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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 871 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 389)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Psychotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 160)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 197)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
At-Tajdid : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access  
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 110)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 121)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access  
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
E-Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Escritos de Psicología : Psychological Writings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover British Journal of Psychology
  [SJR: 1.105]   [H-I: 65]   [56 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 0007-1269 - ISSN (Online) 2044-8295
   Published by British Psychological Society Homepage  [10 journals]
  • Attachment styles and clinical correlates in people at ultra high risk for
    • Authors: Debra A. Russo; Jan Stochl, Joanne Hodgekins, Maria Iglesias-González, Penelope Chipps, Michelle Painter, Peter B. Jones, Jesus Perez
      Abstract: Evidence suggests that attachment styles may influence subclinical psychosis phenotypes (schizotypy) and affective disorders and may play a part in the association between psychosis and childhood adversity. However, the role of attachment in the initial stages of psychosis remains poorly understood. Our main aim was to describe and compare attachment styles in 60 individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis (UHR) and a matched sample of 60 healthy volunteers (HV). The HV had lower anxious and avoidant attachment scores than the UHR individuals (p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T02:41:32.124238-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12249
  • The association of sleep disturbances with endocrine and perceived stress
           reactivity measures in male employees
    • Authors: Marta Jackowska; Reinhard Fuchs, Sandra Klaperski
      Abstract: Evidence on the relationship between stress reactivity and sleep is conflicting. This study examined the association between disturbed sleep and perceived and endocrine stress reactivity independently of age, body mass index (BMI), and chronic stress. One hundred and twenty middle-aged men were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Perceived Stress Reactivity Scale were used to assess sleep and perceived stress reactivity, respectively. Endocrine stress reactivity was examined by assessing salivary cortisol levels. Regression analyses showed that men with disturbed sleep had blunted overall cortisol responses (b = −18.246, p = .044), but the association did not survive adjustment for age, BMI, and chronic stress. In contrast, poor sleep was associated with heightened perceived stress reactivity independently of age and BMI (b = 0.235, p = .005), but additional adjustment for chronic stress attenuated the relationship and only chronic stress remained a significant predictor of perceived stress reactivity (b = 0.470, p 
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T10:17:41.623297-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12250
  • Do children with grapheme-colour synaesthesia show cognitive benefits?
    • Authors: Julia Simner; Angela E. Bain
      Abstract: Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is characterized by conscious and consistent associations between letters and colours, or between numbers and colours (e.g., synaesthetes might see A as red, 7 as green). Our study explored the development of this condition in a group of randomly sampled child synaesthetes. Two previous studies (Simner & Bain, 2013, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 603; Simner, Harrold, Creed, Monro, & Foulkes, 2009, Brain, 132, 57) had screened over 600 primary school children to find the first randomly sampled cohort of child synaesthetes. In this study, we evaluate this cohort to ask whether their synaesthesia is associated with a particular cognitive profile of strengths and/or weaknesses. We tested our child synaesthetes at age 10–11 years in a series of cognitive tests, in comparison with matched controls and baseline norms. One previous study (Green & Goswami, 2008, Cognition, 106, 463) had suggested that child synaesthetes might perform differently to non-synaesthetes in such tasks, although those participants may have been a special type of population independent of their synaesthesia. In our own study of randomly sampled child synaesthetes, we found no significant advantages or disadvantages in a receptive vocabulary test and a memory matrix task. However, we found that synaesthetes demonstrated above-average performance in a processing-speed task and a near-significant advantage in a letter-span task (i.e., memory/recall task of letters). Our findings point to advantages for synaesthetes that go beyond those expected from enhanced coding accounts and we present the first picture of the broader cognitive profile of a randomly sampled population of child synaesthetes.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T02:45:30.022759-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12248
  • Behavioural responses to facial and postural expressions of emotion: An
           interpersonal circumplex approach
    • Authors: Marije aan het Rot; Violeta Enea, Ion Dafinoiu, Sorina Iancu, Steluţa A. Taftă, Mariana Bărbuşelu
      Abstract: While the recognition of emotional expressions has been extensively studied, the behavioural response to these expressions has not. In the interpersonal circumplex, behaviour is defined in terms of communion and agency. In this study, we examined behavioural responses to both facial and postural expressions of emotion. We presented 101 Romanian students with facial and postural stimuli involving individuals (‘targets’) expressing happiness, sadness, anger, or fear. Using an interpersonal grid, participants simultaneously indicated how communal (i.e., quarrelsome or agreeable) and agentic (i.e., dominant or submissive) they would be towards people displaying these expressions. Participants were agreeable-dominant towards targets showing happy facial expressions and primarily quarrelsome towards targets with angry or fearful facial expressions. Responses to targets showing sad facial expressions were neutral on both dimensions of interpersonal behaviour. Postural versus facial expressions of happiness and anger elicited similar behavioural responses. Participants responded in a quarrelsome-submissive way to fearful postural expressions and in an agreeable way to sad postural expressions. Behavioural responses to the various facial expressions were largely comparable to those previously observed in Dutch students. Observed differences may be explained from participants’ cultural background. Responses to the postural expressions largely matched responses to the facial expressions.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T02:01:22.793348-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12247
  • Working memory moderates the effect of the integrative process of implicit
           and explicit autonomous motivation on academic achievement
    • Authors: Alexandre Gareau; Patrick Gaudreau
      Abstract: In previous research, autonomous motivation (AM) has been found to be associated with school achievement, but the relation has been largely heterogeneous across studies. AM has typically been assessed with explicit measures such as self-report questionnaires. Recent self-determination theory (SDT) research has suggested that converging implicit and explicit measures can be taken to characterize the integrative process in SDT. Drawing from dual-process theories, we contended that explicit AM is likely to promote school achievement when it is part of an integrated cognitive system that combines easily accessible mental representations (i.e., implicit AM) and efficient executive functioning. A sample of 272 university students completed a questionnaire and a lexical decision task to assess their explicit and implicit AM, respectively, and they also completed working memory capacity measures. Grades were obtained at the end of the semester to examine the short-term prospective effect of implicit and explicit AM, working memory, and their interaction. Results of moderation analyses have provided support for a synergistic interaction in which the association between explicit AM and academic achievement was positive and significant only for individuals with high level of implicit AM. Moreover, working memory was moderating the synergistic effect of explicit and implicit AM. Explicit AM was positively associated with academic achievement for students with average-to-high levels of working memory capacity, but only if their motivation operated synergistically with high implicit AM. The integrative process thus seems to hold better proprieties for achievement than the sole effect of explicit AM. Implications for SDT are outlined.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:55:17.819178-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12239
  • Perceived warmth and competence of others shape voluntary deceptive
           behaviour in a morally relevant setting
    • Authors: Ruben T. Azevedo; Maria Serena Panasiti, Rosita Maglio, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
      Abstract: The temptation to deceive others compares to a moral dilemma: it involves a conflict between the temptation to obtain some benefit and the desire to conform to personal and social moral norms or avoid aversive social consequences. Thus, people might feel different levels of emotional and moral conflict depending on the target of the deception. Here we explored, in a morally relevant setting, how social judgements based on two fundamental dimensions of human social cognition – ‘warmth’ and ‘competence’ – impact on the decision to deceive others. Results revealed independent effects for warmth and competence. Specifically, while people are less inclined to deceive for self-gain those individuals they perceive as warm, they also tend to lie more to highly competent others. Furthermore, the perceived warmth and competence modulated the general tendency to reduce deceptive behaviour when there was a risk of disclosure compared to when the lying was anonymous, highlighting the importance of these judgements in social evaluation processes. Together, our results demonstrate that the emotional costs and personal moral standards that inhibit engagement in deceptive behaviour are not stable but rather malleable according to the target and the consequences of the deception.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T04:35:27.081265-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12245
  • Theory of mind and wisdom: The development of different forms of
           perspective-taking in late adulthood
    • Authors: Hannes Rakoczy; Raphaela Wandt, Stefanie Thomas, Jana Nowak, Ute Kunzmann
      Abstract: How does perspective-taking develop over the lifespan? This question has been investigated in two separate research traditions, dealing with theory of mind (ToM) and wisdom, respectively. Operating in almost complete isolation from each other, and using rather different conceptual approaches, these two traditions have produced seemingly contradictory results: While perspective-taking has been consistently found to decline in old age in ToM research, studies on wisdom have mostly found that perspective-taking remains constant or sometimes even increases in later adulthood. This study sought to integrate these two lines of research and clarify the seemingly contradictory patterns of findings by systematically testing for both forms of perspective-taking and their potential cognitive foundations. The results revealed (1) the dissociation in developmental patterns between ToM perspective-taking (declining with age) and wisdom-related perspective-taking (no decline with age) also held – documented here for the first time – in one and the same sample of younger versus older adults; (2) this dissociation was of limited generality: It did not (or only partly) hold once the material of the two types of tasks was more closely matched; and (3) the divergent developmental patterns of ToM perspective-taking versus wisdom-related perspective-taking could be accounted for to some degree by the fact that only TOM perspective-taking was related to developmental changes in fluid intelligence.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T07:00:33.376485-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12246
  • A systematic investigation of the link between rational number processing
           and algebra ability
    • Authors: Michelle Hurst; Sara Cordes
      Abstract: Recent research suggests that fraction understanding is predictive of algebra ability; however, the relative contributions of various aspects of rational number knowledge are unclear. Furthermore, whether this relationship is notation-dependent or rather relies upon a general understanding of rational numbers (independent of notation) is an open question. In this study, college students completed a rational number magnitude task, procedural arithmetic tasks in fraction and decimal notation, and an algebra assessment. Using these tasks, we measured three different aspects of rational number ability in both fraction and decimal notation: (1) acuity of underlying magnitude representations, (2) fluency with which symbols are mapped to the underlying magnitudes, and (3) fluency with arithmetic procedures. Analyses reveal that when looking at the measures of magnitude understanding, the relationship between adults’ rational number magnitude performance and algebra ability is dependent upon notation. However, once performance on arithmetic measures is included in the relationship, individual measures of magnitude understanding are no longer unique predictors of algebra performance. Furthermore, when including all measures simultaneously, results revealed that arithmetic fluency in both fraction and decimal notation each uniquely predicted algebra ability. Findings are the first to demonstrate a relationship between rational number understanding and algebra ability in adults while providing a clearer picture of the nature of this relationship.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T06:32:35.237634-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12244
  • Research on face recognition: The Aberdeen influence
    • Authors: Graham M. Davies; Andrew W. Young
      Abstract: The review of ‘Recognizing faces’ by Hadyn Ellis, published in the British Journal of Psychology in 1975, marked the genesis of a distinct field of research. This seminal review sprang from a broader programme of research on face recognition conducted at the University of Aberdeen, whose influence continues to be felt in what has become an internationally important research area. We discuss the background to the Aberdeen research, summarize some of its achievements, and offer reasons why it proved so successful. These reasons include the synergy between theory and practice-based studies, the value of combining different perspectives and sources of evidence, sound techniques that led to easily reproducible findings, and the emphasis on testing even the most ‘common sense’ assumptions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T05:35:42.250801-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12243
  • Body image disturbance and skin bleaching
    • Authors: Christopher A. D. Charles; Shua-Kym McLean
      Abstract: This study looks at body image disturbance among Jamaicans who bleach their skin. The hypothesis states that there is a positive relationship between skin bleaching and body image disturbance. The study used a convenience sample of 160 participants with a skin bleaching group (n = 80) and a non-bleaching comparison group (n = 80). The instrument included demographic questions, the body image disturbance questionnaire (BIDQ), and questions about skin bleaching. The results of a t-test revealed that the skin bleaching group (M = 1.5255, SD = 0.42169) was not significantly different from the non-bleaching group (M = 1.4938, SD = 0.74217) in terms of body image disturbance, t(158) = 0.333, p = .740. The participants who bleached did not suffer from body image disturbance. Self-reports revealed that they bleached to acquire beauty, attract a partner, elude the police, and market skin bleaching products. The practice was fashionable and popular and it made some participants feel good, while others were fans of a popular musical artiste who bleached his skin. The majority of participants bleached because of the perceived personal, social, and entrepreneurial benefits of the practice and not because they suffered emotional distress, anxiety, and functional impairment because of their skin colour. However, there was some level of BID among the minority of participants who argued that they bleached because they wanted to be pretty so they were emotionally distressed about there body image and experienced functional impairment.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T06:25:36.520316-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12241
  • Seeing overweight adults as babies: Physical cues and implications for
    • Authors: Anton J. M. Dijker; Rutger DeLuster, Nicolas Peeters, Nanne K. Vries
      Abstract: Human babies not only are reliable triggers of tender feelings and protective tendencies, they also happen to be exceptionally fat compared to the newborns of most other species. These two facts are used to formulate a hypothesis predicting that overweight males, due to their great physical resemblance to babies, not only are perceived as cute, but also are associated with negatively evaluated traits (e.g., immaturity, lack of willpower) that are saliently inconsistent with traits required for adults. In this study, a great many physical features of adult males varying widely in weight were measured and correlated with subjective judgements. Providing preliminary support for the hypothesis, it was found that the features that were correlated with objective and perceived fatness (e.g., circularity of body parts, relatively large head, short and thick neck) also correlated with perceived babyishness. Perceived fatness and babyishness had curvilinear influences on the positive and prosocial appraisal of cuteness, but were primarily negatively related to perceived willpower and beauty. Results are used to formulate an alternative evolutionary perspective on social responses to overweight and obese individuals, emphasizing the uniquely human adaptive value of fatness and the misfiring of the underlying response mechanism under modern conditions of living.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T05:45:38.461676-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12240
  • Genius begins at home: Shared social identity enhances the recognition of
           creative performance
    • Authors: Niklas K. Steffens; S. Alexander Haslam, Michelle K. Ryan, Kathryn Millard
      Abstract: The present research examines the extent to which the recognition of creative performance is structured by social group membership. It does this by analysing the award of merit prizes for Best Actor and Actress in a Leading Role for the international award of US-based Oscars and British-based BAFTAs since BAFTA's inception of this category in 1968. For both awards, the exclusive assessment criterion is the quality of artists’ performance in the international arena. Results show that US artists won a greater proportion of Oscars than BAFTAs (odds ratio: 2.10), whereas British artists won a greater proportion of BAFTAs than Oscars (OR: 2.26). Furthermore, results support the hypothesis that these patterns are more pronounced as the diagnostic value of a quality indicator increases – that is, in the conferring of actual awards rather than nominations. Specifically, US artists won a greater proportion of Oscar awards than nominations (OR: 1.77), while British artists won a greater proportion of BAFTA awards than nominations (OR: 1.62). Additional analyses show that the performances of in-group actors in movies portraying in-group culture (US culture in the case of Oscars, British culture in the case of BAFTAs) are more likely to be recognized than the performances of in-group actors in movies portraying the culture of other (out-)groups. These are the first data to provide clear evidence from the field that the recognition of exceptional creative performance is enhanced by shared social identity between perceivers and performers.
      PubDate: 2017-02-05T02:45:26.829758-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12242
  • Parent–child value similarity in families with young children: The
           predictive power of prosocial educational goals
    • Authors: Anna K. Döring; Elena Makarova, Walter Herzog, Anat Bardi
      Abstract: Value transmission from one generation to the next is a key issue in every society, but it is not clear which parents are the most successful in transmitting their values to their children. We propose parents’ prosocial educational goals as key predictors of parent–child value similarity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the more parents wanted their children to endorse values of self-transcendence (helping, supporting, and caring for others) and the less parents wanted their children to endorse the opposing values of self-enhancement (striving for power and achievement), the higher would be parent–child overall value similarity. Findings from two studies of families – Study 1: 261 Swiss families, children aged 7–9 years; Study 2: 157 German families, children aged 6–11 years – confirmed this hypothesis. The effect was even stronger after controlling for values that prevail in the Swiss and German society, respectively. We integrate evidence from this study of values in families with young children with existing findings from studies with adolescent and adult children, and we discuss potential pathways from parents’ educational goals to parent–child value similarity.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27T02:00:56.963898-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12238
  • Benchmark-based strategies in whole number line estimation
    • Authors: Dominique Peeters; Lieven Verschaffel, Koen Luwel
      Abstract: In this study, we used verbal protocols to identify whether adults spontaneously apply quartile-based strategies or whether they need additional external support to use these strategies when solving a 0–1,000 number line estimation (NLE) task. Participants were assigned to one of three conditions based on the number of external benchmarks provided on the number line. In the bounded condition only the origin and endpoint were indicated, the mid-point condition included an additional external benchmark at 50%, and in the quartile condition three additional external benchmarks at 25%, 50%, and 75% were specified. Firstly, participants in the bounded condition reported to spontaneously apply quartile-based strategies to calibrate their estimates. Moreover, participants frequently relied on the external benchmarks for creating internal benchmarks at the mid-point, quartiles, and even octiles of the number line. Secondly, overall estimation accuracy improved as the number of external benchmarks increased, and target numbers close to external benchmarks were estimated more accurately and with less variability. Thirdly, the use of a larger variety in benchmark-based strategies was positively related to NLE accuracy. In summary, this study provides evidence that the NLE task induces more sophisticated strategy use in participants than initially anticipated.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20T06:15:52.12695-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12233
  • Development of anti-immigrant attitudes in adolescence: The role of
           parents, peers, intergroup friendships, and empathy
    • Authors: Marta Miklikowska
      Abstract: Ethnic and racial intergroup attitudes are assumed to develop due to the influence of socialization contexts. However, there is still little longitudinal evidence supporting this claim. We also know little about the relative importance of socialization contexts, the possible interplay between them as well as about the conditions and mechanisms that might underlie socialization effects. This longitudinal study of adolescents (N = 517) examined the effects of parents and peers’ anti-immigrant attitudes as well as intergroup friendships on relative changes in adolescents’ anti-immigrant prejudice, controlling for the effects of socioeconomic background. It also examined whether the effects of parents or peers would depend on adolescents’ intergroup friendships. In addition, it explored whether the effects of parents, peers, and intergroup friendships would be mediated or moderated by adolescents’ empathy. Results showed significant effects of parents, peers, intergroup friendships, and socioeconomic background on changes in youth attitudes, highlighting the role of parental prejudice. They also showed adolescents with immigrant friends to be less affected by parents and peers’ prejudice than youth without immigrant friends. In addition, results showed the effects of parents, peers, and intergroup friendships to be mediated by adolescents’ empathic concern. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20T01:16:21.174288-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12236
  • Same but different: Comparative modes of information processing are
           implicated in the construction of perceptions of autonomy support
    • Authors: Rebecca Rachael Lee; Nikos L. D. Chatzisarantis
      Abstract: An implicit assumption behind tenets of self-determination theory is that perceptions of autonomy support are a function of absolute modes of information processing. In this study, we examined whether comparative modes of information processing were implicated in the construction of perceptions of autonomy support. In an experimental study, we demonstrated that participants employed comparative modes of information processing in evaluating receipt of small, but not large, amounts of autonomy support. In addition, we found that social comparison processes influenced a number of outcomes that are empirically related to perceived autonomy support such as sense of autonomy, positive affect, perceived usefulness, and effort. Findings shed new light upon the processes underpinning construction of perceptions related to autonomy support and yield new insights into how to increase the predictive validity of models that use autonomy support as a determinant of motivation and psychological well-being.
      PubDate: 2017-01-11T05:00:25.852788-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12237
  • Sex differences in confidence influence patterns of conformity
    • Authors: Catharine P. Cross; Gillian R. Brown, Thomas J. H. Morgan, Kevin N. Laland
      Abstract: Lack of confidence in one's own ability can increase the likelihood of relying on social information. Sex differences in confidence have been extensively investigated in cognitive tasks, but implications for conformity have not been directly tested. Here, we tested the hypothesis that, in a task that shows sex differences in confidence, an indirect effect of sex on social information use will also be evident. Participants (N = 168) were administered a mental rotation (MR) task or a letter transformation (LT) task. After providing an answer, participants reported their confidence before seeing the responses of demonstrators and being allowed to change their initial answer. In the MR, but not the LT, task, women showed lower levels of confidence than men, and confidence mediated an indirect effect of sex on the likelihood of switching answers. These results provide novel, experimental evidence that confidence is a general explanatory mechanism underpinning susceptibility to social influences. Our results have implications for the interpretation of the wider literature on sex differences in conformity.
      PubDate: 2016-11-11T01:45:24.805794-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12232
  • Conspiracy suspicions as a proxy for beliefs in conspiracy theories:
           Implications for theory and measurement
    • Authors: Michael J. Wood
      Abstract: Research on the psychology of conspiracy theories has shown recent steps towards a standardization of measures. The present article seeks to continue that trend by presenting the Flexible Inventory of Conspiracy Suspicions (FICS), a questionnaire template that can be adapted to measure suspicions of a conspiracy around nearly any topic of public interest. Compared to conspiracy belief measures that ask about specific theories on a given topic, the FICS is worded in such a way as to provide relatively stable validity across time and cultural context. Using a hybrid approach incorporating classical test theory and Rasch scaling, three questionnaire studies on Mechanical Turk demonstrate the validity of the FICS in measuring conspiracy suspicions regarding 9/11, vaccine safety, and US elections, with good psychometric properties in most situations. However, the utility of the FICS is limited in the case of climate change due to the existence of two opposing conspiracy theories that share essentially no common assumptions (‘climate change is a hoax’ vs. ‘there is a conspiracy to make people believe that climate change is a hoax’). The results indicate that the FICS is a reliable and valid measure of conspiracy suspicions within certain parameters, and suggest a three-level model that differentiates general conspiracist ideation, relatively vague conspiracy suspicions, and relatively specific conspiracy beliefs.
      PubDate: 2016-11-07T07:03:56.219728-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12231
  • What Stroop tasks can tell us about selective attention from childhood to
    • Authors: Barlow C. Wright
      Abstract: A rich body of research concerns causes of Stroop effects plus applications of Stroop. However, several questions remain. We included assessment of errors with children and adults (N = 316), who sat either a task wherein each block employed only trials of one type (unmixed task) or where every block comprised of a mix of the congruent, neutral, and incongruent trials. Children responded slower than adults and made more errors on each task. Contrary to some previous studies, interference (the difference between neutral and incongruent condition) showed no reaction time (RT) differences by group or task, although there were differences in errors. By contrast, facilitation (the difference between neutral and congruent condition) was greater in children than adults, and greater on the unmixed task than the mixed task. After considering a number of theoretical accounts, we settle on the inadvertent word-reading hypothesis, whereby facilitation stems from children and the unmixed task promoting inadvertent reading particularly in the congruent condition. Stability of interference RT is explained by fixed semantic differences between neutral and incongruent conditions, for children versus adults and for unmixed versus mixed task. We conclude that utilizing two tasks together may reveal more about how attention is affected in other groups.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T07:20:25.083484-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12230
  • Understanding the psychology of mobile gambling: A behavioural synthesis
    • Authors: Richard J. E. James; Claire O'Malley, Richard J. Tunney
      Abstract: This manuscript reviews the extant literature on key issues related to mobile gambling and considers whether the potential risks of harm emerging from this platform are driven by pre-existing comorbidities or by psychological processes unique to mobile gambling. We propose an account based on associative learning that suggests this form of gambling is likely to show distinctive features compared with other gambling technologies. Smartphones are a rapidly growing platform on which individuals can gamble using specifically designed applications, adapted websites or text messaging. This review considers how mobile phone use interacts with psychological processes relevant to gambling, the games users are likely to play on smartphones, and the interactions afforded by smartphones. Our interpretation of the evidence is that the schedules of reinforcement found in gambling interact with the ways in which people tend to use smartphones that may expedite the acquisition of maladaptive learned behaviours such as problem gambling. This account is consistent with existing theories and frameworks of problem gambling and has relevance to other forms of mobile phone use.
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T02:25:30.203104-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12226
  • The interaction effect of attentional bias and attentional control on
           dispositional anxiety among adolescents
    • Authors: Samuel M. Y. Ho; Dannii Yeung, Christine W. Y. Mak
      Abstract: Research has shown that children and adolescents with attentional control deficits tend to have high anxiety and exhibit threat‐related selective attentional bias. This study aimed to investigate how positive and negative attentional biases would interact with attentional control on dispositional anxiety. One hundred and twenty participants aged 18 years of age or younger participated in a visual dot‐probe task to measure their attentional bias and completed psychological questionnaires to measure their trait anxiety, and attentional control. Mean reaction times to the probe in milliseconds were used to measure attentional bias. Overall, our participants showed a bigger tendency towards attending to positive emotional stimuli than to negative emotional stimuli. Adolescents with high dispositional anxiety showed poorer attentional control. Regression analyses showed that attentional control interact with negative attentional bias to affect anxiety. For participants with high attentional control, higher negative attentional bias was associated with lower trait anxiety. Trait anxiety was not related to negative attentional bias for participants with low attentional control. Positive attentional bias showed no significant relationship with dispositional anxiety, either alone or in interaction with attentional control. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-09-27T23:25:39.372435-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12225
  • Learning style, judgements of learning, and learning of verbal and visual
    • Authors: Abby R. Knoll; Hajime Otani, Reid L. Skeel, K. Roger Van Horn
      Abstract: The concept of learning style is immensely popular despite the lack of evidence showing that learning style influences performance. This study tested the hypothesis that the popularity of learning style is maintained because it is associated with subjective aspects of learning, such as judgements of learning (JOLs). Preference for verbal and visual information was assessed using the revised Verbalizer‐Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ). Then, participants studied a list of word pairs and a list of picture pairs, making JOLs (immediate, delayed, and global) while studying each list. Learning was tested by cued recall. The results showed that higher VVQ verbalizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for words, and higher VVQ visualizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for pictures. There was no association between VVQ scores and recall or JOL accuracy. As predicted, learning style was associated with subjective aspects of learning but not objective aspects of learning.
      PubDate: 2016-09-13T06:36:10.628337-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12214
  • Positive post‐disaster images: A daydream machine?
    • Authors: Nicola J. Hancock; Neil R. Joux, Stephen C. Wingreen, Simon Kemp, Jared Thomas, William S. Helton
      Abstract: This study explores the impact of post‐earthquake images inserted in a vigilance task, in terms of performance, self‐reports of task‐focus, and cerebral activity using functional near‐infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Vigilance tasks present a sequence of stimuli in which only a few are pre‐designated critical or target stimuli requiring an overt response from the participant. Seventy‐one residents participated (51 women, 20 men) by taking part in a vigilance task with task‐irrelevant images inserted in the sequence. There were three conditions consisting positive (emotive inducing), negative (emotive inducing), and control (devoid of meaning) images embedded in the vigilance task to assess possible impacts on vigilance performance. The images were obtained through crowdsourcing and represented parts of the city 3–4 years post‐earthquake. Task performance was assessed with signal detection theory metrics of sensitivity A’ and bias β’’. This enables the separation of an individual's ability to accurately discriminate critical signals from non‐critical stimuli (sensitivity) and shifts in their willingness to respond to any stimuli whether critical or not (bias). Individuals viewing the positive images, relating to progress, rebuild, or aesthetic aspects within the city, had a more conservative response bias (they responded less to both rare critical and distractor stimuli) than those in the other conditions. These individuals also reported lower task‐focus, as would be expected. However, contrary to expectations, indicators of cerebral activity (fNIRS) did not differ significantly between the experimental groups. These results, when combined, suggest that mind wandering events may be being generated when exposed to positive post‐earthquake images.
      PubDate: 2016-09-13T06:05:25.948301-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12213
  • Aligning Spinoza with Descartes: An informed Cartesian account of the
           truth bias
    • Authors: Chris N. H. Street; Alan Kingstone
      Abstract: There is a bias towards believing information is true rather than false. The Spinozan account claims there is an early, automatic bias towards believing. Only afterwards can people engage in an effortful re‐evaluation and disbelieve the information. Supporting this account, there is a greater bias towards believing information is true when under cognitive load. However, developing on the Adaptive Lie Detector (ALIED) theory, the informed Cartesian can equally explain this data. The account claims the bias under load is not evidence of automatic belief; rather, people are undecided, but if forced to guess they can rely on context information to make an informed judgement. The account predicts, and we found, that if people can explicitly indicate their uncertainty, there should be no bias towards believing because they are no longer required to guess. Thus, we conclude that belief formation can be better explained by an informed Cartesian account – an attempt to make an informed judgment under uncertainty.
      PubDate: 2016-08-11T00:15:31.247513-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12210
  • Children's supernatural thinking as a signalling behaviour in early
    • Authors: Carlos Hernández Blasi; David F. Bjorklund, Marcos Ruiz Soler
      Abstract: In this study, we analysed the reaction times of 137 college students when making decisions on pairs of hypothetical children verbalizing different types of vignettes and/or exhibiting different physical appearance (photographs of faces). Vignettes depicted immature and mature versions of both supernatural (e.g., ‘The sun's not out today because it's mad’ vs. ‘The sun's not out today because the clouds are blocking it’) and natural (‘I can remember all 20 cards!’ vs. ‘I can remember 6 or 7 cards’) explanations to ordinary phenomena. Photographs of children's faces were morphed with a physical appearance of approximately 4–7 years old or approximately 8–10 years old. In earlier research, immature supernatural thinking produced positive‐affect reactions from adults and older adolescents (14–18 years old) towards young children, with cognitive cues being more important than physical‐appearance cues in influencing adults’ judgements. Reaction times to make decisions varied for the Supernatural and Natural vignettes and for the immature and mature vignettes/faces, reflecting the differential cognitive effort adults used for making decisions about aspects of children's physical appearance and verbal expressions. The findings were interpreted in terms of the critical role that young children's immature supernatural thinking has on adults’ perception, analogous to the evolved role of immature physical features on adults’ perception of infants.
      PubDate: 2016-08-09T04:38:15.738125-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12211
  • Suspicion in the workplace: Organizational conspiracy theories and
           work‐related outcomes
    • Authors: Karen M. Douglas; Ana C. Leite
      Abstract: Belief in conspiracy theories about societal events is widespread and has important consequences for political, health, and environmental behaviour. Little is known, however, about how conspiracy theorizing affects people's everyday working lives. In the present research, we predicted that belief in conspiracy theories about the workplace would be associated with increased turnover intentions. We further hypothesized that belief in these organizational conspiracy theories would predict decreased organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Finally, we hypothesized that these factors would mediate the relationship between organizational conspiracy theories and turnover intentions. In three studies (one correlational and two experiments, Ns = 209, 119, 202), we found support for these hypotheses. The current studies therefore demonstrate the potentially adverse consequences of conspiracy theorizing for the workplace. We argue that managers and employees should be careful not to dismiss conspiracy theorizing as harmless rumour or gossip.
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T03:53:38.487292-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12212
  • Facial first impressions from another angle: How social judgements are
           influenced by changeable and invariant facial properties
    • Authors: Clare A. M. Sutherland; Andrew W. Young, Gillian Rhodes
      Abstract: First impressions made to photographs of faces can depend as much on momentary characteristics of the photographed image (within‐person variability) as on consistent properties of the face of the person depicted (between‐person variability). Here, we examine two important sources of within‐person variability: emotional expression and viewpoint. We find more within‐person variability than between‐person variability for social impressions of key traits of trustworthiness, dominance, and attractiveness, which index the main dimensions in theoretical models of facial impressions. The most important source of this variability is the emotional expression of the face, but the viewpoint of the photograph also affects impressions and modulates the effects of expression. For example, faces look most trustworthy with a happy expression when they are facing the perceiver, compared to when they are facing elsewhere, whereas the opposite is true for anger and disgust. Our findings highlight the integration of these different sources of variability in social impression formation.
      PubDate: 2016-07-22T01:45:43.797459-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12206
  • Altruism predicts mating success in humans
    • Authors: Steven Arnocky; Tina Piché, Graham Albert, Danielle Ouellette, Pat Barclay
      Abstract: In order for non‐kin altruism to evolve, altruists must receive fitness benefits for their actions that outweigh the costs. Several researchers have suggested that altruism is a costly signal of desirable qualities, such that it could have evolved by sexual selection. In two studies, we show that altruism is broadly linked with mating success. In Study 1, participants who scored higher on a self‐report altruism measure reported they were more desirable to the opposite sex, as well as reported having more sex partners, more casual sex partners, and having sex more often within relationships. Sex moderated some of these relationships, such that altruism mattered more for men's number of lifetime and casual sex partners. In Study 2, participants who were willing to donate potential monetary winnings (in a modified dictator dilemma) reported having more lifetime sex partners, more casual sex partners, and more sex partners over the past year. Men who were willing to donate also reported having more lifetime dating partners. Furthermore, these patterns persisted, even when controlling for narcissism, Big Five personality traits, and socially desirable responding. These results suggest that altruists have higher mating success than non‐altruists and support the hypothesis that altruism is a sexually selected costly signal of difficult‐to‐observe qualities.
      PubDate: 2016-07-18T06:56:43.908879-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12208
  • Dressing up posture: The interactive effects of posture and clothing on
           competency judgements
    • Authors: Daniel J. Gurney; Neil Howlett, Karen Pine, Megan Tracey, Rachel Moggridge
      Abstract: Individuals often receive judgements from others based on their clothing and their posture. While both of these factors have been found to influence judgements of competency independently, their relative importance in impression formation is yet to be investigated. We address this by examining interactive effects of posture and clothing on four competency measures: confidence, professionalism, approachability, and likeliness of a high salary. Participants rated photographs of both male and female models pictured in different postures (strong, neutral, weak) in smart clothing (a suit for males; both a trouser suit and skirt suit for females) and casual clothing. We confirm that posture manipulations affected judgements of individuals differently according to the clothing they were pictured in. The nature of these interactions varied by gender and, for women, competency judgements differed according to attire type (trouser or skirt suit). The implications of these findings in relation to impression formation are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-07-06T04:30:31.085149-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12209
  • It's immoral, but I'd do it! Psychopathy traits affect decision‐making
           in sacrificial dilemmas and in everyday moral situations
    • Authors: Carolina Pletti; Lorella Lotto, Giulia Buodo, Michela Sarlo
      Abstract: This research investigated whether emotional hyporeactivity affects moral judgements and choices of action in sacrificial moral dilemmas and in everyday moral conflict situations in which harm to other's welfare is differentially involved. Twenty‐six participants with high trait psychopathy (HP) and 25 with low trait psychopathy (LP) were selected based on the primary psychopathy scale of the Levenson Self‐Report Psychopathy Scale. HP participants were more likely to sacrifice one person to save others in sacrificial dilemmas and to pursue a personal advantage in everyday moral situations entailing harm to another's good. While deciding in these situations, HP participants experienced lower unpleasantness as compared to LP participants. Conversely, no group differences emerged in choice of action and unpleasantness ratings for everyday moral situations that did not entail harm to others. Importantly, moral judgements did not differ in the two groups. These results suggest that high psychopathy trait affects choices of action in sacrificial dilemmas because of reduced emotional reactivity to harmful acts. The dissociation between choice of action and moral judgement suggests that the former is more closely related to emotional experience. Also, emotion seems to play a critical role in discriminating harmful from harmless acts and in driving decisions accordingly.
      PubDate: 2016-07-02T00:55:41.439333-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12205
  • Sex differences in number line estimation: The role of numerical
    • Authors: Regina M. Reinert; Stefan Huber, Hans‐Christoph Nuerk, Korbinian Moeller
      Abstract: Sex differences in mathematical performance have frequently been examined over the last decades indicating an advantage for males especially when numerical problems cannot be solved by (classroom‐)learnt strategies and/or estimation. Even in basic numerical tasks such as number line estimation, males were found to outperform females – with sex differences argued to emerge from different solution strategies applied by males and females. We evaluated the latter using two versions of the number line estimation task: a bounded and an unbounded task version. Assuming that women tend more strongly to apply known procedures, we expected them to be at a particular disadvantage in the unbounded number line estimation task, which is less prone to be solved by specific strategies such as proportion judgement but requires numerical estimation. Results confirmed more pronounced sex differences for unbounded number line estimation with males performing significantly more accurately in this task version. This further adds to recent evidence suggesting that estimation performance in the bounded task version may reflect solution strategies rather than numerical estimation. Additionally, it indicates that sex differences regarding the spatial representation of number magnitude may not be universal, but associated with spatial–numerical estimations in particular.
      PubDate: 2016-06-22T06:55:31.131507-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12203
  • The role of visual and spatial working memory in forming mental models
           derived from survey and route descriptions
    • Authors: Chiara Meneghetti; Enia Labate, Francesca Pazzaglia, Colin Hamilton, Valérie Gyselinck
      First page: 225
      Abstract: This study examines the involvement of spatial and visual working memory (WM) in the construction of flexible spatial models derived from survey and route descriptions. Sixty young adults listened to environment descriptions, 30 from a survey perspective and the other 30 from a route perspective, while they performed spatial (spatial tapping [ST]) and visual (dynamic visual noise [DVN]) secondary tasks – believed to overload the spatial and visual working memory (WM) components, respectively – or no secondary task (control, C). Their mental representations of the environment were tested by free recall and a verification test with both route and survey statements. Results showed that, for both recall tasks, accuracy was worse in the ST than in the C or DVN conditions. In the verification test, the effect of both ST and DVN was a decreasing accuracy for sentences testing spatial relations from the opposite perspective to the one learnt than if the perspective was the same; only ST had a stronger interference effect than the C condition for sentences from the opposite perspective from the one learnt. Overall, these findings indicate that both visual and spatial WM, and especially the latter, are involved in the construction of perspective‐flexible spatial models.
      PubDate: 2016-03-09T23:15:52.468715-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12193
  • Cultural differences in visual attention: Implications for distraction
    • Authors: Tarek Amer; K. W. Joan Ngo, Lynn Hasher
      First page: 244
      Abstract: We investigated differences between participants of East Asian and Western descent in attention to and implicit memory for irrelevant words which participants were instructed to ignore while completing a target task (a Stroop Task in Experiment 1 and a 1‐back task on pictures in Experiment 2). Implicit memory was measured using two conceptual priming tasks (category generation in Experiment 1 and general knowledge in Experiment 2). Participants of East Asian descent showed reliable implicit memory for previous distractors relative to those of Western descent with no evidence of differences on target task performance. We also found differences in a Corsi Block spatial memory task in both studies, with superior performance by the East Asian group. Our findings suggest that cultural differences in attention extend to task‐irrelevant background information, and demonstrate for the first time that such information can boost performance when it becomes relevant on a subsequent task.
      PubDate: 2016-03-06T06:13:21.456496-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12194
  • Attentional capture in driving displays
    • Authors: Mahé Arexis; François Maquestiaux, Nicholas Gaspelin, Eric Ruthruff, André Didierjean
      First page: 259
      Abstract: Drivers face frequent distraction on the roadways, but little is known about situations placing them at risk of misallocating visual attention. To investigate this issue, we asked participants to search for a red target embedded within simulated driving scenes (photographs taken from inside a car) in three experiments. Distraction was induced by presenting, via a GPS unit, red or green distractors positioned in an irrelevant location at which the target never appeared. If the salient distractor captures attention, visual search should be slower on distractor‐present trials than distractor‐absent trials. In Experiment 1, salient distractors yielded no such capture effect. In Experiment 2, we decreased the frequency of the salient distractor from 50% of trials to only 10% or 20% of trials. Capture effects were almost five times larger for the 10% occurrence group than for the 20% occurrence group. In Experiment 3, the amount of available central resources was manipulated by asking participants to either simultaneously monitor or ignore a stream of spoken digits. Capture effects were much larger for the dual‐task group than for the single‐task group. In summary, these findings identify risk factors for attentional capture in real‐world driving scenes: distractor rarity and diversion of attention.
      PubDate: 2016-03-28T06:35:44.316583-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12197
  • Is it all in the reward' Peers influence risk‐taking behaviour
           in young adulthood
    • Authors: Renate L. E. P. Reniers; Amanda Beavan, Louise Keogan, Andrea Furneaux, Samantha Mayhew, Stephen J. Wood
      First page: 276
      Abstract: The presence of peers is suggested to increase risk‐taking behaviour by heightening response to reward. The current study investigated this using a computerized financial risk‐taking task which was performed twice by a group of young adults (n = 201, median age 19.8 years): once alone and once while in the presence of two peers. An overall increase in risk‐taking was observed when with peers compared to when alone (CHANGE). CHANGE was positively associated with self‐reported levels of reward responsiveness and fun seeking while older age and lack of perseverance were associated with reduced CHANGE. The association between risk‐taking when with peers and both resistance to the influence of peers and age was indirect through reward responsiveness. Reward responsiveness was positively associated with impulsiveness. Only in those who showed a peer‐related decrease in risk‐taking (1/3 of participants), risk‐taking in the presence of peers was associated with increased impulsiveness. The current findings suggest an important role for reward responsiveness in risk‐taking behaviour and demonstrate the influence of peers. Increased understanding of these processes has direct implications for prevention and intervention efforts. Placing risk‐taking behaviour within varying (social) contexts with an eye for differences in personality, development, and emotions provides ample scope for future research.
      PubDate: 2016-03-16T06:40:52.759359-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12195
  • Evaluating arguments during instigations of defence motivation and
           accuracy motivation
    • Authors: Cheng‐Hong Liu
      First page: 296
      Abstract: When people evaluate the strength of an argument, their motivations are likely to influence the evaluation. However, few studies have specifically investigated the influences of motivational factors on argument evaluation. This study examined the effects of defence and accuracy motivations on argument evaluation. According to the compatibility between the advocated positions of arguments and participants' prior beliefs and the objective strength of arguments, participants evaluated four types of arguments: compatible‐strong, compatible‐weak, incompatible‐strong, and incompatible‐weak arguments. Experiment 1 revealed that participants possessing a high defence motivation rated compatible‐weak arguments as stronger and incompatible‐strong ones as weaker than participants possessing a low defence motivation. However, the strength ratings between the high and low defence groups regarding both compatible‐strong and incompatible‐weak arguments were similar. Experiment 2 revealed that when participants possessed a high accuracy motivation, they rated compatible‐weak arguments as weaker and incompatible‐strong ones as stronger than when they possessed a low accuracy motivation. However, participants' ratings on both compatible‐strong and incompatible‐weak arguments were similar when comparing high and low accuracy conditions. The results suggest that defence and accuracy motivations are two major motives influencing argument evaluation. However, they primarily influence the evaluation results for compatible‐weak and incompatible‐strong arguments, but not for compatible‐strong and incompatible‐weak arguments.
      PubDate: 2016-03-12T02:57:35.686759-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12196
  • Life events and functional somatic symptoms: A population study in older
    • Authors: Irma J. Bonvanie; Karin A. M. Janssens, Judith G. M. Rosmalen, Albertine J. Oldehinkel
      First page: 318
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of negative life events on functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents, based on data from 957 participants of the population cohort TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey. Life events experienced between age 16 and age 19 were assessed with the Kendler's Life Stress interview. FSSs at age 19 and age 16 were measured with the Youth and Adult Self‐Report. The hypotheses were tested by the use of a latent change model. Life events predicted FSSs, even when adjusted for pre‐event levels of FSSs, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and socio‐economic status (B = 0.006, 95% CI [0.003, 0.008], β = .32). Whereas illness‐related life events did not predict FSSs independently (B = −0.003, 95% CI [−0.005, 0.09], β = .05), non‐illness‐related life events did (B = 0.007, 95% CI [0.004, 0.010], β = .31). A past‐year diagnosis of anxiety and/or depression had a significant influence on the association between life events and FSSs (B = 0.37, 95% CI [0.30, 0.46], β = .71), while female sex, exposure to childhood adversities, and family malfunctioning had not. In conclusion, our findings show that FSSs are associated with negative life events in older adolescents. We did not find evidence for stronger effects of illness‐related events.
      PubDate: 2016-05-25T02:11:12.62591-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12198
  • Dominance of texture over shape in facial identity processing is modulated
           by individual abilities
    • Authors: Marlena L. Itz; Jessika Golle, Stefanie Luttmann, Stefan R. Schweinberger, Jürgen M. Kaufmann
      First page: 369
      Abstract: For face recognition, observers utilize both shape and texture information. Here, we investigated the relative diagnosticity of shape and texture for delayed matching of familiar and unfamiliar faces (Experiment 1) and identifying familiar and newly learned faces (Experiment 2). Within each familiarity condition, pairs of 3D‐captured faces were morphed selectively in either shape or texture in 20% steps, holding the respective other dimension constant. We also assessed participants’ individual face‐processing skills via the Bielefelder Famous Faces Test (BFFT), the Glasgow Face Matching Test, and the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT). Using multilevel model analyses, we examined probabilities of same versus different responses (Experiment 1) and of original identity versus other/unknown identity responses (Experiment 2). Overall, texture was more diagnostic than shape for both delayed matching and identification, particularly so for familiar faces. On top of these overall effects, above‐average BFFT performance was associated with enhanced utilization of texture in both experiments. Furthermore, above‐average CFMT performance coincided with slightly reduced texture dominance in the delayed matching task (Experiment 1) and stronger sensitivity to morph‐based changes overall, that is irrespective of morph type, in the face identification task (Experiment 2). Our findings (1) show the disproportionate importance of texture information for processing familiar face identity and (2) provide further evidence that familiar and unfamiliar face identity perception are mediated by different underlying processes.
      PubDate: 2016-05-27T02:16:13.624007-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12199
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