Authors:Neal J. Roese; Kai Epstude Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2017 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Neal J. Roese, Kai Epstude Thinking about what might have been—counterfactual thinking—is a common feature of the mental landscape. Key questions about counterfactual thinking center on why and how they occur and what downstream cognitive and behavioral outcomes they engender. The functional theory of counterfactual thinking aims to answer these and other questions by drawing connections to goal cognition and by specifying distinct functions that counterfactuals may serve, including preparing for goal pursuit and regulating affect. Since the publication of our last theoretical statement (Epstude & Roese, 2008), numerous lines of empirical evidence support, or are rendered more readily understandable, when glimpsed through the lens of the functional theory. However, other lines of evidence have called into question the very basis of the theory. We integrate a broad range of findings spanning several psychological disciplines so as to present an updated version of the functional theory. We integrate findings from social psychology, cognitive neuroscience, developmental psychology, clinical psychology, and health psychology that support the claim that episodic counterfactual thoughts are geared mainly toward preparation and goal striving and are generally beneficial for individuals. Counterfactuals may influence behavior via either a content-specific pathway (in which the counterfactual insight informs behavior change) or a content-neutral pathway (in which the negative affect from the counterfactual motivates generic behavior change). Challenges to the functional theory of counterfactual thinking center on whether counterfactuals typically cohere to a structural form amenable to goal striving and whether behavioral consequences are mainly dysfunctional rather than functional. Integrating both supporting and challenging evidence, we offer a new theoretical synthesis intended to clarify the literature and guide future research in multiple disciplines of psychology.
Authors:Kristin Laurin; Aaron C. Kay Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2017 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Kristin Laurin, Aaron C. Kay Beliefs in powerful Gods are prevalent across time and across societies. In this chapter, we explore the motivated underpinnings of this phenomenon. After describing two popular theories that help account for some of this prevalence—one focused on byproducts of normal human cognition and the other focused on the cultural benefit conferred by shared belief in powerful Gods—we propose that a third perspective may be needed to fully explain why so many people believe: that believing in God is one mechanism through which people fulfill their need to perceive the world as structured, orderly, and nonrandom. We then describe a model that outlines the causes and consequences of perceptions of structure, and leverage this model to organize the evidence connecting belief in God to people's need for structure. We then note the ways in which belief in a powerful God, though not the only form of belief that can satisfy the need for structure, may hold an advantage over most alternatives. Finally, we conclude by discussing the implications of this perspective for understanding the ongoing evolution of religious belief.
Authors:Robert J. Rydell; Kathryn L. Boucher Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2017 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Robert J. Rydell, Kathryn L. Boucher Extensive research on stereotype threat has examined how worries and concerns about confirming negative performance stereotypes can harm stereotyped individuals’ performance. An impressive body of knowledge about stereotype threat performance effects has accumulated. However, only a handful of studies have shown that stereotype threat can also negatively impact learning. Although much more research is needed, in this chapter, we review and examine the work on stereotype threat and learning to date and present a model about why and how these learning effects occur. We also discuss how stereotype threat can influence reactions to feedback that occurs in learning settings and how interventions that mitigate stereotype threat can improve learning. Understanding how stereotype threat affects learning is a relatively new avenue for research on stereotype threat that has the potential to provide useful information about how to improve skill acquisition and performance for negatively stereotyped individuals.
Authors:Jason E. Plaks Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2017 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Jason E. Plaks Implicit theories are a priori beliefs about the features and properties of objects, including humans. In this chapter, I describe research examining the effects of implicit theories on different points of the social information processing stream. Much of this research has focused on comparing people with an “entity theory” (the belief that human qualities are fixed) to people with an “incremental theory” (the belief that human qualities are malleable). I also review research that has focused on people's theories about intentionality, as well as their theories about genetics. I describe each type of theory's influence on such processes as attention allocation, encoding, retrieval, and attributional reasoning. I also summarize evidence indicating that the activation of an implicit theory creates a motivated bias that privileges information that is consistent with the theory. Taken together, I suggest ways in which taking an implicit theories approach sheds new light on foundational social information processes.
Authors:K. Kawakami; D.M. Amodio; K. Hugenberg Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2017 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): K. Kawakami, D.M. Amodio, K. Hugenberg The primary aim of this chapter is to provide a framework to understand and synthesize the processes of person construal—early perceptions that lead to initial ingroup/outgroup categorizations—with the processes involved in intergroup relations. To this end, we review research examining the initial perception and categorization of ingroup and outgroup members and its downstream consequences. We first discuss bottom-up processes in person construal based on visual features (e.g., facial prototypicality and bodily cues), and then discuss how top-down factors (e.g., beliefs, stereotypes) may influence these processes. Next, we examine how the initial categorization of targets as ingroup or outgroup members influences identification, stereotyping, and group-based evaluations, and the relations between these constructs. We also explore the implications of the activation of these constructs for a range of social judgments including emotion identification, empathy, and intergroup behaviors. Finally, we describe a variety of well established and more recent strategies to reduce intergroup bias that target the activation of category-based knowledge, including intergroup contact, approach orientations, evaluative conditioning, and perspective taking.
Authors:E. Kross; O. Ayduk Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2016 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): E. Kross, O. Ayduk When people experience negative events, they often try to understand their feelings to improve the way they feel. Although engaging in this meaning-making process leads people to feel better at times, it frequently breaks down leading people to ruminate and feel worse. This raises the question: What factors determine whether people's attempts to “work-through” their negative feelings succeed or fail? In this article, we describe an integrative program of research that has addressed this issue by focusing on the role that self-distancing plays in facilitating adaptive self-reflection. We begin by describing the “self-reflection puzzle” that initially motivated this line of work. Next, we introduce the concept of self-distancing and describe the conceptual framework we developed to explain how this process should facilitate adaptive self-reflection. After describing the early studies that evaluated this framework, we discuss how these findings have been extended to broaden and deepen our understanding of the role that this process plays in self-regulation. We conclude by offering several parting thoughts that integrate the ideas discussed in this chapter.
Authors:J.E. Edlund; B.J. Sagarin Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2016 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): J.E. Edlund, B.J. Sagarin The theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy has emerged as one of evolutionary psychology's most prominent lines of research. In this paper, we offer a 25-year retrospective on the theory. We begin with a review of the theory itself and the statistical implications of the theory. We then discuss many of the prominent challenges to the theory. These challenges include: a suggestion that sex differences in the interpretation of the questions often used in sex difference in jealousy studies confound the results, psychometric concerns regarding the response scales used to assess the sex difference in jealousy, whether actual experiences with infidelity mirror participants’ hypothetical reactions, potential cognitive influences on the sex difference in jealousy, ambiguous results regarding physiological manifestations of the sex difference in jealousy, meta-analyses that reach seemingly different conclusions regarding the existence of the sex difference in jealousy, and moderators (including sexual orientation) that attenuate the sex difference in jealousy. Finally, we evaluate the state of the theory in light of the evidence we review, we consider why researchers from different subfields of psychology appear to have such different interpretations of the evidence for sex differences in jealousy, and we outline recommendations for future research directions.
Authors:S.J. Heine; I. Dar-Nimrod; B.Y. Cheung; T. Proulx Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2016 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): S.J. Heine, I. Dar-Nimrod, B.Y. Cheung, T. Proulx We propose that people are genetic essentialists—that is, they tend to think of genetic attributions as being immutable, of a specific etiology, natural, and dividing people into homogenous and discrete groups. Although there are rare conditions where genes operate in these kinds of deterministic ways, people overgeneralize from these to the far more common conditions where genes are not at all deterministic. These essentialist biases are associated with some harmful outcomes such as racism, sexism, pessimism in the face of illnesses, political polarization, and support for eugenics, while at the same time they are linked with increased tolerance and sympathy for gay rights, mental illness, and less severe judgments of responsibility for crime. We will also discuss how these essentialist biases connect with the burgeoning direct-to-consumer genomics industry and various kinds of genetic engineering. Overall, these biases appear rather resistant to efforts to reduce them, although genetics literacy predicts weaker essentialist tendencies.
Authors:K. Sassenberg; M.R.W. Hamstra Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2016 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): K. Sassenberg, M.R.W. Hamstra This chapter presents a model and empirical research approaching the antecedents and consequences of leadership behavior from a self-regulation perspective. The presented self-regulation model of leadership behavior (SMLB) focuses on the role of self-regulation strategies (1) as antecedents of leadership behavior and (2) as guides of leaders’ social influence on followers. Research testing hypotheses derived from the model for regulatory focus, regulatory mode, and need for cognitive closure in the context of leadership is summarized. The presented research addresses two prominent gaps in research on leadership behavior: the impact of motivation on leadership behavior and the social influence processes underlying successful leadership (e.g., perceived leader effectiveness and follower effort).
Authors:R.F. Baumeister; K.D. Vohs Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2016 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): R.F. Baumeister, K.D. Vohs The strength model of self-regulation holds that self-regulation operates by consuming a limited energy resource, thereby producing a state called ego depletion in which volition is curtailed because of low energy. We present our research program on ego depletion as well as much relevant work contributed by others. Challenges to the theory have emphasized allocation rather than depletion of resources, research participant expectations and obligations, changes in motivation and attention, beliefs and implicit theories, perceptions about depletion and vicarious depletion, glucose anomalies, and feelings of autonomy. We conclude that the theory needs revision and updating to accommodate the new findings, and we indicate the requisite changes. Furthermore, we conclude that the strength model is much better able than the rival accounts to explain all available evidence. Most of the rival accounts are compatible with it and indeed work best by sustaining the assumption that self-regulation relies on a limited resource.
Authors:Halevy Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2016 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): N. Halevy Real-world strategic interactions are ambiguous, complex, and dynamic. Thus, they present decision-makers with a range of epistemological challenges. Theoretically integrating concepts and empirical findings from social and cognitive psychology, behavioral economics, and related disciplines, the current chapter introduces the QUEST model, an organizing framework for strategic thinking. In the QUEST model, decision-makers think about strategic phenomena by asking and answering, implicitly or explicitly, three questions that draw on game-theoretic concepts: Who are the players? What are their options? How do choices relate to outcomes? I use the QUEST model to organize existing knowledge on strategic thinking in five sections. Section 1 provides definitions and introduces the QUEST model. Section 2 addresses decision-makers’ thinking about the players, reviewing research on attention allocation and mind-reading processes in strategic interactions. Section 3 reviews research on the depth and breadth of strategic thinking, discussing how decision-makers generate options, evaluate options, and think iteratively about their own and others’ options. Section 4 addresses how decision-makers’ cognitive constraints and social motives lead them to misrepresent and transform the given outcomes, as well as what games decision-makers think they are playing in ambiguous, real-world strategic interactions. Section 5 considers additional components of strategic interactions; addresses the possibility of changing the rules of the game; and concludes with open research questions.
Authors:M.D. Seery; W.J. Quinton Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2016 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): M.D. Seery, W.J. Quinton Resilience is typically conceptualized as successful adaptation to serious negative life events. Even relatively mundane stressors, however, require coping. Therefore, we argue that resilience should reflect managing well with stressors in general. To support the argument that resilience is relevant for social psychology and that social psychology can inform our understanding of resilience, we first discuss a program of research that links prior life adversity exposure to resilience to everyday stressors. We next review a psychophysiological approach—the biopsychosocial model of challenge/threat—to assessing resilience as it occurs and tie this approach to research on coping resources. Finally, we highlight two central research areas within social psychology—romantic relationships and stigma and prejudice—for which resilience is highly relevant. This demonstrates the merits of applying the concept of resilience to a range of stressors and the potential for experimental social psychology to inform understudied aspects of resilience.
Authors:J.K. Maner; C.R. Case Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): J.K. Maner, C.R. Case The presence of hierarchy is a ubiquitous feature of human social groups. An evolutionary perspective provides novel insight into the nature of hierarchy, including its causes and consequences. When integrated with theory and data from social psychology, an evolutionary approach provides a conceptual framework for understanding the strategies that people use to navigate their way through social hierarchies. This article focuses on two strategies—dominance and prestige—that have played a key role in regulating human hierarchies throughout history. Dominance reflects a repertoire of behaviors, cognitions, and emotions aimed at attaining social rank through coercion, intimidation, and the selfish manipulation of group resources. Prestige instead reflects behaviors, cognitions, and emotions aimed at attaining social rank through the display of valued knowledge and skill. Despite their similarities (both are aimed at attaining social rank) the two strategies involve very different sets of social psychological phenomena. In addition to (1) discussing and differentiating the two strategies, this chapter (2) describes a program of research investigating their implications for leadership behavior, (3) considers implications of this framework for a number of other social psychological literatures, and (4) provides recommendations for further examining the operation of the two strategies in social groups.
Authors:J.K. McNulty Pages: 247 - 315 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2016 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): J.K. McNulty This chapter highlights the contextual nature of intimate relationships. The first two sections review evidence that the implications of four key processes for relationship functioning—behavior, cognition, emotion, and hormones—depend on the context in which the relationship is situated; whereas certain processes are associated with less desirable outcomes on average, all appear to offer interpersonal benefits in certain situations. The third section highlights the importance of these contextual effects for relationship science by reviewing evidence that even the three personal qualities most consistently associated with less desirable interpersonal outcomes on average—attachment insecurity, low self-esteem, and neuroticism—are just as contextual; although they are consistently associated with undesirable outcomes on average, (a) they do not always lead to the processes that are typically harmful and, even when they do, (b) those processes can be beneficial in some contexts. The fourth section organizes the contextual factors into four classes—qualities of the individual, qualities of the partner, qualities of the relationship, and qualities of the environment. Finally, the fifth section challenges researchers to take a more contextual approach to the study of relationships, including focusing on within-person tendencies to properly calibrate psychological processes to different situations as they fluctuate over time.
Authors:Tom Pyszczynski; Sheldon Solomon; Jeff Greenberg Pages: 1 - 70 Abstract: Publication date: 2015 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 52 Author(s): Tom Pyszczynski, Sheldon Solomon, Jeff Greenberg Terror management theory posits that human awareness of the inevitability of death exerts a profound influence on diverse aspects of human thought, emotion, motivation, and behavior. People manage the potential for anxiety that results from this awareness by maintaining: (1) faith in the absolute validity of their cultural worldviews and (2) self-esteem by living up to the standards of value that are part of their worldviews. In this chapter, we take stock of the past 30 years of research and conceptual development inspired by this theory. After a brief review of evidence supporting the theory's fundamental propositions, we discuss extensions of the theory to shed light on: (1) the psychological mechanisms through which thoughts of death affect subsequent thought and behavior; (2) how the anxiety-buffering systems develop over childhood and beyond; (3) how awareness of death influenced the evolution of mind, culture, morality, and religion; (4) how death concerns lead people to distance from their physical bodies and seek solace in concepts of mind and spirit; and (5) the role of death concerns in maladaptive and pathological behavior. We also consider various criticisms of the theory and alternative conceptualizations that have been proposed. We conclude with a discussion of what we view as the most pressing issues for further research and theory development that have been inspired by the theory's first 30 years.
Authors:Shinobu Kitayama; Steven Tompson Pages: 71 - 137 Abstract: Publication date: 2015 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 52 Author(s): Shinobu Kitayama, Steven Tompson Drawing on recent advances in both neuroscience and animal behavior, we propose a biosocial model of affective decision making, which holds that when people face a conflict between two competing behavioral options (e.g., go vs. no-go, approach vs. avoidance), they develop a new affective disposition that resolves the conflict. This newly emerging affect will enable one to select a response while forming the basis for an elaborate cognition that justifies the selected response. The model reconceptualizes cognitive dissonance as fundamentally affective and involving both predecisional and postdecisional components. Furthermore, by postulating both top-down and bottom-up neural pathways to regulate the sensitivity to behavioral conflict, it integrates prior evidence on factors that moderate dissonance, including action orientation, self-affirmation, mortality salience, and culture. It also offers new insights into a disparate set of motivational phenomena including animal behaviors that mimic cognitive dissonance, sunk-cost fallacy, addiction, and ego-depletion. Lastly, the biosocial model has implications for how humans may be affectively and motivationally attached to symbols of culture. Directions for future research are discussed.
Authors:Caterina Suitner; Anne Maass Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2015 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Caterina Suitner, Anne Maass In this chapter, we argue that the way we read and write exerts a pervasive, subtle, and generally unacknowledged influence on social cognition. We propose a theoretical model, the Spatial Agency Bias (SAB), according to which human agency is envisaged following the script direction that is prevalent in a given cultural context (for instance, left to right in English and right to left in Arabic or Hebrew). This bias is the joint function of two interrelated asymmetries, one deriving from script direction, the other from subject–object order. We report findings supporting the basic premises of the model and then discuss its pervasive role in intergroup relations and its practical applications in the areas of Website construction, advertisement, and, most importantly, stereotype change. We also address boundary conditions and moderators, with particular attention to construal level. We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the SAB within the larger embodied cognition approach.
Authors:Joanne Wood; Amanda Forest Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2015 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Joanne V. Wood, Amanda L. Forest People with low self-esteem (LSEs) exhibit an intriguing paradox in their self-disclosures. On the one hand, LSEs adopt a self-protective orientation in their interpersonal lives; they seem to regulate their behavior so as to achieve other people's acceptance, to avoid their rejection, and to lessen the sting of rejection if it does occur. In LSEs’ self-disclosures, this self-protectiveness apparently leads them to be less open and self-revealing than people with high self-esteem (HSEs). On the other hand, when LSEs do disclose, they talk more than HSEs about negative emotions and experiences. Such negativity is met with dislike and diminished responsiveness from others. Therein lies the paradox. Despite their usual self-protectiveness and desire to be liked, LSEs express negativity, which other people do not like. We describe this research, offer several possible resolutions to the paradox, and examine research that may bear on these possible resolutions.
Authors:Kristina Durante; Paul Eastwick Eli Finkel Steven Gangestad Jeffry Simpson Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2015 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Kristina M. Durante, Paul W. Eastwick, Eli J. Finkel, Steven W. Gangestad, Jeffry A. Simpson Relationship researchers and evolutionary psychologists have been studying human mating for decades, but research inspired by these two perspectives often yields fundamentally different images of how people mate. Research in the relationship science tradition frequently emphasizes ways in which committed relationship partners are motivated to maintain their relationships (e.g., by cognitively derogating attractive alternatives), whereas research in the evolutionary tradition frequently emphasizes ways in which individuals are motivated to seek out their own reproductive interests at the expense of their partners’ (e.g., by surreptitiously having sex with attractive alternatives). Rather than being incompatible, the frameworks that guide each perspective have different assumptions that can generate contrasting predictions and can lead researchers to study the same behavior in different ways. This paper, which represents the first major attempt to bring the two perspectives together in a cross-fertilization of ideas, provides a framework to understand contrasting effects and guide future research. This framework—the conflict–confluence model—characterizes evolutionary and relationship science perspectives as being arranged along a continuum reflecting the extent to which mating partners’ interests are misaligned versus aligned. We illustrate the utility of this model by working to integrate relationship science and evolutionary perspectives on the role of ovulatory shifts in women's mating psychology, highlighting the tension between the desire to maintain or strengthen a bond with a current partner versus seek out extra-pair mates. To underscore the generality and generativity of the model, we also illustrate its application to two additional topics: functional perspectives on the role of subjective relationship quality, and “errors” in judgments of mate value. As scholars work to integrate relationship science and evolutionary approaches on additional topics, the promise of a unitary, functional perspective on human mating comes closer to reality.
Authors:Shira Gabriel; Jennifer Valenti Ariana Young Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2015 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Shira Gabriel, Jennifer Valenti, Ariana F. Young Although the idea of human beings being primarily and inextricably social has strong support in the psychological literature, an examination of how human beings actually choose to spend much of their time suggests a species more interested in solitude than social connection. In this chapter, we propose that a careful examination of seemingly nonsocial activities actually strongly supports a view of humans as primarily and inextricably social beings. We argue that the social self can be seen as strong, subtle, and sneaky. Specifically, because social motivations are so strong, they can be filled in unexpected ways that people may not even recognize. In other words, social motives sometimes work below the surface of consciousness in subtle and seemingly sneaky (i.e., unconscious and indirect) ways. For example, although we know we are being social when we call a friend on the phone or go to a party, our research suggests that we may also be socially motivated when we turn on the television, read a book, watch a football game, or go to a movie. We present evidence that supports a conception of a social self that propels us to actions that may not seem social to those around us, or even to ourselves, but that are actually fulfilling our very human and highly pervasive needs for social connection. We begin by discussing the seemingly nonsocial means people use to fulfill the need to belong. We then move on to reviewing evidence of ways in which people can be unaware of the strength of their social needs and of the social nature of their behavior. Finally, we conclude by discussing what this work suggests about human nature, modern behavior, and the social self.
Authors:Damian Murray; Mark Schaller Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2015 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Damian R. Murray, Mark Schaller The “behavioral immune system” is a motivational system that evolved as a means of inhibiting contact with disease-causing parasites and that, in contemporary human societies, influences social cognition and social behavior. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the behavioral immune system and how it works, along with a review of empirical research documenting its consequences for a wide range of social psychological phenomena—including person perception, interpersonal attraction, intergroup prejudice, social influence, and moral judgment. We also describe further consequences for health, for politics and public policy, and for cultural differences. Finally, we discuss a variety of broader implications—both practical and conceptual—and identify some important directions for future research.
Authors:Manuela Barreto; Naomi Ellemers Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2015 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Manuela Barreto , Naomi Ellemers This contribution reviews the state of the art of research on the effects of prejudice on its targets. We structure this review around ongoing debates and core questions that have been guiding this field of research and how these are addressed by recent evidence. We address five central themes that have characterized research on the way prejudice emerges in modern societies, and the impact this has on its targets. First, we examine whether members of devalued groups tend to over- or underestimate the extent to which they are targeted by discrimination. Second, we assess the self-protective and harmful effects of perceived discrimination on well-being. Third, we consider whether concealable stigmas are less problematic than visible stigmas. Fourth, we examine whether individual success is helpful or harmful for the disadvantaged group. Finally, as a fifth theme, we review evidence of the social costs of confronting prejudice and highlight the more neglected social benefits of confrontation. The research evidence we present in this way aims to resolve a number of common misunderstandings regarding the presence and implications of prejudice in modern societies.
Authors:Frenk van; Harreveld Hannah Nohlen Iris Schneider Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2015 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Frenk van Harreveld , Hannah U. Nohlen , Iris K. Schneider In a world where individuals are continuously exposed to information, the experience of ambivalence has become an intricate part of human existence. Recently, the consequences of ambivalence have been the subject of considerable research attention. In this chapter, we provide an overview of this research and present the ABC (Affect, Behavior, Cognition) model of ambivalence that integrates recent insights into the affective, behavioral, and cognitive consequences of ambivalence. This research shows when and why ambivalence leads to negative affect and that this affective response is the fuel that drives subsequent effects of ambivalence on cognition and behavior. Moreover, the reviewed findings reveal that the effects on cognition and behavior serve the purpose of either resolving ambivalence or mitigating the negative affective response. With the ABC model of ambivalence, we aim to identify the distinctive features of ambivalence in terms of what we feel, think, and do.
Authors:Arne Roets; Arie W. Kruglanski; Malgorzata Kossowska; Antonio Pierro; Ying-yi Hong Pages: 221 - 283 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2015 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Arne Roets , Arie W. Kruglanski , Malgorzata Kossowska , Antonio Pierro , Ying-yi Hong For over three decades, the need for closure (NFC) construct has played a pivotal role in research programs addressing the motivational underpinnings of knowledge formation, judgment and decision making, and social and group cognition. In recent years, NFC research has entered a new phase with notable developments in both fundamental and applied research. The substantial progress in the domain of basic NFC research pertains to investigators’ renewed interest in NFC's essentials, including its motivational nature, its role in the mobilization of task investment, the interplay between closure needs and abilities with implications for the measurement of NFC, its relation to cognitive depletion, its effects on memory phenomena, and its genetic and neural correlates. The second major development pertains to efforts to expand NFC research from the lab environment to real-world settings, including work on NFC effects on groups and organizations, its influence on the development and counteraction of prejudice, and its role in violent extremism. In this chapter, both developmental trends are discussed, highlighting their contributions to an advanced understanding of the motivational underpinnings of human cognition and behavior.
Authors:Daniel Conroy-Beam; Cari Goetz David Buss Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2014 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Daniel Conroy-Beam , Cari D. Goetz , David M. Buss Human long-term mating is an evolutionary mystery. Here, we suggest that evolutionary game theory provides three essential components of a good theory of long-term mating. Modeling long-term relationships as public goods games parsimoniously explains the adaptive problems long-term mating solved, identifies the novel adaptive problems long-term mating posed, and provides testable predictions about the evolved psychological solutions to these adaptive problems. We apply this framework to three adaptive problems long-term mating may have solved and generate novel predictions about psychological mechanisms evolved in response. Next, we apply the public goods framework to understand the adaptive problems produced by long-term mating. From these adaptive problems, we derive novel predictions about the psychology responsible for (1) selection and attraction of romantic partners, (2) evaluation of long-term relationships, and (3) strategic behavior within relationships. We propose that public goods modeling synthesizes adaptive problems at all stages of long-term mating—from their initiation through their maintenance and through their dissolution. This model provides an important tool for understanding the evolution and complex psychology of long-term committed mating.
Authors:Russell Fazio; Evava Pietri Matthew Rocklage Natalie Shook Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2014 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Russell H. Fazio , Evava S. Pietri , Matthew D. Rocklage , Natalie J. Shook Whenever individuals evaluate a novel object or situation, they must integrate its positive and negative aspects. We argue that such valence weighting is essentially an exercise in attitude generalization. Individuals must weigh how much the novel stimulus resembles past occurrences that proved to be positive versus past incidences toward which they have a negative attitude. We overview a program of research in which individuals’ valence weighting tendencies are assessed by examining how their preestablished attitudes generalize to similar but novel attitude objects. Some individuals show evidence of their positive attitudes generalizing more strongly than their negative attitudes, essentially weighting resemblance to a known positive more heavily than resemblance to a known negative. Others show the reverse tendency. Numerous studies are reviewed demonstrating that individual differences in this valence weighting bias predict judgments of novel stimuli across a wide variety of domains, including sensitivity to interpersonal rejection, threat assessment, risk-taking, and exploratory behavior. Additional research highlights the conditions under which this individual difference is most likely to be apparent. Its causal influence is demonstrated through experiments in which individuals’ valence weighting proclivities are recalibrated. We also discuss the relation between valence weighting and different forms of valence asymmetry that may arise during attitude formation. In so doing, we summarize additional research concerning an individual difference related to differential attitude learning upon the reception of positive versus negative outcome information, and we distinguish this learning bias from the weighting bias. As a whole, the research findings link basic attitudinal processes to personality, illustrating the value of viewing systematic variability in processes of evaluation as fundamental individual differences.
Authors:Carolyn Hafer; Alicia Rubel Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2014 Source:Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Author(s): Carolyn L. Hafer , Alicia N. Rubel According to justice motive theory, people have a need to believe that the world is a just place where individuals get what they deserve. Thus, people are motivated to defend belief in a just world (BJW) when it is threatened by evidence of injustice. Although BJW-defense has generated much research over the past 40 years, this research has traditionally been of narrow scope, leaving fundamental propositions associated with BJW-defense untested. We have tried to fill this gap by addressing two key questions regarding BJW-defense. Our first question is, why do people defend BJW? We present research suggesting that people defend BJW in part because it encourages investment in long-term goals as well as the pursuit of those goals through prosocial means. Furthermore, we discuss preliminary research suggesting that BJW provides a sense of purpose in life. Our second question is, how do people defend BJW? We present evidence for modes of BJW-defense that go beyond the focus of traditional BJW research. We also discuss potential situational and individual difference determinants of how people defend BJW, with a focus on repressive coping style. For the research on both the why and how of BJW-defense, we address implications for further investigation and theorizing on the justice motive as well as more applied topics. Finally, we discuss a number of broader issues regarding BJW-defense that are raised by our review.