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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 881 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 411)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 231)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 222)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
At-Tajdid : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 134)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover British Journal of Health Psychology
  [SJR: 1.322]   [H-I: 64]   [42 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1359-107X
   Published by British Psychological Society Homepage  [10 journals]
  • The interplay between regulatory focus and temporal distance in the health
    • Authors: Aleksandra Berezowska; Arnout R. H. Fischer, Hans C. M. Trijp
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study identifies how the interaction between temporal distance, regulatory focus, and framing of health outcomes affects individuals’ intention to adopt a personalized nutrition service.DesignA 2 (temporal distance: immediate health outcomes vs. delayed health outcomes) × 2 (regulatory focus: prevention vs. promotion) × 2 (health outcome framing: illness prevention vs. health promotion) full-factorial between-subjects design.MethodsIn two experiments with samples of 236 and 242 students, regulatory focus was manipulated by asking participants to describe which academic outcomes they want to either achieve or prevent and how they aim to do this. Temporal distance and health outcome framing were manipulated by modifying descriptions of personalized nutrition services. To study the process through which temporal distance, regulatory focus, and health outcome framing affect adoption intention, measures of perceived privacy risk and perceived personalization benefit were included as mediators.ResultsThe interaction between temporal distance and regulatory focus had a significant effect on adoption intention, perceived privacy risk, and perceived personalization benefit. For prevention-focused individuals’ adoption intention was higher, perceived personalization benefit was higher, and perceived privacy risk was lower when health outcomes were immediate instead of delayed. These effects were not significant for promotion-focused individuals. Health outcome framing affected the interaction between temporal distance and regulatory focus, but only in Study 1. Only perceived personalization benefit served as a mediator.ConclusionTailoring temporal distance to individuals’ regulatory focus increases adoption intention for personalized nutrition advice.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Intention to adopt dietary recommendations results from a cognitive decision-making process.Regulatory focus and temporal distance are relevant for the adoption of dietary recommendations.Temporal distance and regulatory focus are interrelated.What does this study add'The interaction between temporal distance and regulatory focus affects adoption intention.Interaction between temporal distance and regulatory focus moderates the cognitive process that drives adoption.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T04:45:40.663635-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12272
  • Do negative screening test results cause false reassurance' A
           systematic review
    • Authors: Grace C. Cooper; Michelle N. Harvie, David P. French
      Abstract: PurposeIt has been suggested that receiving a negative screening test result may cause false reassurance or have a ‘certificate of health effect’. False reassurance in those receiving a negative screening test result may result in them wrongly believing themselves to be at lower risk of the disease, and consequently less likely to engage in health-related behaviours that would lower their risk.MethodsThe present systematic review aimed to identify the evidence regarding false reassurance effects due to negative screening test results in adults (over 18 years) screened for the presence of a disease or its precursors, where disease or precursors are linked to lifestyle behaviours. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for trials that compared a group who had received negative screening results to an unscreened control group. The following outcomes were considered as markers of false reassurance: perceived risk of disease; anxiety and worry about disease; health-related behaviours or intention to change health-related behaviours (i.e., smoking, diet, physical activity, and alcohol consumption); self-rated health status.ResultsNine unique studies were identified, reporting 55 measures in relation to the outcomes considered. Outcomes were measured at various time points from immediately following screening to up to 11 years after screening. Despite considerable variation in outcome measures used and timing of measurements, effect sizes for comparisons between participants who received negative screening test results and control participants were typically small with few statistically significant differences. There was evidence of high risk of bias, and measures of behaviours employed were often not valid.ConclusionsThe limited evidence base provided little evidence of false reassurance following a negative screening test results on any of four outcomes examined. False reassurance should not be considered a significant harm of screening, but further research is warranted.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'It has been argued that screening for disease may cause ‘false reassurance’ whereby those who receive a negative screening test result wrongly interpret their result as indicating they are less likely to develop the disease in future.There is some evidence for false reassurance, but the relevant studies consider a range of diseases and possible indicators of false reassurance (i.e., risk perceptions, lifestyle behaviours, emotional outcomes, and quality of life).For these reasons, it is currently unclear that the extent to receive negative screening test results is likely to impact on participants’ lifestyle behaviours, or other possible indicators of false reassurance.What does this study add'Current available evidence shows that negative screening test results are unlikely to cause false reassurance and, in particular, are unlikely to have a negative impact on lifestyle behaviours.Given the limitations of the current evidence base in terms of number of studies and study quality, future research should continue to explore this issue, where this can be done at low cost.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T00:10:47.12425-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12265
  • ‘It's like a frog leaping about in your chest’: Illness and treatment
           perceptions in persistent atrial fibrillation
    • Authors: Elaina C. Taylor; Mark O'Neill, Lyndsay D. Hughes, Susan Carroll, Rona Moss-Morris
      Abstract: ObjectivesPersistent atrial fibrillation (AF) is an abnormal heart rhythm associated with low quality of life (QoL) and significant health-related costs. The purpose of the study was to examine patients’ illness and treatment beliefs and ways of coping with AF symptoms, to provide insight into promoting better QoL and treatment-specific management.DesignBeliefs were explored across three procedural treatment groups using a qualitative cross-sectional design.MethodsThirty semi-structured interviews were carried out with patients undertaking cardioversion (n = 10), catheter ablation (n = 11) and atrioventricular node ablation (n = 9). Interviews were transcribed and analysed using inductive thematic analysis with elements of grounded theory.ResultsAn overarching theme of a vicious cycle was evident, which related to perceived lack of knowledge and understanding of AF, attempts to control symptoms and negative emotional reactions to failed control attempts. This vicious cycle related to three subordinate themes: (1) unpredictability and uncertainty of AF and symptoms; (2) coping with symptoms through (a) avoidance (b) all-or-nothing- (c) slowing down behaviours; and (3) concerns and expectations about treatment.ConclusionsPatients outlined a need to gain control of unpredictable symptoms by monitoring and varying activity levels. These behaviours were often appraised as ineffective at controlling symptoms, leading to heightened uncertainty and increased activity avoidance. Treatment concerns escalated with increasing number and invasiveness of procedures. Improving AF patients’ perceived understanding of their illness and treatment and promoting more effective symptom-management strategies may alleviate psychological distress and improve QoL. Themes elaborated on the common-sense model whereby patients’ beliefs about illness and treatment interact with coping behaviours.Statement of contributionWhat is already known about this subject'Quality of life (QoL) is disproportionately low in people with persistent atrial fibrillation (psAF).The common-sense model suggests illness perceptions and coping predict QoL in chronic illnesses.No previous studies have examined the idiosyncratic beliefs and coping behaviours of psAF patients.What does this study add'A vicious cycle of perceived lack of understanding of AF, attempts to control AF and distress at failed attempts at control, was a key theme.PsAF patients reported continued avoidance/all-or-nothing behaviours despite symptomatic relief post-procedure, and disengagement from enjoyable activities.PsAF patients reported procedure-specific concerns/expectations, which could be targeted in future interventions aimed at reducing distress.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05T23:26:05.697341-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12267
  • The role of high expectations of self and social desirability in emotional
           processing in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome: A qualitative
    • Authors: Alice Sibelli; Trudie Chalder, Hazel Everitt, Paul Workman, Felicity L. Bishop, Rona Moss-Morris
      Abstract: ObjectivesAlthough high levels of distress are associated with the onset and severity of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), it is unclear how this relates to emotional processing, particularly in relation to maintenance of symptoms and treatment outcome. This qualitative study embedded within a randomized controlled trial aimed to explore how individuals with refractory IBS experience, express, and manage their emotions after either therapist-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (TCBT) or Web-based CBT (WBCBT) compared to treatment as usual (TAU).DesignCross-sectional qualitative study.MethodsFifty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted at post-treatment with 17 TCBT, 17 WBCBT, and 18 TAU participants. The transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis with grounded theory elements. NVivo 11 was used to compare themes across groups.ResultsAcross all groups, high expectations of self was a recurring reason for how participants experienced and expressed their emotions. Three themes with subthemes captured how high expectations related to specific aspects of emotional processing: perceived causes of emotions, strategies for coping with emotions (bottling up, avoiding emotions, and active coping strategies), and the perceived interplay between emotions and IBS symptoms.ConclusionsPatients recognized that their IBS symptoms both triggered and were triggered by negative emotions. However, there was a tendency to bottle up or avoid negative emotions for reasons of social desirability regardless of whether patients had CBT for IBS or not. Future psychological interventions in IBS may benefit from addressing negative beliefs about expressing emotions, promoting assertive emotional expression, and encouraging the experience of positive emotions.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'High levels of distress are consistently associated with both the onset and maintenance of IBS symptoms.Little is known about how this relates to the concept of emotional processing.Preliminary findings suggest a positive correlation between poor emotional processing and IBS. However, further studies need to confirm its role in relation to aetiology, maintenance of symptoms, and response to treatment.What does this study add'High expectations of self and social desirability seem to be important aspects shaping the way individuals with IBS experience, express, and manage their emotions.Emotional avoidance and bottling up were reported as key strategies to cope with negative emotions.The study revealed that bottling up is not perceived as an all-or-nothing strategy but can be applied selectively depending on the context.Psychological interventions in IBS may benefit from addressing not only illness-related causes of negative emotions but also personal and social triggers of distress.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T05:35:23.607941-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12264
  • Understanding tamoxifen adherence in women with breast cancer: A
           qualitative study
    • Authors: Zoe Moon; Rona Moss-Morris, Myra S. Hunter, Lyndsay D. Hughes
      Abstract: ObjectiveNon-adherence to tamoxifen is common in breast cancer survivors and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. This study aimed to understand womens' experiences of taking tamoxifen and to identify factors which may be associated with non-adherence.DesignA qualitative study using semi-structured interviews.MethodsThirty-two breast cancer survivors who had been prescribed tamoxifen took part in interviews conducted face to face or over the telephone. They were transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive thematic analysis with elements of grounded theory.ResultsA key theme identified in the data was weighing up costs and benefits of treatment, which resulted in women falling into three groups; tamoxifen is keeping me alive, tamoxifen is not worth the reduced risk of recurrence, or conflicting beliefs about the harms and benefits of treatment. Additional themes were living with risk of recurrence and information & support.ConclusionsWomen who believed that the necessity of tamoxifen outweighed its costs were more likely to be adherent, whereas women who thought that the benefits did not outweigh the side effects were more likely to have discontinued. A third more ambivalent group believed strongly in the importance of treatment, but were struggling with side effects and were often non-adherent. Patients sometimes felt unsupported and discussed a need for more comprehensive information. To increase adherence, future research needs to explore ways to increase beliefs around tamoxifen necessity and how to help women cope with side effects.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Non-adherence to tamoxifen is associated with increased risk of recurrence and mortality.Up to 50% of patients are non-adherent to tamoxifen by the fifth year of treatmentFew consistent predictors of tamoxifen non-adherence have been identified.What does this study add'Many women report not knowing how to manage their side effects.Non-adherence is related to how women weigh up their side effects against their medication beliefs.Interventions aiming to increase necessity beliefs and improve symptom management may be effective.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29T04:05:21.170572-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12266
  • What contributes to action plan enactment' Examining characteristics
           of physical activity plans
    • Authors: Lena Fleig; Benjamin Gardner, Jan Keller, Sonia Lippke, Sarah Pomp, Amelie U. Wiedemann
      Abstract: ObjectivesIndividuals with chronic conditions can benefit from formulating action plans to engage in regular physical activity. However, the content and the successful translation of plans into action, so-called plan enactment, are rarely adequately evaluated. The aim of this study was to describe the content of user-specified plans and to examine whether participants were more likely to enact their plans if these plans were highly specific, viable, and instrumental.Design and methodsThe study presents secondary analyses from a larger behavioural intervention in cardiac and orthopaedic rehabilitation. The content of 619 action plans from 229 participants was evaluated by two independent raters (i.e., qualitative analyses and ratings of specificity) and by participants themselves (i.e., instrumentality and viability). Plan enactment was also measured via self-reports. Multilevel analyses examined the relationship between these plan characteristics and subsequent plan enactment, and between plan enactment and aggregated physical activity.ResultsParticipants preferred to plan leisure-time physical activities anchored around time-based cues. Specificity of occasion cues (i.e., when to act) and highly instrumental plans were positively associated with plan enactment. Interestingly, individuals who planned less specific behavioural responses (i.e., what to do) were more likely to enact their plans. Plan enactment was positively associated with aggregated behaviour.ConclusionsInterventions should not only emphasize the importance of planning, but also the benefits of formulating specific contextual cues. Planning of the behavioural response seems to require less precision. Allowing for some flexibility in executing the anticipated target behaviour seems to aid successful plan enactment.Statement of ContributionWhat is already known on this subject'Action planning interventions are efficacious in promoting health behaviour.Characteristics of plan content (i.e., specificity) matter for unconditional behaviour change.Plan enactment (i.e., degree to which plan is followed through) is positively linked to behaviour change.What does this study add'Specificity of occasion cues (i.e., when to act) and highly instrumental plans were positively associated with plan enactment.Individuals who planned less specific behavioural responses (i.e., what to do) were more likely to enact their plans.Planning interventions should focus on specificity of context cues but flexibility of behavioural action.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T04:55:20.930381-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12263
  • A longitudinal study of the profiles of psychological thriving,
           resilience, and loss in people with inflammatory bowel disease
    • Authors: Fuschia M. Sirois; Jameson K. Hirsch
      Abstract: ObjectivesDespite the toll of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on adjustment, many patients are resilient to the challenges associated with living with IBD, and successfully cope with their illness and thrive. Yet there is little research on why some individuals with IBD enter a trajectory of growth, while others may struggle to adapt. The aim of this study was to investigate the adjustment-related factors that distinguished thriving, resilience, and loss in people with IBD across personal growth, life satisfaction, and relationship quality domains.DesignProspective cohort design with two data collection points, 6 months apart.MethodsFrom a sample of 420 people with active IBD who completed an online survey, 152 participants completed the follow-up survey and were included in the analyses. Participants completed measures of thriving, and cognitive, affective, social, and disease-related variables known to predict adjustment.ResultsTime 1 ANCOVAs and pairwise comparisons controlling for demographics distinguished loss from resilience and thriving on the four outcomes – coping efficacy, illness acceptance, depressive symptoms, and perceived social support – for all three domains. Time 2 ANCOVAs and pairwise comparisons controlling for baseline outcomes revealed that the Time thriving categories predicted differences in Time 2 adjustment, mainly for the life satisfaction domain, with those experiencing loss reporting poorer adjustment than those experiencing resilience and thriving.ConclusionsFindings highlight the distinctions among profiles of thriving, resilience, and loss in adjustment to IBD, and suggest that strategies that enhance coping and address depressive symptoms may optimize thriving in the context of IBD.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with depression, poor coping, and stressful symptoms.Previous research has focused mainly on poor adjustment to IBD rather than on positive growth.There is little research on why some patients with IBD thrive or are resilient, while others struggle to adapt.What does this study add'This study is the first to longitudinally examine the profiles of thriving, resilience, and loss in individuals with IBD.The thriving profiles differed in coping efficacy, illness acceptance, depressive symptoms, and social support outcomes at Time 1, and predicted adjustment at T2 mainly for the life satisfaction domain.Strategies that enhance coping and social support may optimize thriving in the context of IBD.
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T01:01:19.980057-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12262
  • Positioning, telling, and performing a male illness: Chronic
           prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome
    • Authors: Nicholas Wood; Annum Qureshi, Fahim Mughal
      Abstract: ObjectivesThere is a paucity of illness accounts of men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), despite a significant level of prevalence and burden of disease. This qualitative study thus elicited twelve accounts from men suffering with CP/CPPS.MethodsNarrative analysis was employed, focusing primarily on narrative content.ResultsThree major narrative themes were identified: (1) Medical stories: Blame and shame; (2) The Erratic nature of CP/CPPS; and (3) Ongoing struggles for coping and cures and the Search for meaning.ConclusionsRecommendations were made for health care providers and increasing the internal agency, support and activism of men with this debilitating condition.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'One qualitative account of this male illness (CP/CPPS) exists: an IPA study.Five cross-sectional themes: (1) Need for repeated confirmation – disease not life-threatening nor leading inexorably towards cancer; (2) Disturbed sleep and fatigue; (3) Concealing pain and problems – ‘normalizing’; (4) Enduring pain by performing activities; and (5) Abrupt mood swings and limited sociality.What does this study add'Narrative analysis adds information as to how this illness is managed and survived over time.It challenges the findings (above) by providing an insider perspective.Novel narrative themes include meaning-making amongst others.Masculine performance and experiences are also crucial to this stigmatized illness.
      PubDate: 2017-08-11T23:15:26.877085-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12261
  • Measures of fidelity of delivery of, and engagement with, complex,
           face-to-face health behaviour change interventions: A systematic review of
           measure quality
    • Authors: Holly Walton; Aimee Spector, Ildiko Tombor, Susan Michie
      Abstract: PurposeUnderstanding the effectiveness of complex, face-to-face health behaviour change interventions requires high-quality measures to assess fidelity of delivery and engagement. This systematic review aimed to (1) identify the types of measures used to monitor fidelity of delivery of, and engagement with, complex, face-to-face health behaviour change interventions and (2) describe the reporting of psychometric and implementation qualities.MethodsElectronic databases were searched, systematic reviews and reference lists were hand-searched, and 21 experts were contacted to identify articles. Studies that quantitatively measured fidelity of delivery of, and/or engagement with, a complex, face-to-face health behaviour change intervention for adults were included. Data on interventions, measures, and psychometric and implementation qualities were extracted and synthesized using narrative analysis.ResultsSixty-six studies were included: 24 measured both fidelity of delivery and engagement, 20 measured fidelity of delivery, and 22 measured engagement. Measures of fidelity of delivery included observation (n = 17; 38.6%), self-report (n = 15; 34%), quantitatively rated qualitative interviews (n = 1; 2.3%), or multiple measures (n = 11; 25%). Measures of engagement included self-report (n = 18; 39.1%), intervention records (n = 11; 24%), or multiple measures (n = 17; 37%). Fifty-one studies (77%) reported at least one psychometric or implementation quality; 49 studies (74.2%) reported at least one psychometric quality, and 17 studies (25.8%) reported at least one implementation quality.ConclusionFewer than half of the reviewed studies measured both fidelity of delivery of, and engagement with complex, face-to-face health behaviour change interventions. More studies reported psychometric qualities than implementation qualities. Interpretation of intervention outcomes from fidelity of delivery and engagement measurements may be limited due to a lack of reporting of psychometric and implementation qualities.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Evidence of fidelity and engagement is needed to understand effectiveness of complex interventionsEvidence of fidelity and engagement are rarely reportedHigh-quality measures are needed to measure fidelity and engagementWhat does this study add'Evidence that indicators of quality of measures are reported in some studiesEvidence that psychometric qualities are reported more frequently than implementation qualitiesA recommendation for intervention evaluations to report indicators of quality of fidelity and engagement measures
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T04:00:28.997921-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12260
  • Personal and situational predictors of everyday snacking: An application
           of temporal self-regulation theory
    • Authors: Katherine G. Elliston; Stuart G. Ferguson, Benjamin Schüz
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study aims at testing predictions derived from temporal self-regulation theory (TST) in relation to discretionary food choices (snacks). TST combines a motivational sphere of influence (cognitions and temporal valuations resulting in intentions) with a momentary sphere (encompassing social and physical environmental cues). This dual approach differs from current health behaviour theories, but can potentially improve our understanding of the interplay of personal and environmental factors in health behaviour self-regulation.DesignA mixed event-based and time-based (Ecological Momentary Assessment) study in 61 adults aged between 18 and 64, with a BMI range between 18.34 and 39.78 (M = 25.66, SD = 4.82) over two weeks.MethodsParticipants recorded their food and drink intake for two weeks in real time using electronic diaries. Participants also responded to non-consumption assessments at random intervals throughout each day. Momentary cues (individual, situational, and environmental factors) were assessed both during food logs and non-consumption assessments. Motivational factors, past behaviour, and trait self-regulation were assessed during baseline.ResultsMultilevel logistic regression analyses showed that across all snack types, environmental cues and negative affect were associated with an increased likelihood of snacking. Perceiving a cost of healthy eating to occur before eating was associated with an increased likelihood of snacking, whereas intentions and self-regulation were not.ConclusionsDiscretionary food intake is largely guided by momentary cues, and motivational-level factors, such as intention and self-regulation, are less important in the initiation of discretionary food intake.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Overweight and obesity are a result of prolonged periods of energy imbalance between energy intake and expenditure (Hill & Peters, ). One of the key behavioural determinants of energy imbalances results from food intake, specifically from discretionary food choices (snacking). Temporal self-regulation theory (Hall & Fong, ) takes into account both deliberate and momentary influences on health behaviour, which is especially relevant to exploring the drivers of snacking.What does this study add'Offers new insight into the application of TST in explaining momentary eating behaviours.Snacking initiation is guided by momentary cues, not person-level factors.Dietary interventions should acknowledge the momentary cues that are associated with snacking.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19T00:35:24.13699-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12259
  • Targeting hardcore smokers: The effects of an online tailored
           intervention, based on motivational interviewing techniques
    • Authors: Jeroen Bommelé; Tim M. Schoenmakers, Marloes Kleinjan, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram Peters, Arie Dijkstra, Dike Mheen
      Abstract: ObjectivesHardcore smokers have smoked for many years and do not intend to quit. They also seem unreceptive to information about smoking cessation. We developed a 30-min, tailored web-based intervention that includes motivational interviewing principles. It aims to increase hardcore smokers’ intention to quit and their receptivity to information about smoking cessation.DesignIn a two-arm experiment, we compared outcome scores of the experimental intervention (n = 346) with those of a control intervention (n = 411).MethodsOur main outcomes were receptivity to information about quitting, intention to quit, quitting self-efficacy, and interest in a subsequent online intervention. Our secondary outcomes were cigarettes smoked per day and quit attempts. All outcomes were measured directly post-experiment (t1), after 2 weeks (t2), and after 2 months (t3).ResultsAt t1, hardcore smokers in the intervention condition were more receptive to information about quitting than controls. At both t2 and t3, those in the experimental group had reduced the number of cigarettes more than those in the control group. At t2, but not t3, more participants in the experimental group had reduced their cigarette consumption by at least 50% than among controls. We found no significant differences in intention to quit, quitting self-efficacy, interest in a subsequent online quitting intervention, and number of quit attempts.ConclusionsThe intervention increased hardcore smokers’ receptivity to information about smoking cessation and decreased their cigarette consumption by about 1 cigarette per day. Although the results are positive, the clinical relevance may be limited. We recommend further developing this intervention for practical use in health care settings.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Hardcore smokers have smoked for many years and do not intend to quit.There are currently no online interventions for hardcore smokers.What does this study add'This study tested an online intervention for hardcore smokers.The intervention increased hardcore smokers’ receptivity to information about quitting.It also helped to reduce the number of cigarettes per day.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13T00:26:02.926617-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12256
  • Adult attachment, hostile conflict, and relationship adjustment among
           couples facing multiple sclerosis
    • Authors: Cassandra J. Crangle; Tae L. Hart
      Abstract: ObjectiveCouples facing multiple sclerosis (MS) report significantly elevated rates of relationship distress, yet the effects of attachment have never been examined in this population. We examined whether hostile conflict mediated the dyadic effects of attachment on relationship adjustment in couples facing MS and whether these associations were moderated by gender or role. We also explored whether dyadic adjustment mediated the relationship between attachment and hostile conflict.DesignThe study was cross-sectional and included 103 couples in which one partner had been diagnosed with MS.MethodsParticipants completed the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and Aversive Interactions Scale, as well as demographic variables. We used the actor–partner interdependence model for data analysis.ResultsThere were significant actor and partner effects of greater anxious attachment and worse dyadic adjustment. Actor and partner effects of anxious attachment were significantly mediated by greater hostile conflict. Gender significantly moderated the effects between avoidant attachment and dyadic adjustment. The actor effect was significant for males and females; the partner effect was only significant for females. The actor effect for females but not males was significantly mediated by greater hostile conflict. Role was not a significant moderator. Exploratory analyses also showed that dyadic adjustment mediated the relationship between anxious and avoidant attachment and hostile conflict.ConclusionsFindings highlight the important effects of attachment on relationship adjustment in MS couples. Both hostile conflict and dyadic adjustment appear to be mechanisms through which insecure attachment has a detrimental effect.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Despite higher-than-normal rates of marital distress and separation/divorce, the effects of attachment on relationship adjustment among couples facing multiple sclerosis have never been examined. Prior studies within healthy populations have supported within-person and cross-dyadic associations between attachment and relationship adjustment; however, they have failed to use dyadic analyses. Hostile conflict has been associated with both insecure attachment and relationship adjustment and therefore may be an important mediator to help understand these relationships.What does this study add'Women were more negatively affected by their partner's avoidant attachment then men.Hostile conflict mediated the effects of anxious attachment on dyadic adjustment for individuals and across dyads.Hostile conflict accounted for the individual effect of avoidant attachment on dyadic adjustment for women.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T05:40:39.057589-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12258
  • The effects of psychological interventions on wound healing: A systematic
           review of randomized trials
    • Authors: Hayley Robinson; Sam Norton, Paul Jarrett, Elizabeth Broadbent
      Abstract: PurposePsychological stress has been shown to delay wound healing. Several trials have investigated whether psychological interventions can improve wound healing, but to date, this evidence base has not been systematically synthesized. The objective was to conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials in humans investigating whether psychological interventions can enhance wound healing.MethodsA systematic review was performed using PsychINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and MEDLINE. The searches included all papers published in English up until September 2016. The reference lists of relevant papers were screened manually to identify further review articles or relevant studies. Nineteen studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the review.ResultsFifteen of nineteen studies were of high methodological quality. Six studies were conducted with acute experimentally created wounds, five studies with surgical patients, two studies with burn wounds, two studies with fracture wounds, and four studies were conducted with ulcer wounds. Post-intervention standardized mean differences (SMD) between groups across all intervention types ranged from 0.13 to 3.21, favouring improved healing, particularly for surgical patients and for relaxation interventions. However, there was some evidence for publication bias suggesting negative studies may not have been reported. Due to the heterogeneity of wound types, population types, and intervention types, it is difficult to pool effect sizes across studies.ConclusionsCurrent evidence suggests that psychological interventions may aid wound healing. Although promising, more research is needed to assess the efficacy of each intervention on different wound types.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Psychological stress negatively affects wound healing. A number of studies have investigated whether psychological interventions can improve healing. However, no systematic reviews have been conducted.What does this study add'Synthesis and review of 19 trials conducted on psychological interventions and wound healing.Most evidence supports improved healing, particularly for surgical wounds and relaxation interventions.More research is needed on different intervention types with clinical wounds and into mechanisms of action.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T01:26:35.451941-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12257
  • Explaining infant feeding: The role of previous personal and vicarious
           experience on attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and
           breastfeeding outcomes
    • Authors: Naomi C. Bartle; Kate Harvey
      Abstract: ObjectivesBreastfeeding confers important health benefits to both infants and their mothers, but rates are low in the United Kingdom and other developed countries despite widespread promotion. This study examined the relationships between personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding, self-efficacy, the theory of planned behaviour variables of attitudes and subjective norm, and the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6–8 weeks post-natally.DesignA prospective questionnaire study of both first-time mothers (n = 77) and experienced breastfeeders (n = 72) recruited at an antenatal clinic in South East England.MethodsParticipants completed a questionnaire at 32 weeks pregnant assessing personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding (breastfeeding, formula-feeding, and maternal grandmother’s experience of breastfeeding), perceived control, self-efficacy, intentions, attitudes (to breastfeeding and formula-feeding), and subjective norm. Infant feeding behaviour was recorded at 6–8 weeks post-natally. Multiple linear regression modelled the influence of vicarious experience on attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy (but not perceived control) and modelled the influence of attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and past experience on intentions to breastfeed. Logistic regression modelled the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6–8 weeks.ResultsPrevious experience (particularly personal experience of breastfeeding) explained a significant amount of variance in attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy. Intentions to breastfeed were predicted by subjective norm and attitude to formula-feeding and, in experienced mothers, self-efficacy. Breastfeeding at 6 weeks was predicted by intentions and vicarious experience of formula-feeding.ConclusionVicarious experience, particularly of formula-feeding, has been shown to influence the behaviour of first-time and experienced mothers both directly and indirectly via attitudes and subjective norm. Interventions that reduce exposure to formula-feeding (perhaps by limiting advertising) or cushion mothers from its effects may enable more mothers to meet their breastfeeding goals.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Rates of breastfeeding in the United Kingdom are low and resistant to change.Self-efficacy may be an important and modifiable factor for breastfeeding initiation and maintenance.What does this study add'Self-efficacy may only be a relevant factor among mothers who already have personal experience of breastfeeding.Vicarious experience of formula-feeding has been shown to be related to a lower rate of breastfeeding at 6 weeks.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23T23:35:26.810002-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12254
  • Clinically distinct trajectories of fatigue and their longitudinal
           relationship with the disturbance of personal goals following a cancer
    • Authors: Fabiola Müller; Marrit A. Tuinman, Moniek Janse, Josué Almansa, Mirjam A. G. Sprangers, Ans Smink, Adelita V. Ranchor, Joke Fleer, Mariët Hagedoorn
      Abstract: ObjectivesMost studies on fatigue in patients with cancer aggregate its prevalence and severity on a group level, ignoring the possibility that subgroups of patients may differ widely in their development of fatigue. This study aimed to identify subgroups of patients with clinically distinct trajectories of fatigue from diagnosis to 18 months post-diagnosis. As fatigue might trigger goal disturbance, the study also identified trajectories of concrete and abstract goal disturbance and longitudinally examined their co-occurrence with fatigue.DesignProspective design with quantitative and qualitative method of data collection.MethodsPatients with colorectal cancer (n = 183) reported on their levels of fatigue and goal disturbance shortly after diagnosis (T1) and at 7 months (T2) and 18 months (T3) post-diagnosis. Growth mixture model analyses were performed to identify trajectories of fatigue and goal disturbance. Guidelines for the clinical relevance of fatigue were applied.ResultsFour clinically distinct trajectories of fatigue were identified as follows: (1) persistent severe fatigue (25.4%), (2) moderate fatigue (56.1%), (3) no fatigue (13.8%), and (4) rapidly improving fatigue (4.7%). The majority of patients with cancer reported high disturbance of their concrete goals, while high disturbance of abstract goals was less evident. Fatigue and concrete goal disturbance co-occurred longitudinally.ConclusionsThe fatigue and goal disturbance experienced from diagnosis to 18 months post-diagnosis differ considerably for subgroups of patients with cancer. Fatigue and concrete goal disturbance are persistent burdens in the majority of patients. Investigating symptom burden beyond average trends can guide clinicians to identify patients most in need for treatment. Targeting goal disturbance might benefit the psychological well-being in patients suffering from persistent symptoms.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Fatigue is a common and distressing symptom at all stages of the cancer experience.Earlier studies suggest that many patients recover from fatigue after treatment completion.Patients with cancer experience disturbance in their personal goals, which is related to poor psychological well-being.What does this study add'Developments of fatigue and goal disturbance differ between subgroups of patients with cancer but co-occur within these subgroups.About 30% of the patients experience severe fatigue after diagnosis, of which only few patients recover within 18 months post-diagnosis.Targeting goal disturbance might benefit patients with severe and ongoing symptoms.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T00:35:24.024959-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12253
  • Stuck in the spin cycle: Avoidance and intrusions following breast cancer
    • Authors: Margaret R. Bauer; Joshua F. Wiley, Karen L. Weihs, Annette L. Stanton
      Abstract: ObjectivesTheories and research regarding cognitive and emotional processing during the experience of profound stressors suggest that the presence of intrusive thoughts and feelings predicts greater use of avoidance and that the use of avoidance paradoxically predicts more intrusions. However, empirical investigations of their purported bidirectional relationship are limited.DesignThis study presents a longitudinal investigation of the reciprocal relationship between intrusions and avoidance coping over a 6-month period in the year following breast cancer diagnosis.MethodsBreast cancer patients (N = 460) completed measures of cancer-related intrusions and avoidance at study entry, 3 months, and 6 months later (i.e., an average of 2, 5, and 8 months after diagnosis, respectively).ResultsCross-lagged panel analyses revealed that intrusive thoughts, feelings, and images at study entry predicted greater avoidance 3 months later, and avoidance coping at study entry predicted intrusions 3 months later, controlling for the stability of intrusions and avoidance as well as time since diagnosis. Findings were not statistically significant for avoidance predicting intrusions, or vice versa, between the 3-month and the 6-month assessment period, during which they declined.ConclusionsThese findings provide empirical support for the theoretical contention that avoidance and intrusive thoughts and emotions reciprocally influence one another following stressful events. Additionally, in the months shortly after breast cancer diagnosis, intrusions and avoidance are positively related. However, the relationships attenuate over time, which could indicate resolved cognitive and emotional processing of the cancer experience.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Following stressful life events, individuals often experience intrusive thoughts and feelings related to the event and they report avoidance of such reminders. Many studies demonstrate that greater intrusions predict more subsequent use of avoidance coping, and other studies show that greater use of avoidance predicts more intrusions. Their reciprocal relation has not been examined, however.What does this study add'This is the first examination of the concurrent, reciprocal influence of intrusions and avoidance.Findings suggest that accounting for the bidirectional influence of avoidance and intrusions best estimates hypothesized models.Higher intrusions and avoidance predicted each other for the first 3 months after study entry, but the relationship diminished 6 months after study entry, perhaps due to productive mental processing of the stress of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T13:04:03.599039-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12252
  • ‘It's definitely not Alzheimer's’: Perceived benefits and drawbacks of
           a mild cognitive impairment diagnosis
    • Authors: Tim Gomersall; Sarah Kate Smith, Charlotte Blewett, Arlene Astell
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo understand the perceived benefits and drawbacks of a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnosis from the perspective of those living with the label.MethodsParticipants were included if they had recently (within 6 months) received a MCI diagnosis. We also recruited close family members to gain their perspectives. Each was interviewed separately with a semi-structured topic guide covering three areas: (1) experience of cognitive impairments and changes in the individual; (2) impact of cognitive impairment(s) on daily activities and social relationships; and (3) experience of the diagnosis process and living with the label. Transcribed interviews were stored in Nvivo®. Grounded theory procedures of memo writing, open coding, constant comparison, and focused coding were used to derive conceptual themes.ResultsEighteen dyads were interviewed. The overarching themes surrounding diagnosis benefits and drawbacks were as follows: (1) emotional impact of the diagnosis; (2) practical benefits and limitations of the diagnosis, in terms of (a) understanding one's symptoms and (b) access to clinical support. Although participants were glad to have clinical support in place, they expressed frustration at the lack of clarity, and the lack of available treatments for MCI. Consequently, living with MCI can be characterized as an ambivalent experience.ConclusionAs a clinical label, MCI appears to have little explanatory power for people living with cognitive difficulties. Work is needed to clarify how clinicians and patients communicate about MCI, and how people can be helped to live well with the label. Despite an emerging body of prognostic studies, people with MCI are likely to continue living with significant uncertainty.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Mild cognitive impairment is a state of cognitive decline between normal cognitive ageing and dementia. This clinical category has been an important domain of academic debate over recent years. From a clinical perspective, diagnosing MCI is a helpful way to enable communication between health professionals, and a diagnosis can be important for patients in need of support and education. However, diagnosis can be fraught with difficulties, while patients have reported significant uncertainty about the label. This study aimed to examine the perceived benefits and drawbacks of receiving a MCI diagnosis.What does this study add'The emotional impact of a MCI diagnosis is complex and raised conflicting and fluctuating emotions in our participants’ accounts – most notably worry and relief.Participants were glad to have clinical support available to call on; however, they were frustrated at the lack of ‘treatments’ available for MCI and were often anxious to slow any cognitive decline downHealth psychologists will have an important role to play in understanding and improving clinical communication about MCI
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T13:04:01.113157-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12255
  • The journey between brain and gut: A systematic review of psychological
           mechanisms of treatment effect in irritable bowel syndrome
    • Authors: Sula Windgassen; Rona Moss-Morris, Joseph Chilcot, Alice Sibelli, Kimberley Goldsmith, Trudie Chalder
      Abstract: PurposeIrritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel habits. It is estimated to affect 10–22% of the UK population. The use of psychological interventions in IBS is increasingly empirically supported, but little is known about the mechanism of psychological treatment approaches. The present systematic review aimed to investigate the mechanisms of psychological treatment approaches applied to IBS.MethodsThe systematic review included studies conducting mediation analysis in the context of psychological interventions for IBS, focusing on the outcomes of symptom severity and/or quality of life (QoL).ResultsNine studies in total were included in the review. Eight of the studies assessed mediation in the context of cognitive behavioural-based interventions, and one study assessed mediation in a mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention. Results indicate that change in illness-specific cognitions is a key process by which psychological treatments may have an effect on the outcomes of symptom severity and QoL. Furthermore, results suggest that whilst GI-specific anxiety may also be a key mechanism of treatment effect, it would appear that general or state anxiety is not. Although less commonly included in mediation analysis, illness-specific behaviours may also have a mediating role.ConclusionsA mediational model amalgamating the results of studies is proposed to illustrate the findings of the review. The model depicts the process by which psychotherapy changes illness-specific cognitions, behaviours, and anxiety to achieve reduction in symptom severity.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject? Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is the predominant psychological treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), although there is some research supporting other treatments such as mindfulness and hypnotherapy. Mediation analysis in the context of psychological treatments for IBS has just begun to explore possible mechanisms of treatment effect especially within CBT studies. Some studies include anxiety in a basic mediation analysis, whilst others include cognitions with inconsistent results for each.What does this study add?Reviews mediators included in mediation analysis and the methods used for mediation analysisProposes a mediation model informed by the results of the review for future studies to investigateProvides clinical implications for the targeting of cognitions and behaviours rather than general anxiety
      PubDate: 2017-06-01T23:55:35.249316-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12250
  • If you needed an organ transplant would you have one? The effect of
           reciprocity priming and mode of delivery on organ donor registration
           intentions and behaviour
    • Authors: Ronan E. O'Carroll; Lorna Haddow, Laura Foley, Jody Quigley
      Abstract: ObjectiveThere are approximately 6,500 people on the UK national transplant waiting list, around 400 of whom die every year. Only 35% of the UK population are currently on the organ donation register. We report two studies examining whether a reciprocity prime, in which participants were asked whether they would accept a donated organ, increased organ donation intentions and behaviour.DesignBetween-participants, randomized controlled design.MethodsIn two studies, participants who were not currently registered organ donors took part either face-to-face or online and were randomly allocated to a reciprocity prime or control condition. Following the manipulation, they were asked to indicate, on either a paper or online questionnaire, their intention to join the organ donor register. Study 2 was similar to Study 1 but with the addition that after reporting intention, participants were then offered an organ donation information leaflet or the opportunity to click a link for further information (proxy behavioural measure).ResultsIn both studies, reciprocity primed participants reported greater intentions to register than controls. However, in Study 2, no effect on donation behaviour was found.ConclusionsReciprocal altruism may be a useful tool in increasing intentions to join the organ donor register. Further evaluation is required to determine whether this increase in intention can be translated into organ donation behaviour.Statement of contributionWhat was already known?Demand for organs in the United Kingdom far outstrips supply, so finding strategies to increase registration on the organ donor register could save hundreds of lives per year. Despite the majority of people in the United Kingdom agreeing that organ donation is a good thing, most people do not register as donors. A limited amount of evidence of the impact of perceived reciprocity suggests that encouraging people to consider themselves as recipients and priming ideas of shared responsibility may increase the likelihood of their subsequent willingness to register.What does this study add?Novel evidence that employing a simple reciprocity prime increases organ donor registration intentions.Replication of findings across two separate studies.Novel examination of the impact of mode of delivery of messages to encourage organ donation.A basis for further research into the translation of intentions into organ donor registration behaviour.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26T23:25:37.033486-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12248
  • Does body image influence the relationship between body weight and
           breastfeeding maintenance in new mothers?
    • Authors: Vivien Swanson; Alice Keely, Fiona C Denison
      Abstract: ObjectivesObese women have lower breastfeeding initiation and maintenance rates than healthy weight women. Research generally focuses on biomedical explanations for this. Psychosocial factors including body image and well-being after childbirth are less well understood as predictors of breastfeeding. In obese and healthy weight women, we investigated changes in body image between 72 hrs post-delivery and 6–8 weeks post-natal, studying how women's body image related to breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. We also investigated how psychological distress was related to body image.DesignLongitudinal semi-structured questionnaire survey.MethodsBody image and psychological distress were assessed within 72 hrs of birth and by postal questionnaire at 6–8 weeks, for 70 obese and 70 healthy weight women initiating exclusive (breastmilk only) breastfeeding or mixed feeding (with formula milk) in hospital. Breastfeeding was re-assessed at 6–8 weeks.ResultsObese women were less likely to exclusively breastfeed in hospital and maintain breastfeeding to 6–8 weeks. Better body image was related to maintaining breastfeeding and to lower post-natal psychological distress for all women, but education level was the most significant predictor of maintenance in multivariate regression including body image and weight status. Body image mediated, but did not moderate the relationship between weight and breastfeeding maintenance. Body image was lower overall in obese women, but all women had low body image satisfaction around childbirth, reducing further at 6–8 weeks.ConclusionsHealth professionals should consider women's body image when discussing breastfeeding. A focus on breast function over form may support breastfeeding for all women.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject?Obesity can negatively affect breastfeeding initiation and maintenance, but there is little information about how psychosocial factors affect this relationship. Body image may be an important factor, but has not been studied in relation to breastfeeding maintenance.What does this study addThis article examines the influence of body image on obese and healthy-weight women's breastfeeding maintenance at 6–8 weeks.Different aspects of body image mediated but did not moderate the relationship between weight status and breastfeeding maintenance, but in multivariate regression, maternal education level was the most significant predictor.Obese women had poorer body image and were less likely to maintain breastfeeding; however, for all women, body image became more negative in this postpartum period.Interventions should normalize positive aspects of women's postnatal bodies, including function rather than form. Addressing body concerns could encourage new mothers to maintain breastfeeding, irrespective of weight status.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26T00:10:25.350937-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12246
  • A qualitative study of younger men's experience of heart attack
           (myocardial infarction)
    • Authors: Christopher J. Merritt; Nicole Zoysa, Jane M. Hutton
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe effects of heart attack, or myocardial infarction (MI), across psychosocial domains may be particularly acute in younger adults, for whom serious health events are non-normative. MI morbidity is declining in Western countries, but in England MI numbers have plateaued for the under-45 cohort, where approximately 90% of patients are male. Qualitative research on younger adults’ experience of MI is limited, and no study has sampled exclusively under-45s. This study aimed to understand how a sample of men under 45 adjusted to and made sense of MI.DesignQualitative research design based on semi-structured in-depth interviews.MethodsTen men aged under 45 who had experienced MI in the past 3–6 months were purposively recruited and interviewed. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis.ResultsSeven superordinate themes were identified. This article focuses in depth on the three most original themes: (1) ‘I'm less of a man’, which described experiences of losing ‘maleness’ (strength, independence, ability to provide) post-MI; (2) ‘Shortened horizons’, which covered participants’ sense of foreshortened future and consequent reprioritization; and (3) ‘Life loses its colour’, describing the loss of pleasure from lifestyle-related changes.ConclusionThemes broadly overlapped with the qualitative literature on younger adult MI. However, some themes (e.g., loss of ‘maleness’ post-MI, and ambivalence towards MI risk factors) appeared unique to this study. Themes were also discussed in relation to risk factors for anxiety and depression and how this might inform clinical care for a younger, male population.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject?Myocardial infarction (MI) morbidity is not declining in England for under-45s.Adjustment to MI is particularly challenging for younger adults, perhaps because it is non-normative.However, little is known about the experience of MI in younger adults.What does this study add?This is the first qualitative study to sample MI patients exclusively under 45, thereby mapping to epidemiological trends.Further support is provided for some themes identified in the existing young adult MI literature.New themes are identified here which can provide insights relevant to clinical care in this population.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T00:15:54.774415-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12249
  • Goal disturbance changes pre/post-renal transplantation are related to
           changes in distress
    • Authors: Alicia M. Vries; Torben Schulz, Ralf Westerhuis, Gerjan J. Navis, Jan Niesing, Adelita V. Ranchor, Maya J. Schroevers
      Abstract: ObjectiveRenal transplantation (RTx) is considered the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) given its association with lower mortality, and improved overall quality of life and psychological functioning compared to dialysis. However, much less is known about which factors underlie these psychological improvements across RTx. Goal theory suggests that experienced disturbances in important goals are related to lower psychological functioning. This study aimed to (1) identify the most disturbed and most important goals for patients before RTx, (2) to examine changes in goal disturbance and goal importance pre/post-RTx, and (3) to examine whether changes in goal disturbance are associated with changes in psychological distress over time, and whether this relationship is mediated by changes in perceived control.MethodsIn this longitudinal study, 220 patients completed questionnaires before and after RTx, including questionnaires to assess goals (GOALS questionnaire), psychological distress (GHQ-12), and perceived control (Mastery scale).ResultsEnd-stage renal disease affected both general and disease-specific goals. Approximately 30% of the patients indicated to experience high or very high disturbance before transplantation. Goal disturbance generally decreased significantly pre- to post-RTx, whereas goal importance did not change significantly pre- to post-RTx. No mediation effect of perceived control was found. Instead, both changes in goal disturbance and perceived control showed independent effects on changes in distress.ConclusionsIntervention strategies targeting attainable and realistic goal setting, and perceived control in RTx recipients who do not benefit optimally from RTx, might enhance psychological functioning in this population.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject?Kidney transplantation improves patients’ psychological functioning.Experienced disturbances in important life goals are related to lower psychological functioning in chronic illness.What does this study add?Goal disturbance decreases after renal transplantation, and this is related to a decrease in distress over time.Perceived control does not mediate the relationship between goal disturbance and distress pre/post-transplantation.Changes in perceived control have an additional main effect on changes in distress.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T06:30:24.030013-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12243
  • The impact of telephone-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy and
           befriending on mood disorders in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary
           disease: A randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Colleen Doyle; Sunil Bhar, Marcia Fearn, David Ames, Debra Osborne, Emily You, Alex Gorelik, David Dunt
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe main objectives of this pragmatic randomized controlled trial were to investigate the impact of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and an active social control (befriending) on depression and anxiety symptoms in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).MethodsEligible participants were randomly allocated to receive eight weekly telephone interventions of CBT (n = 54) or befriending (n = 56). Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess changes in scores and Cohen's d was used to assess effect sizes.ResultsSignificant improvement was observed in anxiety symptoms for the befriending group from baseline (T1) to post-intervention assessment (T2) and to 8-week follow-up assessment (T3), with a small to medium effect size (Cohen's d = 0.3). Significant improvement was noted in depression symptoms from T1 to T2 for both groups, but only the CBT group had a significant difference at T3, with a small to medium effect size (Cohen's d = 0.4). For secondary outcomes, there was a significant change in COPD symptoms from T1 to T2 for the befriending group; however, at T3 this change was no longer significant. Finally, there was a significant change in general self-efficacy for both groups between T1 and T2, and T1 and T3.ConclusionCognitive behaviour therapy reduced depression symptoms but not anxiety. Befriending reduced depression symptoms in the short term and anxiety symptoms in both the short term and long term. Further research is needed to demonstrate non-inferiority of telephone delivery compared with other formats, and to understand the impact of befriending which has the potential to be a cost-effective support for people with COPD.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject?Depression and anxiety are common comorbidities in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Mood disorders are not commonly routinely treated in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Telephone-administered CBT has been shown to be as effective as face-to-face CBT in reducing depression and anxiety.What does this study add?Telephone-administered CBT can reduce depression symptoms in people with COPD.Telephone-administered befriending can reduce anxiety and depression symptoms in people with COPD.People with COPD who have mood disorders would prefer to have CBT than befriending.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T05:35:24.528943-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12245
  • Preliminary support for a brief psychological intervention to improve
           first-time hearing aid use among adults
    • Authors: Christopher J. Armitage; Deborah Lees, Kathryn Lewis, Kevin J. Munro
      Abstract: ObjectivesSuboptimal hearing aid use extorts significant social, health, and economic costs. The aims of this study were to (1) test the novel hypothesis that the threat associated with being diagnosed with hearing loss could be ameliorated with a self-affirmation manipulation and (2) gauge the feasibility of deploying the manipulation in routine clinical practice.DesignParallel groups randomized controlled trial with 10-week follow-up.MethodFifty people, newly prescribed with a hearing aid, completed either a questionnaire that included a brief self-affirming exercise or an identical questionnaire with no self-affirming exercise. The main outcome measure was derived from data logging automatically stored by the hearing aid. Perceived threat (‘anxiety about ageing’), behavioural intention, and self-efficacy were measured as potential mediators.ResultsObjectively measured hours of daily hearing aid use were marginally higher in the intervention group compared with the control group (between-group difference = 1.94 hr, 95%CI = −1.24, 5.12, d = 0.43). At follow-up, participants in the intervention group were significantly less anxious about ageing and more accepting of older people than were participants in the control group (between-group difference = 0.75, 95%CI = 0.26, 1.22, d = 0.87). There was no statistically significant effect of the intervention on behavioural intention or self-efficacy.ConclusionsAlthough not statistically significant, the magnitude of the effect of the intervention on hearing aid use (d = 0.43) suggests that it would be worthwhile working towards a fully powered randomized controlled trial. The ability to reduce anxieties about ageing with this brief intervention could have far-reaching benefits for multiple patient and general population groups.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject?Hearing impairment is more disabling than diabetes, yet hearing aid use is suboptimal.Anxieties about ageing may undermine hearing aid use.What does this study add?The study tests a brief theory-based psychological intervention to reduce anxiety about ageing and promote hearing aid use.Results show that the brief psychological intervention reduced anxiety and marginally increased objective hearing aid use.Further work is required to identify other situations in which anxieties about ageing undermine behaviour change efforts.The very brief, flexible nature of the intervention means it could be adapted and deployed in numerous other health care settings.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T06:15:44.649447-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12244
  • Trajectories of anxiety and depression in liver transplant candidates
           during the waiting-list period
    • Authors: Coby Annema; Petrie F. Roodbol, Edwin R. Van den Heuvel, Herold J. Metselaar, Bart Van Hoek, Robert J. Porte, Adelita V. Ranchor
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo explore whether distinct trajectories of anxiety and depression exist among liver transplant candidates, and to gain insight into demographic, clinical, and individual characteristics related with these trajectories.DesignA multicentre, prospective cohort study among 216 liver transplant candidates. Respondents filled out a questionnaire at study entrance and subsequently every 6 months until transplantation or removal from the waiting list.MethodsAnxiety (STAI6), depression (CES-D), demographic, and individual variables were assessed by questionnaire. Clinical variables were retrieved by medical record review. The SAS PROC TRAJ procedure was used to identify distinct trajectories. Univariate and multiple ordinal logistic regression analyses were used to explore related variables.ResultsRegarding anxiety, three stable trajectories were identified as follows: below clinical level (51%), slightly above clinical level (34%), and high above clinical level (15%). Regarding depression, four stable trajectories were identified as follows: below clinical level (23%), slightly below clinical level (34%), slightly above clinical level (28%), and high above clinical level (6%). For anxiety as well as for depression, experiencing more liver disease symptoms, a lower level of personal control, making more use of emotional coping, and making less use of task-oriented coping increased the likelihood of membership in those trajectories with higher symptom levels.ConclusionDistinct, but stable, trajectories of anxiety and depression were present in liver transplant candidates. The trajectories with symptom levels above clinical relevant levels for anxiety or depression comprised, respectively, 49% and 34% of the respondents. Therefore, psychological screening and subsequently providing appropriate interventions are warranted early in the transplant process.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subjectFor transplant candidates, the waiting-list period is a period of uncertainty and unpredictability.Psychological problems, such as anxiety and depression, are common among liver transplant candidates.Several demographic, clinical, and individual characteristics are associated with anxiety and depression, but these results remain inconclusive.What does this study addDistinct trajectories of symptoms of anxiety and depression are present among liver transplant candidates.Given the stability of the trajectories over time, the symptom level at baseline is indicative of the symptom level during the waiting-list period.Experiencing more liver disease symptoms, low mastery, more use of emotional coping, and less use of task-oriented coping are associated with trajectories of high symptom levels.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05T04:17:05.912314-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12241
  • Does the ability to express different emotions predict different indices
           of physical health? A skill-based study of physical symptoms and heart
           rate variability
    • Authors: Natalie L. Tuck; Kathryn S. Adams, Nathan S. Consedine
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe outward expression of emotion has been frequently associated with better health outcomes, whereas suppressing emotion is thought to contribute to worse physical health. However, work has typically focused on trait expressive tendencies and the possibility that individual differences in the ability to express specific emotions may also be associated with health has not been widely tested.DesignA cross-sectional study of community dwelling adults.MethodsOne hundred and twenty-eight participants aged 18–88 years completed questionnaires assessing demographics and health status, before attending a testing session in which resting heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed. Participants then completed a performance-based test of expressive regulatory skill in which they were instructed to enhance and suppress their emotional expressions while they watched film clips validated to elicit amusement, sadness, and anger. Participants rated subjective emotional experience before and after each clip, and their degree of expressivity was scored using FACS-based Noldus FaceReader.ResultsMissing data resulted in a final sample size of 117. Linear regressions controlling for age, sex, diagnoses, and trait emotion revealed that greater ability to enhance sad expressions was associated with higher HRV while the ability to enhance expressions of joy was associated with lower symptom interference. In parallel models, the ability to flexibly regulate (both enhance and suppress) expressions of joy and sadness was also associated with lower symptom interference.ConclusionsFindings suggest that the ability to regulate expressions of both sadness and joy is associated with health indices even when controlling for trait affect and potential confounds. The present findings offer early evidence that individual differences in the ability to regulate the outward expression of emotion may be relevant to health and suggest that expressive regulatory skills offer a novel avenue for research and intervention.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subjectThe tendency to outwardly express felt emotion generally predicts better health, whereas expressive suppression typically predicts worse health outcomes. Most work has been based on trait assessments; however, the ability to regulate the expression of felt emotion can be objectively assessed using performance-based tests. Prior work in mental health suggests that the ability to flexibly up- and downregulate the expression of emotion predicts better outcomes.What does this study addThe first evidence that the ability to flexibly regulate expressions predicts indices of health.Skill in both expressing and suppressing facial expressions predicts better reported health.Skills with different emotions differentially predict symptom interference and cardiac vagal tone.
      PubDate: 2017-04-28T05:15:58.24635-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12242
  • What impact do questionnaire length and monetary incentives have on mailed
           health psychology survey response?
    • Authors: Kathryn A. Robb; Lauren Gatting, Jane Wardle
      Abstract: ObjectivesResponse rates to health-related surveys are declining. This study tested two strategies to improve the response rate to a health psychology survey mailed through English general practices: (1) sending a shortened questionnaire and (2) offering a monetary incentive to return a completed questionnaire.DesignRandomized controlled trial.MethodsAdults (n = 4,241) aged 45–59 years, from four General Practices in South-East England, were mailed a survey on attitudes towards bowel cancer screening. Using a 2 × 4 factorial design, participants were randomized to receive a ‘short’ (four A4 pages) or a ‘long’ (seven A4 pages) questionnaire, and one of four monetary incentives to return a completed questionnaire – (1) no monetary incentive, (2) £2.50 shop voucher, (3) £5.00 shop voucher, and (4) inclusion in a £250 shop voucher prize draw. Age, gender, and area-level deprivation were obtained from the General Practices.ResultsThe overall response rate was 41% (n = 1,589). Response to the ‘short’ questionnaire (42%) was not significantly different from the ‘long’ questionnaire (40%). The £2.50 incentive (43%) significantly improved response rates in univariate analyses, and remained significant after controlling for age, gender, area-level deprivation, and questionnaire length. The £5.00 (42%) and £250 prize draw (41%) incentives had no significant impact on response rates compared to no incentive (38%).ConclusionsA small monetary incentive (£2.50) may slightly increase response to a mailed health psychology survey. The length of the questionnaire (four pages vs. seven pages) did not influence response. Although frequently used, entry into a prize draw did not increase response. Achieving representative samples remains a challenge for health psychology.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subjectResponse rates to mailed questionnaires continue to decline, threatening the representativeness of data.Prize draw incentives are frequently used but there is little evidence to support their efficacy.Research on interactions between incentives, questionnaire length, and demographics is lacking.What does this study addContrary to previous findings, questionnaire length did not influence response rate.A £2.50 incentive increased response, while incentives of £5.00 and a £250 prize draw did not.Achieving representative samples to questionnaires remains a challenge for health psychology.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T06:30:30.891973-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12239
  • Young people's beliefs about the risk of bowel cancer and its link with
           physical activity
    • Authors: Katie V. Newby; Chloe Cook, Susanne F. Meisel, Thomas L. Webb, Bernadette Fisher, Abi Fisher
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe primary objective was to explore young people's risk appraisals of bowel cancer, including whether they had a coherent understanding of the protective effects of physical activity (PA). A secondary objective was to examine whether the illness risk representations (IRRs) framework could be used to understand beliefs underlying bowel cancer risk appraisals.DesignQualitative.MethodsFramework analysis of semi-structured interviews with 19 people aged 14–17 years.ResultsParticipants judged their risk of getting bowel cancer as low. This was based on a lack of family history of cancer and their current lifestyle behaviours, which were viewed as having a protective effect, or because they planned on making change to their lifestyle in the future when disease risk became more relevant. Participants were not aware of, and struggled to understand, the link between PA and bowel cancer. They also lacked knowledge of the effects of, or treatments for, bowel cancer. Beliefs underlying judgements about the risk of bowel cancer fitted the IRR framework reasonably well.ConclusionsThe present research suggests that interventions designed to increase PA with a view to reducing the risk of bowel cancer should aim to make the future risk of bowel cancer feel more tangible, help young people to understand the full range of consequences, explain how and why preventative behaviours such as PA are effective in reducing risk, and emphasize that the typical late presentation of symptoms, and therefore investigation by health care services, reduces treatability.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject?Physical activity (PA) performed throughout the lifespan can have a protective effect on bowel cancer, but levels of PA are low among young people.Changing beliefs about the risk of getting bowel cancer may be a useful strategy in motivating PA.What does this study add?Increased understanding of how young people think about bowel cancer and the relationship between PA and cancer.Identification of strategies for increasing young adults’ appraisals of the likelihood and severity of bowel cancer.Evidence to support the validity of illness risk representations framework.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T01:10:24.558784-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12238
  • The role of habit in different phases of exercise
    • Authors: Navin Kaushal; Ryan E. Rhodes, John T. Meldrum, John C. Spence
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe primary purpose of this study was to investigate how habit strength in a preparatory and performance phase predicts exercise while accounting for intention. The secondary purpose was to determine the strength of potential habit antecedents (affective judgement, perceived behavioural control, consistency, and cues) in both exercise phases.DesignThis was a prospective study with measures collected at baseline and week 6.MethodsParticipants (n = 181) were a sample of adults (18–65) recruited across nine gyms and recreation centres who completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires after 6 weeks.ResultsIntention (β = .28, p = .00) and habit preparation (β = .20, p = .03), predicted exercise, and change of exercise with coefficients of β = .25, (p = .00) and β = .18, (p = .04), respectively, across 6 weeks but not habit performance (p>.05).ConclusionsThis study highlighted the distinction between the two phases of exercise and the importance of preparatory habit in predicting behaviour. Focusing on a consistent preparatory routine could be helpful in establishing an exercise habit.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject?A recent meta-analysis found habit to correlate r = .43 with behaviour (Gardner, de Bruijn, & Lally, ).Verplanken and Melkevik () propose that habit in exercise should be measured in separate components.Phillips and Gardner () interpreted this as habitual instigation (thought) to exercise and execution.What does this study add?Extended pervious work and identified two distinct behavioural phases (preparation and performance) for exercise.Habit model revealed that temporal consistency was the strongest predictor in both phases of exercise.Intention and habit of preparatory behaviour predicted exercise fluctuations in gym members.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T23:50:24.917557-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12237
  • ‘I call it stinkin’ thinkin’’: A qualitative analysis of
           metacognition in people with chronic low back pain and elevated
    • Authors: Robert Schütze; Clare Rees, Helen Slater, Anne Smith, Peter O'Sullivan
      Abstract: ObjectivesPain catastrophizing is widely studied in quantitative pain research because of its strong link with poor pain outcomes, although the exact nature of this construct remains unclear. Focusing on its ruminative dimension, the present qualitative study aimed to explore a nascent aspect of pain catastrophizing – metacognition – by documenting people's attitudes towards rumination and examining how these metacognitions might influence the course it takes.DesignQualitative interview study.MethodsSemi-structured interviews were conducted in a tertiary care setting with 15 adults experiencing chronic (≥6 months) low back pain who scored highly (≥30) on the Pain Catastrophising Scale. Transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis.ResultsThe first aim of documenting pain metacognitions revealed both positive (e.g., ‘thinking helps me to cope’) and negative (e.g., ‘rumination is uncontrollable’) attitudes towards pain rumination. These were often held simultaneously, creating internal conflict. The second aim of exploring the influence of metacognition on rumination showed that both negative and positive metacognitions could fuel perseverative thinking. However, more nuanced negative metacognitions (e.g., ‘worry is pointless’) could help to end episodes of rumination by motivating the use of concrete problem-solving or active coping behaviours.ConclusionsWhile most participants described pain rumination as uncontrollable and harmful, dwelling on pain could be helpful when focused on tangible and solvable problems, thereby translating into adaptive coping behaviours that eventually interrupt rumination. Future treatments may be more effective if they are based on individualized formulations of pain catastrophizing that focus on its perseverative nature and implicit function.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject?Chronic pain affects one in five people, and psychological coping responses are key targets within gold standard biopsychosocial interventions.People who have elevated pain catastrophizing tend to have worse pain outcomes, including increased pain, disability, and emotional distress.What people believe about their own thinking (i.e., their metacognitions) influences how much they worry or ruminate.What does this study add?This is the first qualitative study exploring metacognitions in people with chronic pain and the first to target a purposive sample of people with elevated pain catastrophizing.People with elevated pain catastrophizing often see rumination as uncontrollable and harmful but may simultaneously believe it helps them to solve problems or feel prepared for future threats.Pain catastrophizing is not a stable and enduring trait but fluctuates both within and across individuals in response to pain, context, metacognitive beliefs about rumination, and coping behaviours.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T23:45:26.878096-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12240
  • ‘It feels sometimes like my house has burnt down, but I can see the
           sky’: A qualitative study exploring patients’ views of cognitive
           behavioural therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome
    • Authors: Federica Picariello; Sheila Ali, Caroline Foubister, Trudie Chalder
      Abstract: ObjectivesCognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is currently a first-line treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Even though the results from trials are promising, there is variability in patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of patients with CFS who undertook CBT at a specialist service for CFS.DesignThis was a qualitative study.MethodsThirteen patients with CFS, approaching the end of CBT, participated in semi-structured interviews. In addition, participants were asked to rate their satisfaction with CBT and perceived level of improvement. The data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis.ResultsThe majority of participants were satisfied with treatment and reported marked improvements. This was evident from the ratings and corroborated by the qualitative data, yet recovery was in general incomplete. Participants often disclosed mixed feelings towards CBT prior to its start. Behavioural aspects of treatment were found useful, while participants were more ambivalent towards the cognitive aspects of treatment. The tailored nature of CBT and therapist contact were important components of treatment, which provided participants with support and validation. Engagement and motivation were crucial for participants to benefit from CBT, as well as the acceptance of a bio-psychosocial model of CFS. Illness beliefs around CFS were also discussed throughout the interviews, possibly impeding engagement with therapy.ConclusionsThe results suggest that various factors may moderate the effectiveness of CBT, and a greater understanding of these factors may help to maximize benefits gained from CBT.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject?CBT is effective in reducing CFS symptoms, but not all patients report marked improvements following treatment.Predictors of outcome have been explored in the literature.Few studies have looked at the experience of adult patients with CFS who have had CBT.What does this study add?Findings provide insights as to why variability in CBT-related improvements exists.Beliefs about CFS and CBT may shape engagement and consequently contribute to post-treatment outcomes.Flexibility and sensitivity are necessary from therapists throughout treatment to ensure full engagement.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T01:35:23.384022-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12235
  • Locus of control and frequency of physician visits: Results of a
           population-based longitudinal study in Germany
    • Authors: André Hajek; Hans-Helmut König
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo examine the role of internal and external locus of control (LOC) in the frequency of physician visits longitudinally.DesignA nationally representative, longitudinal cohort study of German households. Data were used from the years 2005 and 2010.MethodsData were gathered from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP). The ten internal and external LOC items in the SOEP are based on a scale by Krampen. The number of physician visits in the last 3 months was used as outcome variable. According to Andersen's behavioural model, predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, and need factors were included as control variables.ResultsFixed-effects Poisson regressions showed that physician visits increased with increasing external LOC, whereas changes in internal LOC were not associated with changes in physician visits. Furthermore, physician visits increased with need factors (decreased self-rated health; onset of disability), whereas predisposing characteristics and the enabling resources were not associated with physician visits.ConclusionsOur findings emphasize the meaning of changes in external LOC for physician visits. As there is evidence that interventions can change the LOC, efforts to modify external LOC might be beneficial for the health care system.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject?A few cross-sectional studies have investigated the association between locus of control (LOC) and health care use.Longitudinal studies are needed to get a deeper understanding of the causal relationship between these factors.What does this study add?Our longitudinal study provides insights into the impact of general internal and external LOC on physician visits.This is the first study examining the long-term relation in Germany using a population-based sample.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T00:00:23.567622-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12236
  • Affordance theory can help understanding of individuals' use of online
           support communities
    • Authors: Neil S. Coulson
      Pages: 379 - 382
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T05:21:47.027217-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12247
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