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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 881 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 408)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 229)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 220)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
At-Tajdid : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 134)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover British Journal of Developmental Psychology
  [SJR: 1.559]   [H-I: 57]   [36 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0261-510X
   Published by British Psychological Society Homepage  [10 journals]
  • Differential diagnosis and comorbidity of ADHD and anxiety in adults
    • Authors: Katie Grogan; Claire I. Gormley, Brendan Rooney, Robert Whelan, Hanni Kiiski, Marie Naughton, Jessica Bramham
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to examine symptom profiles of people diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or anxiety (ANX) in order to determine the validity of widely used ADHD and ANX rating scales for differential diagnostic use and to develop modified measures that take symptom overlap into account.DesignA cross-sectional design was used to assess differences in rating scale scores between clinical (n = 52) and control (n = 74) samples as well as differences among subgroups of the clinical sample (22 ADHD; 16 ADHD + ANX; 14 ANX).MethodParticipants completed an online questionnaire where they responded to the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS; Conners, Erhardt, & Sparrow, ) and State Trait Anxiety Inventory scales (STAI; Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, ).ResultsResults showed that the CAARS and STAI had limited sensitivity and specificity and may lack in ability to differentially diagnose ADHD and/or ANX. Cluster analysis was used to guide the proposal of modifications for the two scales, which were to use inattentive items only for the CAARS and to exclude state ANX-present items on the STAI for use in differential diagnosis. Further parametric analysis supported these proposed modifications.ConclusionsClinicians should be made aware of the limitations of the CAARS and STAI scales in terms of specificity, when used to inform differential diagnosis of ADHD and ANX. Further analysis on the psychometric properties of these modified scales is needed in order to confirm that they are valid and reliable scales.Practitioner pointsClinical implicationsIt is possible that widely used self-report rating scales are not valid for use in the context of assessing adult ADHD when ANX is present.Clinicians should take alternative approaches to measuring ADHD symptoms in the context of ANX.Findings of the present study suggest the use of inattentive items only for the CAARS and to exclude state ANX-present items on the STAI for differential diagnostic use.Limitations of the studyThe sample sizes of the clinical subgroups were relatively small.Diagnoses were not confirmed using a semi-structured clinical interview.Alternative cluster approaches (e.g., two-step clustering using larger samples) would provide further insight.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T01:32:00.587267-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12156
  • Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for clinically distressed health
           care workers: Waitlist-controlled evaluation of an ACT workshop in a
           routine practice setting
    • Authors: Cerith S. Waters; Neil Frude, Paul E. Flaxman, Jane Boyd
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo examine the effects of a 1-day acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) workshop on the mental health of clinically distressed health care employees, and to explore ACT's processes of change in a routine practice setting.DesignA quasi-controlled design, with participants block allocated to an ACT intervention or waiting list control group based on self-referral date.MethodsParticipants were 35 health care workers who had self-referred for the ACT workshop via a clinical support service for staff. Measures were completed by ACT and control group participants at pre-intervention and 3 months post-intervention. Participants allocated to the waitlist condition went on to receive the ACT intervention and were also assessed 3 months later.ResultsAt 3 months post-intervention, participants in the ACT group reported a significantly lower level of psychological distress compared to the control group (d = 1.41). Across the 3-month evaluation period, clinically significant change was exhibited by 50% of ACT participants, compared to 0% in the control group. When the control group received the same ACT intervention, 69% went on to exhibit clinically significant change. The ACT intervention also resulted in significant improvements in psychological flexibility, defusion, and mindfulness skills, but did not significantly reduce the frequency of negative cognitions. Bootstrapped mediation analyses indicated that the reduction in distress in the ACT condition was primarily associated with an increase in mindfulness skills, especially observing and non-reactivity.ConclusionsThese findings provide preliminary support for providing brief ACT interventions as part of routine clinical support services for distressed workers.Practitioner pointsA 1-day ACT workshop delivered in the context of a routine staff support service was effective for reducing psychological distress among health care workers.The brief nature of this group intervention means it may be particularly suitable for staff support and primary care mental health service settings.The findings indicate that the beneficial effects of an ACT workshop on distressed employees' mental health were linked to improvements in specific mindfulness skills.Study limitations include non-random allocation of participants to the ACT and control groups, and measurement of mediators and outcome at the same time point (3 months post-intervention).
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T05:55:23.030959-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12155
  • Don't worry, be happy: The role of positive emotionality and adaptive
           emotion regulation strategies for youth depressive symptoms
    • Authors: Marie-Lotte Van Beveren; Kaitlin Harding, Wim Beyers, Caroline Braet
      Abstract: ObjectivesLow positive emotionality (PE) represents a temperamental vulnerability to depression in youth. Until now, little research has examined the mechanisms linking PE to depressive symptoms. Starting from integrated cognitive-affective models of depression, we aimed to study adaptive emotion regulation (ER) as a key underlying mechanism in the temperament–depression relationship.MethodsThis study investigated whether adaptive ER strategies mediate the association between PE and depressive symptoms in a large community-based sample of youth, using a cross-sectional design. Participants were 1,655 youth (54% girls; 7–16 years, M = 11.41, SD = 1.88) who filled out a set of questionnaires assessing temperament, adaptive ER strategies, and depressive symptoms.ResultsResults revealed that low PE was significantly related to higher depressive symptoms among youth and that a lack of total adaptive ER abilities mediated this relationship. More specifically, the infrequent use of problem-solving appeared to be of significant importance. Problems in positive refocusing and a deficient use of forgetting mediated the relationships between low PE and high negative emotionality (NE) in predicting depressive symptoms. Reappraisal and distraction were not significant mediators.ConclusionResults highlight the need to account for temperamental PE and adaptive ER strategies when studying youth depression. The findings contribute to a more nuanced understanding on the differential role of temperamental risk factors for developing depressive symptoms at an early stage and advocate for greater attention to adaptive ER strategies.Practitioner pointsClinical interventions for youth depression may be improved by incorporating adaptive emotion regulation (ER) strategies and enhancing positive emotions.Youth low in positive emotionality (PE) may especially benefit from learning adaptive ER skills.Clinical practitioners should focus on alleviating negative emotions and enhancing positive emotions, especially among youth low in PE.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T02:25:22.644963-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12151
  • Associations between belief inflexibility and dimensions of delusions: A
           meta-analytic review of two approaches to assessing belief flexibility
    • Authors: Chen Zhu; Xiaoqi Sun, Suzanne Ho-wai So
      Abstract: ObjectivesBelief inflexibility has been suggested to maintain delusions. Different measures of assessing belief inflexibility have been developed, and it remains unclear whether patients with delusions display belief inflexibility similarly across measures. As delusions consist of multiple dimensions, the aim of this meta-analytic review was to examine how belief inflexibility is related to different aspects of delusions (conviction, distress, and preoccupation) and to compare these associations between interview-based and task-based measures of belief inflexibility.MethodsWe conducted a systematic database search (PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, PubMed, and MEDLINE) and identified relevant articles using the following search items: belief*, delusion*, or overvalued idea*; psychosis or schizo*; flexib*, inflexib*, change, revision, or update. Meta-analyses were conducted for each dimension of delusions and were reported according to the PRISMA guidelines.ResultsA total of 16 studies, with a total sample of 1,065, were included in the analysis. Belief inflexibility was associated with global severity of delusions (Hedges' g = 0.452, p 
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T06:40:57.99436-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12154
  • Does fathers’ and mothers’ rumination predict emotional
           symptoms in their children'
    • Authors: Lamprini Psychogiou; Nicholas J. Moberly, Elizabeth Parry, Abigail Emma Russell, Selina Nath, Angeliki Kallitsoglou
      Abstract: ObjectivesAlthough rumination can have a negative influence on the family environment and the quality of parent–child interactions, there is little research on the role of parental rumination in predicting adverse child outcomes over time. This longitudinal study examined whether mothers’ and fathers’ brooding rumination would each uniquely predict emotional symptoms in preschool children.MethodsThe initial sample consisted of 160 families (including 50 mothers with past depression, 33 fathers with past depression, and 7 fathers with current depression according to the Structural Clinical Interview for DSM-IV). Families were seen at two times separated by 16 months. Children's mean age at the entry into the study was 3.9 years (SD = 0.8). Each parent independently completed the Ruminative Response Scale, the Child Behavior Checklist, the Patient Health Questionnaire, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale.ResultsFathers’ brooding rumination significantly predicted children's emotional symptoms over 16 months when controlling for child emotional symptoms, couple adjustment, parents’ depressive symptoms, mothers’ brooding and reflective rumination, and fathers’ reflective rumination at baseline. Unexpectedly, mothers’ brooding rumination did not significantly predict child emotional symptoms over time. Correlational analyses showed significant associations between parents’ rumination and lower levels of couple adjustment.ConclusionsFindings suggest that fathers’ brooding rumination may play a unique role in their children's emotional outcomes. If these findings are replicated, studies should examine the processes by which these links occur and their implications for clinical interventions.Practitioner pointsRumination is prevalent among individuals with depression, but to date no studies have examined the possible role of mothers’ and fathers’ brooding rumination in predicting children's emotional symptoms.Fathers’ brooding rumination was positively associated with children's emotional symptoms over time when controlling for mothers’ rumination and other important characteristics.Parental rumination might be a promising target for both prevention and intervention strategies for parents with depression and their children.The findings of this study could inform parenting interventions (e.g., educate parents about the possible effects of rumination on family interactions and children's outcomes, help parents notice when they ruminate, teach them to replace rumination with more adaptive strategies).The findings should be interpreted with caution. The study relied on self-reports, and therefore, the data are subject to shared method variance which may have artificially inflated associations between parent and child outcomes.The sample consisted of well-educated parents, and therefore, the findings should be generalized to other populations with caution.
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T06:35:22.228824-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12148
  • Mindfulness of voices, self-compassion, and secure attachment in relation
           to the experience of hearing voices
    • Authors: James Dudley; Catrin Eames, John Mulligan, Naomi Fisher
      Abstract: ObjectivesDeveloping compassion towards oneself has been linked to improvement in many areas of psychological well-being, including psychosis. Furthermore, developing a non-judgemental, accepting way of relating to voices is associated with lower levels of distress for people who hear voices. These factors have also been associated with secure attachment. This study explores associations between the constructs of mindfulness of voices, self-compassion, and distress from hearing voices and how secure attachment style related to each of these variables.DesignCross-sectional online.MethodOne hundred and twenty-eight people (73% female; Mage = 37.5; 87.5% Caucasian) who currently hear voices completed the Self-Compassion Scale, Southampton Mindfulness of Voices Questionnaire, Relationships Questionnaire, and Hamilton Programme for Schizophrenia Voices Questionnaire.ResultsResults showed that mindfulness of voices mediated the relationship between self-compassion and severity of voices, and self-compassion mediated the relationship between mindfulness of voices and severity of voices. Self-compassion and mindfulness of voices were significantly positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with distress and severity of voices.ConclusionMindful relation to voices and self-compassion are associated with reduced distress and severity of voices, which supports the proposed potential benefits of mindful relating to voices and self-compassion as therapeutic skills for people experiencing distress by voice hearing.Practitioner pointsGreater self-compassion and mindfulness of voices were significantly associated with less distress from voices. These findings support theory underlining compassionate mind training.Mindfulness of voices mediated the relationship between self-compassion and distress from voices, indicating a synergistic relationship between the constructs.Although the current findings do not give a direction of causation, consideration is given to the potential impact of mindful and compassionate approaches to voices.
      PubDate: 2017-08-12T01:15:28.224592-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12153
  • Associations between behaviours that challenge in adults with intellectual
           disability, parental perceptions and parental mental health
    • Authors: Jane Waite; John Rose, Lucy Wilde, Kate Eden, Chris Stinton, Jo Moss, Chris Oliver
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study examined parental perceptions of behaviours that challenge (CB) in their adult children with intellectual disability (ID), and explored whether perceptions mediated associations between CB and parental psychological distress.DesignA within-group correlational design was employed.MethodsSixty-five parents reported on individuals with genetic syndromes and ID who had chronic CB. Parents completed the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R) adapted to measure perceptions of self-injury, aggression or property destruction, alongside assessments of parental locus of control, attributions about behaviour, parental psychological distress, and CB.ResultsA high proportion of parents evidenced anxiety and depression at clinically significant levels (56.9% and 30.8%, respectively). Contrary to predictions, psychological distress was not significantly associated with CB. The perception that the adult with ID exerted control over the parent's life mediated the association between CB and parental psychological distress. Few parents endorsed operant reinforcement as a cause of CB (
      PubDate: 2017-08-12T00:51:02.052229-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12146
  • The impact of a universal intervention targeting perfectionism in
           children: An exploratory controlled trial
    • Authors: Eva J. Vekas; Tracey D. Wade
      Abstract: ObjectivesPerfectionism is considered to be an underlying mechanism of relevance to a broad array of indicators of psychological distress. The current research examined the impact of a three-session intervention targeting perfectionism in children on perfectionism, self-criticism, and well-being.DesignThe design of the current study can be considered quasi-experimental as the intervention and control classes were not randomly allocated but decided by convenience factors at the school level.MethodsStudents (aged 10.08–12.79 years) were allocated to the intervention (N = 107, 41 boys) or control condition (N = 105, 33 boys), completing self-report assessments on perfectionism, self-criticism, and well-being at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up.ResultsAt post-intervention, children in the intervention group had significantly lower perfectionism than the control group (d = 0.35, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.07–0.62) and at 3-month follow-up had significantly higher levels of well-being (d = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.06–0.60). As predicted by theory, decreases in perfectionism mediated the relationship between condition and improved well-being.ConclusionsThis exploratory study provides evidence for the usefulness of a brief universal prevention programme targeting perfectionism. Future research should use more robust designs, explore longer-term effects, and the impact on a wider range of variables, including scholastic achievement.Practitioner pointsClinical implicationsPerfectionism linked with negative outcomes in children can be decreased in a classroom setting.Decreasing perfectionism leads to improved well-being in children.LimitationsMore rigorous designs along with better assessment of perfectionism are required in further evaluations.The impact of perfectionism on scholastic achievement in children requires further investigation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-31T06:55:27.963501-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12152
  • Intensive cognitive therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in routine
           clinical practice: A matched comparison audit
    • Authors: Hannah Murray; Sharif El-Leithy, Jo Billings
      Abstract: ObjectivesIntensive cognitive therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been shown to be as effective as weekly treatment in controlled trials. In this study, outcome data comparing standard and intensive treatments delivered in routine clinical practice were analysed.MethodsA consecutive case series of intensive treatment cases were compared to matched control cases who had completed weekly treatment.ResultsBoth groups showed significant improvements on PTSD and depression measures. The intensive group showed larger PTSD symptomatic improvement. There were differences between the groups in age and time since trauma, suggesting selection biases in who is offered, and/or who chooses intensive treatment.ConclusionsFor some individuals, an intensive format may be more effective than weekly treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T05:51:04.90736-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12150
  • Choir singing and creative writing enhance emotion regulation in adults
           with chronic mental health conditions
    • Authors: Genevieve A. Dingle; Elyse Williams, Jolanda Jetten, Jonathon Welch
      Abstract: ObjectivesAdults with mental health conditions commonly experience difficulties with emotion regulation which affect their social functioning. Arts-based groups provide opportunities for shared emotional experiences and emotion regulation. This study explores emotion regulation strategies and the emotional effects of arts-based group participation in adults with mental health problems and in controls.Design and methodThe 62 participants included 39 adults with chronic mental health problems who were members of arts-based groups (ABG) and 23 comparison choir (CC) members who were not specifically experiencing mental health problems. The repeated measures design included self-reports of emotion upon waking (T1), the hour before group (T2), end of the group (T3), and evening (T4), as well as participant notes to explain their emotion ratings at each time. They also completed measures of individual and interpersonal emotion regulation.ResultsThe ABG participants engaged marginally more in affect worsening strategies than CC (p = .057 and .08), but there were no other group differences. All participants reported a significant increase in positive emotions, F (3, 180) = 28.044, p 
      PubDate: 2017-07-18T23:06:30.499438-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12149
  • Gender differences in preferences for psychological treatment, coping
           strategies, and triggers to help-seeking
    • Authors: Louise Liddon; Roger Kingerlee, John A. Barry
      Abstract: ObjectiveThere is some evidence that men and women deal with stress in different ways; for example, a meta-analysis found that women prefer to focus on emotions as a coping strategy more than men do. However, sex differences in preferences for therapy is a subject little explored.DesignA cross-sectional online survey.MethodParticipants (115 men and 232 women) were recruited via relevant websites and social media. The survey described therapies and asked participants how much they liked each. Their coping strategies and help-seeking behaviour were assessed too.ResultsSurvey data were analysed using multiple linear regression. After familywise adjustment of the alpha for multiple testing to p 
      PubDate: 2017-07-09T23:05:22.609573-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12147
  • Impairments of spontaneous and deliberative mentalizing co-occur, yet
           dissociate, in schizophrenia
    • Authors: Robyn Langdon; Michaela Flynn, Emily Connaughton, Martin Brüne
      Abstract: ObjectivesEvidence of impairment in explicit mentalizing in people with schizophrenia has inspired interventions to improve awareness of others’ mental states in these individuals. Less is known of implicit mentalizing in schizophrenia, with current findings mixed. We sought to resolve previous inconsistencies using Heider & Simmel's (H&S) classic animation to elicit spontaneous mentalizing and examined relations between spontaneous and deliberative mentalizing.MethodsForty-five schizophrenia outpatients and 27 general-community controls completed two explicit theory-of-mind (TOM) tasks and then described the H&S animation (to elicit spontaneous social attributions about emotionally driven, as well as goal-driven, behaviours), before and after an instruction to think of the shapes as people. Accuracy of basic and social facts and frequencies of personification and different mental-state terms were recorded.ResultsExplicit TOM performance was impaired in patients. Patients also generated fewer social (but not basic) facts than controls to describe the H&S animation, and used less mental-state language, before, and even more so, after the ‘people’ instruction, despite that both groups had used more personification terms after the ‘people’ instruction. Measures of explicit and spontaneous mentalizing contributed independently to discriminating between groups.ConclusionsPatients respond less to the bottom-up signals of agency that ought normally to elicit spontaneous social attributions, even when cued to think of the stimuli as people, and the stimuli depict emotionally driven, as well as goal-driven, behaviour. That impairments of spontaneous and deliberative mentalizing dissociate in schizophrenia suggests that training deliberative mentalizing may not be enough; interventions to improve spontaneous mentalizing are also needed.Practitioner pointsFindingsPeople with schizophrenia were less likely than controls to spontaneously attribute causal mental states when viewing dynamic signals of emotionally driven and goal-driven behaviours.These impairments were even more pronounced when participants were instructed to think of the stimuli as people, suggesting that perceiving others in social roles does not prompt people with schizophrenia to anthropomorphize about others as agents motivated by their own inner worlds.Impairments of spontaneous mentalizing were found to co-occur independently with explicit mentalizing deficits in schizophrenia, consistent with the claim that humans can access two distinct systems for understanding others’ minds.Findings suggest that interventions to improve conscious deliberative mentalizing in schizophrenia may not be enough; we also need to target implicit mentalizing processes.LimitationsThe patient sample was chronic and only mildly symptomatic. As such, findings cannot be generalized to other stages and phases of the illness.All patients were also medicated, allowing for the possibility that automatic responses to socially salient stimuli may have been pharmacologically attenuated. Future research may examine whether unmedicated young people at ultra-high risk of psychosis show a similar profile of mentalizing impairment.Future work may also examine whether impairments of deliberative and spontaneous mentalizing associate differentially with social functioning and different cognitive domains in schizophrenia.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12T00:45:53.978635-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12144
  • On the reciprocal effects between multiple group identifications and
           mental health: A longitudinal study of Scottish adolescents
    • Authors: Kirsty Miller; Juliet R. H. Wakefield, Fabio Sani
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe aim of the study was to investigate the link between social group identification and mental health outcomes in a sample of secondary school pupils. Based on previous work, it was predicted that multiple high group identifications would protect against psychological ill health. Furthermore, it was predicted that better mental health would also predict greater number of group identifications, thus creating a ‘virtuous circle’.DesignA longitudinal questionnaire design was used.MethodsA total of 409 Scottish secondary school pupils aged 13–17 completed a questionnaire twice over a year. Pupils’ responses regarding their mental health and the extent of their identification with three groups (the family, school, and friends) were measured.ResultsA path analysis of the data showed that greater number of high group identifications predicted better mental health outcomes amongst participants. However, better mental health also predicted greater number of high group identifications, suggesting that there is a cyclical relationship between both variables.ConclusionsThe findings have both theoretical and practical implications. They highlight the importance of conceptualizing the link between group identification and mental health as cyclical, rather than unidirectional. This reconceptualization has implications for mental health promotion strategies, as it highlights the importance of attempting to turn a potentially ‘vicious cycle’ of social disidentification and mental ill health into a ‘virtuous cycle’ of social identification and mental health.Practitioner pointsResults showed that in a population of 409 high school pupils, the more high group identifications pupils had, the better their mental health outcomes.Better mental health also predicted a greater number of high group identifications over time.The findings suggest that we would benefit from conceptualizing the relationship between group identification and mental outcomes as being cyclical rather than unidirectional.Viewing the relationship between group identification and mental health in this way enables us to consider interventions which help turn a ‘vicious cycle’ into a ‘virtuous cycle’.LimitationsA potential limitation of the work relates to the use of self-report questionnaires which may elicit socially desirable responses.The sample only consists of high school pupils from mainstream public schools within Scotland.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T05:10:19.533954-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12143
  • A sequence analysis of patterns in self-harm in young people with and
           without experience of being looked after in care
    • Authors: Ruth Wadman; David Clarke, Kapil Sayal, Marie Armstrong, Caroline Harroe, Pallab Majumder, Panos Vostanis, Ellen Townsend
      Abstract: ObjectivesYoung people in the public care system (‘looked-after’ young people) have high levels of self-harm.DesignThis paper reports the first detailed study of factors leading to self-harm over time in looked-after young people in England, using sequence analyses of the Card Sort Task for Self-harm (CaTS).MethodsYoung people in care (looked-after group: n = 24; 14–21 years) and young people who had never been in care (contrast group: n = 21; 13–21 years) completed the CaTS, describing sequences of factors leading to their first and most recent episodes of self-harm. Lag sequential analysis determined patterns of significant transitions between factors (thoughts, feelings, behaviours, events) leading to self-harm across 6 months.ResultsYoung people in care reported feeling better immediately following their first episode of self-harm. However, fearlessness of death, impulsivity, and access to means were reported most proximal to recent self-harm. Although difficult negative emotions were salient to self-harm sequences in both groups, young people with no experience of being in care reported a greater range of negative emotions and transitions between them. For the contrast group, feelings of depression and sadness were a significant starting point of the self-harm sequence 6 months prior to most recent self-harm.ConclusionsSequences of factors leading to self-harm can change and evolve over time, so regular monitoring and assessment of each self-harm episode are needed. Support around easing and dealing with emotional distress is required. Restricting access to means to carry out potentially fatal self-harm attempts, particularly for the young persons with experience of being in care, is recommended.Practitioner pointsSelf-harm (and factors associated with self-harm) can change and evolve over time; assessments need to reflect this.Looked-after young people reported feeling better after first self-harm; fearlessness of death, access to means, and impulsivity were reported as key in recent self-harm.Underlying emotional distress, particularly depression and self-hatred were important in both first and most recent self-harm.Looked-after young people should undergo regular monitoring and assessment of each self-harm episode and access to potentially fatal means should be restricted.The CaTS would have clinical utility as an assessment toolRecruiting participants can be a significant challenge in studies with looked-after children and young people.Future research with larger clinical samples would be valuable.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T02:40:25.986411-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12145
  • Positive autobiographical memory deficits in youth with depression
           histories and their never-depressed siblings
    • Authors: Ena Begovic; Vanessa Panaite, Lauren M. Bylsma, Charles George, Maria Kovacs, Ilya Yaroslavsky, Ildikó Baji, István Benák, Roberta Dochnal, Enikő Kiss, Ágnes Vetró, Krisztina Kapornai, Jonathan Rottenberg
      Abstract: ObjectivesImpaired positive autobiographical memory (AM) is closely linked to emotional disorders. AM impairments are often found in depressed adults and may be related to the difficulties such persons have in regulating their dysphoric mood. By contrast, less is known about AM disturbances among adolescents, or about the functional relationship of AM disturbances to early-onset depression.DesignA high-risk family design served to compare four groups of youth who differed in depression histories and familial depression risk.MethodsThirty-one currently depressed probands, 185 remitted probands, 204 never-depressed siblings of probands, and 180 healthy control youth were induced into a negative mood prior to recalling positive AMs via a novel memory elicitation procedure. Several positive AM characteristics were assessed.ResultsRelative to control youth, unaffected siblings and probands exhibited consistently impaired positive AMs. Moreover, we also found some evidence that probands were more impaired than siblings, who were in turn more impaired than controls, consistent with a gradient effect.ConclusionsPositive AM disturbances may not only precede the onset of depression in vulnerable youth, but also continue to persist after remission of a depressive episode. Clinical and basic research implications of the findings are discussed.Practitioner pointsPositive AM impairments may be trait-like, persist in the euthymic phase of depression, and may serve as a risk marker for early-onset depression among vulnerable adolescents.Disturbances in positive AM may negatively impact the mood-regulatory functions of positive memory recall and contribute to persistent sadness and anhedonia, which are core features of depression.Our sample of currently depressed youth was relatively small, tempering our conclusions.Although we collected data on some important covariates (e.g., socioeconomic status), we lacked information on other relevant variables such as youths’ executive functioning or IQ.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T06:15:24.220233-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12141
  • Psychological mechanisms and the ups and downs of personal recovery in
           bipolar disorder
    • Authors: Alyson L. Dodd; Barbara Mezes, Fiona Lobban, Steven H. Jones
      Abstract: BackgroundPersonal recovery is recognized as an important outcome for individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) and is distinct from symptomatic and functional recovery. Recovery-focused psychological therapies show promise. As with therapies aiming to delay relapse and improve symptoms, research on the psychological mechanisms underlying recovery is crucial to inform effective recovery-focused therapy. However, empirical work is limited. This study investigated whether negative beliefs about mood swings and self-referent appraisals of mood-related experiences were negatively associated with personal recovery.DesignCross-sectional online survey.MethodPeople with a verified research diagnosis of BD (n = 87), recruited via relevant voluntary sector organizations and social media, completed online measures. Pearson's correlations and multiple regression analysed associations between appraisals, beliefs, and recovery.ResultsNormalizing appraisals of mood changes were positively associated with personal recovery. Depression, negative self-appraisals of depression-relevant experiences, extreme positive and negative appraisals of activated states, and negative beliefs about mood swings had negative relationships with recovery. After controlling for current mood symptoms, negative illness models (relating to how controllable, long-term, concerning, and treatable mood swings are; β = −.38), being employed (β = .39), and both current (β = −.53) and recent experience of depression (β = .30) predicted recovery.LimitationsDue to the cross-sectional design, causality cannot be determined. Participants were a convenience sample primarily recruited online. Power was limited by the sample size.ConclusionsInterventions aiming to empower people to feel able to manage mood and catastrophize less about mood swings could facilitate personal recovery in people with BD, which might be achieved in recovery-focused therapy.Practitioner pointsPersonal recovery is an important outcome for people living with bipolar disorderMore positive illness models are associated with better personal recovery in bipolar disorder, over and above mood symptomsRecovery-focused therapy should focus on developing positive illness modelsRecovery-focused therapy should address personally meaningful goals such as gaining employment
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T05:10:27.215763-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12140
  • Distress, omnipotence, and responsibility beliefs in command
    • Authors: Lyn Ellett; Olga Luzon, Max Birchwood, Zarina Abbas, Abi Harris, Paul Chadwick
      Abstract: ObjectivesCommand hallucinations are considered to be one of the most distressing and disturbing symptoms of schizophrenia. Building on earlier studies, we compare key attributes in the symptomatic, affective, and cognitive profiles of people diagnosed with schizophrenia and hearing voices that do (n = 77) or do not (n = 74) give commands.MethodsThe study employed a cross-sectional design, in which we assessed voice severity, distress and control (PSYRATs), anxiety and depression (HADS), beliefs about voices (BAVQ-R), and responsibility beliefs (RIQ). Clinical and demographic variables were also collected.ResultsCommand hallucinations were found to be more distressing and controlling, perceived as more omnipotent and malevolent, linked to higher anxiety and depression, and resisted more than hallucinations without commands. Commanding voices were also associated with higher conviction ratings for being personally responsible for preventing harm.ConclusionsThe findings suggest key differences in the affective and cognitive profiles of people who hear commanding voices, which have important implications for theory and psychological interventions.Practitioner pointsCommand hallucinations are associated with higher distress, malevolence, and omnipotence.Command hallucinations are associated with higher responsibility beliefs for preventing harm.Responsibility beliefs are associated with voice-related distress.Future psychological interventions for command hallucinations might benefit from focussing not only on omnipotence, but also on responsibility beliefs, as is done in psychological therapies for obsessive compulsive disorder.LimitationsThe cross-sectional design does not assess issues of causality.We did not measure the presence or severity of delusions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T07:40:29.061717-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12139
  • Experiences of outcome monitoring in service users with psychosis:
           Findings from an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies for people
           with Severe Mental Illness (IAPT-SMI) demonstration site
    • Authors: Miriam Fornells-Ambrojo; Louise Johns, Juliana Onwumere, Philippa Garety, Craig Milosh, Catherine Iredale, Emmanuelle Peters, Adrian Webster, Suzanne Jolley
      Abstract: ObjectivesPsychological therapy services are increasingly required to instate routine outcome monitoring (ROM), to demonstrate the clinical and economic impact of interventions. Professionals’ views of ROM are an acknowledged barrier to implementation. Service user perspectives have rarely been examined, but acceptability and perceptions of ROM are critical to successful implementation. We investigated service users’ experiences of ROM in an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies for people with Severe Mental Illness psychosis demonstration site.DesignROM comprised a periodic assessment battery completed at baseline, mid-therapy, and end-of-therapy and a single measure completed session-by-session. Qualitative and quantitative feedback were sought at each periodic ROM administration, and, for sessional ROM, at mid-therapy and end-of-therapy. Demographic and clinical correlates of satisfaction were examined cross-sectionally at baseline. Consistency of satisfaction over time and associations of satisfaction with engagement were examined longitudinally.MethodsService users rated baseline (n = 281/289), mid-therapy (n = 114/121), end-of-therapy (n = 124/154), and session-by-session (mid-therapy n = 63/87 and end-of-therapy n = 90/123) ROM from 0 (‘extremely unhelpful’) to 10 (‘extremely helpful’) and gave qualitative feedback.ResultsService users predominantly found ROM helpful (score 6–10; 64–72%) or neutral (score 5; 19–29%). Finding ROM less helpful was associated with younger age and poorer general outcomes, but not with psychotic symptoms or therapy dropout. Emerging qualitative themes included feeling understood, valuing opportunities to reflect, expressing feelings, and tracking progress towards goals. Shorter batteries would be preferable, particularly for younger respondents, and those with poorer outcomes.ConclusionsROM is acceptable for people with psychosis. Tailoring assessments to specific subgroups should be considered.Practitioner pointsRoutine outcome monitoring for psychological therapy is acceptable to people with psychosis.Most respondents experienced outcome monitoring as an opportunity to feel understood.Younger people and those with poorer functioning and well-being might be at higher risk of dissatisfaction.Short assessment batteries and less frequent outcome monitoring might be preferable for some service users.Limitations of the studyFeedback about session-by-session outcome monitoring was not contemporaneous with completion and may be subject to memory or other biases.Only two-thirds of service users provided feedback about session-by-session ROM (compared to >94% for periodic ROM) so findings may not be fully representative.Feedback about measures was not provided anonymously, and it is possible that service users were reluctant to express criticism about ROM to the assessor.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T07:35:32.030953-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12136
  • A path model of different forms of impulsivity with externalizing and
           internalizing psychopathology: Towards greater specificity
    • Authors: Sheri L. Johnson; Jordan A. Tharp, Andrew D. Peckham, Charles S. Carver, Claudia M. Haase
      Abstract: ObjectivesA growing empirical literature indicates that emotion-related impulsivity (compared to impulsivity that is unrelated to emotion) is particularly relevant for understanding a broad range of psychopathologies. Recent work, however, has differentiated two forms of emotion-related impulsivity: A factor termed Pervasive Influence of Feelings captures tendencies for emotions (mostly negative emotions) to quickly shape thoughts, and a factor termed Feelings Trigger Action captures tendencies for positive and negative emotions to quickly and reflexively shape behaviour and speech. This study used path modelling to consider links from emotion-related and non-emotion-related impulsivity to a broad range of psychopathologies.Design and methodsUndergraduates completed self-report measures of impulsivity, depression, anxiety, aggression, and substance use symptoms.ResultsA path model (N = 261) indicated specificity of these forms of impulsivity. Pervasive Influence of Feelings was related to anxiety and depression, whereas Feelings Trigger Action and non-emotion-related impulsivity were related to aggression and substance use.ConclusionsThe findings of this study suggest that emotion-relevant impulsivity could be a potentially important treatment target for a set of psychopathologies.Practitioner pointsRecent work has differentiated two forms of emotion-related impulsivity.This study tests a multivariate path model linking emotion-related and non-emotion-related impulsivity with multiple forms of psychopathology.Impulsive thoughts in response to negative emotions were related to anxiety and depression.Impulsive actions in response to emotions were related to aggression and substance use, as did non-emotion-related impulsivity.The study was limited by the reliance on self-report measures of impulsivity and psychopathology.There is a need for longitudinal work on how these forms of impulsivity predict the onset and course of psychopathology.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11T07:26:02.458207-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12135
  • Psychological traits predict impaired awareness of deficits independently
           of neuropsychological factors in chronic traumatic brain injury
    • Authors: Zorry Belchev; Neta Levy, Itamar Berman, Hila Levinzon, Dan Hoofien, Asaf Gilboa
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo dissociate injury-related factors from psychological contributions to impaired awareness of deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI); impaired awareness is theorized to partly reflect psychological factors (e.g., denial), but empirical evidence for this theory is scarce.DesignWe examined how different factors predict awareness in patients undergoing rehabilitation (N = 43). Factors included (1) neurological (injury severity), (2) neuropsychological loss, (3) psychological (denial, projection, identification), and (4) personality (narcissism).Methods/Main measuresThe Patient Competency Rating Scale, comparing patient with clinician reports on different functional domains; the Thematic Apperception Test, an injury-independent measure of the propensity to mobilize specific defence mechanisms; and the Narcissism Personality Inventory.ResultsImpaired awareness was not predicted by injury-related and neuropsychological scores but was significantly predicted by use of primitive defence mechanisms (denial and projection). Patients who underestimate their abilities also demonstrated high denial levels, but contrary to underestimators, this was positively related to depression and negatively to awareness.ConclusionsPrimitive defence mechanism use significantly contributes to impaired awareness independent of injury-related factors, particularly in domains associated with self-identity. Well-validated tests of defence mechanism mobilization are needed to support clinical interpretation of and intervention with impaired awareness. More research is needed to understand the psychology of hypersensitivity to deficits.Practitioner pointsThis study provides an empirical demonstration of dissociable contributions of neurological and psychological factors to awareness of deficits in TBI.Trait proclivity to mobilize defence mechanisms in response to anxiety-provoking situations can be measured, and strongly predicts impaired awareness. Importantly, measures of psychological reactions were independent of responses to the neurological deficits themselves, discriminating between psychological and neurological contributions to impaired awareness.The importance of identifying psychological reactions to impaired awareness and hindering rehabilitation success is highlighted, and vital for clinicians to consider during the rehabilitation process.Psychological reactions to TBI can be identified using well-validated, quantitative measures of the use of psychological defences (e.g., Cramer's Thematic Apperception Test scoring system), and the authors suggest this is a critical step to properly characterize and manage awareness in patients during treatment.Although only TBI patients were examined, the results may inform impaired awareness that occur as a result of other disorders and illnesses.The patients in this study were in the chronic stages of the injury, and therefore, the results may not generalize to patients in more acute stages.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03T08:21:00.528553-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12134
  • Rumination, event centrality, and perceived control as predictors of
    • Authors: Matthew Brooks; Nicola Graham-Kevan, Michelle Lowe, Sarita Robinson
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe Cognitive Growth and Stress (CGAS) model draws together cognitive processing factors previously untested into a single model. Intrusive rumination, deliberate rumination, present and future perceptions of control, and event centrality were assessed as predictors of post-traumatic growth (PTG) and post-traumatic stress (PTS).MethodThe CGAS model is tested on a sample of survivors (N = 250) of a diverse range of adverse events using structural equation modelling techniques.ResultsOverall, the best fitting model was supportive of the theorized relations between cognitive constructs and accounted for 30% of the variance in PTG and 68% of the variance in PTS across the sample.ConclusionsRumination, centrality, and perceived control factors are significant determinants of positive and negative psychological change across the wide spectrum of adversarial events. In its first phase of development, the CGAS model also provides further evidence of the distinct processes of growth and distress following adversity.Practitioner pointsClinical implicationsPeople can experience positive change after adversity, regardless of life background or types of events experienced.While growth and distress are possible outcomes after adversity, they occur through distinct processes.Support or intervention should consider rumination, event centrality, and perceived control factors to enhance psychological well-being.Cautions/limitationsLongitudinal research would further clarify the findings found in this study.Further extension of the model is recommended to include other viable cognitive processes implicated in the development of positive and negative changes after adversity.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T11:01:07.326461-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12138
  • Caregiver criticism, help-giving, and the burden of schizophrenia among
           Mexican American families
    • Authors: Bianca T. Villalobos; Jodie Ullman, Tracy Wang Krick, Darcy Alcántara, Alex Kopelowicz, Steven R. López
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study tested an attribution model of help-giving in family caregivers of persons with schizophrenia as it relates to caregivers’ reported burden. We hypothesized (a) that caregivers’ attributions of their ill relatives’ responsibility for their symptoms would be associated with more negative and less positive affective reactions, (b) that affective reactions would be related to perceptions of administered support, and (c) that support would in turn predict greater burden.MethodsWe examined 60 family caregivers of Mexican origin living in Southern California. Mexican Americans were chosen because of their high degree of contact with their ill relative, thereby facilitating the examination of help-giving and burden. Contrary to past studies, caregivers’ attributions and affective stance were assessed independently, the former based on self-report and the latter based on codes drawn from the Camberwell Family Interview. Caregiver burden was assessed at baseline and one year later.ResultsPath analyses showed partial support for the attribution model of help-giving. Specifically, attributions of responsibility negatively predicted caregiver's warmth, which in turn predicted more administered support. Contrary to hypotheses, attributions were not associated with caregiver criticism, and criticism was positively related to administered support. In addition, caregiver support was not related to burden at either baseline or a year later. Criticism was a significant predictor of burden at follow-up through burden at baseline.ConclusionThe emotional stance of caregivers predicts burden independent of the help they provide. Caregiver criticism not only predicts negative patient outcomes but can predict negative caregiver outcomes as well.Practitioner pointsPositive clinical implicationsIn family treatment, it is important to address caregiver criticism not only because of its relationship to poor clinical outcomes of ill relatives but also because of its relationship to greater caregiver burden.Integrating a balanced rationale for family interventions – to improve ill relatives’ and caregivers’ outcomes – may promote further engagement of both parties as some caregivers may be additionally motivated to improve their own well-being, and some ill relatives may appreciate more equitably distributing the treatment focus.LimitationsThe caregiver sample was in general low in criticism; therefore, the findings may not be generalizable to families with a higher degree of criticism.There was a 35% sample attrition at the one-year follow-up.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:34:48.358227-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12137
  • Conducting research in clinical psychology practice: Barriers,
           facilitators, and recommendations
    • Authors: Kirsten V. Smith; Graham R. Thew
      First page: 347
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe combination of clinical psychologists’ therapeutic expertise and research training means that they are in an ideal position to be conducting high-quality research projects. However, despite these skills and the documented benefits of research to services and service users, research activity in practice remains low. This article aims to give an overview of the advantages of, and difficulties in conducting research in clinical practice.MethodWe reviewed the relevant literature on barriers to research and reflected on our clinical and research experiences in a range of contexts to offer practical recommendations.ResultsWe considered factors involved in the planning, sourcing support, implementation, and dissemination phases of research, and outline suggestions to improve the feasibility of research projects in post-qualification roles.ConclusionsWe suggest that research leadership is particularly important within clinical psychology to ensure the profession's continued visibility and influence within health settings.Practitioner pointsClinical implicationsEmerging evidence suggests that clinical settings that foster research are associated with better patient outcomes.Suggestions to increase the feasibility of research projects in clinical settings are detailed.LimitationsThe present recommendations are drawn from the authors’ practical experience and may need adaptation to individual practitioners’ settings.This study does not attempt to assess the efficacy of the strategies suggested.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01T05:40:28.053123-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/bjc.12142
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