suggest that a deficit in parvalbumin may be a key neuropathology of ASD and contribute to altered GABAergic inhibition. However, it is unclear if a deficit in parvalbumin is a phenomenon that occurs in regions other than the cerebral cortex. The cerebellum is a major region where neuropathology was first detected in ASD over three decades ago [Bauman & Kemper, ]. In view of the documented association between parvalbumin-expressing neurons and autism, the objective of the present study was to determine if parvalbumin gene expression is also altered in Purkinje neurons of the cerebellum. Radioisotopic in situ hybridization histochemistry was used on human tissue sections from control and ASD brains in order to detect and measure parvalbumin mRNA levels at the single cell level in Purkinje cells of Crus II of the lateral cerebellar hemispheres. Results indicate that parvalbumin mRNA levels are significantly lower in Purkinje cells in ASD compared to control brains. This decrease was not influenced by post-mortem interval or age at death. This result indicates that decreased parvalbumin expression is a more widespread feature of ASD. We discuss how this decrease may be implicated in altered cerebellar output to the cerebral cortex and in key ASD symptoms. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Developmental delays in emotion regulation strategies in preschoolers with
           autism
    • Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly present with difficulty regulating negative emotions, which has been found to impact their behavioral and mental health. Little research has documented the strategies that children with ASD use to regulate their emotion to understand whether they use qualitatively different strategies to children without ASD, whether these are developmentally delayed, or both. Forty-four children with ASD and 29 typically-developing children (2–4 years) were given tasks designed to mimic everyday life experiences requiring children to manage low-level stress (e.g., waiting for a snack) and children's emotion regulation strategies were coded. Parents reported on their child's mental health, wellbeing, and self-development. The results suggest differences in using emotion regulation strategies in children with ASD, reflecting a delay, rather than a deviance when compared to those used by children without ASD. Only children with ASD relied on their family members for physical and communicative soothing; the typically developing children relied on people outside of their family for help regulating their emotion. More frequent approach/less frequent avoidance was related to a higher self-evaluation in both groups, but was only additionally related to higher self-recognition and autonomy in the ASD group. These findings help to identify important emotion regulation intervention targets for this population, including supporting communication with people outside of the family and independence. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Issue Information
    •  
  • The ASD diagnosis has blocked the discovery of valid biological variation
           in neurodevelopmental social impairment
    •  
  • Abandoning ASD' A response to Waterhouse, London, and Gillberg
    •  
  • Scientific Summaries for Families with ASD
    •  
  • Socio-sexual functioning in autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review
           and meta-analyses of existing literature
    • Abstract: Socio-sexual functioning encompasses an individual's interests, behaviors, and knowledge with respect to sexual, romantic, and social aspects of life. An individual's understanding of these domains is developed through a range of informal and formal avenues of sexual health education. The current model demonstrated this and proposed that, compared to typically developing individuals, those with ASD develop socio-sexual functioning differently due to having less peer engagement, less relationship experience, more parental guidance, greater use of online materials, receive less school-based sexual health education, and more support from wellbeing services. Systematic review and meta-analysis of existing literature revealed that individuals with ASD have greater difficultly adhering to privacy norms, engage in less social behavior, are described as engaging in less appropriate sexual behavior, have greater concerns about themselves, and receive less sexual health education. Having fewer opportunities for appropriate informal and formal sexual health education leaves them at a double disadvantage from others who are receiving this information from both of these avenues. Some of the current meta-analytic results are cautioned by large l-square statistics which suggest that a degree of variance is being caused by extraneous factors. Further empirical research in this area is needed to overcome current design and sample limitations. Finally, the Sexual Behavior Scale was the most commonly utilized tool in the meta-analyzed studies, thus comprehensive evaluation of its functioning is warranted. The importance of work in this area is highlighted by the central role of social and sexual wellbeing on one's quality of life. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Language and motor skills in siblings of children with autism spectrum
           disorder: A meta-analytic review
    • Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show significant linguistic and motor impairments compared to children with typical development (TD). Findings from studies of siblings of children with ASD show similarities to conclusions from studies of children with ASD. The current meta-analysis reviewed studies reporting linguistic and/or motor skills in siblings of children with ASD compared to siblings of children with TD. Thirty-four studies published between 1994 and 2016 met all inclusion criteria. We compared three different age groups (12 months or younger, 13 to 24 months, and 25 to 36 months). At 12 months, compared to siblings of children with TD, siblings of children with ASD had worse receptive language (d = −.43, 95% CI [−.53, −.33]) and expressive language skills (d = −.40, 95% CI [−.57, −.23]), and these effects were sustained at 24 and 36 months. Similar, albeit smaller differences in fine motor skills were detected at 12 months (d = −.22, 95% CI [−.39, −.04]), and these differences were larger at 36 months (d = −.36, 95% CI [−.54, −.17]). There were differences in gross motor skills at 12 months (d = −.22, 95% CI [−.40, −.04]), but only a few studies were available at later ages. Compared to siblings of children with TD, infants who have siblings with ASD have worse linguistic and motor skills. These differences are detectable as early as when infants are 12 months old and seem to be sustained until they are 3 years old. Differences in language skills are larger than those in motor skills, especially during the first year. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Are autistic traits associated with suicidality' A test of the
           interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide in a non-clinical young
           adult sample
    • Abstract: Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) has recently been associated with increased risk of suicidality. However, no studies have explored how autistic traits may interact with current models of suicidal behavior in a non-clinical population. The current study therefore explored how self-reported autistic traits interact with perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness in predicting suicidal behavior, in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS). 163 young adults (aged 18–30 years) completed an online survey including measures of thwarted belonging and perceived burdensomeness (Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire), self-reported autistic traits (Autism Spectrum Quotient), current depression (Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), and lifetime suicidality (Suicide Behavior Questionnaire-Revised). Results showed that burdensomeness and thwarted belonging significantly mediated the relationship between autistic traits and suicidal behavior. Both depression and autistic traits significantly predicted thwarted belonging and perceived burdensomeness. Autistic traits did not significantly moderate the relationship between suicidal behavior and thwarted belonging or perceived burdensomeness. Results suggest that the IPTS provides a useful framework for understanding the influence of autistic traits on suicidal behavior. However, the psychometric properties of these measures need be explored in those with clinically confirmed diagnosis of ASC. Autism Res. 2017. © 2017 The
      Authors Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Prenatal maternal stress events and phenotypic outcomes in Autism Spectrum
           Disorder
    • Abstract: There is significant heterogeneity amongst individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in symptom presentation and severity. An understanding of the factors that contribute to and modulate symptom severity are critical to informing prognosis, stratification, and treatment decisions. Maternal prenatal stress exposure is a nonspecific risk factor for a wide array of neurodevelopmental outcomes in subsequent offspring. Emerging evidence suggests that prenatal maternal stress may increase ASD risk and contribute to variability in autism-like traits in the general population. In the current study, we aimed to determine whether prenatal maternal exposure to stressful life events is associated with symptom severity amongst individuals with ASD. We performed multiple regression analyses to examine associations between retrospectively recalled maternal prenatal stressful life events and the severity of ASD-associated symptoms in 174 children with ASD (Mage = 9.09 years; SD = 3.81). ASD-related symptom severity was measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale and communication abilities were measured using the Children's Communication Checklist. Exposure to prenatal stressful life events was a significant predictor of ASD-related symptom severity (t = 2.014; P = .048) and communication abilities (t = −2.925; P = .004) amongst children with ASD, even after controlling for a range of sociodemographic and obstetric variables. Follow-up analyses demonstrated significant increases in symptom severity only in the context of multiple (two or more) prenatal stressful life events. Together, these findings indicate that ASD, in the context of prenatal maternal stress exposure, may be associated with a more severe phenotype, particularly when there are multiple prenatal exposures. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Associations of endocrine stress-related gene polymorphisms with risk of
           autism spectrum disorders: Evidence from an integrated meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are related to serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) as two most monoaminergic polymorphic variations. However, multiple studies assessing rs4680 and 5-HTTLPR variants in ASD have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted an integrated meta-analysis to combine case-control and transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) studies to determine whether COMT and 5-HTT are associated with ASD. We searched multiple electronic databases (PubMed, EmBase and Web of Science) to identify studies assessing the rs4680 and 5-HTTLPR variants in ASD from Jan 1997 to Dec 2016. Then allelic data from case–control and TDT studies were analyzed by the Catmap package in the R software. A total of 5 studies were eligible for the meta-analysis of rs4680, including 3 case–control, 1 TDT and 1 TDT & case–control studies. Meanwhile, 22 studies of 5-HTTLPR were available, including 16 TDT, 4 case–control and 2 TDT & case–control studies. The current meta-analysis included 814 ASD cases, 741 controls and 311 families related to rs4680; 749 ASD cases, 1,118 controls and 1,861 families relevant to 5-HTTLPR were also evaluated. For rs4680, the pooled OR was 1.18 (95% CI = 0.87–1.59, P = 0.29, Pheterogeneity 
       
  • The influence of parental concern on the utility of autism diagnostic
           instruments
    • Abstract: The parental report-based Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the clinician observation-based Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) have been validated primarily in U.S. clinics specialized in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in which most children are referred by their parents because of ASD concern. This study assessed diagnostic agreement of the ADOS-2 and ADI-R toddler algorithms in a more broadly based sample of 679 toddlers (age 35–47 months) from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. We also examined whether parental concern about ASD influenced instrument performance, comparing toddlers identified based on parental ASD concern (n = 48) and parent-reported signs of developmental problems (screening) without a specific concern about ASD (n = 400). The ADOS cutoffs showed consistently well-balanced sensitivity and specificity. The ADI-R cutoffs demonstrated good specificity, but reduced sensitivity, missing 43% of toddlers whose parents were not specifically concerned about ASD. The ADI-R and ADOS dimensional scores agreed well with clinical diagnoses (area under the curve ≥ 0.85), contributing additively to their prediction. On the ADI-R, different cutoffs were needed according to presence or absence of parental ASD concern, in order to achieve comparable balance of sensitivity and specificity. These results highlight the importance of taking parental concern about ASD into account when interpreting scores from parental report-based instruments such as the ADI-R. While the ADOS cutoffs performed consistently well, the additive contributions of ADI-R and ADOS scores to the prediction of ASD diagnosis underscore the value of combining instruments based on parent accounts and clinician observation in evaluation of ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Validating the social responsiveness scale for adults with autism
    • Abstract: The Social Responsiveness Scale [SRS; Constantino & Gruber, 2005] is a widely-used measure of autism symptoms, but its application for the study of adults with autism spectrum disorders has not been fully evaluated. Using a factor structure consistent with The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed., DSM-V) criteria for autism spectrum disorder [Frazier et al., 2014], the primary purpose of the current study was to establish the validity of the SRS with a sample of adults with autism spectrum disorder (N = 237). Correlational analyses indicated that SRS factors were highly associated with autism symptoms and behavioral measures, indicating concurrent and predictive validity. Multiple regression results demonstrated that SRS factors were differentially related to measures specific to social or behavioral domains, indicating convergent and discriminant validity. Implications for future research are discussed. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Auditory processing in autism spectrum disorder: Mismatch negativity
           deficits
    • Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often show changes in (automatic) auditory processing. Electrophysiology provides a method to study auditory processing, by investigating event-related potentials such as mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a-amplitude. However, findings on MMN in autism are highly inconsistent, partly due to small sample sizes in the studies and differences in MMN paradigms. Therefore, in the current study, MMN and P3a amplitude were assessed in a relatively large sample of children with ASD, using a more extensive MMN paradigm and compared with that of typically developing children (TDC). Thirty-five children (aged 8–12 years) with ASD and 38 age and gender matched TDC were assessed with a MMN paradigm with three types of deviants, i.e., frequency, duration and a combination of these two. MMN elicited by duration and frequency-duration deviants was significantly reduced in the ASD group. P3a-amplitude elicited by duration deviants was significantly increased in the ASD group. Reduced MMN in children with ASD suggests that children with ASD may be less responsive to environmentally deviant stimuli at an early (sensory) level. P3a-amplitude was increased in ASD, implying a hyper-responsivity at the attentional level. In addition, as similar MMN deficits are found in schizophrenia, these MMN results may explain some of the frequently reported increased risk of children with ASD to develop schizophrenia later in life. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Audition-specific temporal processing deficits associated with language
           function in children with autism spectrum disorder
    • Abstract: Sensory processing alterations are highly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Neurobiologically-based theories of ASD propose that abnormalities in the processing of temporal aspects of sensory input could underlie core symptoms of ASD. For example, rapid auditory temporal processing is critical for speech perception, and language difficulties are central to the social communication deficits defining the disorder. This study assessed visual and auditory temporal processing abilities and tested their relation to core ASD symptoms. 53 children (26 ASD, 27 TD) completed visual and auditory psychophysical gap detection tasks to measure gap detection thresholds (i.e., the minimum interval between sequential stimuli needed for individuals to perceive an interruption between the stimuli) in each domain. Children were also administered standardized language assessments such that the relation between individual differences in auditory gap detection thresholds and degree of language and communication difficulties among children with ASD could be assessed. Children with ASD had substantially higher auditory gap detection thresholds compared to children with TD, and auditory gap detection thresholds were correlated significantly with several measures of language processing in this population. No group differences were observed in the visual temporal processing. Results indicate a domain-specific impairment in rapid auditory temporal processing in ASD that is associated with greater difficulties in language processing. Findings provide qualified support for temporal processing theories of ASD and highlight the need for future research testing the nature, extent, and universality of auditory temporal processing deficits in this population. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Empathic responding in preschool-aged children with familial risk for
           autism
    • Abstract: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show deficits in social and emotional reciprocity, which often include empathic responding. The younger siblings of children with ASD (high-risk siblings) are at elevated risk for ASD and for subclinical deficits in social-emotional functioning. Higher levels of empathy in high-risk siblings during the second and third years of life predict fewer ASD symptoms and likelihood of diagnosis. We conducted a multi-method investigation of empathic responding to an examiner's accident in 30 low-risk and 48 high-risk siblings with (n = 12) and without ASD outcomes (n = 36) at 4–6 years of age. Empathic responding was measured through behavioral observation and parent report. Prosocial behavior did not differ by ASD outcome. Children with ASD exhibited lower levels of personal distress than high-risk and low-risk siblings without ASD. Per parent report, high-risk siblings without ASD demonstrated higher levels of empathic responding than low-risk children, while the ASD group did not differ from children without ASD on this measure. Higher levels of observed empathic concern, but not prosocial behavior, were associated with lower Social Affect scores on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule in high-risk children. Results suggest that ASD diagnosis and symptoms are associated with reduced emotional responsiveness to an adult's distress, but not associated with deficits in prosocial behavior at preschool age. Results do not support the idea that empathic responding is negatively impacted in a broader autism phenotype. Findings extend previous research by suggesting that empathy may be a protective factor in the social-emotional development of children with familial risk for ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Reward learning modulates the attentional processing of faces in children
           with and without autism spectrum disorder
    • Abstract: The processing of social stimuli, such as human faces, is impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which could be accounted for by their lack of social motivation. The current study examined how the attentional processing of faces in children with ASD could be modulated by the learning of face-reward associations. Sixteen high-functioning children with ASD and 20 age- and ability-matched typically developing peers participated in the experiments. All children started with a reward learning task, in which the children were presented with three female faces that were attributed with positive, negative, and neutral values, and were required to remember the faces and their associated values. After this, they were tested on the recognition of the learned faces and a visual search task in which the learned faces served as the distractor. We found a modulatory effect of the face-reward associations on the visual search but not the recognition performance in both groups despite the lower efficacy among children with ASD in learning the face-reward associations. Specifically, both groups responded faster when one of the distractor faces was associated with positive or negative values than when the distractor face was neutral, suggesting an efficient attentional processing of these reward-associated faces. Our findings provide direct evidence for the perceptual-level modulatory effect of reward learning on the attentional processing of faces in individuals with ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Evaluating the importance of social motor synchronization and motor skill
           for understanding autism
    • Abstract: Impairments in social interaction and communicating with others are core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the specific processes underlying such social competence impairments are not well understood. An important key for increasing our understanding of ASD-specific social deficits may lie with the social motor synchronization that takes place when we implicitly coordinate our bodies with others. Here, we tested whether dynamical measures of synchronization differentiate children with ASD from controls and further explored the relationships between synchronization ability and motor control problems. We found (a) that children with ASD exhibited different and less stable patterns of social synchronization ability than controls; (b) children with ASD performed motor movements that were slower and more variable in both spacing and timing; and (c) some social synchronization that involved motor timing was related to motor ability but less rhythmic synchronization was not. These findings raise the possibility that objective dynamical measures of synchronization ability and motor skill could provide new insights into understanding the social deficits in ASD that could ultimately aid clinical diagnosis and prognosis. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Behavioral abnormalities in the Fmr1-KO2 mouse model of fragile X
           syndrome: The relevance of early life phases
    • Abstract: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a developmental disorder caused by a mutation in the X-linked FMR1 gene, coding for the FMRP protein which is largely involved in synaptic function. FXS patients present several behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity, anxiety, sensory hyper-responsiveness, and cognitive deficits. Autistic symptoms, e.g., altered social interaction and communication, are also often observed: FXS is indeed the most common monogenic cause of autism. Mouse models of FXS are therefore of great interest for research on both FXS and autistic pathologies. The Fmr1-KO2 mouse line is the most recent FXS model, widely used for brain studies; surprisingly, little is known about the face validity of this model, i.e., its FXS-like behavioral phenotype. Furthermore, no data are available for the age-related expression of the pathological phenotypes in this mouse line, a critical issue for modelling neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we performed an extensive behavioral characterization of the KO2 model at infancy, adolescent and adult ages. Hyperactivity, altered emotionality, sensory hyper-responsiveness and memory deficits were already present in KO mice at adolescence and remained evident at adulthood. Alterations in social behaviors were instead observed only in young KO animals: during the first 2 weeks of life, KOs emitted longer ultrasonic vocalizations compared to their WT littermates and as adolescents they displayed more aggressive behaviors towards a conspecific. These results strongly support the face validity of the KO2 mouse as a model for FXS, at the same time demonstrating that its ability to recapitulate social autistic-relevant phenotypes depends on early testing ages. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • The measurement properties of the spence children's anxiety scale-parent
           version in a large international pooled sample of young people with autism
           spectrum disorder
    • Abstract: Anxiety-related difficulties are common in ASD, but measuring anxiety reliably and validly is challenging. Despite an increasing number of studies, there is no clear agreement on which existing anxiety measure is more psychometrically sound and what is the factor structure of anxiety in ASD. The present study examined the internal consistency, convergent, divergent, and discriminant validity, as well as the factor structure of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Parent Version (SCAS-P), in a large international pooled sample of 870 caregivers of youth with ASD from 12 studies in the United Kingdom, United States, and Singapore who completed the SCAS-P. Most were community recruited, while the majority had at least one measure of ASD symptomatology and either cognitive or adaptive functioning measures completed. Existing SCAS-P total scale and subscales had excellent internal consistency and good convergent, divergent and discriminant validity similar to or better than SCAS-P properties reported in typically developing children, except for the poorer internal consistency of the physical injury subscale. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of the existing SCAS-P six-correlated factor structure was a poor fit for this pooled database. Principal component analysis using half of the pooled sample identified a 30-item five correlated factor structure, but a CFA of this PCA-derived structure in the second half of this pooled sample revealed a poor fit, although the PCA-derived SCAS-P scale and subscales had stronger validity and better internal consistency than the original SCAS-P. The study's limitations, the use of the SCAS-P to screen for DSM-derived anxiety problems in ASD and future research directions are discussed. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Cross-site randomized control trial of the Social ABCs caregiver-mediated
           intervention for toddlers with autism spectrum disorder
    • Abstract: To evaluate the efficacy of the Social ABCs parent-mediated intervention for toddlers with suspected or confirmed autism spectrum disorder (ASD), through a cross-site randomized control trial, sixty-three parent–toddler dyads (toddler age: 16–30 months) were randomized into treatment (Social ABCs) or control (service-as-usual) conditions. Video data were obtained at three key time-points: Baseline; Post-training (PT; week 12); and Follow-Up (week 24). Analyses included 62 dyads. Treatment allocation significantly accounted for PT gains, all favouring the Treatment group, in (1) child functional vocal responsiveness to parent prompts (R2 = 0.43, P 
       
  • Sex differences in parent-reported executive functioning and adaptive
           behavior in children and young adults with autism spectrum disorder
    • Abstract: This study is the largest to date examining executive function and adaptive skills in females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Its primary aim was to utilize parent ratings of real-world executive functioning and adaptive behavior to better understand whether females with ASD differ from males with ASD in these areas of everyday functioning. We compared 79 females with ASD to 158 males with ASD (ages 7–18) who were statistically matched on age, IQ, and level of ADHD or ASD traits. All participants were assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a subset (56 females and 130 males) also received the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Females were rated by parents as having greater problems with executive function on the BRIEF. Parents also rated females as exhibiting more difficulties than males on the Daily Living Skills domain of the VABS. There was a correlation between increased global EF difficulty and decreased adaptive ability in both males and females. Our results indicate relative weaknesses for females compared to males diagnosed with ASD on executive function and daily living skills. These differences occur in the absence of sex differences in our sample in age, IQ, clinician ratings of core ASD symptomatology, parent ratings of ADHD symptoms, and parent-reported social and communication adaptive skills on the VABS. These findings indicate specific liabilities in real world EF and daily living skills for females with ASD and have important implications for targeting their treatments. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder and autistic symptoms in a
           school-based cohort of children in Kolkata, India
    • Abstract: Despite housing ∼18% of the world's population, India does not yet have an estimate of prevalence of autism. This study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of autism in a selected population of school-children in India. N = 11,849 children (mean age = 5.9 [SD = 1.3], 39.5% females) were selected from various school types from three boroughs in Kolkata, India. Parents/caregivers and teachers filled in the social and communication disorders checklist (SCDC). Children meeting cutoff on parent-reported SCDC were followed up with the social communication questionnaire (SCQ). SCQ-positive children were administered the autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS). Teacher report on SCDC was available on all 11,849 children. Parent-report SCDC scores were obtained for 5,947 children. Mean scores on teacher SCDC were significantly lower than parent SCDC. Out of 1,247 SCDC-positive children, 882 answered the SCQ, of whom 124 met the cutoff score of 15. Six of these children met criteria for autism, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), or broader autism spectrum on the ADOS. The weighted estimate of supra-threshold SCQ scores was 3.54% (CI: 2.88–4.3%). The weighted prevalence estimate of positive scores (for broader autism spectrum + ASD + autism) was 0.23% (0.07–0.46%). As ∼20% children in this state are known to be out of the school system, and ASD prevalence is likely to be higher in this group, this estimate is likely to represent the lower-bound of the true prevalence. This study provides preliminary data on the prevalence of broader-spectrum autism and supra-threshold autistic traits in a population sample of school children in Eastern India. Autism Res 2017. ©2017 The
      Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research
       
  • Countering evidence denial and the promotion of pseudoscience in autism
           spectrum disorder
    • Abstract: This commentary introduces a framework within which clinical and research experts in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can address public instances of evidence denial and promotion of pseudoscience related to ASD. This is a generalized extension of work by a World Health Organization (WHO) group dedicated to reducing the influence of Vocal Vaccine Deniers through educating advocates in how to effectively defuse their arguments. The WHO guidelines were informed by conceptual work on the “denialism” phenomenon, and by studies in psychology, communication, vaccine science, and public health. Our goal is to introduce these ideas to, and encourage discussion within, the ASD research community. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Proteomic explorations of autism spectrum disorder
    • Abstract: Proteomics, the large-scale study of protein expression in cells and tissues, is a powerful tool to study the biology of clinical conditions and has provided significant insights in many experimental systems. Herein, we review the basics of proteomic methodology and discuss challenges in using proteomic approaches to study autism. Unlike other experimental approaches, such as genomic approaches, there have been few large-scale studies of proteins in tissues from persons with autism. Most of the proteomic studies on autism used blood or other peripheral tissues; few studies used brain tissue. Some studies found dysregulation of aspects of the immune system or of aspects of lipid metabolism, but no consistent findings were noted. Based on the challenges in using proteomics to study autism, we discuss considerations for future studies. Apart from the complex technical considerations implicit in any proteomic analysis, key nontechnical matters include attention to subject and specimen inclusion/exclusion criteria, having adequate sample size to ensure appropriate powering of the study, attention to the state of specimens prior to proteomic analysis, and the use of a replicate set of specimens, when possible. We conclude by discussing some potentially productive uses of proteomics, potentially coupled with other approaches, for future autism research including: (1) proteomic analysis of banked human brain specimens; (2) proteomic analysis of tissues from animal models of autism; and (3) proteomic analysis of induced pluripotent stem cells that are differentiated into various types of brain cells and neural organoids. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • White matter compromise in autism' Differentiating motion confounds
           from true differences in diffusion tensor imaging
    • Abstract: Common findings from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include reduced fractional anisotropy (FA), and increased mean and radial diffusivity (MD, RD) of white matter tracts. However, findings may be confounded by head motion. We examined how group-level motion matching affects DTI comparisons between ASD and typically developing (TD) groups. We included 57 ASD and 50 TD participants, comparing three subsets at increasing levels of motion-matching stringency: full sample (FS); quality-controlled (QC); and quantitatively-matched (QM). Groups were compared on diffusivity measures using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and probabilistic tractography. Two methods for estimating diffusivity were compared: dti-fit and restore. TBSS: In set FS, FA was reduced in the ASD compared to the TD group throughout the right hemisphere. This effect was less extensive in set QC and absent in set QM. However, effect sizes remained stable or increased with better quality-control in some regions. Tractography: In set QM, MD was significantly higher in ASD overall and RD was higher in bilateral ILF. Effects were more robust in QM than in FS or QC sets. Effect sizes in several tracts increased with stringent quality matching. Restore improved tensor estimates, with some increases in effect sizes, but did not fully compensate for reduced quality. Findings suggest that some previously reported DTI findings for ASD may have been confounded by motion. However, effects in the tightly matched subset indicate that tract-specific anomalies probably do exist in ASD. Our results highlight the need for careful quality-control and motion-matching. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Atypical perception in autism
    • Abstract: We examined whether reduced perceptual specialization underlies atypical perception in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) testing classifications of stimuli that differ either along integral dimensions (prototypical integral dimensions of value and chroma), or along separable dimensions (prototypical separable dimensions of value and size). Current models of the perception of individuals with an ASD would suggest that on these tasks, individuals with ASD would be as, or more, likely to process dimensions as separable, regardless of whether they represented separable or integrated dimensions. In contrast, reduced specialization would propose that individuals with ASD would respond in a more integral manner to stimuli that differ along separable dimensions, and at the same time, respond in a more separable manner to stimuli that differ along integral dimensions. A group of nineteen adults diagnosed with high functioning ASD and seventeen typically developing participants of similar age and IQ, were tested on speeded and restricted classifications tasks. Consistent with the reduced specialization account, results show that individuals with ASD do not always respond more analytically than typically developed (TD) observers: Dimensions identified as integral for TD individuals evoke less integral responding in individuals with ASD, while those identified as separable evoke less analytic responding. These results suggest that perceptual representations are more broadly tuned and more flexibly represented in ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Identifying the clinical needs and patterns of health service use of
           adolescent girls and women with autism spectrum disorder
    • Abstract: Girls and women in the general population present with a distinct profile of clinical needs and use more associated health services compared to boys and men; however, research focused on health service use patterns among girls and women with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is limited. In the current study, caregivers of 61 adolescent girls and women with ASD and 223 boys and men with ASD completed an online survey. Descriptive analyses were conducted to better understand the clinical needs and associated service use patterns of girls and women with ASD. Sex/gender comparisons were made of individuals’ clinical needs and service use. Adolescent girls and women with ASD had prevalent co-occurring mental and physical conditions and parents reported elevated levels of caregiver strain. Multiple service use was common across age groups, particularly among adolescent girls and women with intellectual disability. Overall, few sex/gender differences emerged, although a significantly greater proportion of girls and women accessed psychiatry and emergency department services as compared to boys and men. Though the current study is limited by its use of parent report and small sample size, it suggests that girls and women with ASD may share many of the same high clinical needs and patterns of services use as boys and men with ASD. Areas for future research are discussed to help ensure appropriate support is provided to this understudied population. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Developmental functioning and medical Co-morbidity profile of children
           with complex and essential autism
    • Abstract: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may be characterized as “complex” (those with microcephaly and/or dysmorphology) or “essential” (those with neither of these two). Previous studies found subjects in the complex group exhibited lower IQ scores, poorer response to behavioral intervention, more seizures and more abnormal EEGs and brain MRIs compared to the essential group. The objective of this study was to determine if there are differences in complex versus essential subjects based on several developmental/psychological measures as well as certain medical comorbidities. This study utilized data from 1,347 individuals (2–17 years old) well-characterized subjects enrolled in Autism Treatment Network (ATN) Registry. Head circumference measurement and the Autism Dysmorphology Measure (ADM) were used by trained physicians to classify subjects as complex or essential. Significantly lower scores were seen for complex subjects in cognitive level, adaptive behavior and quality of life. Complex subjects showed significantly increased physician-documented GI symptoms and were on a higher number of medications. No significant differences in autism severity scores, behavioral ratings and parent-reported sleep problems were found. After adjusting for multiple comparisons made, adaptive scores remained significantly lower for the complex group, and the complex group used a significantly higher number of medications and had increased GI symptoms. Complex and essential autism subtypes may have distinct developmental and medical correlates and thus underlines the importance of looking for microcephaly and dysmorphology, when evaluating a child with autism. Determining this distinction in autism may have implications in prognosis, identifying medical co-morbidities, directing diagnostic evaluations and treatment interventions. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
       
  • Social skills training for children with autism spectrum disorder using a
           robotic behavioral intervention system
    • Abstract: We designed a robot system that assisted in behavioral intervention programs of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The eight-session intervention program was based on the discrete trial teaching protocol and focused on two basic social skills: eye contact and facial emotion recognition. The robotic interactions occurred in four modules: training element query, recognition of human activity, coping-mode selection, and follow-up action. Children with ASD who were between 4 and 7 years old and who had verbal IQ ≥ 60 were recruited and randomly assigned to the treatment group (TG, n = 8, 5.75 ± 0.89 years) or control group (CG, n = 7; 6.32 ± 1.23 years). The therapeutic robot facilitated the treatment intervention in the TG, and the human assistant facilitated the treatment intervention in the CG. The intervention procedures were identical in both groups. The primary outcome measures included parent-completed questionnaires, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and frequency of eye contact, which was measured with the partial interval recording method. After completing treatment, the eye contact percentages were significantly increased in both groups. For facial emotion recognition, the percentages of correct answers were increased in similar patterns in both groups compared to baseline (P > 0.05), with no difference between the TG and CG (P > 0.05). The subjects’ ability to play, general behavioral and emotional symptoms were significantly diminished after treatment (p 
       
 
 
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