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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 972 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 465)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 216)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 78)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 263)
Anuario de investigaciones (Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Buenos Aires)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Psicología     Open Access  
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario Pilquen : Sección Divulgación Científica     Open Access  
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy Online     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 165)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Buletin Psikologi     Open Access  
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Community Psychology in Global Perspective     Open Access  
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling et spiritualité / Counselling and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Creativity. Theories ? Research ? Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cuadernos de Marte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Desde el Jardín de Freud Revista de Psicoanálisis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)

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Journal Cover
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.992
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 14  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1943-3921 - ISSN (Online) 1943-393X
Published by Psychonomic Society Publications Homepage  [4 journals]
  • Binding identity and orientation in object recognition
    • Abstract: We tested whether an object’s orientation is inherently bound to its identity in a holistic view-based representation at the early stages of visual identification, or whether identity and orientation are represented separately. Observers saw brief and masked stimulus sequences containing two rotated objects. They had to detect if a previously cued object was present in the sequence and report its orientation. In Experiments 1 and 2, the objects were presented sequentially in the same spatial location for 70 ms each, whereas in Experiments 3 and 4 they were presented simultaneously in different spatial locations for 70 ms and 140 ms, respectively. Across all experiments, observers reported the correct orientation for approximately 70% of the positively identified objects, and were at chance in reporting the orientation when they had not recognized the object. This finding suggests that orientation information is accessed after an object has been identified. In addition, when the two objects were presented sequentially in the same spatial location, orientation errors were not random—observers tended to report the orientation of the alternative object in the sequence, indicating misbindings between the identities and orientations of objects that share spatial location. This susceptibility to binding errors was not observed when the objects were in different spatial locations. These results suggest that identity and orientation may be prone to misbinding, and that spatial location may serve to protect their joint integrity.
      PubDate: 2019-02-15
  • Perceptual features predict word frequency asymmetry across modalities
    • Abstract: The relationships between word frequency and various perceptual features have been used to study the cognitive processes involved in word production and recognition, as well as patterns in language use over time. However, little work has been done comparing spoken and written frequencies against each other, which leaves open the question of whether there are modality-specific relationships between perceptual features and frequency. Words have different frequencies in speech and written texts, with some words occurring disproportionately more often in one modality than the other. In the present study, we investigated whether perceptual features predict this frequency asymmetry across modalities. Our results suggest that perceptual features such as length, neighborhood density, and positional probability differentially affect speech and writing, which reveals different online processing constraints and considerations for communicative efficiency across the two modalities. These modality-specific effects exist above and beyond formality differences. This work provides arguments against theories that assume that words differing in frequency are perceptually equivalent, as well as models that predict little to no influence of perceptual features on top-down processes of word selection.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • Voluntary control of illusory contour formation
    • Abstract: The extent to which visual inference is shaped by attentional goals is unclear. Voluntary attention may simply modulate the priority with which information is accessed by the higher cognitive functions involved in perceptual decision making. Alternatively, voluntary attention may influence fundamental visual processes, such as those involved in segmenting an incoming retinal signal into a structured scene of coherent objects, thereby determining perceptual organization. Here we tested whether the segmentation and integration of visual form can be determined by an observer’s goals, by exploiting a novel variant of the classical Kanizsa figure. We generated predictions about the influence of attention with a machine classifier and tested these predictions with a psychophysical response classification technique. Despite seeing the same image on each trial, observers’ perception of illusory spatial structure depended on their attentional goals. These attention-contingent illusory contours directly conflicted with other, equally plausible visual forms implied by the geometry of the stimulus, revealing that attentional selection can determine the perceived layout of a fragmented scene. Attentional goals, therefore, not only select precomputed features or regions of space for prioritized processing, but under certain conditions also greatly influence perceptual organization, and thus visual appearance.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • Categorizing digits and the mental number line
    • Abstract: Following the classical work of Moyer and Landauer (1967), experimental studies investigating the way in which humans process and compare symbolic numerical information regularly used one of two experimental designs. In selection tasks, two numbers are presented, and the task of the participant is to select (for example) the larger one. In classification tasks, a single number is presented, and the participant decides if it is smaller or larger than a predefined standard. Many findings obtained with these paradigms fit in well with the notion of a mental analog representation, or an Approximate Number System (ANS; e.g., Piazza 2010). The ANS is often conceptualized metaphorically as a mental number line, and data from both paradigms are well accounted for by diffusion models based on the stochastic accumulation of noisy partial numerical information over time. The present study investigated a categorization paradigm in which participants decided if a number presented falls into a numerically defined central category. We show that number categorization yields a highly regular, yet considerably more complex pattern of decision times and error rates as compared to the simple monotone relations obtained in traditional selection and classification tasks. We also show that (and how) standard diffusion models of number comparison can be adapted so as to account for mean and standard deviations of all RTs and for error rates in considerable quantitative detail. We conclude that just as traditional number comparison, the more complex process of categorizing numbers conforms well with basic notions of the ANS.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • Constraints on learning disjunctive, unidimensional auditory and phonetic
    • Abstract: Phonetic categories must be learned, but the processes that allow that learning to unfold are still under debate. The current study investigates constraints on the structure of categories that can be learned and whether these constraints are speech-specific. Category structure constraints are a key difference between theories of category learning, which can roughly be divided into instance-based learning (i.e., exemplar only) and abstractionist learning (i.e., at least partly rule-based or prototype-based) theories. ionist theories can relatively easily accommodate constraints on the structure of categories that can be learned, whereas instance-based theories cannot easily include such constraints. The current study included three groups to investigate these possible constraints as well as their speech specificity: English speakers learning German speech categories, German speakers learning German speech categories, and English speakers learning musical instrument categories, with each group including participants who learned different sets of categories. Both speech groups had greater difficulty learning disjunctive categories (ones that require an “or” statement) than nondisjunctive categories, which suggests that instance-based learning alone is insufficient to explain the learning of the participants learning phonetic categories. This fact was true for both novices (English speakers) and experts (German speakers), which implies that expertise with the materials used cannot explain the patterns observed. However, the same was not true for the musical instrument categories, suggesting a degree of domain-specificity in these constraints that cannot be explained through recourse to expertise alone.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • Perceptual dimensions influence auditory category learning
    • Abstract: Human category learning appears to be supported by dual learning systems. Previous research indicates the engagement of distinct neural systems in learning categories that require selective attention to dimensions versus those that require integration across dimensions. This evidence has largely come from studies of learning across perceptually separable visual dimensions, but recent research has applied dual system models to understanding auditory and speech categorization. Since differential engagement of the dual learning systems is closely related to selective attention to input dimensions, it may be important that acoustic dimensions are quite often perceptually integral and difficult to attend to selectively. We investigated this issue across artificial auditory categories defined by center frequency and modulation frequency acoustic dimensions. Learners demonstrated a bias to integrate across the dimensions, rather than to selectively attend, and the bias specifically reflected a positive correlation between the dimensions. Further, we found that the acoustic dimensions did not equivalently contribute to categorization decisions. These results demonstrate the need to reconsider the assumption that the orthogonal input dimensions used in designing an experiment are indeed orthogonal in perceptual space as there are important implications for category learning.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • Goal-directed unequal attention allocation during multiple object tracking
    • Abstract: In standard multiple object tracking (MOT) tasks the relative importance of the targets being tracked is equal. This is atypical of everyday situations in which an individual may need to prioritize one target relative to another and so allocate attention unequally. We report three experiments that examined whether participants could unequally split attention using a modified MOT task in which target priority was manipulated. Specifically, we examined the effect of priority on participants’ magnitude of error and used a distribution mixture analysis to investigate how priority affected both participants’ probability of losing an item and tracking precision. Experiment 1 (trajectory tracking) revealed a higher magnitude of error and higher proportion of guessing for low- compared with high-priority targets. Experiments 2 (trajectory tracking) and 3 (position tracking) examined how fine-grained this ability is by manipulating target priority at finer increments. In line with Experiment 1, results from both these experiments indicated that participants could split attention unequally. There was some evidence that participants could allocate attention unequally at fine increments, but this was less conclusive. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate participants’ ability to distribute attention unequally across multiple moving objects but suggest some limitation with the flexibility of attention allocation.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • Visual salience, not the graspable part of a pictured eating utensil,
           grabs attention
    • Abstract: Three experiments used compatible and incompatible mappings of images of eating utensils to test the hypothesis that these images activate affordances for grasping with the corresponding hand when the required response is a key-press. In Experiment 1, stimuli were photographs of a plastic spoon oriented on the horizontal axis, with the handle location varying randomly between left and right. Participants were instructed to respond to the handle or the tip, with a compatible mapping in one trial block and an incompatible mapping in another. A benefit for the compatible mapping was evident when the spoon tip was defined as relevant and a smaller cost when the handle was defined as relevant, suggesting a larger influence of the tip than the handle. In Experiment 2, the stimuli were photographs of bamboo chopsticks, for which the functional end is pointed and the graspable end is squared. East Asian participants familiar with chopsticks showed compatibility effects that did not differ significantly between the two ends. In Experiment 3, the chopstick handles were colored red to make them relatively more distinct than the tips. Both East Asian participants (Experiment 3B) and a more diverse sample (Experiment 3A) showed a benefit of the compatible mapping when the handle was defined as task relevant but not when the functional end was. Altogether, the results provide evidence that left-right location of a visually salient feature is the main factor driving these compatibility effects, rather than the automatic activation of a grasping affordance.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • The relations between temporal and social perceptual biases: Evidence from
           perceptual matching
    • Abstract: We report a new “now-bias” effect on simple perceptual matching between shapes and labels and examined the relation between this now-bias effect and the self-bias previously established with this task (Sui, He, & Humphreys, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 1105–1117, 2012). The perceptual biases favoring present-relevant and self-relevant information were correlated with each other, suggesting a common underlying mechanism. Nevertheless, temporal biases in decision making, specifically in temporal discounting, correlated with the perceptual self-bias but not with the perceptual now-bias. We suggest that common attentional biases to present-relevant and self-relevant information mediate perceptual prioritization, whereas temporal discounting is likely involved in a separate reward evaluation mechanism that relates to self-bias processes.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • Nonnative implicit phonetic training in multiple reverberant environments
    • Abstract: Speech intelligibility is adversely affected by reverberation, particularly when listening to a foreign language. However, little is known about how phonetic learning is affected by room acoustics. This study investigated how room reverberation impacts the acquisition of novel phonetic categories during implicit training in virtual environments. Listeners were trained to distinguish a difficult nonnative dental-retroflex contrast in phonemes presented either in a fixed room (anechoic or reverberant) or in multiple anechoic and reverberant spaces typical of everyday listening. Training employed a videogame in which phonetic stimuli were paired with rewards delivered upon successful task performance, in accordance with the task-irrelevant perceptual learning paradigm. Before and after training, participants were tested using familiar and unfamiliar speech tokens, speakers, and rooms. Implicit training performed in multiple rooms induced learning, while training in a single environment did not. The multiple-room training improvement generalized to untrained rooms and tokens, but not to untrained voices. These results show that, following implicit training, nonnative listeners can overcome the detrimental effects of reverberation and that exposure to sounds in multiple reverberant environments during training enhances implicit phonetic learning rather than disrupting it.
      PubDate: 2019-02-08
  • The role of eye movements in manual responses to social and nonsocial cues
    • Abstract: Gaze and arrow cues cause covert attention shifts even when they are uninformative. Nonetheless, it is unclear to what extent oculomotor behavior influences manual responses to social and nonsocial stimuli. In two experiments, we tracked the gaze of participants during the cueing task with nonpredictive gaze and arrow cues. In Experiment 1, the discrimination task was easy and eye movements were not necessary, whereas in Experiment 2 they were instrumental in identifying the target. Validity effects on manual response time (RT) were similar for the two cues in Experiment 1 and in Experiment 2, though in the presence of eye movements observers were overall slower to respond to the arrow cue compared with the gaze cue. Cue direction had an effect on saccadic performance before the discrimination was presented and throughout the duration of the trial. Furthermore, we found evidence of a distinct impact of the type of cue on diverse oculomotor components. While saccade latencies were affected by the type of cue, both before and after the target onset, saccade landing positions were not. Critically, the manual validity effect was predicted by the landing position of the initial eye movement. This work suggests that the relationship between eye movements and attention is not straightforward. In the presence of overt selection, saccade latency related to the overall speed of manual response, while eye movements landing position was closely related to manual performance in response to different cues.
      PubDate: 2019-02-08
  • Effects of talker continuity and speech rate on auditory working memory
    • Abstract: Speech processing is slower and less accurate when listeners encounter speech from multiple talkers compared to one continuous talker. However, interference from multiple talkers has been investigated only using immediate speech recognition or long-term memory recognition tasks. These tasks reveal opposite effects of speech processing time on speech recognition – while fast processing of multi-talker speech impedes immediate recognition, it also results in more abstract and less talker-specific long-term memories for speech. Here, we investigated whether and how processing multi-talker speech disrupts working memory maintenance, an intermediate stage between perceptual recognition and long-term memory. In a digit sequence recall task, listeners encoded seven-digit sequences and recalled them after a 5-s delay. Sequences were spoken by either a single talker or multiple talkers at one of three presentation rates (0-, 200-, and 500-ms inter-digit intervals). Listeners’ recall was slower and less accurate for sequences spoken by multiple talkers than a single talker. Especially for the fastest presentation rate, listeners were less efficient when recalling sequences spoken by multiple talkers. Our results reveal that talker-specificity effects for speech working memory are most prominent when listeners must rapidly encode speech. These results suggest that, like immediate speech recognition, working memory for speech is susceptible to interference from variability across talkers. While many studies ascribe effects of talker variability to the need to calibrate perception to talker-specific acoustics, these results are also consistent with the idea that a sudden change of talkers disrupts attentional focus, interfering with efficient working-memory processing.
      PubDate: 2019-02-08
  • Uncertainty as a determinant of attentional control settings
    • Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated that attentional capture occurs based on attentional control settings. These settings specify what features are selected for processing as well as what features are filtered out. To examine how attentional control settings are flexibly constructed when target and/or distractor features are uncertain, the current paper presents four experiments in which the numbers of target and distractor features were manipulated. The results showed that attentional control settings were configured in terms of a fixed feature when either the target or the distractor feature was uncertain and the other was fixed over trials. In addition, attention was tuned towards the specific target feature based on attentional control settings when both target and distractor features were either fixed or uncertain. The selectivity of the target or distractor feature in the attentional control setting depended on which of the target and distractor features were defined with uncertainty. These results indicate that attentional control settings are flexibly determined by given task demands, especially including the predictability of target and distractor features.
      PubDate: 2019-02-07
  • Perception of multi-dimensional regularities is driven by salience
    • Abstract: A challenge for the visual system is to detect regularities from multiple dimensions of the environment. Here we examine how regularities in multiple feature dimensions are distinguished from randomness. Participants viewed a matrix containing a structured half and a random half, and judged whether the boundary between the two halves was horizontal or vertical. In Experiments 1 and 2, the cells in the matrix varied independently in the color dimension (red or blue), the shape dimension (circle or square), or both. We found that boundary discrimination accuracy was higher when regularities were present in the color dimension than in the shape dimension, but the accuracy was the same when regularities were present in the color dimension alone or in both dimensions. By adding a third surface dimension (hollow or filled) in Experiments 3 and 4, we found that discrimination accuracy was higher when regularities were present in the surface dimension than in the color dimension, but was the same when regularities were present in the surface dimension alone or in all three dimensions. Moreover, when there were two conflicting boundaries, participants chose the boundary defined by the surface dimension, followed by the color dimension as more visible than the shape dimension (Experiments 5 and 6). Finally, participants were faster at detecting differences in the surface dimension, followed by the color and the shape dimensions (Experiments 7 and 8). These results suggest that perception of regularities in multiple feature dimensions is driven by the presence of regularities in the most salient feature dimension.
      PubDate: 2019-02-06
  • Musical instrument categorization is highly sensitive to spectral
           properties of earlier sounds
    • Abstract: Auditory perception is shaped by spectral properties of surrounding sounds. For example, when spectral properties differ between earlier (context) and later (target) sounds, this can produce spectral contrast effects (SCEs; i.e., categorization boundary shifts) that bias perception of later sounds. SCEs affect perception of speech and nonspeech sounds alike (Stilp Alexander, Kiefte, & Kluender in Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 72(2), 470–480, 2010). When categorizing speech sounds, SCE magnitudes increased linearly with greater spectral differences between contexts and target sounds (Stilp, Anderson, & Winn in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 137(6), 3466–3476, 2015; Stilp & Alexander in Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, 26, 2016; Stilp & Assgari in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 141(2), EL153–EL158, 2017). The present experiment tested whether this acute context sensitivity generalized to nonspeech categorization. Listeners categorized musical instrument target sounds that varied from French horn to tenor saxophone. Before each target, listeners heard a 1-second string quintet sample processed by filters that reflected part of (25%, 50%, 75%) or the full (100%) difference between horn and saxophone spectra. Larger filter gains increased spectral distinctness across context and target sounds, and resulting SCE magnitudes increased linearly, parallel to speech categorization. Thus, a highly sensitive relationship between context spectra and target categorization appears to be fundamental to auditory perception.
      PubDate: 2019-02-06
  • Pushing people to their tipping point: Phenomenal tipping point is
           predicted by phenomenal vertical and intuitive beliefs
    • Abstract: Previous work has shown that people overestimate their own body tilt by a factor of about 1.5, the same factor by which people overestimate geographical and man-made slopes. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether people can accurately identify their own and others’ tipping points (TPs) – the point at which they are tilted backward and would no longer be able to return to upright – as well as their own and others’ center of mass (COM) – the relative position of which is used to determine actual TP. We found that people overestimate their own and others’ TP when tilted backward, estimate their own and others’ COM higher than actual, and that COM estimation is unrelated to TP. In Experiment 2, we investigated people’s intuitive beliefs about the TP. We also investigated the relationship between phenomenal TP and perceived vertical. Whether verbally (conceptually) estimating the TP, drawing the TP, or demonstrating the position of the TP, people believe that the TP is close to 45°. In Experiment 3, we found that anchoring influences phenomenal TP and vertical. When accounting for starting position, the TP seems to be best predicted by an intuitive belief that it is close to 45°. In Experiment 4, we show that there is no difference in phenomenal TP and vertical when being tilted about the feet or waist/hips. We discuss the findings in terms of action-perception differences found in other domains and practical implications.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Perceptual-learning evidence for inter-onset-interval- and
           frequency-specific processing of fast rhythms
    • Abstract: Rhythm is fundamental to music and speech, yet little is known about how even simple rhythmic patterns are processed. Here we investigated the processing of isochronous rhythms in the short inter-onset-interval (IOI) range (IOIs < 250–400 ms) using a perceptual-learning paradigm. Trained listeners (n=8) practiced anisochrony detection with a 100-ms IOI marked by 1-kHz tones, 720 trials per day for 7 days. Between pre- and post-training tests, trained listeners improved significantly more than controls (no training; n=8) on the anisochrony-detection condition that the trained listeners practiced. However, the learning on anisochrony detection did not generalize to temporal-interval discrimination with the trained IOI (100 ms) and marker frequency (1 kHz) or to anisochrony detection with an untrained marker frequency (4 kHz or variable frequency vs. 1 kHz), and generalized negatively to anisochrony detection with an untrained IOI (200 ms vs. 100 ms). Further, pre-training thresholds were correlated among nearly all of the conditions with the same IOI (100-ms IOIs), but not between conditions with different IOIs (100-ms vs. 200-ms IOIs). Thus, it appears that some task-, IOI-, and frequency-specific processes are involved in fast-rhythm processing. These outcomes are most consistent with a holistic rhythm-processing model in which a holistic “image” of the stimulus is compared to a stimulus-specific template.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Trypophobic images induce oculomotor capture and inhibition
    • Abstract: It is known that unpleasant images capture our attention. However, the causes of the emotions evoked by these images can vary. Trypophobia is the fear of clustered objects. A recent study claimed that this phobia is elicited by the specific power spectrum of such images. In the present study, we measured saccade trajectories to examine how trypophobic images possessing a characteristic power spectrum affect visual attention. The participants’ task was to make a saccade in the direction that was indicated by a cue. Four irrelevant images with different emotional content were presented as periphery distractors at 0 ms, 150 ms, and 450 ms in terms of cue-image onset asynchrony. The irrelevant images consisted of trypophobic, fearful, or neutral scenes. The presence of saccade trajectory deviations induced by trypophobic images suggest that intact trypophobic images oriented attention to their location. Moreover, when the images were phase scrambled, the saccade curved away from the trypophobic images, suggesting that trypophobic power spectra also triggered attentional capture, which was weak and then led to inhibition. These findings suggest that not only the power spectral characteristics but also the gist of a trypophobic image affect attentional deployment.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Test-retest reliability of and age-related changes in the subjective
           postural vertical on the diagonal plane in healthy subjects
    • Abstract: The subjective postural vertical (SPV) reflects gravity perception when the eyes are closed. Changes in the SPV on both the frontal and sagittal planes occur in response to neurological disorders and aging; however, these changes on the diagonal plane are unclear. Here we examined test–retest reliability (n=16) of and age-related changes (n=38) in the SPV on the diagonal plane. Subjects sat on an electrical vertical board (EVB), which was used to measure the SPV on the diagonal plane. An experimenter controlled and moved the EVB seat at a constant speed on the diagonal plane and measured the seat’s tilt using a digital inclinometer when subjects verbally reported that they had reached a true vertical position. Measurement was performed for eight trials, and the mean (tilt direction) and standard deviation (variability) were calculated. To determine test–retest reliability, the same experimenter repeatedly measured the SPV 1 week later. To assess age-related changes, tilt direction and variability were compared between the young (n=20) and elderly (n=18) groups. Test–retest reliability on the right and left diagonal planes was 0.61 or more. Moreover, tilt direction on the right diagonal plane – but not on the left diagonal plane – indicated a significant diagonally backward deviation in the elderly group compared with that in the young group. Variability was significantly higher in the elderly group on both planes. SPV measurement on the diagonal plane was indicated, and age-related changes were identified. Thus, future studies should assess the potential clinical applications of SPV in neurological disorders.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Learned and cued distractor rejection for multiple features in visual
    • Abstract: Ignoring distracting information is critical for effective visual search. When individuals are cued to ignore a stimulus, they first attend the to-be-ignored stimulus before learning to reject it. Individuals can learn to overcome the initial distraction produced by the explicit cues, although this cued distractor rejection appears for only one distractor feature. Multiple distractor colors cannot be rejected effectively, even with extensive experience. We asked if this apparent limit on distractor rejection was caused by a restriction on the number of different features (i.e., colors) that could be learned and rejected as distractors. To explore this potential capacity limitation, we asked if attention can learn to reject the smallest possible number of multiple distractors, namely, two. In four experiments examining cued distractor rejection, individuals searched through heterogeneously colored arrays containing reliable, non-target color information. In Experiments 1 and 2, we explicitly cued individuals with which of two colors (both colors in Experiment 1 or one color in Experiment 2) could be safely ignored. Cued distractors were not reliably rejected, replicating previous findings. Additionally, in Experiment 2, we presented a to-be-ignored color without explicit cues and we found that these “uncued” distractors were reliably rejected. In Experiments 3 and 4, we presented the to-be-ignored color information without explicit cues; individuals learned to reliably ignore multiple distractor colors without explicit cueing. These results suggest that learned distractor rejection is better suited to experience-driven learning than explicitly cued distractor learning: Explicit cueing reliably interferes with learned distractor rejection.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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