Authors:K. Kawakami; D.M. Amodio; K. Hugenberg Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2017 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): K. Kawakami, D.M. Amodio, K. Hugenberg The primary aim of this chapter is to provide a framework to understand and synthesize the processes of person construal—early perceptions that lead to initial ingroup/outgroup categorizations—with the processes involved in intergroup relations. To this end, we review research examining the initial perception and categorization of ingroup and outgroup members and its downstream consequences. We first discuss bottom-up processes in person construal based on visual features (e.g., facial prototypicality and bodily cues), and then discuss how top-down factors (e.g., beliefs, stereotypes) may influence these processes. Next, we examine how the initial categorization of targets as ingroup or outgroup members influences identification, stereotyping, and group-based evaluations, and the relations between these constructs. We also explore the implications of the activation of these constructs for a range of social judgments including emotion identification, empathy, and intergroup behaviors. Finally, we describe a variety of well established and more recent strategies to reduce intergroup bias that target the activation of category-based knowledge, including intergroup contact, approach orientations, evaluative conditioning, and perspective taking.
Authors:E. Kross; O. Ayduk Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2016 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): E. Kross, O. Ayduk When people experience negative events, they often try to understand their feelings to improve the way they feel. Although engaging in this meaning-making process leads people to feel better at times, it frequently breaks down leading people to ruminate and feel worse. This raises the question: What factors determine whether people's attempts to “work-through” their negative feelings succeed or fail? In this article, we describe an integrative program of research that has addressed this issue by focusing on the role that self-distancing plays in facilitating adaptive self-reflection. We begin by describing the “self-reflection puzzle” that initially motivated this line of work. Next, we introduce the concept of self-distancing and describe the conceptual framework we developed to explain how this process should facilitate adaptive self-reflection. After describing the early studies that evaluated this framework, we discuss how these findings have been extended to broaden and deepen our understanding of the role that this process plays in self-regulation. We conclude by offering several parting thoughts that integrate the ideas discussed in this chapter.
Authors:J.E. Edlund; B.J. Sagarin Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2016 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): J.E. Edlund, B.J. Sagarin The theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy has emerged as one of evolutionary psychology's most prominent lines of research. In this paper, we offer a 25-year retrospective on the theory. We begin with a review of the theory itself and the statistical implications of the theory. We then discuss many of the prominent challenges to the theory. These challenges include: a suggestion that sex differences in the interpretation of the questions often used in sex difference in jealousy studies confound the results, psychometric concerns regarding the response scales used to assess the sex difference in jealousy, whether actual experiences with infidelity mirror participants’ hypothetical reactions, potential cognitive influences on the sex difference in jealousy, ambiguous results regarding physiological manifestations of the sex difference in jealousy, meta-analyses that reach seemingly different conclusions regarding the existence of the sex difference in jealousy, and moderators (including sexual orientation) that attenuate the sex difference in jealousy. Finally, we evaluate the state of the theory in light of the evidence we review, we consider why researchers from different subfields of psychology appear to have such different interpretations of the evidence for sex differences in jealousy, and we outline recommendations for future research directions.
Authors:S.J. Heine; I. Dar-Nimrod; B.Y. Cheung; T. Proulx Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2016 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): S.J. Heine, I. Dar-Nimrod, B.Y. Cheung, T. Proulx We propose that people are genetic essentialists—that is, they tend to think of genetic attributions as being immutable, of a specific etiology, natural, and dividing people into homogenous and discrete groups. Although there are rare conditions where genes operate in these kinds of deterministic ways, people overgeneralize from these to the far more common conditions where genes are not at all deterministic. These essentialist biases are associated with some harmful outcomes such as racism, sexism, pessimism in the face of illnesses, political polarization, and support for eugenics, while at the same time they are linked with increased tolerance and sympathy for gay rights, mental illness, and less severe judgments of responsibility for crime. We will also discuss how these essentialist biases connect with the burgeoning direct-to-consumer genomics industry and various kinds of genetic engineering. Overall, these biases appear rather resistant to efforts to reduce them, although genetics literacy predicts weaker essentialist tendencies.
Authors:K. Sassenberg; M.R.W. Hamstra Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2016 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): K. Sassenberg, M.R.W. Hamstra This chapter presents a model and empirical research approaching the antecedents and consequences of leadership behavior from a self-regulation perspective. The presented self-regulation model of leadership behavior (SMLB) focuses on the role of self-regulation strategies (1) as antecedents of leadership behavior and (2) as guides of leaders’ social influence on followers. Research testing hypotheses derived from the model for regulatory focus, regulatory mode, and need for cognitive closure in the context of leadership is summarized. The presented research addresses two prominent gaps in research on leadership behavior: the impact of motivation on leadership behavior and the social influence processes underlying successful leadership (e.g., perceived leader effectiveness and follower effort).
Authors:R.F. Baumeister; K.D. Vohs Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2016 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): R.F. Baumeister, K.D. Vohs The strength model of self-regulation holds that self-regulation operates by consuming a limited energy resource, thereby producing a state called ego depletion in which volition is curtailed because of low energy. We present our research program on ego depletion as well as much relevant work contributed by others. Challenges to the theory have emphasized allocation rather than depletion of resources, research participant expectations and obligations, changes in motivation and attention, beliefs and implicit theories, perceptions about depletion and vicarious depletion, glucose anomalies, and feelings of autonomy. We conclude that the theory needs revision and updating to accommodate the new findings, and we indicate the requisite changes. Furthermore, we conclude that the strength model is much better able than the rival accounts to explain all available evidence. Most of the rival accounts are compatible with it and indeed work best by sustaining the assumption that self-regulation relies on a limited resource.
Authors:Halevy Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2016 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): N. Halevy Real-world strategic interactions are ambiguous, complex, and dynamic. Thus, they present decision-makers with a range of epistemological challenges. Theoretically integrating concepts and empirical findings from social and cognitive psychology, behavioral economics, and related disciplines, the current chapter introduces the QUEST model, an organizing framework for strategic thinking. In the QUEST model, decision-makers think about strategic phenomena by asking and answering, implicitly or explicitly, three questions that draw on game-theoretic concepts: Who are the players? What are their options? How do choices relate to outcomes? I use the QUEST model to organize existing knowledge on strategic thinking in five sections. Section 1 provides definitions and introduces the QUEST model. Section 2 addresses decision-makers’ thinking about the players, reviewing research on attention allocation and mind-reading processes in strategic interactions. Section 3 reviews research on the depth and breadth of strategic thinking, discussing how decision-makers generate options, evaluate options, and think iteratively about their own and others’ options. Section 4 addresses how decision-makers’ cognitive constraints and social motives lead them to misrepresent and transform the given outcomes, as well as what games decision-makers think they are playing in ambiguous, real-world strategic interactions. Section 5 considers additional components of strategic interactions; addresses the possibility of changing the rules of the game; and concludes with open research questions.
Authors:M.D. Seery; W.J. Quinton Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2016 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): M.D. Seery, W.J. Quinton Resilience is typically conceptualized as successful adaptation to serious negative life events. Even relatively mundane stressors, however, require coping. Therefore, we argue that resilience should reflect managing well with stressors in general. To support the argument that resilience is relevant for social psychology and that social psychology can inform our understanding of resilience, we first discuss a program of research that links prior life adversity exposure to resilience to everyday stressors. We next review a psychophysiological approach—the biopsychosocial model of challenge/threat—to assessing resilience as it occurs and tie this approach to research on coping resources. Finally, we highlight two central research areas within social psychology—romantic relationships and stigma and prejudice—for which resilience is highly relevant. This demonstrates the merits of applying the concept of resilience to a range of stressors and the potential for experimental social psychology to inform understudied aspects of resilience.
Authors:J.K. Maner; C.R. Case Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): J.K. Maner, C.R. Case The presence of hierarchy is a ubiquitous feature of human social groups. An evolutionary perspective provides novel insight into the nature of hierarchy, including its causes and consequences. When integrated with theory and data from social psychology, an evolutionary approach provides a conceptual framework for understanding the strategies that people use to navigate their way through social hierarchies. This article focuses on two strategies—dominance and prestige—that have played a key role in regulating human hierarchies throughout history. Dominance reflects a repertoire of behaviors, cognitions, and emotions aimed at attaining social rank through coercion, intimidation, and the selfish manipulation of group resources. Prestige instead reflects behaviors, cognitions, and emotions aimed at attaining social rank through the display of valued knowledge and skill. Despite their similarities (both are aimed at attaining social rank) the two strategies involve very different sets of social psychological phenomena. In addition to (1) discussing and differentiating the two strategies, this chapter (2) describes a program of research investigating their implications for leadership behavior, (3) considers implications of this framework for a number of other social psychological literatures, and (4) provides recommendations for further examining the operation of the two strategies in social groups.
Authors:J.K. McNulty Pages: 247 - 315 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2016 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): J.K. McNulty This chapter highlights the contextual nature of intimate relationships. The first two sections review evidence that the implications of four key processes for relationship functioning—behavior, cognition, emotion, and hormones—depend on the context in which the relationship is situated; whereas certain processes are associated with less desirable outcomes on average, all appear to offer interpersonal benefits in certain situations. The third section highlights the importance of these contextual effects for relationship science by reviewing evidence that even the three personal qualities most consistently associated with less desirable interpersonal outcomes on average—attachment insecurity, low self-esteem, and neuroticism—are just as contextual; although they are consistently associated with undesirable outcomes on average, (a) they do not always lead to the processes that are typically harmful and, even when they do, (b) those processes can be beneficial in some contexts. The fourth section organizes the contextual factors into four classes—qualities of the individual, qualities of the partner, qualities of the relationship, and qualities of the environment. Finally, the fifth section challenges researchers to take a more contextual approach to the study of relationships, including focusing on within-person tendencies to properly calibrate psychological processes to different situations as they fluctuate over time.