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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 882 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 411)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 180)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 225)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 143)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Escritos de Psicología : Psychological Writings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover British Journal of Health Psychology
  [SJR: 1.322]   [H-I: 64]   [43 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1359-107X
   Published by British Psychological Society Homepage  [10 journals]
  • Benefit finding trajectories in cancer patients receiving psychological
           care: Predictors and relations to depressive and anxiety symptoms
    • Authors: Lei Zhu; Adelita V. Ranchor, Vicki S. Helgeson, Marije Lee, Bert Garssen, Roy E. Stewart, Robbert Sanderman, Maya J. Schroevers
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study aimed to (1) identify benefit finding trajectories in cancer patients receiving psychological care; (2) examine associations of benefit finding trajectories with levels of and changes in psychological symptoms; and (3) examine whether socio-demographic and medical characteristics distinguished trajectories.DesignNaturalistic longitudinal study design.MethodsParticipants were 241 cancer patients receiving psychological care at specialized psycho-oncological institutions in the Netherlands. Data were collected before starting psychological care, and three and 9 months thereafter. Latent class growth analysis was performed to identify benefit finding trajectories.ResultsFive benefit finding trajectories were identified: ‘high level-stable’ (8%), ‘very low level-small increase’ (16%), ‘low level-small increase’ (39%), ‘low level-large increase’ (9%), and ‘moderate level-stable’ (28%). People in distinct benefit finding trajectories reported significant differential courses of depression but not of anxiety symptoms. Compared with the other four trajectories, people in the ‘low level-large increase’ trajectory reported the largest decreases in depression over time. Perceptions of cancer prognosis distinguished these trajectories, such that people with a favourable prognosis were more likely to belong to the ‘high level-stable’ trajectory, while people perceiving an uncertain prognosis were more likely to belong to the ‘low level-large increase’ trajectory of benefit finding.ConclusionsCancer patients showed distinct benefit finding trajectories during psychological care. A small proportion reporting a large increase in benefit finding were also most likely to show decreases in depressive symptoms over time. These findings suggest a relation between perceiving benefits from cancer experience and improved psychological functioning in cancer patients receiving psychological care.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'People vary in course of benefit finding (BF) after trauma, with some experiencing enhanced BF and others decreased BF.Empirical studies have identified subgroups of cancer patients with distinct BF trajectories.What does this study add'This is the first study showing that cancer patients followed different BF trajectories during psychological care.Only a small proportion experienced clinically meaningful increases in BF over time.More attention is needed for cancer patients with decreased BF, as they are at a higher risk of remaining depressed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-15T06:15:33.080718-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12283
  • Adolescent temperament dimensions as stable prospective risk and
           protective factors for salivary C-reactive protein
    • Authors: Benjamin W. Nelson; Michelle L. Byrne, Julian G. Simmons, Sarah Whittle, Orli S. Schwartz, Neil M. O'Brien-Simpson, Katrina A. Walsh, Eric C. Reynolds, Nicholas B. Allen
      Abstract: ObjectiveTemperament has associations with later physical health outcomes, yet there is a dearth of research exploring the connection between temperament and mechanisms that have known associations with these health outcomes. Recent research has delineated a connection between personality and inflammation during adulthood, but this association has not yet been studied in adolescent samples.DesignWe investigated whether stable adolescent temperament (averaged over two years), specifically effortful control and negative emotionality, provided a more robust prediction of inflammation as measured by salivary C-reactive protein (sCRP), than depressive symptoms.MethodsTemperament and depressive symptoms were measured in a sample of sixty-three adolescents (37 males) when they were approximately 12 years old (mean age = 12.30, SD = 0.69) and again when they were approximately 14 years old (mean age = 14.84, SD = 0.49). Levels of sCRP were determined approximately 7 months later (mean = 6.77, SD = 2.99) when participants were approximately 15 years old (mean age = 15.49, SD = 0.49).ResultsRegression analyses revealed that effortful control (EC) was significantly associated with lower sCRP levels, while higher negative emotionality (NE) was significantly associated with higher sCRP levels. Furthermore, these associations were larger than those for depressive symptoms and were differentially impacted by the addition of covariates. Implications for the role of stable risk and protective factors in inflammatory processes are discussed.ConclusionsThese findings are the first to show associations between adolescent temperament and inflammation. Furthermore, these findings extend previous personality research to temperamental research in a younger sample of adolescents.Statement of contributionWhat is already known'There is a large extant literature on the association between depressive symptoms and inflammation.There is a smaller extant literature on the association between personality and inflammation.No studies have examined how adolescent temperament traits may relate to inflammation.What does this study add'Longitudinal data collection over the course of 3 years in an adolescent sample.Addresses the question of whether temperament factors relate to inflammation.Temperament provides a more robust predictor of later inflammation than depressive symptoms.
      PubDate: 2017-10-15T23:30:23.06632-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12281
  • The prioritization of symptom beliefs over illness beliefs: The
           development and validation of the Pain Perception Questionnaire for Young
    • Authors: Daniela Ghio; Wendy Thomson, Rachel Calam, Fiona Ulph, Eileen M. Baildam, Kimme Hyrich, Lis Cordingley
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo investigate the suitability of the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) for use with adolescents with a long-term pain condition and to validate a new questionnaire for use with this age group.DesignA three-phase mixed-methods study.MethodsPhase 1 comprised in-depth qualitative analyses of audio-recorded cognitive interviews with 20 adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis who were answering IPQ-R items. Transcripts were coded using framework analysis. A content analysis of their intended responses to individual items was also conducted. In Phase 2, a new questionnaire was developed and its linguistic and face validity were assessed with 18 adolescents without long-term conditions. In Phase 3, the construct validity of the new questionnaire was assessed with 240 adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. A subset of 43 adolescents completed the questionnaire a second time to assess test–retest reliability. All participants were aged 11–16 years.ResultsParticipants described both conceptual and response format difficulties when answering IPQ-R items. In response, the Pain Perception Questionnaire for Young People (PPQ-YP) was designed which incorporated significant modifications to both wording and response formats when compared with the IPQ-R. A principal component analysis of the PPQ-YP identified ten constructs in the new questionnaire. Emotional representations were separated into two constructs, responsive and anticipatory emotions. The PPQ-YP showed high test–retest reliability.ConclusionsSymptom beliefs appear to be more salient to adolescents with a long-term pain condition than beliefs about the illness as a whole. A new questionnaire to assess pain beliefs of adolescents was designed. Further validation work may be needed to assess its suitability for use with other pain conditions.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Versions of the adult Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) have been adapted for adolescents and children by changing item wording; however, research to assess the degree to which the underlying IPQ-R constructs are relevant to adolescents with a long-term condition had not been performed.What the present study adds'In adolescents, beliefs about symptoms of their condition are more salient than beliefs about the illness as a whole.Question response formats for children and young people need to take account of age-specific abilities.A new questionnaire has been designed for adolescents with pain. It is theoretically congruent with the CS-SRM.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T01:11:50.30255-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12275
  • Impact of low alcohol verbal descriptors on perceived strength: An
           experimental study
    • Authors: Milica Vasiljevic; Dominique-Laurent Couturier, Theresa M. Marteau
      Abstract: ObjectivesLow alcohol labels are a set of labels that carry descriptors such as ‘low’ or ‘lighter’ to denote alcohol content in beverages. There is growing interest from policymakers and producers in lower strength alcohol products. However, there is a lack of evidence on how the general population perceives verbal descriptors of strength. The present research examines consumers’ perceptions of strength (% ABV) and appeal of alcohol products using low or high alcohol verbal descriptors.DesignA within-subjects experimental study in which participants rated the strength and appeal of 18 terms denoting low (nine terms), high (eight terms) and regular (one term) strengths for either (1) wine or (2) beer according to drinking preference.MethodsThousand six hundred adults (796 wine and 804 beer drinkers) sampled from a nationally representative UK panel.ResultsLow, Lower, Light, Lighter, and Reduced formed a cluster and were rated as denoting lower strength products than Regular, but higher strength than the cluster with intensifiers consisting of Extra Low, Super Low, Extra Light, and Super Light. Similar clustering in perceived strength was observed amongst the high verbal descriptors. Regular was the most appealing strength descriptor, with the low and high verbal descriptors using intensifiers rated least appealing.ConclusionsThe perceived strength and appeal of alcohol products diminished the more the verbal descriptors implied a deviation from Regular. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of policy implications for lower strength alcohol labelling and associated public health outcomes.Statement of contributionWhat is already known about this subject'Current UK and EU legislation limits the number of low strength verbal descriptors and the associated alcohol by volume (ABV) to 1.2% ABV and lower.There is growing interest from policymakers and producers to extend the range of lower strength alcohol products above the current cap of 1.2% ABV set out in national legislation.There is a lack of evidence on how the general population perceives verbal descriptors of alcohol product strength (both low and high).What does this study add'Verbal descriptors of lower strength wine and beer form two clusters and effectively communicate reduced alcohol content.Low, Lower, Light, Lighter, and Reduced were considered lower in strength than Regular (average % ABV).Descriptors using intensifiers (Extra Low, Super Low, Extra Light, and Super Light) were considered lowest in strength.Similar clustering in perceived strength was observed amongst the high verbal descriptors.The appeal of alcohol products reduced the more the verbal descriptors implied a deviation from Regular.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T00:34:28.16524-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12273
  • Systematic review of behaviour change techniques to promote participation
           in physical activity among people with dementia
    • Authors: Samuel R. Nyman; Natalia Adamczewska, Neil Howlett
      Abstract: PurposeThe objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence for the potential promise of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to increase physical activity among people with dementia (PWD).MethodsPsychINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched 01/01/2000–01/12/2016. Randomized controlled/quasi-randomized trials were included if they recruited people diagnosed/suspected to have dementia, used at least one BCT in the intervention arm, and had at least one follow-up measure of physical activity/adherence. Studies were appraised using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool, and BCTs were coded using Michie et al., 2013, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46, 81. taxonomy. Intervention findings were narratively synthesized as either ‘very promising’, ‘quite promising’, or ‘non-promising’, and BCTs were judged as having potential promise if they featured in at least twice as many very/quite promising than non-promising interventions (as per Gardner et al., 2016, Health Psychology Review, 10, 89).ResultsNineteen articles from nine trials reported physical activity findings on behavioural outcomes (two very promising, one quite promising, and two non-promising) or intervention adherence (one quite promising and four non-promising). Thirteen BCTs were used across the interventions. While no BCT had potential promise to increase intervention adherence, three BCTs had potential promise for improving physical activity behaviour outcomes: goal setting (behaviour), social support (unspecified), and using a credible source.ConclusionsThree BCTs have potential promise for use in future interventions to increase physical activity among PWD.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'While physical activity is a key lifestyle factor to enhance and maintain health and wellbeing amongst the general population, adults rarely participate in sufficient levels to obtain these benefits.Systematic reviews suggest that specific behaviour change techniques can increase physical activity, although one review suggested that self-regulatory techniques may be counterproductive when promoting physical activity among older people.Until now, no systematic review has been conducted to assess which behaviour change techniques may be associated with greater participation in physical activity among people with dementia.What does this study add'Interventions showed mixed promise for increasing physical activity and little effect on participant adherence.Goal setting (behaviour), social support (unspecified), and using a credible source are promising approaches.No technique showed promise for increasing adherence to physical activity interventions among people with dementia.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T23:50:31.554861-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12279
  • The longitudinal effects of emotion regulation on physical and
           psychological health: A latent growth analysis exploring the role of
           cognitive fusion in inflammatory bowel disease
    • Authors: Inês A. Trindade; Cláudia Ferreira, José Pinto-Gouveia
      Abstract: ObjectiveThis study thus aims to test differences between patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) regarding IBD symptomatology, cognitive fusion, and psychological and physical health, as well as to explore whether the maladaptive emotion regulation process of cognitive fusion longitudinally impacts on the baseline and evolution of these outcomes over a period of 18 months.Design and methodsParticipants include 116 IBD patients with a mean age of 36.76 (SD = 11.39) of both genders (69.83% females) that completed the self-report measures of interest in three different times, equally spaced 9 months apart, over a period of 18 months. Latent growth curve models were conducted using structural equation modelling to estimate the growth trajectory of the variables in study.ResultsInflammatory bowel disease symptomatology and cognitive fusion's levels were negatively associated with psychological health and physical health's baseline levels. Furthermore, IBD symptomatology did not influence the growth of psychological health, while cognitive fusion did (β = .30, p = .007). The same result was found for physical health (β = .26, p = .024). These findings indicate that individuals with higher levels of cognitive fusion present lower levels of psychological health and physical health that tend to further decrease over the time through the effects of this maladaptive emotion regulation process.ConclusionsThis study implies that it is of crucial importance to include psychotherapeutic interventions in the health care of patients with IBD. If successful, these interventions could represent decreases in the cost of IBD treatment and in the use of drugs with adverse side effects, in addition to improving patients’ mental health and quality of life. Further implications for clinical and research work are discussed.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Research has demonstrated the impact of emotion regulation on both physical and mental health.Nevertheless, the longitudinal effects of the specific emotion regulation process of cognitive fusion on physical and psychological health have never been explored.Additionally, no study has yet examined the causal role of emotion regulation in evolution of physical health in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).What does this study add'Cognitive fusion longitudinally impacted on IBD patients’ physical and mental health.These variables were measured over a period of 18 months.Treatment for IBD should include interventions aiming to diminish maladaptive emotion regulation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T23:45:29.236916-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12280
  • Reducing discrepancies of personal goals in the context of cancer: A
           longitudinal study on the relation with well-being, psychological
           characteristics, and goal progress
    • Authors: Marlous R. Pama; Moniek Janse, Mirjam A. G. Sprangers, Joke Fleer, Adelita V. Ranchor
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo (1) examine whether reducing discrepancies between goal importance and goal attainability is an adaptive predictor of well-being, (2) investigate intrusion, awareness, optimism, and pessimism as determinants of reducing discrepancies between goal importance and goal attainability, and (3) explore how goal progress is involved in reducing discrepancies between goal importance and goal attainability during two major periods after a colorectal cancer diagnosis.DesignProspective design.MethodsNewly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients (n = 120) were interviewed three times: within a month, 7 months (treatment period), and 18 months (follow-up period) post-diagnosis. Data were analysed using multiple regressions.ResultsResults showed that (1) reducing discrepancies enhances well-being, (2) optimism and pessimism are predictors of reducing discrepancies during the treatment period but not during the follow-up period, while intrusion and awareness do not predict reducing discrepancies in either period, and (3) goal progress is a predictor of reducing discrepancies during the follow-up period, but no evidence for a moderating or mediating role of goal progress in the relation between psychological characteristics and reducing discrepancies was found.ConclusionsReducing discrepancies between goal importance and goal attainability could benefit colorectal cancer patients’ well-being. Optimism, pessimism, and goal progress appear to influence cancer patients’ ability to reduce discrepancies. Providing assistance in improving goal progress to those who are less optimistic and highly pessimistic may be a suitable training for cancer patients to prevent deterioration in well-being.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'More discrepancy between goal importance and goal attainability is associated with lower levels of well-being.People are able to change evaluations of importance and attainability, but it is unknown whether this positively impacts well-being.Underlying causes of differences in the extent to which discrepancies between goal importance and goal attainability are reduced are unknown.What does this study add'This is the first study to show that reducing discrepancies between goal importance and goal attainability is beneficial for well-being.This is the first study to show that optimism and pessimism are determinants of reducing discrepancies between goal importance and goal attainability.Goal progress might be an effective target for interventions that aim to facilitate one's ability to reduce discrepancies between goal importance and goal attainability.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T04:35:53.69846-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12278
  • Self-management support in routine primary care by nurses
    • Authors: Heleen Westland; Carin D. Schröder, Jessica Wit, Judith Frings, Jaap C. A. Trappenburg, Marieke J. Schuurmans
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo examine how and to what extent self-management support, including behaviour change support, is provided by primary care nurses in routine consultations with chronically ill patients.DesignObservational study design.MethodsRoutine consultations of primary care nurses in the Netherlands with chronically ill patients were audio-taped and analysed. The analysis identified health topics addressed according to health care standards, self-management topics addressed using a validated set of topics, and behaviour change techniques (BCTs) using the Behaviour Change Techniques Taxonomy v1.ResultsSeventy-eight routine consultations of 17 primary care nurses with chronically ill patients were included in the analysis. Nurses addressed both health topics and self-management topics in brief, fragmented, and often inconsistent manners. Dietary intake and physical activity were the most frequently addressed topics. Nurses applied 21 BCTs to target behaviour change, but the use of these techniques was mainly inconsistent and implicit. The most consistently used BCTs were review behaviour goal(s) (56.4%) and feedback on behaviour (51.3%).ConclusionsNurses addressed both health topics and self-management topics in their routine consultations. The duration, frequency, and number of addressed topics differed throughout the consultations. Nurses tended to prioritize the monitoring and optimization of patients’ medical treatment and provided limited self-management support. Nurses seldom deepened their focus on behaviour change and infrequently used effective techniques to support this change. Adoption of self-management in primary care, including behaviour change, might be enhanced if nurses consistently and explicitly use effective BCTs in their consultations.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Primary care nurses play a pivotal role in self-management support for patients with a chronic condition.Adequate self-management support requires nurses to activate patients and enhance behaviour change.Little is known regarding to what extent nurses provide self-management support in routine primary care.What does this study add'Self-management support is brief, fragmented, and inconsistently provided by nurses.Nurses tend to prioritize medical treatment optimization and seldom focus on behavioural change.Nurses’ use of effective behaviour change techniques is low and should be enhanced.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T01:05:20.962635-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12276
  • More than just side-effects: The role of clinical and psychosocial factors
           in non-adherence to tamoxifen
    • Authors: Zoe Moon; Rona Moss-Morris, Myra S. Hunter, Lyndsay D. Hughes
      Abstract: ObjectivesTamoxifen non-adherence is apparent in up to half of breast cancer survivors and is associated with increased risk of recurrence and reduced quality of life. However, factors contributing to non-adherence in this population are currently poorly understood. This study explored the relationship between key components of the Common Sense Model of Illness Representations (CSM)/the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and intentional and unintentional non-adherence in a large sample of women prescribed tamoxifen following primary breast cancer.DesignCross-sectional questionnaire study (n = 777).MethodsWomen were eligible if they were over 18, had been diagnosed with primary breast cancer, and had been prescribed tamoxifen. Participants were recruited in clinic or online and completed questionnaires assessing illness perceptions, treatment beliefs, adherence, quality of life, social support, distress, and the key TPB components. Logistic regressions were conducted to test elements from each model and to identify correlates of intentional and unintentional non-adherence.ResultsPatients were classified as non-adherent based on Medication Adherence Rating Scale scores; 44% of the population were non-adherent; 41% reported unintentional non-adherence, and 9% reported intentional non-adherence. Study variables accounted for more variance in intentional (Nagelkerke R2 = 46%) than unintentional non-adherence (Nagelkerke R2 = 17%). Intentional non-adherence was best explained by a combination of TPB and CSM variables, but these variables did not contribute significantly to unintentional non-adherence.ConclusionsThe TPB and the CSM provide a useful framework for understanding intentional tamoxifen non-adherence. Elements from both models should be considered when designing interventions to increase adherence rates.Statement of contributionWhat is already known about this subject'Non-adherence to tamoxifen is common and is associated with poor clinical outcomes.Few modifiable predictors of tamoxifen non-adherence have been identified.What does this study add'Unintentional non-adherence is reported much more frequently than intentional non-adherence.Elements from the CSM and TPB provide a useful framework for understanding non-adherence to tamoxifen.Unique correlates were found for intentional and unintentional non-adherence.
      PubDate: 2017-09-22T05:36:32.600141-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12274
  • A randomized controlled trial of a brief online intervention to reduce
           alcohol consumption in new university students: Combining
           self-affirmation, theory of planned behaviour messages, and implementation
    • Authors: Paul Norman; David Cameron, Tracy Epton, Thomas L. Webb, Peter R. Harris, Abigail Millings, Paschal Sheeran
      Abstract: ObjectivesExcessive alcohol consumption increases when students enter university. This study tests whether combining (1) messages that target key beliefs from the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) that underlie binge drinking, (2) a self-affirmation manipulation to reduce defensive processing, and (3) implementation intentions (if-then plans to avoid binge drinking) reduces alcohol consumption in the first 6 months at university.DesignA 2 (self-affirmation) × 2 (TPB messages) × 2 (implementation intention) between-participants randomized controlled trial with 6-month follow-up.MethodsBefore starting university, students (N = 2,951) completed measures of alcohol consumption and were randomly assigned to condition in a full-factorial design. TPB cognitions about binge drinking were assessed immediately post-intervention (n = 2,682). Alcohol consumption was assessed after 1 week (n = 1,885), 1 month (n = 1,389), and 6 months (n = 892) at university. TPB cognitions were assessed again at 1 and 6 months.ResultsParticipants who received the TPB messages had significantly less favourable cognitions about binge drinking (except perceived control), consumed fewer units of alcohol, engaged in binge drinking less frequently, and had less harmful patterns of alcohol consumption during their first 6 months at university. The other main effects were non-significant.ConclusionsThe findings support the use of TPB-based interventions to reduce students’ alcohol consumption, but question the use of self-affirmation and implementation intentions before starting university when the messages may not represent a threat to self-identity and when students may have limited knowledge and experience of the pressures to drink alcohol at university.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Alcohol consumption increases when young people enter university.Significant life transitions represent potential teachable moments to change behaviour.Interventions with a strong theoretical basis have been found to be more effective.What does this study add'A brief online intervention delivered to students before they start university can reduce alcohol consumption.The theory of planned behaviour can be used to inform the design of interventions to change health behaviour.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T23:55:20.429268-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12277
  • The interplay between regulatory focus and temporal distance in the health
    • Authors: Aleksandra Berezowska; Arnout R. H. Fischer, Hans C. M. Trijp
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study identifies how the interaction between temporal distance, regulatory focus, and framing of health outcomes affects individuals’ intention to adopt a personalized nutrition service.DesignA 2 (temporal distance: immediate health outcomes vs. delayed health outcomes) × 2 (regulatory focus: prevention vs. promotion) × 2 (health outcome framing: illness prevention vs. health promotion) full-factorial between-subjects design.MethodsIn two experiments with samples of 236 and 242 students, regulatory focus was manipulated by asking participants to describe which academic outcomes they want to either achieve or prevent and how they aim to do this. Temporal distance and health outcome framing were manipulated by modifying descriptions of personalized nutrition services. To study the process through which temporal distance, regulatory focus, and health outcome framing affect adoption intention, measures of perceived privacy risk and perceived personalization benefit were included as mediators.ResultsThe interaction between temporal distance and regulatory focus had a significant effect on adoption intention, perceived privacy risk, and perceived personalization benefit. For prevention-focused individuals’ adoption intention was higher, perceived personalization benefit was higher, and perceived privacy risk was lower when health outcomes were immediate instead of delayed. These effects were not significant for promotion-focused individuals. Health outcome framing affected the interaction between temporal distance and regulatory focus, but only in Study 1. Only perceived personalization benefit served as a mediator.ConclusionTailoring temporal distance to individuals’ regulatory focus increases adoption intention for personalized nutrition advice.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Intention to adopt dietary recommendations results from a cognitive decision-making process.Regulatory focus and temporal distance are relevant for the adoption of dietary recommendations.Temporal distance and regulatory focus are interrelated.What does this study add'The interaction between temporal distance and regulatory focus affects adoption intention.Interaction between temporal distance and regulatory focus moderates the cognitive process that drives adoption.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T04:45:40.663635-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12272
  • Do negative screening test results cause false reassurance' A
           systematic review
    • Authors: Grace C. Cooper; Michelle N. Harvie, David P. French
      Abstract: PurposeIt has been suggested that receiving a negative screening test result may cause false reassurance or have a ‘certificate of health effect’. False reassurance in those receiving a negative screening test result may result in them wrongly believing themselves to be at lower risk of the disease, and consequently less likely to engage in health-related behaviours that would lower their risk.MethodsThe present systematic review aimed to identify the evidence regarding false reassurance effects due to negative screening test results in adults (over 18 years) screened for the presence of a disease or its precursors, where disease or precursors are linked to lifestyle behaviours. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for trials that compared a group who had received negative screening results to an unscreened control group. The following outcomes were considered as markers of false reassurance: perceived risk of disease; anxiety and worry about disease; health-related behaviours or intention to change health-related behaviours (i.e., smoking, diet, physical activity, and alcohol consumption); self-rated health status.ResultsNine unique studies were identified, reporting 55 measures in relation to the outcomes considered. Outcomes were measured at various time points from immediately following screening to up to 11 years after screening. Despite considerable variation in outcome measures used and timing of measurements, effect sizes for comparisons between participants who received negative screening test results and control participants were typically small with few statistically significant differences. There was evidence of high risk of bias, and measures of behaviours employed were often not valid.ConclusionsThe limited evidence base provided little evidence of false reassurance following a negative screening test results on any of four outcomes examined. False reassurance should not be considered a significant harm of screening, but further research is warranted.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'It has been argued that screening for disease may cause ‘false reassurance’ whereby those who receive a negative screening test result wrongly interpret their result as indicating they are less likely to develop the disease in future.There is some evidence for false reassurance, but the relevant studies consider a range of diseases and possible indicators of false reassurance (i.e., risk perceptions, lifestyle behaviours, emotional outcomes, and quality of life).For these reasons, it is currently unclear that the extent to receive negative screening test results is likely to impact on participants’ lifestyle behaviours, or other possible indicators of false reassurance.What does this study add'Current available evidence shows that negative screening test results are unlikely to cause false reassurance and, in particular, are unlikely to have a negative impact on lifestyle behaviours.Given the limitations of the current evidence base in terms of number of studies and study quality, future research should continue to explore this issue, where this can be done at low cost.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T00:10:47.12425-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12265
  • ‘It's like a frog leaping about in your chest’: Illness and treatment
           perceptions in persistent atrial fibrillation
    • Authors: Elaina C. Taylor; Mark O'Neill, Lyndsay D. Hughes, Susan Carroll, Rona Moss-Morris
      Abstract: ObjectivesPersistent atrial fibrillation (AF) is an abnormal heart rhythm associated with low quality of life (QoL) and significant health-related costs. The purpose of the study was to examine patients’ illness and treatment beliefs and ways of coping with AF symptoms, to provide insight into promoting better QoL and treatment-specific management.DesignBeliefs were explored across three procedural treatment groups using a qualitative cross-sectional design.MethodsThirty semi-structured interviews were carried out with patients undertaking cardioversion (n = 10), catheter ablation (n = 11) and atrioventricular node ablation (n = 9). Interviews were transcribed and analysed using inductive thematic analysis with elements of grounded theory.ResultsAn overarching theme of a vicious cycle was evident, which related to perceived lack of knowledge and understanding of AF, attempts to control symptoms and negative emotional reactions to failed control attempts. This vicious cycle related to three subordinate themes: (1) unpredictability and uncertainty of AF and symptoms; (2) coping with symptoms through (a) avoidance (b) all-or-nothing- (c) slowing down behaviours; and (3) concerns and expectations about treatment.ConclusionsPatients outlined a need to gain control of unpredictable symptoms by monitoring and varying activity levels. These behaviours were often appraised as ineffective at controlling symptoms, leading to heightened uncertainty and increased activity avoidance. Treatment concerns escalated with increasing number and invasiveness of procedures. Improving AF patients’ perceived understanding of their illness and treatment and promoting more effective symptom-management strategies may alleviate psychological distress and improve QoL. Themes elaborated on the common-sense model whereby patients’ beliefs about illness and treatment interact with coping behaviours.Statement of contributionWhat is already known about this subject'Quality of life (QoL) is disproportionately low in people with persistent atrial fibrillation (psAF).The common-sense model suggests illness perceptions and coping predict QoL in chronic illnesses.No previous studies have examined the idiosyncratic beliefs and coping behaviours of psAF patients.What does this study add'A vicious cycle of perceived lack of understanding of AF, attempts to control AF and distress at failed attempts at control, was a key theme.PsAF patients reported continued avoidance/all-or-nothing behaviours despite symptomatic relief post-procedure, and disengagement from enjoyable activities.PsAF patients reported procedure-specific concerns/expectations, which could be targeted in future interventions aimed at reducing distress.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05T23:26:05.697341-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12267
  • The role of high expectations of self and social desirability in emotional
           processing in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome: A qualitative
    • Authors: Alice Sibelli; Trudie Chalder, Hazel Everitt, Paul Workman, Felicity L. Bishop, Rona Moss-Morris
      Abstract: ObjectivesAlthough high levels of distress are associated with the onset and severity of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), it is unclear how this relates to emotional processing, particularly in relation to maintenance of symptoms and treatment outcome. This qualitative study embedded within a randomized controlled trial aimed to explore how individuals with refractory IBS experience, express, and manage their emotions after either therapist-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (TCBT) or Web-based CBT (WBCBT) compared to treatment as usual (TAU).DesignCross-sectional qualitative study.MethodsFifty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted at post-treatment with 17 TCBT, 17 WBCBT, and 18 TAU participants. The transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis with grounded theory elements. NVivo 11 was used to compare themes across groups.ResultsAcross all groups, high expectations of self was a recurring reason for how participants experienced and expressed their emotions. Three themes with subthemes captured how high expectations related to specific aspects of emotional processing: perceived causes of emotions, strategies for coping with emotions (bottling up, avoiding emotions, and active coping strategies), and the perceived interplay between emotions and IBS symptoms.ConclusionsPatients recognized that their IBS symptoms both triggered and were triggered by negative emotions. However, there was a tendency to bottle up or avoid negative emotions for reasons of social desirability regardless of whether patients had CBT for IBS or not. Future psychological interventions in IBS may benefit from addressing negative beliefs about expressing emotions, promoting assertive emotional expression, and encouraging the experience of positive emotions.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'High levels of distress are consistently associated with both the onset and maintenance of IBS symptoms.Little is known about how this relates to the concept of emotional processing.Preliminary findings suggest a positive correlation between poor emotional processing and IBS. However, further studies need to confirm its role in relation to aetiology, maintenance of symptoms, and response to treatment.What does this study add'High expectations of self and social desirability seem to be important aspects shaping the way individuals with IBS experience, express, and manage their emotions.Emotional avoidance and bottling up were reported as key strategies to cope with negative emotions.The study revealed that bottling up is not perceived as an all-or-nothing strategy but can be applied selectively depending on the context.Psychological interventions in IBS may benefit from addressing not only illness-related causes of negative emotions but also personal and social triggers of distress.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T05:35:23.607941-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12264
  • Understanding tamoxifen adherence in women with breast cancer: A
           qualitative study
    • Authors: Zoe Moon; Rona Moss-Morris, Myra S. Hunter, Lyndsay D. Hughes
      Abstract: ObjectiveNon-adherence to tamoxifen is common in breast cancer survivors and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. This study aimed to understand womens' experiences of taking tamoxifen and to identify factors which may be associated with non-adherence.DesignA qualitative study using semi-structured interviews.MethodsThirty-two breast cancer survivors who had been prescribed tamoxifen took part in interviews conducted face to face or over the telephone. They were transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive thematic analysis with elements of grounded theory.ResultsA key theme identified in the data was weighing up costs and benefits of treatment, which resulted in women falling into three groups; tamoxifen is keeping me alive, tamoxifen is not worth the reduced risk of recurrence, or conflicting beliefs about the harms and benefits of treatment. Additional themes were living with risk of recurrence and information & support.ConclusionsWomen who believed that the necessity of tamoxifen outweighed its costs were more likely to be adherent, whereas women who thought that the benefits did not outweigh the side effects were more likely to have discontinued. A third more ambivalent group believed strongly in the importance of treatment, but were struggling with side effects and were often non-adherent. Patients sometimes felt unsupported and discussed a need for more comprehensive information. To increase adherence, future research needs to explore ways to increase beliefs around tamoxifen necessity and how to help women cope with side effects.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Non-adherence to tamoxifen is associated with increased risk of recurrence and mortality.Up to 50% of patients are non-adherent to tamoxifen by the fifth year of treatmentFew consistent predictors of tamoxifen non-adherence have been identified.What does this study add'Many women report not knowing how to manage their side effects.Non-adherence is related to how women weigh up their side effects against their medication beliefs.Interventions aiming to increase necessity beliefs and improve symptom management may be effective.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29T04:05:21.170572-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12266
  • What contributes to action plan enactment' Examining characteristics
           of physical activity plans
    • Authors: Lena Fleig; Benjamin Gardner, Jan Keller, Sonia Lippke, Sarah Pomp, Amelie U. Wiedemann
      Abstract: ObjectivesIndividuals with chronic conditions can benefit from formulating action plans to engage in regular physical activity. However, the content and the successful translation of plans into action, so-called plan enactment, are rarely adequately evaluated. The aim of this study was to describe the content of user-specified plans and to examine whether participants were more likely to enact their plans if these plans were highly specific, viable, and instrumental.Design and methodsThe study presents secondary analyses from a larger behavioural intervention in cardiac and orthopaedic rehabilitation. The content of 619 action plans from 229 participants was evaluated by two independent raters (i.e., qualitative analyses and ratings of specificity) and by participants themselves (i.e., instrumentality and viability). Plan enactment was also measured via self-reports. Multilevel analyses examined the relationship between these plan characteristics and subsequent plan enactment, and between plan enactment and aggregated physical activity.ResultsParticipants preferred to plan leisure-time physical activities anchored around time-based cues. Specificity of occasion cues (i.e., when to act) and highly instrumental plans were positively associated with plan enactment. Interestingly, individuals who planned less specific behavioural responses (i.e., what to do) were more likely to enact their plans. Plan enactment was positively associated with aggregated behaviour.ConclusionsInterventions should not only emphasize the importance of planning, but also the benefits of formulating specific contextual cues. Planning of the behavioural response seems to require less precision. Allowing for some flexibility in executing the anticipated target behaviour seems to aid successful plan enactment.Statement of ContributionWhat is already known on this subject'Action planning interventions are efficacious in promoting health behaviour.Characteristics of plan content (i.e., specificity) matter for unconditional behaviour change.Plan enactment (i.e., degree to which plan is followed through) is positively linked to behaviour change.What does this study add'Specificity of occasion cues (i.e., when to act) and highly instrumental plans were positively associated with plan enactment.Individuals who planned less specific behavioural responses (i.e., what to do) were more likely to enact their plans.Planning interventions should focus on specificity of context cues but flexibility of behavioural action.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T04:55:20.930381-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12263
  • A longitudinal study of the profiles of psychological thriving,
           resilience, and loss in people with inflammatory bowel disease
    • Authors: Fuschia M. Sirois; Jameson K. Hirsch
      Abstract: ObjectivesDespite the toll of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on adjustment, many patients are resilient to the challenges associated with living with IBD, and successfully cope with their illness and thrive. Yet there is little research on why some individuals with IBD enter a trajectory of growth, while others may struggle to adapt. The aim of this study was to investigate the adjustment-related factors that distinguished thriving, resilience, and loss in people with IBD across personal growth, life satisfaction, and relationship quality domains.DesignProspective cohort design with two data collection points, 6 months apart.MethodsFrom a sample of 420 people with active IBD who completed an online survey, 152 participants completed the follow-up survey and were included in the analyses. Participants completed measures of thriving, and cognitive, affective, social, and disease-related variables known to predict adjustment.ResultsTime 1 ANCOVAs and pairwise comparisons controlling for demographics distinguished loss from resilience and thriving on the four outcomes – coping efficacy, illness acceptance, depressive symptoms, and perceived social support – for all three domains. Time 2 ANCOVAs and pairwise comparisons controlling for baseline outcomes revealed that the Time thriving categories predicted differences in Time 2 adjustment, mainly for the life satisfaction domain, with those experiencing loss reporting poorer adjustment than those experiencing resilience and thriving.ConclusionsFindings highlight the distinctions among profiles of thriving, resilience, and loss in adjustment to IBD, and suggest that strategies that enhance coping and address depressive symptoms may optimize thriving in the context of IBD.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with depression, poor coping, and stressful symptoms.Previous research has focused mainly on poor adjustment to IBD rather than on positive growth.There is little research on why some patients with IBD thrive or are resilient, while others struggle to adapt.What does this study add'This study is the first to longitudinally examine the profiles of thriving, resilience, and loss in individuals with IBD.The thriving profiles differed in coping efficacy, illness acceptance, depressive symptoms, and social support outcomes at Time 1, and predicted adjustment at T2 mainly for the life satisfaction domain.Strategies that enhance coping and social support may optimize thriving in the context of IBD.
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T01:01:19.980057-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12262
  • Positioning, telling, and performing a male illness: Chronic
           prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome
    • Authors: Nicholas Wood; Annum Qureshi, Fahim Mughal
      Abstract: ObjectivesThere is a paucity of illness accounts of men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), despite a significant level of prevalence and burden of disease. This qualitative study thus elicited twelve accounts from men suffering with CP/CPPS.MethodsNarrative analysis was employed, focusing primarily on narrative content.ResultsThree major narrative themes were identified: (1) Medical stories: Blame and shame; (2) The Erratic nature of CP/CPPS; and (3) Ongoing struggles for coping and cures and the Search for meaning.ConclusionsRecommendations were made for health care providers and increasing the internal agency, support and activism of men with this debilitating condition.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'One qualitative account of this male illness (CP/CPPS) exists: an IPA study.Five cross-sectional themes: (1) Need for repeated confirmation – disease not life-threatening nor leading inexorably towards cancer; (2) Disturbed sleep and fatigue; (3) Concealing pain and problems – ‘normalizing’; (4) Enduring pain by performing activities; and (5) Abrupt mood swings and limited sociality.What does this study add'Narrative analysis adds information as to how this illness is managed and survived over time.It challenges the findings (above) by providing an insider perspective.Novel narrative themes include meaning-making amongst others.Masculine performance and experiences are also crucial to this stigmatized illness.
      PubDate: 2017-08-11T23:15:26.877085-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12261
  • Measures of fidelity of delivery of, and engagement with, complex,
           face-to-face health behaviour change interventions: A systematic review of
           measure quality
    • Authors: Holly Walton; Aimee Spector, Ildiko Tombor, Susan Michie
      Abstract: PurposeUnderstanding the effectiveness of complex, face-to-face health behaviour change interventions requires high-quality measures to assess fidelity of delivery and engagement. This systematic review aimed to (1) identify the types of measures used to monitor fidelity of delivery of, and engagement with, complex, face-to-face health behaviour change interventions and (2) describe the reporting of psychometric and implementation qualities.MethodsElectronic databases were searched, systematic reviews and reference lists were hand-searched, and 21 experts were contacted to identify articles. Studies that quantitatively measured fidelity of delivery of, and/or engagement with, a complex, face-to-face health behaviour change intervention for adults were included. Data on interventions, measures, and psychometric and implementation qualities were extracted and synthesized using narrative analysis.ResultsSixty-six studies were included: 24 measured both fidelity of delivery and engagement, 20 measured fidelity of delivery, and 22 measured engagement. Measures of fidelity of delivery included observation (n = 17; 38.6%), self-report (n = 15; 34%), quantitatively rated qualitative interviews (n = 1; 2.3%), or multiple measures (n = 11; 25%). Measures of engagement included self-report (n = 18; 39.1%), intervention records (n = 11; 24%), or multiple measures (n = 17; 37%). Fifty-one studies (77%) reported at least one psychometric or implementation quality; 49 studies (74.2%) reported at least one psychometric quality, and 17 studies (25.8%) reported at least one implementation quality.ConclusionFewer than half of the reviewed studies measured both fidelity of delivery of, and engagement with complex, face-to-face health behaviour change interventions. More studies reported psychometric qualities than implementation qualities. Interpretation of intervention outcomes from fidelity of delivery and engagement measurements may be limited due to a lack of reporting of psychometric and implementation qualities.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Evidence of fidelity and engagement is needed to understand effectiveness of complex interventionsEvidence of fidelity and engagement are rarely reportedHigh-quality measures are needed to measure fidelity and engagementWhat does this study add'Evidence that indicators of quality of measures are reported in some studiesEvidence that psychometric qualities are reported more frequently than implementation qualitiesA recommendation for intervention evaluations to report indicators of quality of fidelity and engagement measures
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T04:00:28.997921-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12260
  • Personal and situational predictors of everyday snacking: An application
           of temporal self-regulation theory
    • Authors: Katherine G. Elliston; Stuart G. Ferguson, Benjamin Schüz
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study aims at testing predictions derived from temporal self-regulation theory (TST) in relation to discretionary food choices (snacks). TST combines a motivational sphere of influence (cognitions and temporal valuations resulting in intentions) with a momentary sphere (encompassing social and physical environmental cues). This dual approach differs from current health behaviour theories, but can potentially improve our understanding of the interplay of personal and environmental factors in health behaviour self-regulation.DesignA mixed event-based and time-based (Ecological Momentary Assessment) study in 61 adults aged between 18 and 64, with a BMI range between 18.34 and 39.78 (M = 25.66, SD = 4.82) over two weeks.MethodsParticipants recorded their food and drink intake for two weeks in real time using electronic diaries. Participants also responded to non-consumption assessments at random intervals throughout each day. Momentary cues (individual, situational, and environmental factors) were assessed both during food logs and non-consumption assessments. Motivational factors, past behaviour, and trait self-regulation were assessed during baseline.ResultsMultilevel logistic regression analyses showed that across all snack types, environmental cues and negative affect were associated with an increased likelihood of snacking. Perceiving a cost of healthy eating to occur before eating was associated with an increased likelihood of snacking, whereas intentions and self-regulation were not.ConclusionsDiscretionary food intake is largely guided by momentary cues, and motivational-level factors, such as intention and self-regulation, are less important in the initiation of discretionary food intake.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Overweight and obesity are a result of prolonged periods of energy imbalance between energy intake and expenditure (Hill & Peters, ). One of the key behavioural determinants of energy imbalances results from food intake, specifically from discretionary food choices (snacking). Temporal self-regulation theory (Hall & Fong, ) takes into account both deliberate and momentary influences on health behaviour, which is especially relevant to exploring the drivers of snacking.What does this study add'Offers new insight into the application of TST in explaining momentary eating behaviours.Snacking initiation is guided by momentary cues, not person-level factors.Dietary interventions should acknowledge the momentary cues that are associated with snacking.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19T00:35:24.13699-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12259
  • Adult attachment, hostile conflict, and relationship adjustment among
           couples facing multiple sclerosis
    • Authors: Cassandra J. Crangle; Tae L. Hart
      Abstract: ObjectiveCouples facing multiple sclerosis (MS) report significantly elevated rates of relationship distress, yet the effects of attachment have never been examined in this population. We examined whether hostile conflict mediated the dyadic effects of attachment on relationship adjustment in couples facing MS and whether these associations were moderated by gender or role. We also explored whether dyadic adjustment mediated the relationship between attachment and hostile conflict.DesignThe study was cross-sectional and included 103 couples in which one partner had been diagnosed with MS.MethodsParticipants completed the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and Aversive Interactions Scale, as well as demographic variables. We used the actor–partner interdependence model for data analysis.ResultsThere were significant actor and partner effects of greater anxious attachment and worse dyadic adjustment. Actor and partner effects of anxious attachment were significantly mediated by greater hostile conflict. Gender significantly moderated the effects between avoidant attachment and dyadic adjustment. The actor effect was significant for males and females; the partner effect was only significant for females. The actor effect for females but not males was significantly mediated by greater hostile conflict. Role was not a significant moderator. Exploratory analyses also showed that dyadic adjustment mediated the relationship between anxious and avoidant attachment and hostile conflict.ConclusionsFindings highlight the important effects of attachment on relationship adjustment in MS couples. Both hostile conflict and dyadic adjustment appear to be mechanisms through which insecure attachment has a detrimental effect.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Despite higher-than-normal rates of marital distress and separation/divorce, the effects of attachment on relationship adjustment among couples facing multiple sclerosis have never been examined. Prior studies within healthy populations have supported within-person and cross-dyadic associations between attachment and relationship adjustment; however, they have failed to use dyadic analyses. Hostile conflict has been associated with both insecure attachment and relationship adjustment and therefore may be an important mediator to help understand these relationships.What does this study add'Women were more negatively affected by their partner's avoidant attachment then men.Hostile conflict mediated the effects of anxious attachment on dyadic adjustment for individuals and across dyads.Hostile conflict accounted for the individual effect of avoidant attachment on dyadic adjustment for women.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T05:40:39.057589-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12258
  • The effects of psychological interventions on wound healing: A systematic
           review of randomized trials
    • Authors: Hayley Robinson; Sam Norton, Paul Jarrett, Elizabeth Broadbent
      Abstract: PurposePsychological stress has been shown to delay wound healing. Several trials have investigated whether psychological interventions can improve wound healing, but to date, this evidence base has not been systematically synthesized. The objective was to conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials in humans investigating whether psychological interventions can enhance wound healing.MethodsA systematic review was performed using PsychINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and MEDLINE. The searches included all papers published in English up until September 2016. The reference lists of relevant papers were screened manually to identify further review articles or relevant studies. Nineteen studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the review.ResultsFifteen of nineteen studies were of high methodological quality. Six studies were conducted with acute experimentally created wounds, five studies with surgical patients, two studies with burn wounds, two studies with fracture wounds, and four studies were conducted with ulcer wounds. Post-intervention standardized mean differences (SMD) between groups across all intervention types ranged from 0.13 to 3.21, favouring improved healing, particularly for surgical patients and for relaxation interventions. However, there was some evidence for publication bias suggesting negative studies may not have been reported. Due to the heterogeneity of wound types, population types, and intervention types, it is difficult to pool effect sizes across studies.ConclusionsCurrent evidence suggests that psychological interventions may aid wound healing. Although promising, more research is needed to assess the efficacy of each intervention on different wound types.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Psychological stress negatively affects wound healing. A number of studies have investigated whether psychological interventions can improve healing. However, no systematic reviews have been conducted.What does this study add'Synthesis and review of 19 trials conducted on psychological interventions and wound healing.Most evidence supports improved healing, particularly for surgical wounds and relaxation interventions.More research is needed on different intervention types with clinical wounds and into mechanisms of action.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T01:26:35.451941-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12257
  • Explaining infant feeding: The role of previous personal and vicarious
           experience on attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and
           breastfeeding outcomes
    • Authors: Naomi C. Bartle; Kate Harvey
      Abstract: ObjectivesBreastfeeding confers important health benefits to both infants and their mothers, but rates are low in the United Kingdom and other developed countries despite widespread promotion. This study examined the relationships between personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding, self-efficacy, the theory of planned behaviour variables of attitudes and subjective norm, and the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6–8 weeks post-natally.DesignA prospective questionnaire study of both first-time mothers (n = 77) and experienced breastfeeders (n = 72) recruited at an antenatal clinic in South East England.MethodsParticipants completed a questionnaire at 32 weeks pregnant assessing personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding (breastfeeding, formula-feeding, and maternal grandmother’s experience of breastfeeding), perceived control, self-efficacy, intentions, attitudes (to breastfeeding and formula-feeding), and subjective norm. Infant feeding behaviour was recorded at 6–8 weeks post-natally. Multiple linear regression modelled the influence of vicarious experience on attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy (but not perceived control) and modelled the influence of attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and past experience on intentions to breastfeed. Logistic regression modelled the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6–8 weeks.ResultsPrevious experience (particularly personal experience of breastfeeding) explained a significant amount of variance in attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy. Intentions to breastfeed were predicted by subjective norm and attitude to formula-feeding and, in experienced mothers, self-efficacy. Breastfeeding at 6 weeks was predicted by intentions and vicarious experience of formula-feeding.ConclusionVicarious experience, particularly of formula-feeding, has been shown to influence the behaviour of first-time and experienced mothers both directly and indirectly via attitudes and subjective norm. Interventions that reduce exposure to formula-feeding (perhaps by limiting advertising) or cushion mothers from its effects may enable more mothers to meet their breastfeeding goals.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Rates of breastfeeding in the United Kingdom are low and resistant to change.Self-efficacy may be an important and modifiable factor for breastfeeding initiation and maintenance.What does this study add'Self-efficacy may only be a relevant factor among mothers who already have personal experience of breastfeeding.Vicarious experience of formula-feeding has been shown to be related to a lower rate of breastfeeding at 6 weeks.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23T23:35:26.810002-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12254
  • ‘It's definitely not Alzheimer's’: Perceived benefits and drawbacks of
           a mild cognitive impairment diagnosis
    • Authors: Tim Gomersall; Sarah Kate Smith, Charlotte Blewett, Arlene Astell
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo understand the perceived benefits and drawbacks of a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnosis from the perspective of those living with the label.MethodsParticipants were included if they had recently (within 6 months) received a MCI diagnosis. We also recruited close family members to gain their perspectives. Each was interviewed separately with a semi-structured topic guide covering three areas: (1) experience of cognitive impairments and changes in the individual; (2) impact of cognitive impairment(s) on daily activities and social relationships; and (3) experience of the diagnosis process and living with the label. Transcribed interviews were stored in Nvivo®. Grounded theory procedures of memo writing, open coding, constant comparison, and focused coding were used to derive conceptual themes.ResultsEighteen dyads were interviewed. The overarching themes surrounding diagnosis benefits and drawbacks were as follows: (1) emotional impact of the diagnosis; (2) practical benefits and limitations of the diagnosis, in terms of (a) understanding one's symptoms and (b) access to clinical support. Although participants were glad to have clinical support in place, they expressed frustration at the lack of clarity, and the lack of available treatments for MCI. Consequently, living with MCI can be characterized as an ambivalent experience.ConclusionAs a clinical label, MCI appears to have little explanatory power for people living with cognitive difficulties. Work is needed to clarify how clinicians and patients communicate about MCI, and how people can be helped to live well with the label. Despite an emerging body of prognostic studies, people with MCI are likely to continue living with significant uncertainty.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject'Mild cognitive impairment is a state of cognitive decline between normal cognitive ageing and dementia. This clinical category has been an important domain of academic debate over recent years. From a clinical perspective, diagnosing MCI is a helpful way to enable communication between health professionals, and a diagnosis can be important for patients in need of support and education. However, diagnosis can be fraught with difficulties, while patients have reported significant uncertainty about the label. This study aimed to examine the perceived benefits and drawbacks of receiving a MCI diagnosis.What does this study add'The emotional impact of a MCI diagnosis is complex and raised conflicting and fluctuating emotions in our participants’ accounts – most notably worry and relief.Participants were glad to have clinical support available to call on; however, they were frustrated at the lack of ‘treatments’ available for MCI and were often anxious to slow any cognitive decline downHealth psychologists will have an important role to play in understanding and improving clinical communication about MCI
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T13:04:01.113157-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12255
  • The journey between brain and gut: A systematic review of psychological
           mechanisms of treatment effect in irritable bowel syndrome
    • Authors: Sula Windgassen; Rona Moss-Morris, Joseph Chilcot, Alice Sibelli, Kimberley Goldsmith, Trudie Chalder
      Abstract: PurposeIrritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel habits. It is estimated to affect 10–22% of the UK population. The use of psychological interventions in IBS is increasingly empirically supported, but little is known about the mechanism of psychological treatment approaches. The present systematic review aimed to investigate the mechanisms of psychological treatment approaches applied to IBS.MethodsThe systematic review included studies conducting mediation analysis in the context of psychological interventions for IBS, focusing on the outcomes of symptom severity and/or quality of life (QoL).ResultsNine studies in total were included in the review. Eight of the studies assessed mediation in the context of cognitive behavioural-based interventions, and one study assessed mediation in a mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention. Results indicate that change in illness-specific cognitions is a key process by which psychological treatments may have an effect on the outcomes of symptom severity and QoL. Furthermore, results suggest that whilst GI-specific anxiety may also be a key mechanism of treatment effect, it would appear that general or state anxiety is not. Although less commonly included in mediation analysis, illness-specific behaviours may also have a mediating role.ConclusionsA mediational model amalgamating the results of studies is proposed to illustrate the findings of the review. The model depicts the process by which psychotherapy changes illness-specific cognitions, behaviours, and anxiety to achieve reduction in symptom severity.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject? Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is the predominant psychological treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), although there is some research supporting other treatments such as mindfulness and hypnotherapy. Mediation analysis in the context of psychological treatments for IBS has just begun to explore possible mechanisms of treatment effect especially within CBT studies. Some studies include anxiety in a basic mediation analysis, whilst others include cognitions with inconsistent results for each.What does this study add?Reviews mediators included in mediation analysis and the methods used for mediation analysisProposes a mediation model informed by the results of the review for future studies to investigateProvides clinical implications for the targeting of cognitions and behaviours rather than general anxiety
      PubDate: 2017-06-01T23:55:35.249316-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12250
  • Preliminary support for a brief psychological intervention to improve
           first-time hearing aid use among adults
    • Authors: Christopher J. Armitage; Deborah Lees, Kathryn Lewis, Kevin J. Munro
      Abstract: ObjectivesSuboptimal hearing aid use extorts significant social, health, and economic costs. The aims of this study were to (1) test the novel hypothesis that the threat associated with being diagnosed with hearing loss could be ameliorated with a self-affirmation manipulation and (2) gauge the feasibility of deploying the manipulation in routine clinical practice.DesignParallel groups randomized controlled trial with 10-week follow-up.MethodFifty people, newly prescribed with a hearing aid, completed either a questionnaire that included a brief self-affirming exercise or an identical questionnaire with no self-affirming exercise. The main outcome measure was derived from data logging automatically stored by the hearing aid. Perceived threat (‘anxiety about ageing’), behavioural intention, and self-efficacy were measured as potential mediators.ResultsObjectively measured hours of daily hearing aid use were marginally higher in the intervention group compared with the control group (between-group difference = 1.94 hr, 95%CI = −1.24, 5.12, d = 0.43). At follow-up, participants in the intervention group were significantly less anxious about ageing and more accepting of older people than were participants in the control group (between-group difference = 0.75, 95%CI = 0.26, 1.22, d = 0.87). There was no statistically significant effect of the intervention on behavioural intention or self-efficacy.ConclusionsAlthough not statistically significant, the magnitude of the effect of the intervention on hearing aid use (d = 0.43) suggests that it would be worthwhile working towards a fully powered randomized controlled trial. The ability to reduce anxieties about ageing with this brief intervention could have far-reaching benefits for multiple patient and general population groups.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subject?Hearing impairment is more disabling than diabetes, yet hearing aid use is suboptimal.Anxieties about ageing may undermine hearing aid use.What does this study add?The study tests a brief theory-based psychological intervention to reduce anxiety about ageing and promote hearing aid use.Results show that the brief psychological intervention reduced anxiety and marginally increased objective hearing aid use.Further work is required to identify other situations in which anxieties about ageing undermine behaviour change efforts.The very brief, flexible nature of the intervention means it could be adapted and deployed in numerous other health care settings.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T06:15:44.649447-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12244
  • What impact do questionnaire length and monetary incentives have on mailed
           health psychology survey response?
    • Authors: Kathryn A. Robb; Lauren Gatting, Jane Wardle
      Abstract: ObjectivesResponse rates to health-related surveys are declining. This study tested two strategies to improve the response rate to a health psychology survey mailed through English general practices: (1) sending a shortened questionnaire and (2) offering a monetary incentive to return a completed questionnaire.DesignRandomized controlled trial.MethodsAdults (n = 4,241) aged 45–59 years, from four General Practices in South-East England, were mailed a survey on attitudes towards bowel cancer screening. Using a 2 × 4 factorial design, participants were randomized to receive a ‘short’ (four A4 pages) or a ‘long’ (seven A4 pages) questionnaire, and one of four monetary incentives to return a completed questionnaire – (1) no monetary incentive, (2) £2.50 shop voucher, (3) £5.00 shop voucher, and (4) inclusion in a £250 shop voucher prize draw. Age, gender, and area-level deprivation were obtained from the General Practices.ResultsThe overall response rate was 41% (n = 1,589). Response to the ‘short’ questionnaire (42%) was not significantly different from the ‘long’ questionnaire (40%). The £2.50 incentive (43%) significantly improved response rates in univariate analyses, and remained significant after controlling for age, gender, area-level deprivation, and questionnaire length. The £5.00 (42%) and £250 prize draw (41%) incentives had no significant impact on response rates compared to no incentive (38%).ConclusionsA small monetary incentive (£2.50) may slightly increase response to a mailed health psychology survey. The length of the questionnaire (four pages vs. seven pages) did not influence response. Although frequently used, entry into a prize draw did not increase response. Achieving representative samples remains a challenge for health psychology.Statement of contributionWhat is already known on this subjectResponse rates to mailed questionnaires continue to decline, threatening the representativeness of data.Prize draw incentives are frequently used but there is little evidence to support their efficacy.Research on interactions between incentives, questionnaire length, and demographics is lacking.What does this study addContrary to previous findings, questionnaire length did not influence response rate.A £2.50 incentive increased response, while incentives of £5.00 and a £250 prize draw did not.Achieving representative samples to questionnaires remains a challenge for health psychology.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T06:30:30.891973-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12239
  • Sleep is a modifiable determinant of health: Implications and
           opportunities for health psychology
    • Authors: Simon D. Kyle; Alasdair L. Henry
      Pages: 661 - 670
      PubDate: 2017-10-03T06:16:28.689304-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12251
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