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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 875 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 402)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 176)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 215)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
At-Tajdid : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access  
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 129)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access  
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access  
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover British Journal of Educational Psychology
  [SJR: 1.304]   [H-I: 66]   [32 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0007-0998 - ISSN (Online) 2044-8279
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1576 journals]
  • Regulating approaches to learning: Testing learning strategy convergences
           across a year at university
    • Authors: Luke K. Fryer; Jan D. Vermunt
      Abstract: BackgroundContemporary models of student learning within higher education are often inclusive of processing and regulation strategies. Considerable research has examined their use over time and their (person-centred) convergence. The longitudinal stability/variability of learning strategy use, however, is poorly understood, but essential to supporting student learning across university experiences.AimsDevelop and test a person-centred longitudinal model of learning strategies across the first-year university experience.MethodsJapanese university students (n = 933) completed surveys (deep and surface approaches to learning; self, external, and lack of regulation) at the beginning and end of their first year. Following invariance and cross-sectional tests, latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) was undertaken.ResultsInitial difference testing supported small but significant differences for self-/external regulation. Fit indices supported a four-group model, consistent across both measurement points. These subgroups were labelled Low Quality (low deep approaches and self-regulation), Low Quantity (low strategy use generally), Average (moderate strategy use), and High Quantity (intense use of all strategies) strategies. The stability of these groups ranged from stable to variable: Average (93% stayers), Low Quality (90% stayers), High Quantity (72% stayers), and Low Quantity (40% stayers). The three largest transitions presented joint shifts in processing/regulation strategy preference across the year, from adaptive to maladaptive and vice versa.ConclusionsPerson-centred longitudinal findings presented patterns of learning transitions that different students experience during their first year at university. Stability/variability of students’ strategy use was linked to the nature of initial subgroup membership. Findings also indicated strong connections between processing and regulation strategy changes across first-year university experiences. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T06:20:33.385746-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12169
       
  • Pathways to arithmetic fact retrieval and percentage calculation in
           adolescents
    • Authors: Ulf Träff; Kenny Skagerlund, Linda Olsson, Rickard Östergren
      Abstract: BackgroundDeveloping sufficient mathematical skills is a prerequisite to function adequately in society today. Given this, an important task is to increase our understanding regarding the cognitive mechanisms underlying young people's acquisition of early number skills and formal mathematical knowledge.AimsThe purpose was to examine whether the pathways to mathematics model provides a valid account of the cognitive mechanisms underlying symbolic-number processing and mathematics in adolescents. The pathways model states that the three pathways should provide independent support to symbolic-number skill. Each pathway's unique contribution to formal mathematics varies depending on the complexity and demand of the tasks.SampleThe study used a sample of 114 adolescents (71 girls). Their mean age was 14.60 years (SD = 1.00).MethodsThe adolescents were assessed on tests tapping the three pathways and general cognitive abilities (e.g., working memory). A structural equation path analysis was computed.ResultsSymbolic-number comparison was predicted by the linguistic pathway, the quantitative pathway, and processing speed. The linguistic pathway, quantitative pathways, and symbolic-number comparison predicted arithmetic fact retrieval. The linguistic pathway, working memory, visual analogies, and symbolic-number comparison predicted percentage calculation.ConclusionsThere are both similarities and differences in the cognitive mechanisms underlying arithmetic fact retrieval and percentage calculation in adolescents. Adolescents’ symbolic-number processing, arithmetic fact retrieval, and percentage calculation continue to rely on the linguistic pathways, whereas the reliance upon the spatial pathway has ceased. The reliance upon the quantitative pathway varies depending on the task.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23T23:45:32.979384-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12170
       
  • Achievement goal profiles and developments in effort and achievement in
           upper elementary school
    • Authors: Lisette Hornstra; Marieke Majoor, Thea Peetsma
      Abstract: BackgroundThe multiple goal perspective posits that certain combinations of achievement goals are more favourable than others in terms of educational outcomes.AimsThis study aimed to examine longitudinally whether students’ achievement goal profiles and transitions between profiles are associated with developments in self-reported and teacher-rated effort and academic achievement in upper elementary school.SampleParticipants were 722 fifth-grade students and their teachers in fifth and sixth grade (N = 68).MethodsStudents reported on their achievement goals and effort in language and mathematics three times in grade 5 to grade 6. Teachers rated students’ general school effort. Achievement scores were obtained from school records. Goal profiles were derived with latent profile and transition analyses. Longitudinal multilevel analyses were conducted.ResultsTheoretically favourable goal profiles (high mastery and performance-approach goals, low on performance-avoidance goals), as well as transitions from less to more theoretically favourable goal profiles, were associated with higher levels and more growth in effort for language and mathematics and with stronger language achievement gains.ConclusionsOverall, these results provide support for the multiple goal perspective and show the sustained benefits of favourable goal profiles beyond effects of cognitive ability and background characteristics.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T01:10:22.690589-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12167
       
  • How restudy decisions affect overall comprehension for seventh-grade
           students
    • Authors: Keith W. Thiede; Joshua S. Redford, Jennifer Wiley, Thomas D. Griffin
      Abstract: BackgroundSelf-regulated learning requires accurate monitoring and effective regulation of study. Little is known about how effectively younger readers regulate their study.AimsWe examined how decisions about which text to restudy affect overall comprehension for seventh-grade students. In addition to a Participant's Choice condition where students were allowed to pick texts for restudy on their own, we compared learning gains in two other conditions in which texts were selected for them. The Test-Based Restudy condition determined text selection using initial test performance – presenting the text with the lowest initial test performance for restudy, thereby circumventing potential problems associated with inaccurate monitoring and ineffective regulation. The Judgement-Based Restudy condition determined text selection using metacognitive judgements of comprehension – presenting the text with the lowest judgement of comprehension, thereby circumventing potential problems associated with ineffective regulation.SampleFour hundred and eighty seventh-grade students participated.MethodStudents were randomly assigned to conditions in an experimental design.Results and conclusionsGains in comprehension following restudy were larger for the Test-Based Restudy condition than for the Judgement-Based Restudy condition or the Participant's Choice condition. No differences in comprehension were seen between the Judgement-Based Restudy and Participant's Choice conditions. These results suggest seventh graders can systematically use their monitoring to make decisions about what to restudy. However, the results highlight how inaccurate monitoring is one reason why younger students fail to benefit from self-regulated study opportunities.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12T00:01:12.5011-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12166
       
  • Effects of achievement goals on perceptions of competence in conditions of
           unfavourable social comparisons: The mastery goal advantage effect
    • Authors: Sviatlana Kamarova; Nikos L. D. Chatzisarantis, Martin S. Hagger, Taru Lintunen, Mary Hassandra, Athanasios Papaioannou
      Abstract: BackgroundPrevious prospective studies have documented that mastery-approach goals are adaptive because they facilitate less negative psychological responses to unfavourable social comparisons than performance-approach goals.AimsThis study aimed to confirm this so-called ‘mastery goal advantage’ effect experimentally.MethodsA 2 × 3 design was adopted where achievement goals (mastery vs. performance) and normative information (favourable vs. no-normative information vs. unfavourable) were manipulated as between participant factors.SampleParticipants were 201 undergraduates, 57 males and 144 females, ranging in age from 17 to 55 years (Mage = 22.53, SD = 6.51).ResultsRegression analyses pointed out that experimentally induced mastery-approach goals facilitated higher levels of competence and happiness with task performance than experimentally induced performance-approach goals in conditions of unfavourable social comparisons. In contrast, although performance-approach goals yielded the highest levels of happiness with task performance in conditions of favourable social comparisons, this positive effect of performance-approach goals did not extend to perceptions of competence.ConclusionCurrent findings broaden understanding of the adaptive nature of mastery-approach goals and suggest that it is possible to modulate aversive responses to unfavourable social comparisons by focusing attention on mastery-approach goals.
      PubDate: 2017-06-11T23:55:39.077995-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12168
       
  • Math anxiety and math performance in children: The mediating roles of
           working memory and math self-concept
    • Authors: M. José Justicia-Galiano; M. Eva Martín-Puga, Rocío Linares, Santiago Pelegrina
      Abstract: BackgroundNumerous studies, most of them involving adolescents and adults, have evidenced a moderate negative relationship between math anxiety and math performance. There are, however, a limited number of studies that have addressed the mechanisms underlying this relation.AimsThis study aimed to investigate the role of two possible mediational mechanisms between math anxiety and math performance. Specifically, we sought to test the simultaneous mediating role of working memory and math self-concept.SampleA total of 167 children aged 8–12 years participated in this study.MethodsChildren completed a set of questionnaires used to assess math and trait anxiety, math self-concept as well as measures of math fluency and math problem-solving. Teachers were asked to rate each student's math achievement. As measures of working memory, two backward span tasks were administered to the children.ResultsA series of multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Results indicated that both mediators (working memory and math self-concept) contributed to explaining the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement.ConclusionsResults suggest that working memory and self-concept could be worth considering when designing interventions aimed at helping students with math anxiety. Longitudinal designs could also be used to better understand the mediational mechanisms that may explain the relationship between math anxiety and math performance.
      PubDate: 2017-05-31T06:40:24.79623-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12165
       
  • Bullying and cyberbullying studies in the school-aged population on the
           island of Ireland: A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Mairéad Foody; Muthanna Samara, James O'Higgins Norman
      Abstract: BackgroundBullying research has gained a substantial amount of interest in recent years because of the implications for child and adolescent development.Aim and sampleWe conducted a meta-analysis of traditional and cyberbullying studies in the Republic and North of Ireland to gain an understanding of prevalence rates and associated issues (particularly psychological correlates and intervention strategies) among young people (primary and secondary school students).MethodFour electronic databases were searched (PsychArticles, ERIC, PsychInfo and Education Research Complete) for studies of traditional bullying and cyberbullying behaviours (perpetrators, victims or both) published between January 1997 and April 2016.ResultsA final sample of 39 articles fit our selection criteria. CMA software was used to estimate a pooled prevalence rate for traditional/cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. A systematic review on the psychological impacts for all types of bullying and previously used interventions in an Irish setting is also provided.ConclusionsThe results demonstrate the influence moderating factors (e.g., assessment tools, answer scale, time frame) have on reported prevalence rates. These results are discussed in light of current studies, and points for future research are considered.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26T23:45:26.05503-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12163
       
  • Preliminary validation of the Perceived Locus of Causality scale for
           academic motivation in the context of university studies (PLOC-U)
    • Authors: Manuel Sánchez de Miguel; Izarne Lizaso, Daniel Hermosilla, Carlos-Maria Alcover, Marios Goudas, Enrique Arranz-Freijó
      Abstract: BackgroundResearch has shown that self-determination theory can be useful in the study of motivation in sport and other forms of physical activity. The Perceived Locus of Causality (PLOC) scale was originally designed to study both.AimThe current research presents and validates the new PLOC-U scale to measure academic motivation in the university context. We tested levels of self-determination before and after academic examinations. Also, we analysed degree of internalization of extrinsic motivation in students' practical activities.SampleTwo hundred and eighty-seven Spanish university students participated in the study.MethodData were collected at two time points to check the reliability and stability of PLOC-U by a test–retest procedure. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the PLOC-U. Also convergent validity was tested against the Academic Motivation Scale (EME-E).ResultsConfirmatory factor analysis showed optimum fit and good reliability of PLOC-U. It also presented excellent convergent validity with the EME-E and good stability over time. Our findings did not show any significant correlation between self-determination and expected results before academic examinations, but it did so afterwards, revealing greater regulation by and integration of extrinsic motivation. The high score obtained for extrinsic motivation points to a greater regulation associated with an external contingency (rewards in the practical coursework).ConclusionsPLOC-U is a good instrument for the measurement of academic motivation and provides a new tool to analyse self-determination among university students.
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T00:05:37.010316-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12164
       
  • Extending the seductive allure of neuroscience explanations effect to
           popular articles about educational topics
    • Authors: Soo-hyun Im; Keisha Varma, Sashank Varma
      Abstract: BackgroundThe seductive allure of neuroscience explanations (SANE) is the finding that people overweight psychological arguments when framed in terms of neuroscience findings.AimThis study extended this finding to arguments concerning the application of psychological findings to educational topics.SampleParticipants (n = 320) were recruited from the general public, specifically among English-speaking Amazon Mechanical Turk workers residing in the United States.MethodsWe developed eight articles that orthogonally varied two processes (learning vs. development) with two disciplines (cognitive vs. affective psychology). We increased neuroscience framing across four levels: psychological finding alone, with an extraneous neuroscience finding (verbal), with an extraneous neuroscience finding (verbal) and graph, and with an extraneous neuroscience finding (verbal) and brain image. Participants were randomly assigned to one level of neuroscience framing and rated the credibility of each article's argument.ResultsSeductive allure of neuroscience explanations effects were not ubiquitous. Extraneous verbal neuroscience framings, either alone or accompanied by graphs, did not influence the credibility of the application of psychological findings to educational topics. However, there was a SANE effect when educational articles were accompanied by both extraneous verbal neuroscience findings and brain images. This effect persisted even after controlling for individual differences in familiarity with education, attitude towards psychology, and knowledge of neuroscience.ConclusionThe results suggest that there is a SANE effect for articles about educational topics among the general public when they are accompanied by both extraneous verbal neuroscience findings and brain images.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T06:31:25.71581-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12162
       
  • An investigation of the mechanism underlying teacher aggression: Testing
           I3 theory and the General Aggression Model
    • Authors: Paul Montuoro; Tim Mainhard
      Abstract: BackgroundConsiderable research has investigated the deleterious effects of teachers responding aggressively to students who misbehave, but the mechanism underlying this dysfunctional behaviour remains unknown.AimsThis study investigated whether the mechanism underlying teacher aggression follows I3 theory or General Aggression Model (GAM) metatheory of human aggression. I3 theory explains exceptional, catastrophic events of human aggression, whereas the GAM explains common human aggression behaviours.SampleA total of 249 Australian teachers participated in this study, including 142 primary school teachers (Mdn [age] = 35–39 years; Mdn [years teaching] = 10–14 years; 84% female) and 107 secondary school teachers (Mdn [age] = 45–49 years; Mdn [years teaching] = 15–19 years; 65% female).MethodsParticipants completed four online self-report questionnaires, which assessed caregiving responsiveness, trait self-control, misbehaviour provocation, and teacher aggression.ResultsAnalyses revealed that the GAM most accurately captures the mechanism underlying teacher aggression, with lower caregiving responsiveness appearing to indirectly lead to teacher aggression via higher misbehaviour provocation and lower trait self-control in serial, controlling for gender, age, years teaching, and current role (primary, secondary).ConclusionsThis study indicates that teacher aggression proceeds from ‘the person in the situation’. Specifically, lower caregiving responsiveness appears to negatively shape a teacher's affective, cognitive, and arousal states, which influence how they perceive and interpret student misbehaviour. These internal states, in turn, appear to negatively influence appraisal and decision processes, leading to immediate appraisal and impulsive actions. These results raise the possibility that teacher aggression is a form of countertransference.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08T23:20:38.835349-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12161
       
  • Individual, social, and family factors associated with high school dropout
           among low-SES youth: Differential effects as a function of immigrant
           status
    • Authors: Isabelle Archambault; Michel Janosz, Véronique Dupéré, Marie-Christine Brault, Marie Mc Andrew
      Abstract: BackgroundIn most Western countries, the individual, social, and family characteristics associated with students’ dropout in the general population are well documented. Yet, there is a lack of large-scale studies to establish whether these characteristics have the same influence for students with an immigrant background.AimsThe first aim of this study was to assess the differences between first-, second-, and third-generation-plus students in terms of the individual, social, and family factors associated with school dropout. Next, we examined the differential associations between these individual, social, and family factors and high school dropout as a function of students’ immigration status.SampleParticipants were 2291 students (54.7% with an immigrant background) from ten low-SES schools in Montreal (Quebec, Canada).MethodIndividual, social, and family predictors were self-reported by students in secondary one (mean age = 12.34 years), while school dropout status was obtained five or 6 years after students were expected to graduate.ResultsResults of logistic regressions with multiple group latent class models showed that first- and second-generation students faced more economic adversity than third-generation-plus students and that they differed from each other and with their native peers in terms of individual, social, and family risk factors. Moreover, 40% of the risk factors considered in this study were differentially associated with first-, second-, and third-generation-plus students’ failure to graduate from high school.ConclusionThese results provide insights on immigrant and non-immigrant inner cities’ students experiences related to school dropout. The implications of these findings are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-04-28T05:27:05.559058-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12159
       
  • Self-concept mediates the relation between achievement and emotions in
           mathematics
    • Authors: Jojanneke P. J. Van der Beek; Sanne H. G. Van der Ven, Evelyn H. Kroesbergen, Paul P. M. Leseman
      Abstract: BackgroundMathematics achievement is related to positive and negative emotions. Pekrun's control–value theory of achievement emotions suggests that students' self-concept (i.e., self-appraisal of ability) may be an important mediator of the relation between mathematics achievement and emotions.AimsThe aims were (1) to investigate the mediating role of mathematical self-concept in the relation between mathematics achievement and the achievement emotions of enjoyment and anxiety in a comprehensive model, and (2) to test possible differences in this mediating role between low-, average-, and high-achieving students.SampleParticipants were ninth-grade students (n = 1,014) from eight secondary schools in the Netherlands.MethodsThrough an online survey including mathematical problems, students were asked to indicate their levels of mathematics enjoyment, anxiety, and self-concept. Structural equation modelling was used to test the mediating role of self-concept in the relation between mathematics achievement and emotions. Multigroup analyses were performed to compare these relations across the three achievement groups.ResultsResults confirmed full mediation of the relation between mathematics achievement and emotions by mathematical self-concept. Furthermore, we found higher self-concepts, more enjoyment and less math anxiety in high-achieving students compared to their average and low-achieving peers. No differences across these achievement groups were found in the relations in the mediational model.ConclusionsMathematical self-concept plays a pivotal role in students' appraisal of mathematics. Mathematics achievement is only one factor explaining students' self-concept. Likely also classroom instruction and teachers’ feedback strategies help to shape students’ self-concept.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T00:50:37.868687-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12160
       
  • Using confirmatory factor analysis to validate the Chamberlin affective
           instrument for mathematical problem solving with academically advanced
           students
    • Authors: Scott A. Chamberlin; Alan D. Moore, Kelly Parks
      Abstract: BackgroundStudent affect plays a considerable role in mathematical problem solving performance, yet is rarely formally assessed. In this manuscript, an instrument and its properties are discussed to enable educational psychologists the opportunity to assess student affect.AimsThe study was conducted to norm the CAIMPS (instrument) with gifted students. In so doing, educational psychologists are informed of the process and the instrument's properties.SampleThe sample was comprised of 160 middle-grade (7 and 8) students, identified as gifted, in the United States.MethodsAfter completing one of four model-eliciting activities (MEAs), all participants completed the CAIMPS (Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving). Data were analysed using confirmatory factor analysis to ascertain the number of factors in the instrument. The normed fit index (0.6939), non-normed fit index (0.8072), and root mean square error approximation (.076) were at or near the acceptable levels. Alpha levels for factors were also robust (.637–.923).Results and conclusionData suggest that the instrument was a good fit for use with mathematics students in middle grades when solving problems. Perhaps the most impressive characteristic of the instrument was that the four factors (AVI: anxiety, value, and interest), SS (self-efficacy and self-esteem), ASP (aspiration), and ANX (anxiety) did not correlate highly with one another, which defies previous hypotheses in educational psychology.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T04:26:22.904079-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12157
       
  • Cross-lagged relations between teacher and parent ratings of children's
           task avoidance and different literacy skills
    • Authors: George K. Georgiou; Riikka Hirvonen, George Manolitsis, Jari-Erik Nurmi
      Abstract: BackgroundTask avoidance is a significant predictor of literacy skills. However, it remains unclear whether the relation between the two is reciprocal and whether it is affected by the type of literacy outcome, who is rating children's task avoidance, and the children's gender.AimThe purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the cross-lagged relations between teacher and parent ratings of children's task avoidance and different literacy skills.SampleOne hundred and seventy-two Greek children (91 girls, 81 boys) were followed from Grade 1 to Grade 3.MethodsChildren were assessed on reading accuracy, reading fluency, and spelling to dictation. Parents and teachers rated the children's task-avoidant behaviour.ResultsResults of structural equation modelling showed that the cross-lagged relations varied as a function of the literacy outcome, who rated the children's task avoidance, and children's gender. Earlier reading and spelling performance predicted subsequent parent-rated task avoidance, but parent-rated task avoidance did not predict subsequent reading and spelling performance (with the exception of spelling in Grade 3). Teacher-rated task avoidance and reading fluency/spelling had a reciprocal relationship over time. In addition, the effects of teacher-rated task avoidance on future spelling were significantly stronger in boys than in girls.ConclusionsThis suggests that poor reading and spelling performance can lead to subsequent task avoidance in both classroom and home situations. The fact that task avoidance permeates across different learning environments is alarming and calls for joint action from both parents and teachers to mitigate its negative impact on learning.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T04:26:18.000687-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12158
       
  • An unintentional pro-Black bias in judgement among educators
    • Authors: Jordan R. Axt
      Abstract: BackgroundPrevious work indicates widespread preference for White over Black people in attitudes and behaviour. However, there are instances where Black people receive preferential treatment over White people.AimsThis study aimed to investigate whether a sample of education professionals would favour Black or White applicants to an academic honour society, and the extent to which any biases were related to conscious intentions.SampleParticipants were education professionals (N = 618; 75.5% White) who completed an online study.MethodsParticipants completed a hypothetical admissions task where they evaluated more and less qualified applicants for an academic honour society, and applicants were either White or Black. Participants also completed measures of implicit and explicit racial attitudes.ResultsEducational professionals at all levels showed a pro-Black bias in judgement, adopting a lower acceptance criterion for Black compared to White applicants, replicating previous work using online and undergraduate samples. The bias was present among participants reporting they did not want to be biased or believed they were unbiased, suggesting that bias arose without conscious awareness or intention. Bias was also weakly but reliably related to racial attitudes.ConclusionsThese findings are consistent with the notion that educators automatically hold lower standards for Black versus White applicants. While education professionals likely have experience evaluating students from different racial and ethnic backgrounds, these professionals were, nevertheless, unable to eliminate the impact of race in their decision-making.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T23:45:33.269073-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12156
       
  • Construct validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children –
           Fourth UK Edition with a referred Irish sample: Wechsler and
           Cattell–Horn–Carroll model comparisons with 15 subtests
    • Authors: Gary L. Canivez; Marley W. Watkins, Rebecca Good, Kate James, Trevor James
      Abstract: BackgroundIrish educational psychologists frequently use the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fourth UK Edition (WISC–IVUK; Wechsler, 2004, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth UK Edition, London, UK, Harcourt Assessment) in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Unfortunately, reliability and validity studies of the WISC–IVUK standardization sample have not yet been reported. Watkins et al. (2013, International Journal of School and Educational Psychology, 1, 102) found support for a bifactor structure with a large sample (N = 794) of Irish children who were administered the 10 WISC–IVUK core subtests in clinical assessments of learning difficulties and dominance of general intelligence. Because only 10 subtests were available, Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC; McGrew, 1997, 2005, Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues, New York, NY: Guilford; Schneider & McGrew, 2012, Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues, New York, NY, Guilford Press) models could not be tested and compared.Aim, Sample and MethodThe present study utilized confirmatory factor analyses to test the latent factor structure of the WISC–IVUK with a sample of 245 Irish children administered all 15 WISC–IVUK subtests in evaluations assessing learning difficulties in order to examine CHC- and Wechsler-based models. One through five, oblique first-order factor models and higher order versus bifactor models were examined and compared using CFA.ResultsMeaningful differences in fit statistics were not observed between the Wechsler and CHC representations of higher-order or bifactor models. In all four structures, general intelligence accounted for the largest portions of explained common variance, whereas group factors accounted for small to miniscule portions of explained common variance. Omega-hierarchical subscale coefficients indicated that unit-weighted composites that would be generated by WISC–IVUK group factors (Wechsler or CHC) would contain little unique variance and thus be of little value.ConclusionThese results were similar to those from other investigations, further demonstrating the replication of the WISC–IV factor structure across cultures and the importance of focusing primary interpretation on the FSIQ.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T23:45:40.06271-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12155
       
  • The role of preschool teacher–child interactions in academic adjustment:
           An intervention study with Playing-2-gether
    • Authors: Sanne Van Craeyevelt; Karine Verschueren, Caroline Vancraeyveldt, Sofie Wouters, Hilde Colpin
      Abstract: BackgroundSocial relationships can serve as important risk or protective factors for child development in general, and academic adjustment in particular.AimsThis study investigated the role of teacher–child interactions in academic adjustment among preschool boys at risk of externalizing behaviour, using a randomized controlled trial study with Playing-2-gether (P2G), a 12-week indicated two-component intervention aimed at improving the affective quality of the teacher–child relationship and teacher behaviour management.SampleIn a sample of 175 preschool boys showing signs of externalizing behaviour (Mage = 4 years, 9 months, SDage = 7 months) and their teachers, we investigated P2G effects on academic engagement as well as on language achievement.MethodsAcademic engagement was rated by teachers at three occasions within one school year (T1 = pretest, T3 = post-test, and T2 = in-between intervention components). Language achievement was assessed by researchers at pre- and post-test, using a standardized test.ResultsCross-lagged path analyses revealed a direct intervention effect of P2G on academic engagement at Time 2. In addition, a significant indirect intervention effect was found on academic engagement at Time 3 through academic engagement at Time 2. Finally, academic engagement at Time 2 was found to predict language achievement at post-test. A marginally significant indirect intervention effect was found on language achievement at Time 3, through academic engagement at Time 2.ConclusionsThis intervention study suggests that teacher–child interactions predict academic engagement over time, which in turn improves language achievement among preschool boys at risk of externalizing behaviour.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T01:40:42.014493-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12153
       
  • Diagrams benefit symbolic problem-solving
    • Authors: Junyi Chu; Bethany Rittle-Johnson, Emily R. Fyfe
      Abstract: BackgroundThe format of a mathematics problem often influences students’ problem-solving performance. For example, providing diagrams in conjunction with story problems can benefit students’ understanding, choice of strategy, and accuracy on story problems. However, it remains unclear whether providing diagrams in conjunction with symbolic equations can benefit problem-solving performance as well.AimsWe tested the impact of diagram presence on students’ performance on algebra equation problems to determine whether diagrams increase problem-solving success. We also examined the influence of item- and student-level factors to test the robustness of the diagram effect.SampleWe worked with 61 seventh-grade students who had received 2 months of pre-algebra instruction.MethodStudents participated in an experimenter-led classroom session. Using a within-subjects design, students solved algebra problems in two matched formats (equation and equation-with-diagram).ResultsThe presence of diagrams increased equation-solving accuracy and the use of informal strategies. This diagram benefit was independent of student ability and item complexity.ConclusionsThe benefits of diagrams found previously for story problems generalized to symbolic problems. The findings are consistent with cognitive models of problem-solving and suggest that diagrams may be a useful additional representation of symbolic problems.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T01:05:50.094453-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12149
       
  • Unpacking socio-economic risks for reading and academic self-concept in
           primary school: Differential effects and the role of the preschool home
           learning environment
    • Authors: Alexandria Crampton; James Hall
      Abstract: BackgroundUncertainty remains concerning how children's reading and academic self-concept are related and how these are differentially affected by social disadvantage and home learning environments.AimsTo contrast the impacts of early socio-economic risks and preschool home learning environments upon British children's reading abilities and academic self-concept between 7 and 10 years.Samplen = 3,172 British children aged 3–10 years and their families.MethodsA secondary analysis of the nationally representative UK EPPE database. Multilevel structural equation modelling calculated the direct, indirect, and total impacts of early socio-economic risks (0–3 years) and preschool home learning environments (3–5 years) upon children's reading ability and academic self-concept between 7 and 10 years.ResultsEarly socio-economic risk had different effects upon children's reading ability and academic self-concept. Early socio-economic risks affected children's reading at ages 7 and 10 both directly and indirectly via effects upon preschool home learning environments. By contrast, early socio-economic risks had only indirect effects upon children's academic self-concept via less stimulating home learning environments in the preschool period and by limiting reading abilities early on in primary school.ConclusionsAlthough the impacts of early socio-economic risks are larger and more easily observed upon reading than upon academic self-concept, they can impact both by making it less likely that children will experience enriching home learning environments during the preschool period. This has implications for social policymakers, early educators, and interventionists. Intervening early and improving preschool home learning environments can do more than raise children's reading abilities; secondary benefits may also be achievable upon children's self-concept.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T02:55:31.538748-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12154
       
  • The contribution of parent–child numeracy activities to young Chinese
           children's mathematical ability
    • Authors: Qi Huang; Xiao Zhang, Yingyi Liu, Wen Yang, Zhanmei Song
      Abstract: BackgroundA growing body of recent research has shown that parent–child mathematical activities have a strong effect on children's mathematical learning. However, this research was conducted predominantly in Western societies and focused mainly on mothers’ involvement in such activities.AimsThis study aimed to examine both mother–child and father–child numeracy activities in Hong Kong Chinese families and both parents’ unique roles in predicting young Chinese children's mathematics ability.SampleA sample of 104 Hong Kong Chinese children aged approximately 5 years and their mothers and fathers participated in this study.MethodsMothers and fathers independently reported the frequency of their own numeracy activities with their children. Children were assessed individually using two measures of mathematical ability. Hierarchical regression models were used to investigate the contribution of parent–child numeracy activities to children's mathematical ability.ResultsMothers’ participation in number skill activities and fathers’ participation in number game and application activities significantly predicted their children's mathematical performance even after controlling for background variables and children's language ability.ConclusionsThis study extends previous research with a sample of Chinese kindergarten children and shows that parent–child numeracy activities are related to young children's mathematical ability. The findings highlight the important roles that mothers and fathers play in their young children's mathematical learning.
      PubDate: 2017-03-12T23:50:27.936835-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12152
       
  • Consequences of childhood reading difficulties and behaviour problems for
           educational achievement and employment in early adulthood
    • Authors: Diana Smart; George J. Youssef, Ann Sanson, Margot Prior, John W. Toumbourou, Craig A. Olsson
      Abstract: BackgroundReading difficulties (RDs) and behaviour problems (BPs) are two common childhood problems that have a high degree of stability and often negatively affect well-being in both the short and longer terms.AimsThe study aimed to shed light on the unique and joint consequences of these two childhood problems for educational and occupational outcomes in early adulthood.SampleData were drawn from a life-course longitudinal study of psychosocial development, the Australian Temperament Project.MethodsParent and teacher reports and a standard reading test were used to define four groups of children at 7–8 years: RDs only; BPs only; both problems; and neither problem. These groups were followed forward to ascertain educational attainment and employment status at 19–20 and 23–24 years.ResultsEach childhood problem was a unique risk for poorer educational and occupational outcomes, with co-occurring problems significantly increasing the risk of poorer educational outcomes. Further analyses revealed that the effects of childhood BPs on occupational status were mediated by secondary school non-completion, but childhood RDs were not.ConclusionsThe findings point to the importance of screening and early intervention to prevent or minimize the development of these two childhood problems, as well as continuing to support vulnerable children to increase their likelihood of secondary school completion.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T04:05:26.577189-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12150
       
  • Math anxiety and its relationship with basic arithmetic skills among
           primary school children
    • Authors: Riikka Sorvo; Tuire Koponen, Helena Viholainen, Tuija Aro, Eija Räikkönen, Pilvi Peura, Ann Dowker, Mikko Aro
      Abstract: BackgroundChildren have been found to report and demonstrate math anxiety as early as the first grade. However, previous results concerning the relationship between math anxiety and performance are contradictory, with some studies establishing a correlation between them while others do not. These contradictory results might be related to varying operationalizations of math anxiety.AimsIn this study, we aimed to examine the prevalence of math anxiety and its relationship with basic arithmetic skills in primary school children, with explicit focus on two aspects of math anxiety: anxiety about failure in mathematics and anxiety in math-related situations.SampleThe participants comprised 1,327 children at grades 2–5.MethodsMath anxiety was assessed using six items, and basic arithmetic skills were assessed using three assessment tasks.ResultsAround one-third of the participants reported anxiety about being unable to do math, one-fifth about having to answer teachers’ questions, and one tenth about having to do math. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that anxiety about math-related situations and anxiety about failure in mathematics are separable aspects of math anxiety. Structural equation modelling suggested that anxiety about math-related situations was more strongly associated with arithmetic fluency than anxiety about failure. Anxiety about math-related situations was most common among second graders and least common among fifth graders.ConclusionsAs math anxiety, particularly about math-related situations, was related to arithmetic fluency even as early as the second grade, children's negative feelings and math anxiety should be identified and addressed from the early primary school years.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T23:45:25.194752-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12151
       
  • Can schools reduce bullying' The relationship between school
           characteristics and the prevalence of bullying behaviours
    • Authors: Daniel Muijs
      Abstract: BackgroundBullying remains a persistent phenomenon in schools, but the extent to which day-to-day policies and practices relate to bullying prevalence has not been widely studied. In this study, we use an educational effectiveness framework to interrogate this relationship.AimsThe aim was to study the relationship between school factors and prevalence of bullying in primary schools. We hypothesize that school conditions (e.g., size), school policies (e.g., behaviour policies), and school processes (e.g., teaching quality) are related to bullying prevalence.SampleSurveys were administered to pupils in 35 primary schools in four local authorities in England. Pupils (N = 1,411) and teachers (N = 68) in the final year of primary school (year 6) were surveyed.MethodsThis study drew on the following data sources:A pupil survey on bullying behavioursA survey of teachers on school policies and processesAnalysis of data on school processes from school inspection reportsAnalysis of secondary data on school conditions and pupil characteristics.Three-level multilevel models were used to analyse the data.ResultsResults show a substantial school- and classroom-level effect on prevalence of bullying. Effective school policies were found to be related to levels of bullying.ConclusionsThe study provides support for the importance of schools’ embedded policies and practices in relation to bullying prevalence and provides evidence for policy on the importance of focusing on a broad range of outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T00:20:23.543705-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12148
       
  • Parent–child learning interactions: A review of the literature on
           scaffolding
    • Authors: Roni Mermelshtine
      Abstract: BackgroundScaffolding can be observed during learning-based interactions, when interventions by parents are adjusted according to children's observed abilities, with the main goal of enabling the child to work independently (Wood et al., 1976, Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 17, 89). Such contingent instruction behaviours occur from infancy, and are said to be relevant for children's development of executive function, language acquisition, and cognitive and academic abilities. Scaffolding behaviours are considered a product of the family and the wider context, a process affected by parent and child characteristics, and the environment they inhabit. Over 40 years of scaffolding research has produced an abundance of findings. Early investigations were concerned with the conceptualization of scaffolding, whereas more recent studies build upon the theory, testing its correlates and relevance for child development.AimsThis article offers an overview of the literature, focusing on the relevance of scaffolding for child developmental outcomes, and the factors associated with individual differences in the process.StructureThe article is structured such that the origins of the theory and its definitions are discussed first, followed by an overview of the correlates of scaffolding. The review concludes with a critical evaluation of the literature, proposing novel avenues for future research.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T00:15:29.943513-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12147
       
  • Teacher structure as a predictor of students’ perceived competence and
           autonomous motivation: The moderating role of differentiated instruction
    • Authors: Frédéric Guay; Amélie Roy, Pierre Valois
      Abstract: BackgroundAn important pedagogical practice is the provision of structure (Farkas & Grolnick, 2010, Motiv. Emot., 34, 266). According to self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985, Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior, Plenum, New York, NY), structure allows students to develop perceived competence in different school subjects, which in turn facilitates the development of autonomous motivation towards these subjects and limits the development of controlled motivation.AimsIn this study, we test a mediated moderation model that posits that teacher structure has a stronger positive effect on students’ autonomous motivation (and a negative effect on controlled motivation) in French class when differentiated instruction is used, and that this moderation effect is mediated by perceived competence.SampleTo test this model, we used a sample of 27 elementary school teachers and 422 students from Quebec, a province of Canada.MethodsData for teachers and students were collected with self-report measures. The method used was a correlational one with a single measurement time.ResultsResults revealed that (1) the effect of teacher structure on students’ autonomous motivation was positive only when differentiated instruction strategies were frequently used, and this moderated effect was partially mediated by perceived competence, and (2) teacher structure was negatively associated with students’ controlled motivation only when differentiated instruction was provided infrequently, and this moderated effect was not explained by perceived competence.ConclusionsThese findings are discussed in the light of the literature on SDT and on differentiated instruction.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17T00:15:30.151291-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12146
       
  • Explaining academic-track boys’ underachievement in language grades: Not
           a lack of aptitude but students’ motivational beliefs and parents’
           perceptions'
    • Authors: Anke Heyder; Ursula Kessels, Ricarda Steinmayr
      Abstract: BackgroundBoys earn lower grades in languages than girls. The expectancy-value model by Eccles et al. (, A series of books in psychology. Achievement and achievement motives. Psychological and sociological approaches, W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, CA, 76) is a comprehensive theoretical model for explaining gender differences in educational outcomes. In the past, most studies have focused on girls’ disadvantage in math and science and on the role of the students’ motivational beliefs.AimWe aimed to explain boys’ lower language grades by applying the expectancy-value model while taking into account students’ motivational beliefs as well as their aptitude, prior achievement, and socializers’ beliefs. In addition, we aimed at exploring the incremental contribution of each potential mediator.SamplesFive hundred and twenty German students (age M = 17 years; 58% female) and 374 parents (age M = 47 years).MethodsStudent-reported ability self-concept (ASC) and task values, parents’ perceptions of students’ ability, students’ prior achievement as reported by schools, and students’ verbal intelligence test scores were all tested as mediators of the effect of gender on grades in German while controlling for parents’ socioeconomic status. Single-mediator models and a multiple-mediator model were estimated using structural equation modelling.ResultsAll variables proved to be relevant for explaining boys’ underachievement in language grades. Whereas students’ ASC, task values, prior achievement, and parents’ perceptions mediated the gender effect, verbal intelligence was identified as a suppressor variable increasing the gender effect.ConclusionsOur results challenge the stereotypic belief that boys’ lower grades are due to lower verbal aptitude. Rather, students’ motivational beliefs and parents’ perceptions seem critical factors. Implications for both future research and practice are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T00:45:44.303065-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12145
       
  • Risk factors in the development of behaviour difficulties among students
           with special educational needs and disabilities: A multilevel analysis
    • Authors: Jeremy Oldfield; Neil Humphrey, Judith Hebron
      Abstract: BackgroundStudents with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) are more likely to exhibit behaviour difficulties than their typically developing peers.AimThe aim of this study was to identify specific risk factors that influence variability in behaviour difficulties among individuals with SEND.SampleThe study sample comprised 4,228 students with SEND, aged 5–15, drawn from 305 primary and secondary schools across England.MethodExplanatory variables were measured at the individual and school levels at baseline, along with a teacher-reported measure of behaviour difficulties (assessed at baseline and at 18-month follow-up).ResultsHierarchical linear modelling of data revealed that differences between schools accounted for between 13% (secondary) and 15.4% (primary) of the total variance in the development of students’ behaviour difficulties, with the remainder attributable to individual differences. Statistically significant risk markers for these problems across both phases of education were being male, eligibility for free school meals, being identified as a bully, and lower academic achievement. Additional risk markers specific to each phase of education at the individual and school levels are also acknowledged.ConclusionBehaviour difficulties are affected by risks across multiple ecological levels. Addressing any one of these potential influences is therefore likely to contribute to the reduction in the problems displayed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T00:10:29.291078-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12141
       
  • Math grades and intrinsic motivation in elementary school: A longitudinal
           investigation of their association
    • Authors: Anne F. Weidinger; Ricarda Steinmayr, Birgit Spinath
      Abstract: BackgroundIt is often argued that the negative development of intrinsic motivation in elementary school strongly depends on the presence of school grades because grades represent extrinsic consequences and achievement feedback that are supposed to influence intrinsically motivated behaviour. However, only a few studies have tested this hypothesis.AimsTherefore, we investigated the role of school grades in inter- and intra-individual changes in elementary school students’ intrinsic motivation from when grades were first introduced until the end of elementary school, when students in Germany receive recommendations for a secondary school type on the basis of their prior performance in school.SampleA sample of 542 German elementary school students (t1: M = 7.95 years, SD = 0.57) was followed for 2 years from the end of Grade 2 to the end of Grade 4.MethodsAt seven measurement occasions, children's math grades and their domain-specific intrinsic motivation were assessed.ResultsLatent growth curve models showed differences in trajectories of intrinsic motivation across students rather than uniform development. Moreover, students’ trajectories of grades and intrinsic motivation were only weakly associated. A latent cross-lagged model revealed that reciprocal effects between the two constructs over time were small at best.ConclusionsContrary to theoretical considerations, our results indicate that negative performance feedback in the form of grades does not necessarily lead to a decrease in intrinsic motivation. This calls into question the common opinion that a perception of being less competent, as reflected by poor grades, is responsible for weakening students’ intrinsic motivation.
      PubDate: 2017-02-03T00:25:28.554389-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12143
       
  • Visuospatial training improves elementary students’ mathematics
           performance
    • Authors: Tom Lowrie; Tracy Logan, Ajay Ramful
      Abstract: BackgroundAlthough spatial ability and mathematics performance are highly correlated, there is scant research on the extent to which spatial ability training can improve mathematics performance.AimsThis study evaluated the efficacy of a visuospatial intervention programme within classrooms to determine the effect on students’ (1) spatial reasoning and (2) mathematics performance as a result of the intervention.SampleThe study involved grade six students (ages 10–12) in eight classes. There were five intervention classes (n = 120) and three non-intervention control classes (n = 66).MethodsA specifically designed 10-week spatial reasoning programme was developed collaboratively with the participating teachers, with the intervention replacing the standard mathematics curriculum. The five classroom teachers in the intervention programme presented 20 hr of activities aimed at enhancing students’ spatial visualization, mental rotation, and spatial orientation skills.ResultsThe spatial reasoning programme led to improvements in both spatial ability and mathematics performance relative to the control group who received standard mathematics instruction.ConclusionsOur study is the first to show that a classroom-based spatial reasoning intervention improves elementary school students’ mathematics performance.
      PubDate: 2017-01-18T01:00:29.442494-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12142
       
 
 
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