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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 896 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 445)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 218)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 238)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 146)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access  
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  

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Journal Cover British Journal of Educational Psychology
  [SJR: 1.304]   [H-I: 66]   [35 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0007-0998 - ISSN (Online) 2044-8279
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Exposure to violence, teacher support, and school delay amongst
           adolescents in South Africa
    • Authors: Rocio Herrero Romero; James Hall, Lucie Cluver
      Abstract: BackgroundMany adolescents in South Africa are exposed to multiple types of violence, socio-economic disadvantage, and low-quality education: all risk factors for educational outcomes including school delay (grade enrolment below that which is age-appropriate). Supportive teacher–student relationships are known to be associated with improved academic outcomes in high-income contexts.AimsTo investigate whether the academic and emotional support provided by teachers can protect against school delay for adolescents exposed to multiple types of violence and socio-economic disadvantage in South Africa.SampleHigh-risk sample of 503 adolescents aged 10–18 exposed to multiple types of violence and socio-economic disadvantage at home, in school, and in their communities.MethodsMultilevel aggregated structural equation modelling was applied to pre/post-RCT data. This investigated whether associations between adolescent exposure to violence and school delay could be lessened by having teachers who were academically and/or emotionally supportive.ResultsMore frequent exposure to ‘poly-violence’ and receiving more emotional support from teachers were independently associated with greater school delay. On the contrary, higher academic support from teachers was associated with lower school delay. Neither academic nor emotional teacher support was found to moderate the relationship between more frequent exposure to ‘poly-violence’ and an increased risk of adolescent school delay.ConclusionAdolescents’ academic support from teachers is low in poorly resourced school contexts in South Africa. School-based secondary prevention programmes assisting teachers with more training and academic support in deprived contexts have potential to reduce the impact of violence and socio-economic disadvantage on adolescents’ school delay.
      PubDate: 2018-01-16T07:15:44.277754-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12212
  • The unique role of executive function skills in predicting Hong Kong
           kindergarteners’ reading comprehension
    • Authors: Yingyi Liu; Huilin Sun, Dan Lin, Hong Li, Susanna Siu-sze Yeung, Terry Tin-Yau Wong
      Abstract: BackgroundWord reading and linguistic comprehension skills are two crucial components in reading comprehension, according to the Simple View of Reading (SVR). Some researchers have posited that a third component should be involved in reading and understanding texts, namely executive function (EF) skills.AimThis study was novel in two ways. Not only did we tested EF skills as a predictor of reading comprehension in a non-alphabetic language (i.e., Chinese) to extend the theoretical model of SVR, we also examined reading comprehension further in kindergarten children (age 5) in Hong Kong, in the attempt to reveal possible early precursors of reading comprehension.Sample(s)A group of 170 K3 kindergarteners was recruited in Hong Kong.MethodsChildren's word reading was assessed. Their linguistic comprehension was assessed with phonological awareness, verbal short-term memory, and vocabulary knowledge. Using a structured observation task, Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS), we measured their composite scores for EF skills.ResultsHead-Toes-Knees-Shoulders performance predicted unique variance in children's Chinese reading comprehension concurrently beyond word reading and a set of linguistic comprehension skills.ConclusionsThe results highlight the important role of EF skills in beginning readers’ reading comprehension.
      PubDate: 2018-01-15T23:40:31.914508-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12207
  • Doing better (or worse) than one's parents: Social status, mobility, and
           performance-avoidance goals
    • Authors: Mickaël Jury; Alisée Bruno, Céline Darnon
      Abstract: BackgroundPrevious research has shown that, when succeeding in higher education, first-generation (FG) students endorse more performance-avoidance goals (i.e., the fear of performing poorly) than continuing-generation (CG) students.AimsIn this study, individual mobility is examined as a predictor of performance-avoidance goal endorsement. It is argued that FG students endorse more these goals than CG students because in higher education, the former (but not the latter) experience upward mobility. In addition, CG can also be at risk of endorsing these goals when they are confronted with downward mobility.Sample(s)Two studies were conducted with psychology students (N = 143 in Study 1; N = 176 in Study 2).MethodsIn Study 1, FG and CG students’ perceived upward mobility was measured. In Study 2, FG and CG students were provided with a feedback that suggested either upward or downward mobility. In both studies, participants reported their level of performance-avoidance goal endorsement.ResultsResults from Study 1 supported an indirect effect of status on performance-avoidance goals via a higher perception of upward mobility. Results from Study 2 supported that psychology students who face mobility (i.e., FG students who received better feedback than their usual level of performance, CG students who received worse feedback than their usual level of performance) increased their performance-avoidance goals the most.ConclusionsTaken together, the results of these studies support that one's actual social position and, even more, the social position one is about to reach are reliable predictors of performance-avoidance goals.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T04:20:57.201178-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12210
  • School readiness in children with special educational needs and
           disabilities: Psychometric findings from a new screening tool, the Brief
           Early Skills, and Support Index
    • Authors: Claire Hughes; Sarah Foley, Naomi White, Rory T. Devine
      Abstract: BackgroundThere is an urgent need to accelerate the detection of special educational needs and disabilities (SEND). A recent brief questionnaire designed for teachers and nursery staff, the Brief Early Skills and Support Index (BESSI), shows promising psychometric properties (Hughes, Daly, Foley, White, & Devine, . British Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(3), 332–356.), but has yet to be evaluated as a tool for detecting children who may have SEND.AimsAddressing this gap, this study aimed to assess whether BESSI scores (i) show measurement invariance across SEND status; (ii) show unique associations with SEND status; and (iii) are sensitive and specific to SEND status.SampleEighty-four teachers and nursery staff completed BESSI ratings for 2106 British children aged 2.5–5.5 years (48.9% male, 20% ethnic minority, 9.3% with a statement of SEND).MethodWe applied multilevel confirmatory factor analyses, regression analyses, and ROC analyses to examine each of the study questions, using the BESSI subscales (Behavioural Adjustment, Language and Cognition, Daily Living Skills, and Family Support) as dependent variables.ResultsThe four BESSI subscales were reliable and showed measurement invariance across SEND status. Over and above effects of age, gender, family income, ethnicity, and family size, SEND status predicted substantial unique variance in BESSI scores. ROC analyses showed that in detecting children identified as having SEND, a cut-off score of 8.50 on the BESSI total score produced good levels of sensitivity and specificity; gender-specific analyses indicated a lower cut-off score of 6.50 for girls.ConclusionThe BESSI appears to be a useful tool in screening children for more detailed assessment of SEND.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T04:02:07.535349-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12206
  • An exploration of the application and implementation of growth mindset
           principles within a primary school
    • Authors: Diana M. Fraser
      Abstract: BackgroundA growth mindset is a significant factor in the motivation and achievement of learners. Previous research has shown one-off interventions do encourage growth mindset thinking but only improvements are only short-lived. A sustainable and embedded approach may therefore be the only way to engender long-term changes to an individual's mindset.AimsThis research explores the application and implementation of growth mindset approaches to teaching and learning within a primary school, aiming to identify the strengths of the application and implementation of the growth mindset principles as well as areas for improvement.SampleParticipants were the head teacher, five teachers, and 28 pupils at a primary school in Scotland.MethodSemi-structured interviews were undertaken with members of staff, focus groups were undertaken with the pupils, and six observations were undertaken across three different classes. The data were thematically analysed using an inductive approach.ResultsThe analysis of the data produced four overarching themes important to the implementation and application of growth mindset teaching and learning: embarking on the process; classroom culture and teaching; outside the classroom; and pupil approach to learning.ConclusionsAmong the strengths of the implementation was the collaborative approach that had been taken in the school and the understanding that staff had of the evidence base of growth mindset teaching and learning. Areas for development included the planning of the implementation such as the lack of a readiness assessment being undertaken.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T06:50:22.91292-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12208
  • Gender differences in mathematics achievement in Beijing: A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Meijuan Li; Yongmei Zhang, Hongyun Liu, Yi Hao
      Abstract: BackgroundThe topic of gender differences in mathematical performance has received considerable attention in the fields of education, sociology, economics and psychology.AimsWe analysed gender differences based on data from the Beijing Assessment of Educational Quality in China.SampleA large data set of Grade 5 and Grade 8 students who took the mathematical test from 2008 to 2013 (n = 73,318) were analysed.MethodMeta-analysis was used in this research.ResultsThe findings were as follows. (1) No gender differences in mathematical achievement exist among students in Grade 5, relatively small gender differences exist in Grade 8, females scored higher than males, and variance of male students is larger than that of females in both Grade 5 and Grade 8. (2) Except for statistics and probability, gender differences in other domains in Grade 8 are significantly higher than those in Grade 5, and female students outperform males. (3) The ratio of students of both gender in Grade 5 and Grade 8 at the 95–100% percentile level shows no significant differences. However, the ratio of male students is significantly higher than that of females at the 0–5% percentile level. (4) In Grade 5, the extent to which females outperformed males in low SES group is larger than that in higher SES groups, and in Grade 8, the magnitude of gender differences in urban schools is smaller than that in rural schools.ConclusionThere is a small gender difference among the 8th graders, with the male disadvantage at the bottom of the distribution. And gender differences also vary across school locations.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19T04:03:33.4159-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12203
  • Instructor personality matters for student evaluations: Evidence from two
           subject areas at university
    • Authors: Lisa E. Kim; Carolyn MacCann
      Abstract: BackgroundInstructors are under pressure to produce excellent outcomes in students. Although the contribution of student personality on student outcomes is well established, the contribution of instructor personality to student outcomes is largely unknown.AimThis study examined the influence of instructor personality (as reported by both students and instructors themselves) on student educational outcomes at university.Sample and methodMathematics and psychology university students (N = 515) and their instructors (n = 45) reported their personality under the Big Five framework.ResultsMultilevel regressions were conducted to predict each outcome from instructor personality, taking into account the effects of student gender, age, cognitive ability, and personality, as well as instructor gender and age. Student-reports of instructor personality predicted student evaluations of teaching but not performance self-efficacy or academic achievement. Instructor self-reports did not predict any of the outcomes. Stronger associations between student-reports and the outcomes than instructor self-reports could be explained by students providing information on both the predictor and the outcome variables, as well as a greater number of raters providing information on instructor personality. Different domains of the instructor Big Five were important for different element of student evaluations of teaching.ConclusionsThe study highlights the importance of studying instructor personality, especially through other-reports, to understand students’ educational experiences. This has implications for how tertiary institutions should use and interpret student evaluations.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04T00:30:44.029764-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12205
  • Verbal and action-based measures of kindergartners' SFON and their
           associations with number-related utterances during picture book reading
    • Authors: Sanne Rathé; Joke Torbeyns, Bert De Smedt, Minna M. Hannula-Sormunen, Lieven Verschaffel
      Abstract: BackgroundYoung children's spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) as measured by experimental tasks is related to their mathematics achievement. This association is hypothetically explained by children's self-initiated practice in number recognition during everyday activities. As such, experimentally measured SFON should be associated with SFON exhibited during everyday activities and play. However, prior studies investigating this assumed association provided inconsistent findings.AimsWe aimed to address this issue by investigating the association between kindergartners' SFON as measured by two different experimental tasks and the frequency of their number-related utterances during a typical picture book reading activity.SampleParticipants were 65 4- to 6-year-olds in kindergarten (before the start of formal education).MethodsKindergartners individually participated in two sessions. First, they completed an action-based SFON Imitation task and a verbal SFON Picture task, with a short visuo-motor task in between. Next, children were invited to spontaneously comment on the pictures of a picture book during a typical picture book reading activity.ResultsResults revealed a positive association between children's SFON as measured by the Picture task and the frequency of their number-related utterances during typical picture book reading, but no such association for the Imitation task.ConclusionsOur findings indicate that children with higher SFON as measured by a verbal experimental task also tend to focus more frequently on number during verbal everyday activities, such as picture book reading. In view of the divergent associations between our SFON measures under study with everyday number activities, the current data suggest that SFON may not be a unitary construct and/or might be task-dependent.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T03:49:10.730161-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12201
  • Scaffolding as a key role for teaching assistants: Perceptions of their
           pedagogical strategies
    • Authors: David Bowles; Julie Radford, Ioanna Bakopoulou
      Abstract: BackgroundInclusive education policies have led to a worldwide increase in the number of teaching assistants (TAs) working in mainstream schools. TAs have a large amount of responsibility for supporting children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), a role which by default has become instructional in practice, and for which training and preparation are rarely adequate. While there is some research into the nature of TAs' interactions with pupils and the strategies they use which are helpful for children's learning, TAs' perspectives on their own classroom practice have yet to be explored.AimsTo explore TAs' perceptions about their use of inclusive pedagogical strategies.SampleThe study involved eleven TAs in two mainstream primary schools.MethodsThe TAs were interviewed face to face to explore their views about inclusive pedagogical strategies. The data were analysed using thematic analysis.ResultsTAs were clear about the strategies they use to offer emotional and relational support to children. There were some gaps, however, in their knowledge about how children learn, specifically in terms of transferring responsibility for learning onto children.ConclusionThe study advances understanding of scaffolding from a TA perspective and highlights the importance of training TAs in scaffolding theory.
      PubDate: 2017-11-19T23:20:24.584649-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12197
  • The interplay of gender and social background: A longitudinal study of
           interaction effects in reading attitudes and behaviour
    • Authors: Michael Becker; Nele McElvany
      Abstract: BackgroundResearchers often report and discuss gender differences. However, recent research has drawn attention to interaction effects between gender and other social categories.AimsThis study analysed the development of disparities in students’ reading-related self-concept, intrinsic motivation, and behaviour, as they relate to differences in gender and socio-economic family background. Drawing on expectancy-value theory, we regarded reading-related self-concept, motivation, and behaviour as key to explaining the growing differences between boys and girls in adolescence. Specifically, we focused on the interaction between gender and socio-economic background in children, which has been discussed in the context of moderating gender differences but not in the context of reading-related attitudes and behaviour.SampleThe investigation is based on a longitudinal sample of N = 717 German students between third and sixth grades.MethodWe used questionnaire data from both students and parents. To compare students’ development across time, we applied multigroup latent growth curve models.ResultsWe found evidence of increasing gender differences, which were also moderated by the socio-economic status (SES) of parents: a gender gap either already existed (intrinsic motivation and reading behaviour) or intensified (reading self-concept and reading behaviour) between third and sixth grades. The interaction of gender and SES seemed particularly important for reading self-concept, with the gender gap growing less substantially for higher-SES children. Moreover, this pattern persisted for reading self-concept, even when controlling for achievement differences.ConclusionsThe results provide evidence that gender, social background, and the interaction of the two are relevant for development in the domain of reading, even in young children.
      PubDate: 2017-11-15T06:15:29.606959-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12199
  • Effects of achievement differences for internal/external frame of
           reference model investigations: A test of robustness of findings over
           diverse student samples
    • Authors: Isabelle Schmidt; Martin Brunner, Franzis Preckel
      Abstract: BackgroundAchievement in math and achievement in verbal school subjects are more strongly correlated than the respective academic self-concepts. The internal/external frame of reference model (I/E model; Marsh, 1986, Am. Educ. Res. J., 23, 129) explains this finding by social and dimensional comparison processes. We investigated a key assumption of the model that dimensional comparisons mainly depend on the difference in achievement between subjects. We compared correlations between subject-specific self-concepts of groups of elementary and secondary school students with or without achievement differences in the respective subjects.AimsThe main goals were (1) to show that effects of dimensional comparisons depend to a large degree on the existence of achievement differences between subjects, (2) to demonstrate the generalizability of findings over different grade levels and self-concept scales, and (3) to test a rarely used correlation comparison approach (CCA) for the investigation of I/E model assumptions.SamplesWe analysed eight German elementary and secondary school student samples (grades 3–8) from three independent studies (Ns 326–878).MethodCorrelations between math and German self-concepts of students with identical grades in the respective subjects were compared with the correlation of self-concepts of students having different grades using Fisher's Z test for independent samples.ResultsIn all samples, correlations between math self-concept and German self-concept were higher for students having identical grades than for students having different grades. Differences in median correlations had small effect sizes for elementary school students and moderate effect sizes for secondary school students.ConclusionsFindings generalized over grades and indicated a developmental aspect in self-concept formation. The CCA complements investigations within I/E-research.
      PubDate: 2017-11-12T23:36:26.325856-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12198
  • Morningness–eveningness is not associated with academic performance in
           the afternoon school shift: Preliminary findings
    • Authors: Arturo Arrona-Palacios; Juan F. Díaz-Morales
      Abstract: BackgroundThe effect of morningness–eveningness, sleep habits, and intelligence on academic performance has been studied in a fixed morning school shift. However, no studies have analysed these variables in an afternoon school shift and tested whether morningness–eveningness is related to academic performance beyond sleep habits and intelligence effects.AimsThe psychometric properties of the Morningness–Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC) were analysed. Additionally, academic performance, sex, intelligence, sleep habits, and morningness–eveningness relationship in a morning and afternoon school shift were compared.SampleThe sample consisted of 400 students at a secondary public school in Reynosa, Tamaulipas, in north-eastern Mexico (195 boys and 205 girls; mean ± SD: 13.85 ± 0.70 years old) attending a double-shift school system: 200 from the morning shift (99 boys and 101 girls) and 200 from the afternoon shift (96 boys and 104 girls).MethodsThe students completed the MESC as a measure of morningness–eveningness, a sleep habits survey, a test of academic performance, and the inductive reasoning subtest (R) of the Primary Mental Abilities battery.ResultsAdolescents in the two school shifts did not differ in academic performance and intelligence. In the afternoon shift, adolescents slept longer, reported less sleep deficit and social jet lag, and were more oriented to eveningness than adolescents in the morning shift. Sex (girls), sleep length, inductive reasoning, and morningness were associated with academic performance in the morning shift but only sex and intelligence in the afternoon shift.ConclusionsThe role of morningness–eveningness in academic performance in the afternoon shift is examined.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T23:56:06.511719-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12196
  • The influence of text cohesion and picture detail on young readers’
           knowledge of science topics
    • Authors: Juliette C. Désiron; Erica de Vries, Anna N. Bartel, Nalini Varahamurti
      Abstract: Background and AimThe effects of text cohesion and added pictures on acquired knowledge have been heavily studied each in isolation. Furthermore, studies on the effects of specific characteristics of pictures, whether facilitating or hindering, are scarce. Schnotz's ITCP Model (2014) allows to formulate hypotheses regarding the combined effect of text cohesion and presence and level of detail of a picture. This study investigates these hypotheses in the case of children reading scientific texts.SampleOne hundred and one-second-, third-, and fourth-grade pupils with a mean age of 9 years, in the western United States.MethodsData were collected over three sessions to encompass an understanding of each pupil's knowledge based on prior sessions.Results and ConclusionsResults showed a significant increase in pupils’ knowledge between pre-test and immediate post-test, but as hypothesized, no significant difference between levels of cohesion. No significant difference between types of pictures was detected. After 1 week, knowledge built with a high cohesive text significantly dropped with low-detail picture, whereas, with high detail, or no picture, there was no significant difference. Results suggested that when participants were given a low-detail picture with a low cohesive text, the integration process of the material was more restricted than with a high cohesive text.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T23:30:53.896599-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12195
  • Thinking or feeling' An exploratory study of maternal scaffolding,
           child mental state talk, and emotion understanding in language-impaired
           and typically developing school-aged children
    • Authors: Nicola Yuill; Sarah Little
      Abstract: BackgroundMother–child mental state talk (MST) supports children's developing social–emotional understanding. In typically developing (TD) children, family conversations about emotion, cognition, and causes have been linked to children's emotion understanding. Specific language impairment (SLI) may compromise developing emotion understanding and adjustment.AimsWe investigated emotion understanding in children with SLI and TD, in relation to mother–child conversation. Specifically, is cognitive, emotion, or causal MST more important for child emotion understanding and how might maternal scaffolding support this'SampleNine 5- to 9-year-old children with SLI and nine age-matched typically developing (TD) children, and their mothers.MethodWe assessed children's language, emotion understanding and reported behavioural adjustment. Mother–child conversations were coded for MST, including emotion, cognition, and causal talk, and for scaffolding of causal talk.ResultsChildren with SLI scored lower than TD children on emotion understanding and adjustment. Mothers in each group provided similar amounts of cognitive, emotion, and causal talk, but SLI children used proportionally less cognitive and causal talk than TD children did, and more such child talk predicted better child emotion understanding. Child emotion talk did not differ between groups and did not predict emotion understanding. Both groups participated in maternal-scaffolded causal talk, but causal talk about emotion was more frequent in TD children, and such talk predicted higher emotion understanding.ConclusionsCognitive and causal language scaffolded by mothers provides tools for articulating increasingly complex ideas about emotion, predicting children's emotion understanding. Our study provides a robust method for studying scaffolding processes for understanding causes of emotion.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T07:00:52.192994-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12194
  • An online growth mindset intervention in a sample of rural adolescent
    • Authors: Jeni L. Burnette; Michelle V. Russell, Crystal L. Hoyt, Kasey Orvidas, Laura Widman
      Abstract: BackgroundStudents living in rural areas of the United States exhibit lower levels of educational attainment than their suburban counterparts. Innovative interventions are needed to close this educational achievement gap.AimsWe investigated whether an online growth mindset intervention could be leveraged to promote academic outcomes.SampleWe tested the mindset intervention in a sample of 222 10th-grade adolescent girls (M age = 15.2; 38% White, 25% Black, 29% Hispanic) from four rural, low-income high schools in the Southeastern United States.MethodsWe conducted a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of the growth mindset intervention, relative to a sexual health programme. We used random sampling and allocation procedures to assign girls to either the mindset intervention (n = 115) or an attention-matched control programme (n = 107). We assessed participants at pre-test, immediate post-test, and 4-month follow-up.ResultsRelative to the control condition, students assigned to the mindset intervention reported stronger growth mindsets at immediate post-test and 4-month follow-up. Although the intervention did not have a total effect on academic attitudes or grades, it indirectly increased motivation to learn, learning efficacy and grades via the shifts in growth mindsets.ConclusionsResults indicate that this intervention is a promising method to encourage growth mindsets in rural adolescent girls.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T04:40:25.879377-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12192
  • Measuring the impact of teaching approaches on achievement-related
           emotions: The use of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire
    • Authors: Rebecca Starkey-Perret; Aurore Deledalle, Christine Jeoffrion, Charlotte Rowe
      Abstract: BackgroundThis study focuses on achievement emotions in a context of foreign language acquisition in a French-speaking population.AimsFirstly, the reliability and construct validity of the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire were examined; the second aim was to compare the effectiveness of two teaching approaches, classical and task-based learning and teaching (TBLT) on students' emotions over time.SampleThis study involves 299 participants.MethodsAchievement Emotions were rated with a self-administrated questionnaire at the beginning of the academic year and at its end.ResultsTo verify the psychometric aim, a series of confirmatory factor analyses were computed and showed that the original multifactorial structure proposed by Pekrun et al. (2010) had the best fit. For the second aim, the results showed that all of the achievement emotions reduced in intensity over the school year (apart from boredom) and this reduction is higher for the anxiety level of pupils in 6th grade with TBLT.ConclusionsImplications for further research and educational practice are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25T00:20:35.544308-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12193
  • Epistemic beliefs as predictors of epistemic emotions: Extending a
           theoretical model
    • Authors: Tom Rosman; Anne-Kathrin Mayer
      Abstract: BackgroundThe cognitive incongruity model of epistemic beliefs and emotions states that if students’ beliefs about the nature of knowledge (e.g., knowledge as simple and absolute) are incompatible with the epistemic nature of learning materials (e.g., complex and contradictory), cognitive incongruity arises. This, in turn, entails negative emotional consequences.AimsThe epistemic nature of contradictory learning materials might be perceived differently depending on whether individuals resolve the contradictions or not. Therefore, extending the cognitive incongruity model, the present paper argues that cognitive (in)congruity also depends on how individuals act on the learning materials. We expect that only if students resolve contradictory scientific claims (e.g., by identifying moderators), more advanced epistemic beliefs (e.g., evaluativism) have positive emotional effects and vice versa.SampleA field-experimental study with N = 86 undergraduate psychology students was conducted.MethodUsing a multiple-texts approach, participants were first presented controversial evidence on gender stereotyping from 18 different (fictional) studies. In contrast to similar multiple-texts approaches, all contradictions could be resolved by identifying the contextual factors that a certain type of stereotype discrimination occurs in (‘resolvable controversies’). After reading, the experimental group was asked to resolve the contradictions, whereas two control groups read the same texts, but were not required to resolve the controversies.ResultsResults revealed that absolute beliefs positively and evaluativistic beliefs negatively predict negative emotions, but only if students were instructed to resolve the contradictions.ConclusionsOur results suggest that extending the cognitive incongruity model by how students deal with controversial learning materials might be worthwhile.
      PubDate: 2017-09-21T23:45:26.906365-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12191
  • School connectedness and the primary to secondary school transition for
           young people with autism spectrum conditions
    • Authors: Judith S. Hebron
      Abstract: BackgroundYoung people with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) face many educational challenges, particularly in terms of academic achievement, social inclusion, and mental health. School connectedness is linked to many positive outcomes and may be of particular salience at the primary–secondary school transition, when young people with ASC are expected to cope in new and unfamiliar settings.AimsThis study explores for the first time school connectedness across the primary to secondary school transition for young people with ASC.SampleTwenty-eight students with ASC (23 male, five female) and a comparison group of 21 students with no additional needs (16 male, five female) participated.MethodsA longitudinal design was used to measure school connectedness across transition at four time-points from the end of primary school, into the first and second years of secondary school. Students completed the Psychological Sense of School Membership (Goodenow, 1993, Psychology in the Schools, 30, 79) questionnaire at each time-point, with responses analysed statistically.ResultsStudents with ASC reported positive levels of school connectedness across transition, although their scores remained lower than those of their typically developing peers. The gap between the two groups narrowed significantly during the first year of secondary school, with students in the ASC group reporting improving levels of school connectedness, although there were non-significant signs of a decline for both groups in the second year.ConclusionsTransition can be a positive experience for students with ASC. However, their consistently lower levels of school connectedness compared to those of their peers highlight the need for ongoing monitoring and support during secondary education.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T03:50:24.4129-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12190
  • Family support and gains in school readiness: A longitudinal study
    • Authors: Claire Hughes; Naomi White, Sarah Foley, Rory T. Devine
      Abstract: BackgroundTraditional measures of school readiness are labour-intensive and do not assess family support.AimsThe current study used the newly developed Brief Early Skills and Support Index (BESSI: Hughes, Daly, Foley, White and Devine 2015) to examine 6-month longitudinal stability and change in teachers’ ratings of young children's school readiness and investigate the role of family support as a predictor of school readiness.SampleFive hundred and seventy-eight children (270 boys; 74.2% White British) were included at Time 1 aged 2.58–5.84 years (Mage = 3.98 years, SD = 0.66).MethodTeachers and nursery workers completed BESSI questionnaires for each participant on two occasions separated by 6 months.ResultsThe four latent factors of the BESSI (i.e., Behavioural Adjustment, Language and Cognition, Daily Living Skills and Family Support) exhibited longitudinal measurement invariance and individual differences in ratings on each factor showed strong stability over time. BESSI ratings were also sensitive to improvements over time. Auto-regressive models showed that family support and family income (as measured by eligibility for pupil premium support) at Time 1 each uniquely predicted child outcomes at Time 2.ConclusionsThese findings highlight the importance of family contexts for children's school readiness.
      PubDate: 2017-09-17T07:25:20.913803-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12188
  • Revealing hidden talents: The development, use, and benefit of VESPARCH
    • Authors: Julia R. Badger; Jane Mellanby
      Abstract: BackgroundSchool attainment tests and Cognitive Abilities Tests are used in the United Kingdom to set targets for educational outcome. Whilst these are good predictors, they depend not only on basic ability but also on learnt knowledge and skills, such as reading.Method and AimsVESPARCH is an online group test of verbal and spatial reasoning, which we propose gives a measure that more closely approximates to basic ability – fluid intelligence. The verbal test contains highly familiar words, does not require the child to read them, is untimed, and provides detailed feedback on five practice questions for each part of the test. The tests – one suitable and standardized for children aged 7–9 years and one for children aged 10–12 years – have good test–retest reliability and validity and conform to the Rasch model. Comparison of VESPARCH scores with school attainment measures allows identification of those students who are underachieving academically relative to their potential. The matched nature of the verbal and spatial tests allows reasoning ability in the two domains to be compared; those with much higher spatial scores might be expected to do well in STEM subjects.ConclusionVESPARCH can be used alongside current school tests to ensure targeted teaching and encouragement for every child.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T03:15:38.684957-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12189
  • Fraction magnitude understanding and its unique role in predicting general
           mathematics achievement at two early stages of fraction instruction
    • Authors: Yingyi Liu
      Abstract: BackgroundPrior studies on fraction magnitude understanding focused mainly on students with relatively sufficient formal instruction on fractions whose fraction magnitude understanding is relatively mature.AimThis study fills a research gap by investigating fraction magnitude understanding in the early stages of fraction instruction. It extends previous findings to children with limited and primary formal fraction instruction.Sample(s)Thirty-five fourth graders with limited fraction instruction and forty fourth graders with primary fraction instruction were recruited from a Chinese primary school.MethodsChildren's fraction magnitude understanding was assessed with a fraction number line estimation task. Approximate number system (ANS) acuity was assessed with a dot discrimination task. Whole number knowledge was assessed with a whole number line estimation task. General reading and mathematics achievements were collected concurrently and 1 year later.ResultsIn children with limited fraction instruction, fraction representation was linear and fraction magnitude understanding was concurrently related to both ANS and whole number knowledge. In children with primary fraction instruction, fraction magnitude understanding appeared to (marginally) significantly predict general mathematics achievement 1 year later.ConclusionsFraction magnitude understanding emerged early during formal instruction of fractions. ANS and whole number knowledge were related to fraction magnitude understanding when children first began to learn about fractions in school. The predictive value of fraction magnitude understanding is likely constrained by its sophistication level.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T00:05:54.609136-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12182
  • The relationship between motor skills and psychosocial factors in young
           children: A test of the elaborated environmental stress hypothesis
    • Authors: Vincent O. Mancini; Daniela Rigoli, Lynne D. Roberts, Brody Heritage, Jan P. Piek
      Abstract: BackgroundThe elaborated environmental stress hypothesis (EESH) provides a framework that describes how motor skills may indirectly cause internalizing problems through various mediating psychosocial factors. While there is evidence to support this framework, little is known about how the proposed relationships may vary across different stages of development.AimsThis study aimed to investigate whether peer problems and perceived self-competence mediated the relationship between motor skills and internalizing problems in pre-primary children, and at 18-month follow up.SampleA community sample of 197 pre-primary school children (M = 5.40 years, SD = 0.30 years; 102 males, 95 females) participated at Time 1, with 107 completing the Time 2 follow-up.MethodsStandardized instruments were used to measure motor skills and verbal IQ. Perceived self-competence was measured using a self-report measure. Participant peer problems and internalizing problems were measured using teacher report. Age, gender, and verbal IQ were included as covariates.ResultsMediation analysis using PROCESS showed that the relationship between motor skills and internalizing problems was mediated by peer problems at Time 1. At Time 2, the relationship was mediated by peer problems and perceived physical competence.ConclusionsThe current results indicate the EESH may function differently across different periods of development. The transition from pre-primary to Grade 1 represents a time of important cognitive and psychosocial development, which has implications for how the relationship between motor skills and internalizing problems can be understood. These findings highlight potential age-appropriate targets for psychomotor interventions aiming to improve the emotional well-being of young children.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T00:05:40.390677-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12187
  • Teacher spatial skills are linked to differences in geometry instruction
    • Authors: Beryl Ann Otumfuor; Martha Carr
      Abstract: BackgroundSpatial skills have been linked to better performance in mathematics.AimThe purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between teacher spatial skills and their instruction, including teacher content and pedagogical knowledge, use of pictorial representations, and use of gestures during geometry instruction.SampleFifty-six middle school teachers participated in the study.MethodsThe teachers were administered spatial measures of mental rotations and spatial visualization. Next, a single geometry class was videotaped.ResultCorrelational analyses revealed that spatial skills significantly correlate with teacher's use of representational gestures and content and pedagogical knowledge during instruction of geometry. Spatial skills did not independently correlate with the use of pointing gestures or the use of pictorial representations. However, an interaction term between spatial skills and content and pedagogical knowledge did correlate significantly with the use of pictorial representations. Teacher experience as measured by the number of years of teaching and highest degree did not appear to affect the relationships among the variables with the exception of the relationship between spatial skills and teacher content and pedagogical knowledge.ConclusionTeachers with better spatial skills are also likely to use representational gestures and to show better content and pedagogical knowledge during instruction. Spatial skills predict pictorial representation use only as a function of content and pedagogical knowledge.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T23:35:33.194974-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12172
  • Sleep difficulties and academic performance in Norwegian higher education
    • Authors: Amie C. Hayley; Børge Sivertsen, Mari Hysing, Øystein Vedaa, Simon Øverland
      Abstract: BackgroundSleep difficulties are common among university students and may detrimentally affect academic outcomes. Despite this, remarkably little information is currently available during this critical developmental period of early adulthood, and thus, the direct effect on measurable domains of academic ability and proficiency is equivocal.AimsTo evaluate the associations between difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS) and subjective and objective academic performance in a large sample of university students.SampleA total of 12,915 students who participated in large student survey in Norway from 24 February 2014 to 27 March 2014. DIMS was assessed by the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25), and academic outcomes included failed examinations, delayed study progress, and school-related self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale).ResultsDifficulties initiating and maintaining sleep was independently associated with increased odds for poor school performance for all academic outcomes. Reporting ‘extreme’ DIMS was associated with increased odds of reporting delayed study progress (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.25, 95% CI 1.01–1.57, p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T23:25:38.201171-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12180
  • Scaffolding under the microscope: Applying self-regulation and
           other-regulation perspectives to a scaffolded task
    • Authors: Georgia Leith; Nicola Yuill, Alison Pike
      Abstract: BackgroundTypical scaffolding coding schemes provide overall scores to compare across a sample. As such, insights into the scaffolding process can be obscured: the child's contribution to the learning; the particular skills being taught and learned; and the overall changes in amount of scaffolding over the course of the task.AimsThis study applies a transition of regulation framework to scaffolding coding, using a self-regulation and other-regulation coding scheme, to explore how rich and detailed data on mother–child dyadic interactions fit alongside collapsed sample-level scores.SampleData of 78 mother–child dyads (M age = 9 years 10 months) from the Sisters and Brothers Study (SIBS: Pike et al., 2006, Family relationships in middle childhood. National Children's Bureau/Joseph Rowntree Foundation) were used for this analysis.MethodsVideos of the mother and child completing a multiple-trial block design puzzle task at home were coded for their different self- and other-regulation skills at the end of every block design trial.ResultsThese constructs were examined at a sample level, providing general findings about typical patterns of self-regulation and other-regulation. Seven exemplar families at different ends of the spectrum were then extracted for fine-grained examination, showing substantial trial- and behaviour-related differences between seemingly similarly scoring families.ConclusionThis coding scheme demonstrated the value of exploring perspectives of a mother–child tutoring task aligned to the concept of other-regulation, and investigating detailed features of the interaction that go undetected in existing scaffolding coding schemes.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29T23:55:50.749608-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12178
  • The complexity of school racial climate: Reliability and validity of a new
           measure for secondary students
    • Authors: Christy M. Byrd
      Abstract: BackgroundThe conceptualization of the role of race and culture in students’ experience of school has been limited. This study presents a more comprehensive and multidimensional framework than previously conceptualized and includes the two domains of (1) intergroup interactions (frequency of interaction, quality of interaction, equal status, and support for positive interaction) and (2) school racial socialization (cultural socialization, mainstream socialization, promotion of cultural competence, colourblind socialization, critical consciousness socialization, and stereotyping) (Byrd, 2015, Journal of Educational Research, 108, 10).AimsThe scale presents a measure of school racial climate for middle and high school students and tests for evidence of reliability and validity in two independent, nationwide samples.Sample and methodParticipants were 819 children aged 12–18 (M = 15.27, SD = 1.58) who completed the School Climate for Diversity – Secondary Scale and a number of validating measures: general school climate, perceived discrimination, culturally responsive teaching, grades, and academic motivation.Results and conclusionsConfirmatory factor analyses and reliability analyses showed support for the 10-factor structure of the scale, and the subscales were associated with the validating measures in expected ways.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29T05:45:45.24453-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12179
  • How are learning strategies reflected in the eyes' Combining results
           from self-reports and eye-tracking
    • Authors: Leen Catrysse; David Gijbels, Vincent Donche, Sven De Maeyer, Marije Lesterhuis, Piet Van den Bossche
      Abstract: BackgroundUp until now, empirical studies in the Student Approaches to Learning field have mainly been focused on the use of self-report instruments, such as interviews and questionnaires, to uncover differences in students' general preferences towards learning strategies, but have focused less on the use of task-specific and online measures.AimsThis study aimed at extending current research on students' learning strategies by combining general and task-specific measurements of students' learning strategies using both offline and online measures. We want to clarify how students process learning contents and to what extent this is related to their self-report of learning strategies.SampleTwenty students with different generic learning profiles (according to self-report questionnaires) read an expository text, while their eye movements were registered to answer questions on the content afterwards.MethodsEye-tracking data were analysed with generalized linear mixed-effects models.ResultsThe results indicate that students with an all-high profile, combining both deep and surface learning strategies, spend more time on rereading the text than students with an all-low profile, scoring low on both learning strategies.ConclusionsThis study showed that we can use eye-tracking to distinguish very strategic students, characterized using cognitive processing and regulation strategies, from low strategic students, characterized by a lack of cognitive and regulation strategies. These students processed the expository text according to how they self-reported.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29T05:45:42.681799-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12181
  • Monitoring and depth of strategy use in computer-based learning
           environments for science and history
    • Authors: Victor M. Deekens; Jeffrey A. Greene, Nikki G. Lobczowski
      Abstract: BackgroundSelf-regulated learning (SRL) models position metacognitive monitoring as central to SRL processing and predictive of student learning outcomes (Winne & Hadwin, 2008; Zimmerman, 2000). A body of research evidence also indicates that depth of strategy use, ranging from surface to deep processing, is predictive of learning performance.AimsIn this study, we investigated the relationships among the frequency of metacognitive monitoring and the utilization of deep and surface-level strategies, and the connections between these SRL processes and learning outcomes across two academic domains, science and history.SampleThis was a secondary data analysis of two studies. The first study sample was 170 undergraduate students from a University in the south-eastern United States. The second study sample consisted of 40 US high school students in the same area.MethodsWe collected think-aloud protocol SRL and knowledge measure data and conducted both structural equation modelling and path analysis to investigate our research questions.ResultsFindings showed across both studies and two distinct academic domains, students who enacted more frequent monitoring also enacted more frequent deep strategies resulting in better performance on academic evaluations.ConclusionsThese findings suggest the importance of measuring not only what depth of strategies learners use, but also the degree to which they monitor their learning. Attention to both is needed in research and practice.
      PubDate: 2017-08-12T02:25:31.950033-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12174
  • The relation between cognitive and metacognitive strategic processing
           during a science simulation
    • Authors: Daniel L. Dinsmore; Brian P. Zoellner
      Abstract: BackgroundThis investigation was designed to uncover the relations between students’ cognitive and metacognitive strategies used during a complex climate simulation. While cognitive strategy use during science inquiry has been studied, the factors related to this strategy use, such as concurrent metacognition, prior knowledge, and prior interest, have not been investigated in a multidimensional fashion.AimsThis study addressed current issues in strategy research by examining not only how metacognitive, surface-level, and deep-level strategies influence performance, but also how these strategies related to each other during a contextually relevant science simulation.SampleThe sample for this study consisted of 70 undergraduates from a mid-sized Southeastern university in the United States. These participants were recruited from both physical and life science (e.g., biology) and education majors to obtain a sample with variance in terms of their prior knowledge, interest, and strategy use.MethodsParticipants completed measures of prior knowledge and interest about global climate change. Then, they were asked to engage in an online climate simulator for up to 30 min while thinking aloud. Finally, participants were asked to answer three outcome questions about global climate change.ResultsResults indicated a poor fit for the statistical model of the frequency and level of processing predicting performance. However, a statistical model that independently examined the influence of metacognitive monitoring and control of cognitive strategies showed a very strong relation between the metacognitive and cognitive strategies. Finally, smallest space analysis results provided evidence that strategy use may be better captured in a multidimensional fashion, particularly with attention paid towards the combination of strategies employed.ConclusionsConclusions drawn from the evidence point to the need for more dynamic, multidimensional models of strategic processing that account for the patterns of optimal and non-optimal strategy use. Additionally, analyses that can capture these complex patterns need to be further explored.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T22:55:35.245719-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12177
  • Multiple aspects of high school students’ strategic processing on
           reading outcomes: The role of quantity, quality, and conjunctive strategy
    • Authors: Meghan M. Parkinson; Daniel L. Dinsmore
      Abstract: BackgroundWhile the literature on strategy use is relatively mature, measures of strategy use overwhelmingly measure only one aspect of that use, frequency, when relating that strategy use to performance outcomes. While this might be one important attribute of strategy use, there is increasing evidence that quality and conditional use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies may also be important.AimsThis study examines how multiple aspects of strategy use, namely frequency, quality, and conjunctive use of strategies, influence task performance on both well- and ill-structured task outcomes in addition to other concomitant variables that may interact with strategic processing during reading.SampleThe sample consisted of 21 high school students enrolled in an upper-level biology class in a suburban school in the north-eastern United States.MethodsThese participants completed measures of prior knowledge and interest, then read either an expository or persuasive text while thinking aloud. They then completed a passage recall and open-ended response following passage completion.ResultsIn general, quantity was not positively related to the study outcomes and was negatively related to one of them. Quality of strategy use, on the other hand, was consistently related to positive reading outcomes. The influence of knowledge and interest in terms of strategies is also discussed as well as six cases which illustrate the relation of aspects of strategy use and the other concomitant variables.ConclusionsEvaluating strategy use by solely examining the frequency of strategy use did not explain differences in task performance as well as evaluating the quality and conjunctive use of strategies. Further, important relations between prior knowledge, interest, and the task outcomes appeared to be mediated and moderated by the aspects of strategy use investigated.
      PubDate: 2017-08-09T23:55:29.362965-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12176
  • Theorizing and researching levels of processing in self-regulated learning
    • Authors: Philip H. Winne
      Abstract: BackgroundDeep versus surface knowledge is widely discussed by educational practitioners. A corresponding construct, levels of processing, has received extensive theoretical and empirical attention in learning science and psychology. In both arenas, lower levels of information and shallower levels of processing are predicted and generally empirically demonstrated to limit knowledge learners gain, curtail what they can do with newly acquired knowledge, and shorten the life span of recently acquired knowledge.PurposeI recapitulate major accounts of levels or depth of information and information processing to set a stage for conceptualizing, first, self-regulated learning (SRL) from this perspective and, second, how a “levels-sensitive” approach might be implemented in research about SRL.MethodI merge the levels construct into a model of SRL (Winne, 2011, Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 15–32), New York: Routledge; Winne, 2017b, Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (2nd ed.), New York: Routledge; Winne & Hadwin, 1998, Metacognition in educational theory and practice (pp. 277–304). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum) conceptually and with respect to operationally defining the levels construct in the context of SRL in relation to each of the model's four phases – surveying task conditions, setting goals and planning, engaging the task, and composing major adaptations for future tasks. Select illustrations are provided for each phase of SRL. Regarding phase 3, a software system called nStudy is introduced as state-of-the-art instrumentation for gathering fine-grained, time-stamped trace data about information learners select for processing and operations they use to process that information.ConclusionsSelf-regulated learning can be viewed through a lens of the levels construct, and operational definitions can be designed to research SRL with respect to levels. While information can be organized arbitrarily deeply, the levels construct may not be particularly useful for distinguishing among processes except in a sense that, because processes in SRL operate on information with depth, they epiphenomenally acquire characteristics of levels. Thus, SRL per se is not a deeper kind of processing. Instead, it is processing more complex – deeper – information about a different topic, namely processes for learning.
      PubDate: 2017-08-09T00:05:21.035129-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12173
  • Self-regulated learning from illustrated text: Eye movement modelling to
           support use and regulation of cognitive processes during learning from
    • Authors: Katharina Scheiter; Carina Schubert, Anne Schüler
      Abstract: BackgroundWhen learning with text and pictures, learners often fail to adequately process the materials, which can be explained as a failure to self-regulate one's learning by choosing adequate cognitive learning processes. Eye movement modelling examples (EMME) showing how to process multimedia instruction have improved elementary school children's learning from text and pictures in previous studies.AimsWe tested whether the positive effects of EMME for improving self-regulated multimedia learning extend to university students and teaching of more comprehensive processing strategies. Moreover, we investigated whether EMME's effectiveness depends upon a learner's cognitive prerequisites.SampleParticipants were 50 university students (38 female; M = 26.88 years) with different study majors.MethodsDifferent prior knowledge aspects were assessed as cognitive prerequisites. Before learning about mitosis from a multimedia instruction, students either received no intervention or saw EMME demonstrating various multimedia learning processes. Learning outcomes and eye movements served as dependent variables.ResultsLearners in the EMME group showed more intense processing of pictures and more frequent transitions between text and pictures. Weaker learners showed poorer recall performance after having studied EMME, whereas EMME had no effect on stronger students. In the forced-choice verification task, stronger students benefitted from EMME, whereas no effect occurred for weaker students. The picture-processing time was suited to explain the positive effects of EMME for stronger students.ConclusionsOur results indicate that EMME illustrating a comprehensive set of cognitive processes support multimedia learning for stronger university students.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07T01:40:20.029401-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12175
  • Longitudinal tracking of academic progress during teacher preparation
    • Authors: Roisin P. Corcoran; Joanne O'Flaherty
      Abstract: BackgroundGiven that the ultimate academic goal of many education systems in the developed world is for students to graduate from college, grades have a considerable bearing on how effective colleges are in meeting their primary objective. Prior academic performance informs predominantly the selection and retention of teacher candidates. However, there remains a dearth of evidence linking academic performance with outcomes in teacher preparation or the workplace.AimThis study examined pre-service teachers' trajectories of academic growth during teacher preparation.SampleThe sample comprised 398 pre-service teachers – 282 (70.8%) males and 116 (29.1%) females.MethodAcademic growth was measured across eight time points over the course of 4 years. Pre-service teachers' academic growth was analysed using linear and nonlinear latent growth models.ResultsResults indicate that academic growth was quadratic and, over time, decelerated, with no evidence of the Matthew effect or the compensatory effect. There was evidence of a connection between prior academic attainment and current grades.ConclusionGreater attention to academic growth during the college years, and particularly among pre-service teachers, may enable greater achievement support for students.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04T23:05:35.371767-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12171
  • Regulating approaches to learning: Testing learning strategy convergences
           across a year at university
    • Authors: Luke K. Fryer; Jan D. Vermunt
      Abstract: BackgroundContemporary models of student learning within higher education are often inclusive of processing and regulation strategies. Considerable research has examined their use over time and their (person-centred) convergence. The longitudinal stability/variability of learning strategy use, however, is poorly understood, but essential to supporting student learning across university experiences.AimsDevelop and test a person-centred longitudinal model of learning strategies across the first-year university experience.MethodsJapanese university students (n = 933) completed surveys (deep and surface approaches to learning; self, external, and lack of regulation) at the beginning and end of their first year. Following invariance and cross-sectional tests, latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) was undertaken.ResultsInitial difference testing supported small but significant differences for self-/external regulation. Fit indices supported a four-group model, consistent across both measurement points. These subgroups were labelled Low Quality (low deep approaches and self-regulation), Low Quantity (low strategy use generally), Average (moderate strategy use), and High Quantity (intense use of all strategies) strategies. The stability of these groups ranged from stable to variable: Average (93% stayers), Low Quality (90% stayers), High Quantity (72% stayers), and Low Quantity (40% stayers). The three largest transitions presented joint shifts in processing/regulation strategy preference across the year, from adaptive to maladaptive and vice versa.ConclusionsPerson-centred longitudinal findings presented patterns of learning transitions that different students experience during their first year at university. Stability/variability of students’ strategy use was linked to the nature of initial subgroup membership. Findings also indicated strong connections between processing and regulation strategy changes across first-year university experiences. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T06:20:33.385746-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12169
  • Pathways to arithmetic fact retrieval and percentage calculation in
    • Authors: Ulf Träff; Kenny Skagerlund, Linda Olsson, Rickard Östergren
      Abstract: BackgroundDeveloping sufficient mathematical skills is a prerequisite to function adequately in society today. Given this, an important task is to increase our understanding regarding the cognitive mechanisms underlying young people's acquisition of early number skills and formal mathematical knowledge.AimsThe purpose was to examine whether the pathways to mathematics model provides a valid account of the cognitive mechanisms underlying symbolic-number processing and mathematics in adolescents. The pathways model states that the three pathways should provide independent support to symbolic-number skill. Each pathway's unique contribution to formal mathematics varies depending on the complexity and demand of the tasks.SampleThe study used a sample of 114 adolescents (71 girls). Their mean age was 14.60 years (SD = 1.00).MethodsThe adolescents were assessed on tests tapping the three pathways and general cognitive abilities (e.g., working memory). A structural equation path analysis was computed.ResultsSymbolic-number comparison was predicted by the linguistic pathway, the quantitative pathway, and processing speed. The linguistic pathway, quantitative pathways, and symbolic-number comparison predicted arithmetic fact retrieval. The linguistic pathway, working memory, visual analogies, and symbolic-number comparison predicted percentage calculation.ConclusionsThere are both similarities and differences in the cognitive mechanisms underlying arithmetic fact retrieval and percentage calculation in adolescents. Adolescents’ symbolic-number processing, arithmetic fact retrieval, and percentage calculation continue to rely on the linguistic pathways, whereas the reliance upon the spatial pathway has ceased. The reliance upon the quantitative pathway varies depending on the task.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23T23:45:32.979384-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12170
  • Achievement goal profiles and developments in effort and achievement in
           upper elementary school
    • Authors: Lisette Hornstra; Marieke Majoor, Thea Peetsma
      Abstract: BackgroundThe multiple goal perspective posits that certain combinations of achievement goals are more favourable than others in terms of educational outcomes.AimsThis study aimed to examine longitudinally whether students’ achievement goal profiles and transitions between profiles are associated with developments in self-reported and teacher-rated effort and academic achievement in upper elementary school.SampleParticipants were 722 fifth-grade students and their teachers in fifth and sixth grade (N = 68).MethodsStudents reported on their achievement goals and effort in language and mathematics three times in grade 5 to grade 6. Teachers rated students’ general school effort. Achievement scores were obtained from school records. Goal profiles were derived with latent profile and transition analyses. Longitudinal multilevel analyses were conducted.ResultsTheoretically favourable goal profiles (high mastery and performance-approach goals, low on performance-avoidance goals), as well as transitions from less to more theoretically favourable goal profiles, were associated with higher levels and more growth in effort for language and mathematics and with stronger language achievement gains.ConclusionsOverall, these results provide support for the multiple goal perspective and show the sustained benefits of favourable goal profiles beyond effects of cognitive ability and background characteristics.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T01:10:22.690589-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12167
  • How restudy decisions affect overall comprehension for seventh-grade
    • Authors: Keith W. Thiede; Joshua S. Redford, Jennifer Wiley, Thomas D. Griffin
      Abstract: BackgroundSelf-regulated learning requires accurate monitoring and effective regulation of study. Little is known about how effectively younger readers regulate their study.AimsWe examined how decisions about which text to restudy affect overall comprehension for seventh-grade students. In addition to a Participant's Choice condition where students were allowed to pick texts for restudy on their own, we compared learning gains in two other conditions in which texts were selected for them. The Test-Based Restudy condition determined text selection using initial test performance – presenting the text with the lowest initial test performance for restudy, thereby circumventing potential problems associated with inaccurate monitoring and ineffective regulation. The Judgement-Based Restudy condition determined text selection using metacognitive judgements of comprehension – presenting the text with the lowest judgement of comprehension, thereby circumventing potential problems associated with ineffective regulation.SampleFour hundred and eighty seventh-grade students participated.MethodStudents were randomly assigned to conditions in an experimental design.Results and conclusionsGains in comprehension following restudy were larger for the Test-Based Restudy condition than for the Judgement-Based Restudy condition or the Participant's Choice condition. No differences in comprehension were seen between the Judgement-Based Restudy and Participant's Choice conditions. These results suggest seventh graders can systematically use their monitoring to make decisions about what to restudy. However, the results highlight how inaccurate monitoring is one reason why younger students fail to benefit from self-regulated study opportunities.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12T00:01:12.5011-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12166
  • Effects of achievement goals on perceptions of competence in conditions of
           unfavourable social comparisons: The mastery goal advantage effect
    • Authors: Sviatlana Kamarova; Nikos L. D. Chatzisarantis, Martin S. Hagger, Taru Lintunen, Mary Hassandra, Athanasios Papaioannou
      Abstract: BackgroundPrevious prospective studies have documented that mastery-approach goals are adaptive because they facilitate less negative psychological responses to unfavourable social comparisons than performance-approach goals.AimsThis study aimed to confirm this so-called ‘mastery goal advantage’ effect experimentally.MethodsA 2 × 3 design was adopted where achievement goals (mastery vs. performance) and normative information (favourable vs. no-normative information vs. unfavourable) were manipulated as between participant factors.SampleParticipants were 201 undergraduates, 57 males and 144 females, ranging in age from 17 to 55 years (Mage = 22.53, SD = 6.51).ResultsRegression analyses pointed out that experimentally induced mastery-approach goals facilitated higher levels of competence and happiness with task performance than experimentally induced performance-approach goals in conditions of unfavourable social comparisons. In contrast, although performance-approach goals yielded the highest levels of happiness with task performance in conditions of favourable social comparisons, this positive effect of performance-approach goals did not extend to perceptions of competence.ConclusionCurrent findings broaden understanding of the adaptive nature of mastery-approach goals and suggest that it is possible to modulate aversive responses to unfavourable social comparisons by focusing attention on mastery-approach goals.
      PubDate: 2017-06-11T23:55:39.077995-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12168
  • Math anxiety and math performance in children: The mediating roles of
           working memory and math self-concept
    • Authors: M. José Justicia-Galiano; M. Eva Martín-Puga, Rocío Linares, Santiago Pelegrina
      Abstract: BackgroundNumerous studies, most of them involving adolescents and adults, have evidenced a moderate negative relationship between math anxiety and math performance. There are, however, a limited number of studies that have addressed the mechanisms underlying this relation.AimsThis study aimed to investigate the role of two possible mediational mechanisms between math anxiety and math performance. Specifically, we sought to test the simultaneous mediating role of working memory and math self-concept.SampleA total of 167 children aged 8–12 years participated in this study.MethodsChildren completed a set of questionnaires used to assess math and trait anxiety, math self-concept as well as measures of math fluency and math problem-solving. Teachers were asked to rate each student's math achievement. As measures of working memory, two backward span tasks were administered to the children.ResultsA series of multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Results indicated that both mediators (working memory and math self-concept) contributed to explaining the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement.ConclusionsResults suggest that working memory and self-concept could be worth considering when designing interventions aimed at helping students with math anxiety. Longitudinal designs could also be used to better understand the mediational mechanisms that may explain the relationship between math anxiety and math performance.
      PubDate: 2017-05-31T06:40:24.79623-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12165
  • Bullying and cyberbullying studies in the school-aged population on the
           island of Ireland: A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Mairéad Foody; Muthanna Samara, James O'Higgins Norman
      Abstract: BackgroundBullying research has gained a substantial amount of interest in recent years because of the implications for child and adolescent development.Aim and sampleWe conducted a meta-analysis of traditional and cyberbullying studies in the Republic and North of Ireland to gain an understanding of prevalence rates and associated issues (particularly psychological correlates and intervention strategies) among young people (primary and secondary school students).MethodFour electronic databases were searched (PsychArticles, ERIC, PsychInfo and Education Research Complete) for studies of traditional bullying and cyberbullying behaviours (perpetrators, victims or both) published between January 1997 and April 2016.ResultsA final sample of 39 articles fit our selection criteria. CMA software was used to estimate a pooled prevalence rate for traditional/cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. A systematic review on the psychological impacts for all types of bullying and previously used interventions in an Irish setting is also provided.ConclusionsThe results demonstrate the influence moderating factors (e.g., assessment tools, answer scale, time frame) have on reported prevalence rates. These results are discussed in light of current studies, and points for future research are considered.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26T23:45:26.05503-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12163
  • Preliminary validation of the Perceived Locus of Causality scale for
           academic motivation in the context of university studies (PLOC-U)
    • Authors: Manuel Sánchez de Miguel; Izarne Lizaso, Daniel Hermosilla, Carlos-Maria Alcover, Marios Goudas, Enrique Arranz-Freijó
      Abstract: BackgroundResearch has shown that self-determination theory can be useful in the study of motivation in sport and other forms of physical activity. The Perceived Locus of Causality (PLOC) scale was originally designed to study both.AimThe current research presents and validates the new PLOC-U scale to measure academic motivation in the university context. We tested levels of self-determination before and after academic examinations. Also, we analysed degree of internalization of extrinsic motivation in students' practical activities.SampleTwo hundred and eighty-seven Spanish university students participated in the study.MethodData were collected at two time points to check the reliability and stability of PLOC-U by a test–retest procedure. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the PLOC-U. Also convergent validity was tested against the Academic Motivation Scale (EME-E).ResultsConfirmatory factor analysis showed optimum fit and good reliability of PLOC-U. It also presented excellent convergent validity with the EME-E and good stability over time. Our findings did not show any significant correlation between self-determination and expected results before academic examinations, but it did so afterwards, revealing greater regulation by and integration of extrinsic motivation. The high score obtained for extrinsic motivation points to a greater regulation associated with an external contingency (rewards in the practical coursework).ConclusionsPLOC-U is a good instrument for the measurement of academic motivation and provides a new tool to analyse self-determination among university students.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T00:05:37.010316-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12164
  • Extending the seductive allure of neuroscience explanations effect to
           popular articles about educational topics
    • Authors: Soo-hyun Im; Keisha Varma, Sashank Varma
      Abstract: BackgroundThe seductive allure of neuroscience explanations (SANE) is the finding that people overweight psychological arguments when framed in terms of neuroscience findings.AimThis study extended this finding to arguments concerning the application of psychological findings to educational topics.SampleParticipants (n = 320) were recruited from the general public, specifically among English-speaking Amazon Mechanical Turk workers residing in the United States.MethodsWe developed eight articles that orthogonally varied two processes (learning vs. development) with two disciplines (cognitive vs. affective psychology). We increased neuroscience framing across four levels: psychological finding alone, with an extraneous neuroscience finding (verbal), with an extraneous neuroscience finding (verbal) and graph, and with an extraneous neuroscience finding (verbal) and brain image. Participants were randomly assigned to one level of neuroscience framing and rated the credibility of each article's argument.ResultsSeductive allure of neuroscience explanations effects were not ubiquitous. Extraneous verbal neuroscience framings, either alone or accompanied by graphs, did not influence the credibility of the application of psychological findings to educational topics. However, there was a SANE effect when educational articles were accompanied by both extraneous verbal neuroscience findings and brain images. This effect persisted even after controlling for individual differences in familiarity with education, attitude towards psychology, and knowledge of neuroscience.ConclusionThe results suggest that there is a SANE effect for articles about educational topics among the general public when they are accompanied by both extraneous verbal neuroscience findings and brain images.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T06:31:25.71581-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12162
  • An investigation of the mechanism underlying teacher aggression: Testing
           I3 theory and the General Aggression Model
    • Authors: Paul Montuoro; Tim Mainhard
      Abstract: BackgroundConsiderable research has investigated the deleterious effects of teachers responding aggressively to students who misbehave, but the mechanism underlying this dysfunctional behaviour remains unknown.AimsThis study investigated whether the mechanism underlying teacher aggression follows I3 theory or General Aggression Model (GAM) metatheory of human aggression. I3 theory explains exceptional, catastrophic events of human aggression, whereas the GAM explains common human aggression behaviours.SampleA total of 249 Australian teachers participated in this study, including 142 primary school teachers (Mdn [age] = 35–39 years; Mdn [years teaching] = 10–14 years; 84% female) and 107 secondary school teachers (Mdn [age] = 45–49 years; Mdn [years teaching] = 15–19 years; 65% female).MethodsParticipants completed four online self-report questionnaires, which assessed caregiving responsiveness, trait self-control, misbehaviour provocation, and teacher aggression.ResultsAnalyses revealed that the GAM most accurately captures the mechanism underlying teacher aggression, with lower caregiving responsiveness appearing to indirectly lead to teacher aggression via higher misbehaviour provocation and lower trait self-control in serial, controlling for gender, age, years teaching, and current role (primary, secondary).ConclusionsThis study indicates that teacher aggression proceeds from ‘the person in the situation’. Specifically, lower caregiving responsiveness appears to negatively shape a teacher's affective, cognitive, and arousal states, which influence how they perceive and interpret student misbehaviour. These internal states, in turn, appear to negatively influence appraisal and decision processes, leading to immediate appraisal and impulsive actions. These results raise the possibility that teacher aggression is a form of countertransference.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08T23:20:38.835349-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12161
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