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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 968 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 455)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 45)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 205)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 78)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 254)
Anuario de investigaciones (Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Buenos Aires)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Psicología     Open Access  
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy Online     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 150)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 160)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Buletin Psikologi     Open Access  
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling et spiritualité / Counselling and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Creativity. Theories ? Research ? Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Desde el Jardín de Freud Revista de Psicoanálisis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)

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Journal Cover
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.992
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 13  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1943-3921 - ISSN (Online) 1943-393X
Published by Psychonomic Society Publications Homepage  [4 journals]
  • “Approximate number system” training: A perceptual learning
    • Abstract: Recent research suggests that humans perceive quantity using a non-symbolic “number sense.” This sense is then thought to provide a foundation for understanding symbolic numbers in formal education. Given this link, there has been interest in the extent to which the approximate number system (ANS) can be improved via dedicated training, as this could provide a route to improving performance in symbolic mathematics. However, current evidence regarding the trainability of the ANS comes largely from studies that have used short training durations, leaving open the question of whether improvements occur over a longer time span. To address this limitation, we utilized a perceptual learning approach to investigate the extent to which long-term (8,000+ trials) training modifies the ANS. Consistent with the general methodological approach common in the domain of perceptual learning (where learning specificity is commonly observed), we also examined whether ANS training generalizes to: (a) untrained locations in the visual field; (b) an enumeration task; (c) a higher-level ratio comparison task; and (d) arithmetic ability. In contrast to previous short-term training studies showing that ANS learning quickly asymptotes, our long-term training approach revealed that performance continued to improve even after thousands of trials. We further found that the training generalized to untrained visual locations. At post-test there was non-significant evidence for generalization to a low-level enumeration task, but not to our high-level tasks, including ratio comparison, multi-object tracking, and arithmetic performance. These results demonstrate the potential utility of long-term psychophysical training, but also suggest that ANS training alone (even long-duration training) may be insufficient to modify higher-level math skills.
      PubDate: 2018-12-13
  • Implicit associations between individual properties of color and sound
    • Abstract: We report a series of 22 experiments in which the implicit associations test (IAT) was used to investigate cross-modal correspondences between visual (luminance, hue [R-G, B-Y], saturation) and acoustic (loudness, pitch, formants [F1, F2], spectral centroid, trill) dimensions. Colors were sampled from the perceptually accurate CIE-Lab space, and the complex, vowel-like sounds were created with a formant synthesizer capable of separately manipulating individual acoustic properties. In line with previous reports, the loudness and pitch of acoustic stimuli were associated with both luminance and saturation of the presented colors. However, pitch was associated specifically with color lightness, whereas loudness mapped onto greater visual saliency. Manipulating the spectrum of sounds without modifying their pitch showed that an upward shift of spectral energy was associated with the same visual features (higher luminance and saturation) as higher pitch. In contrast, changing formant frequencies of synthetic vowels while minimizing the accompanying shifts in spectral centroid failed to reveal cross-modal correspondences with color. This may indicate that the commonly reported associations between vowels and colors are mediated by differences in the overall balance of low- and high-frequency energy in the spectrum rather than by vowel identity as such. Surprisingly, the hue of colors with the same luminance and saturation was not associated with any of the tested acoustic features, except for a weak preference to match higher pitch with blue (vs. yellow). We discuss these findings in the context of previous research and consider their implications for sound symbolism in world languages.
      PubDate: 2018-12-13
  • Dynamic distractor environments reveal classic visual field anisotropies
           for judgments of temporal order
    • Abstract: Numerous studies have shown that visual performance critically depends on the stimulus’ projected retinal location. For example, performance tends to be better along the horizontal relative to the vertical meridian (lateral anisotropy). Another case is the so-called upper-lower anisotropy, whereby performance is better in the upper relative to the lower hemifield. This study investigates whether temporal order judgments (TOJs) are subject to these visual field constraints. In Experiments 1 and 2, subjects reported the temporal order of two disks located along the horizontal or vertical meridians. Each target disk was surrounded by 10 black and white distractor disks, whose polarity remained unchanged (static condition) or reversed throughout the trial (dynamic condition). Results indicate that the mere presence of dynamic distractors elevated thresholds by more than a factor of four and that this elevation was particularly pronounced along the vertical meridian, evidencing the lateral anisotropy. In Experiment 3, thresholds were compared in upper, lower, left, and right visual hemifields. Results show that the threshold elevation caused by dynamic distractors was greatest in the upper visual field, demonstrating an upper-lower anisotropy. Critically, these anisotropies were evident exclusively in dynamic distractor conditions suggesting that distinct processes govern TOJ performance under these different contextual conditions. We propose that whereas standard TOJs are processed by fast low-order motion mechanisms, the presence of dynamic distractors mask these low-order motion signals, forcing observers to rely more heavily on more sluggish higher order motion processes.
      PubDate: 2018-12-05
  • Increased temporal sensitivity for threat: A Bayesian generalized linear
           mixed modeling approach
    • Abstract: People overestimate the duration of threat-related facial expressions, and this effect increases with self-reported fearfulness (Tipples in Emotion, 8, 127–131, 2008, Emotion, 11, 74–80, 2011). One explanation (Cheng, Tipples, Narayanan, & Meck in Timing and Time Perception, 4, 99–122, 2016) for this effect is that emotion increases the rate at which temporal information accumulates. Here I tested whether increased overestimation for threat-related facial expressions in high fearfulness generalizes to pictures of threatening animals. A further goal was to illustrate the use of Bayesian generalized linear mixed modeling (GLMM) to gain more accurate estimates of temporal performance, including estimates of temporal sensitivity. Participants (N = 53) completed a temporal bisection task in which they judged the presentation duration for pictures of threatening animals (poised to attack) and nonthreatening animals. People overestimated the duration of threatening animals, and the effect increased with self-reported fearfulness. In support of increased accumulation of pacemaker ticks due to threat, temporal sensitivity was higher for threat than for nonthreat images. Analyses indicated that temporal sensitivity effects may have been absent in previous research because of the method used to calculate the index of temporal sensitivity. The benefits of using Bayesian GLMM are highlighted, and researchers are encouraged to use this method as the first option for analyzing temporal bisection data.
      PubDate: 2018-12-04
  • The relationship between task difficulty and motor performance complexity
    • Abstract: Difficult tasks are commonly equated with complex tasks across many behaviors. Motor task difficulty is traditionally defined via Fitts’ law, using evaluation criteria based on spatial movement constraints. Complexity of data is typically evaluated using non-linear computational approaches. In this project, we investigate the potential to evaluate task difficulty via behavioral (motor performance) complexity in a Fitts-type task. Use of non-linear approaches allows for inclusion of many features of motor actions that are not currently included in the Fitts-type paradigm. Our results indicate that tasks defined as more difficult (using Fitts movement IDs) are not associated with complex motor behaviors; rather, an inverse relationship exists between these two concepts. Use of non-linear techniques allowed for the detection of behavioral differences in motor performance over the entire action trajectory in the presence of action errors and among neutrally co-constrained effectors not detected using traditional Fitts’-type analyses utilizing movement time measures. Our findings indicate that task difficulty may potentially be inferred using non-linear measures, particularly in ecological situations that do not obey the Fitts-type testing paradigm. While we are optimistic regarding these initial findings, further work is needed to assess the full potential of the approach.
      PubDate: 2018-11-30
  • Top-down modulation of shape and roughness discrimination in active touch
           by covert attention
    • Abstract: Due to limitations in perceptual processing, information relevant to momentary task goals is selected from the vast amount of available sensory information by top-down mechanisms (e.g. attention) that can increase perceptual performance. We investigated how covert attention affects perception of 3D objects in active touch. In our experiment, participants simultaneously explored the shape and roughness of two objects in sequence, and were told afterwards to compare the two objects with regard to one of the two features. To direct the focus of covert attention to the different features we manipulated the expectation of a shape or roughness judgment by varying the frequency of trials for each task (20%, 50%, 80%), then we measured discrimination thresholds. We found higher discrimination thresholds for both shape and roughness perception when the task was unexpected, compared to the conditions in which the task was expected (or both tasks were expected equally). Our results suggest that active touch perception is modulated by expectations about the task. This implies that despite fundamental differences, active and passive touch are affected by feature selective covert attention in a similar way.
      PubDate: 2018-11-30
  • Are there sex effects for speech intelligibility in American English'
           Examining the influence of talker, listener, and methodology
    • Abstract: Talker and listener sex in speech processing has been largely unknown and under-appreciated to this point, with many studies overlooking the possible influences. In the current study, the effects of both talker and listener sex on speech intelligibility were assessed. Different methodological approaches to measuring intelligibility (percent words correct vs. subjective rating scales) and collecting data (laboratory vs. crowdsourcing) were also evaluated. Findings revealed that, regardless of methodology, the spoken productions of female talkers were overall more intelligible than the spoken productions of male talkers; however, substantial variability across talkers was observed. Findings also revealed that when data were collected in the lab, there was an interaction between talker and listener sex. This interaction between listener and talker sex was not observed when subjective ratings were crowdsourced from listener subjects across the USA via Amazon Mechanical Turk, although overall ratings remained similar. This possibly suggests that subjective intelligibility ratings may be vulnerable to bias, and such biases may be reduced by recruiting a more heterogeneous subject pool. Many studies in speech perception do not account for these talker, listener, and methodology effects. However, the present results suggest that researchers should carefully consider these effects when assessing speech intelligibility in different conditions, and when comparing findings across studies that have used different subject demographics and/or methodologies.
      PubDate: 2018-11-30
  • Which task will we choose first' Precrastination and cognitive load in
           task ordering
    • Abstract: Precrastination, as opposed to procrastination, is the tendency to embark on tasks as soon as possible, even at the expense of extra physical effort. We examined the generality of this recently discovered phenomenon by extending the methods used to study it, mainly to test the hypothesis that precrastination is motivated by cognitive load reduction. Our participants picked up two objects and brought them back together. Participants in Experiment 1 demonstrated precrastination by picking up the near object first, carrying it back to the farther object, and then returning with both. Also, participants given an additional cognitive task (memory load) had a higher probability of precrastinating than those not given the added cognitive task. The objects in Experiment 1 were buckets with balls that had a very low chance of spillage; carrying them required low demands on attention. The near-object-first preference was eliminated in Experiment 2, where the near and far objects were cups with water that had a high chance of spillage; carrying them required higher demands on attention. Had precrastination occurred in this case, it would have greatly increased cognitive effort. The results establish the generality of precrastination and suggest that it is sensitive to cognitive load. Our results complement others showing that people tend to structure their behavior to minimize cognitive effort. The main new discovery is that people expend more physical effort to do so. We discuss the applied implications of our findings, as well as the possibility that precrastination may be a default, automatic behavior.
      PubDate: 2018-11-30
  • Perceptual-learning evidence for inter-onset-interval- and
           frequency-specific processing of fast rhythms
    • Abstract: Rhythm is fundamental to music and speech, yet little is known about how even simple rhythmic patterns are processed. Here we investigated the processing of isochronous rhythms in the short inter-onset-interval (IOI) range (IOIs < 250–400 ms) using a perceptual-learning paradigm. Trained listeners (n=8) practiced anisochrony detection with a 100-ms IOI marked by 1-kHz tones, 720 trials per day for 7 days. Between pre- and post-training tests, trained listeners improved significantly more than controls (no training; n=8) on the anisochrony-detection condition that the trained listeners practiced. However, the learning on anisochrony detection did not generalize to temporal-interval discrimination with the trained IOI (100 ms) and marker frequency (1 kHz) or to anisochrony detection with an untrained marker frequency (4 kHz or variable frequency vs. 1 kHz), and generalized negatively to anisochrony detection with an untrained IOI (200 ms vs. 100 ms). Further, pre-training thresholds were correlated among nearly all of the conditions with the same IOI (100-ms IOIs), but not between conditions with different IOIs (100-ms vs. 200-ms IOIs). Thus, it appears that some task-, IOI-, and frequency-specific processes are involved in fast-rhythm processing. These outcomes are most consistent with a holistic rhythm-processing model in which a holistic “image” of the stimulus is compared to a stimulus-specific template.
      PubDate: 2018-11-28
  • The attentional repulsion effect and relative size judgments
    • Abstract: Rapid shifts of involuntary attention have been shown to induce mislocalizations of nearby objects. One pattern of mislocalization, termed the Attentional Repulsion Effect (ARE), occurs when the onset of peripheral pre-cues lead to perceived shifts of subsequently presented stimuli away from the cued location. While the standard ARE configuration utilizes vernier lines, to date, all previous ARE studies have only assessed distortions along one direction and tested one spatial dimension (i.e., position or shape). The present study assessed the magnitude of the ARE using a novel stimulus configuration. Across three experiments participants judged which of two rectangles on the left or right side of the display appeared wider or taller. Pre-cues were used in Experiments 1 and 2. Results show equivalent perceived expansions in the width and height of the pre-cued rectangle in addition to baseline asymmetries in left/right relative size under no-cue conditions. Altering cue locations led to shifts in the perceived location of the same rectangles, demonstrating distortions in perceived shape and location using the same stimuli and cues. Experiment 3 demonstrates that rectangles are perceived as larger in the periphery compared to fixation, suggesting that eye movements cannot account for results from Experiments 1 and 2. The results support the hypothesis that the ARE reflects a localized, symmetrical warping of visual space that impacts multiple aspects of spatial and object perception.
      PubDate: 2018-11-28
  • Comparisons of flash ILM, transformational apparent motion, and polarized
    • Abstract: Illusory line motion (ILM) refers to perceived motion in a bar when it is presented all at once. Explanations for ILM include low-level visual accounts, visual attention, and object tracking. These explanations tend to arise from studies using different protocols to induce ILM, based on the assumption that the same illusion is being generated. Using real motion in the same and in the opposite direction as the ILM quantifies the illusions from all protocols as the area between response curves for the left- and right-side inducers. This common measure enables testing of the assumption that two display configurations result in the same illusion. If there is a common underlying cause, an individual who shows a strong illusion in one situation should show a strong illusion in the other, but illusions that arise through different systems should not correlate. This approach has differentiated ILM induced by a flash (flashILM) from ILM induced by matching the bar to an attribute of the inducing stimuli (transformational apparent motion, TAM). The former is thought to reflect attention, while the latter is thought to reflect object processing. Low-level visual explanations are often offered based on ILM that occurs when the bar is adjacent to only a single inducer (polarized gamma motion, PGM) rather than between two stimuli (flashILM and TAM). The present study replicates the independence of flashILM and TAM and shows that neither is related to PGM, suggesting that all three explanations for ILM are warranted and that the debates in the literature are conflating at least three different illusions.
      PubDate: 2018-11-28
  • Not just a function of function words: Distal speech rate influences
           perception of prosodically weak syllables
    • Abstract: Listeners resolve ambiguities in speech perception using multiple sources, including non-local or distal speech rate (i.e., the speech rate of material surrounding a particular region). The ability to resolve ambiguities is particularly important for the perception of casual, everyday productions, which are often produced using phonetically reduced forms. Here, we examine whether the distal speech rate effect is specific to a lexical class of words and/or to particular lexical or phonological contexts. In Experiment 1, we examined whether distal speech rate influenced perception of phonologically similar content words differing in number of syllables (e.g., form/forum). In Experiment 2, we used both transcription and word-monitoring tasks to examine whether distal speech rate influenced perception of a reduced vowel, causing lexical reorganization (e.g., cease, see us). Distal speech rate influenced perception of lexical content in both experiments. This demonstrates that distal rate influences perception of a lexical class other than function words and affects perception in a variety of phonological and lexical contexts. These results support a view that distal speech rate is a pervasive source of information with far-reaching consequences for perception of lexical content and word segmentation.
      PubDate: 2018-11-28
  • Processing without noticing in inattentional blindness: A replication of
           Moore and Egeth (1997) and Mack and Rock (1998)
    • Abstract: Surreptitious online measures can reveal the processing of stimuli that people do not report noticing or cannot describe. People seem to glean everything from low-level Gestalt grouping information to semantic meaning from unattended and unreported stimuli, and this information seems capable of influencing performance and of priming semantic judgments. Moore and Egeth (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 23, 339–352, 1997) provided evidence that judgments about the lengths of two lines were influenced by the grouping of background dots, even when subjects did not notice the pattern the dots formed. Mack and Rock (1998) reported that subjects could be primed to complete a stem with a word to which they were inattentionally blind. In this registered report, we replicated these two classic findings using large online samples (Ns = 260 and 448), finding support for the influence of grouping despite inattentional blindness, but not for word-stem priming.
      PubDate: 2018-11-19
  • Test-retest reliability of and age-related changes in the subjective
           postural vertical on the diagonal plane in healthy subjects
    • Abstract: The subjective postural vertical (SPV) reflects gravity perception when the eyes are closed. Changes in the SPV on both the frontal and sagittal planes occur in response to neurological disorders and aging; however, these changes on the diagonal plane are unclear. Here we examined test–retest reliability (n=16) of and age-related changes (n=38) in the SPV on the diagonal plane. Subjects sat on an electrical vertical board (EVB), which was used to measure the SPV on the diagonal plane. An experimenter controlled and moved the EVB seat at a constant speed on the diagonal plane and measured the seat’s tilt using a digital inclinometer when subjects verbally reported that they had reached a true vertical position. Measurement was performed for eight trials, and the mean (tilt direction) and standard deviation (variability) were calculated. To determine test–retest reliability, the same experimenter repeatedly measured the SPV 1 week later. To assess age-related changes, tilt direction and variability were compared between the young (n=20) and elderly (n=18) groups. Test–retest reliability on the right and left diagonal planes was 0.61 or more. Moreover, tilt direction on the right diagonal plane – but not on the left diagonal plane – indicated a significant diagonally backward deviation in the elderly group compared with that in the young group. Variability was significantly higher in the elderly group on both planes. SPV measurement on the diagonal plane was indicated, and age-related changes were identified. Thus, future studies should assess the potential clinical applications of SPV in neurological disorders.
      PubDate: 2018-11-16
  • Different effects of spatial and temporal attention on the integration and
           segregation of stimuli in time
    • Abstract: Having expectations about when and where relevant stimuli will appear engenders endogenous temporal and spatial orienting and can provide vital benefits to visual processing. Although more is known about how each of these forms of orienting affects spatial processing, comparatively little is understood about their influences on the temporal integration and segregation of rapid sequential stimuli. A critical question is whether the influence of spatial cueing on temporal processing involves independent spatial and temporal orienting effects or a synergistic spatiotemporal impact. Here we delineated between the temporal and spatial orienting engendered by endogenous cues by using a paradigm with identical visual stimulation when the goal was to integrate or segregate the stimuli, in separate blocks of trials. We found strong effects of spatial orienting on both integration and segregation performance. In contrast, temporal orienting engendered only an invalid cueing cost, and for integration trials only. This clear differentiation between spatial and temporal cueing effects provides constraints to inform arbitration between theories of how attention biases the visual processing stream and influences the organization of visual perception in time.
      PubDate: 2018-11-13
  • Pushing people to their tipping point: Phenomenal tipping point is
           predicted by phenomenal vertical and intuitive beliefs
    • Abstract: Previous work has shown that people overestimate their own body tilt by a factor of about 1.5, the same factor by which people overestimate geographical and man-made slopes. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether people can accurately identify their own and others’ tipping points (TPs) – the point at which they are tilted backward and would no longer be able to return to upright – as well as their own and others’ center of mass (COM) – the relative position of which is used to determine actual TP. We found that people overestimate their own and others’ TP when tilted backward, estimate their own and others’ COM higher than actual, and that COM estimation is unrelated to TP. In Experiment 2, we investigated people’s intuitive beliefs about the TP. We also investigated the relationship between phenomenal TP and perceived vertical. Whether verbally (conceptually) estimating the TP, drawing the TP, or demonstrating the position of the TP, people believe that the TP is close to 45°. In Experiment 3, we found that anchoring influences phenomenal TP and vertical. When accounting for starting position, the TP seems to be best predicted by an intuitive belief that it is close to 45°. In Experiment 4, we show that there is no difference in phenomenal TP and vertical when being tilted about the feet or waist/hips. We discuss the findings in terms of action-perception differences found in other domains and practical implications.
      PubDate: 2018-11-12
  • Learned and cued distractor rejection for multiple features in visual
    • Abstract: Ignoring distracting information is critical for effective visual search. When individuals are cued to ignore a stimulus, they first attend the to-be-ignored stimulus before learning to reject it. Individuals can learn to overcome the initial distraction produced by the explicit cues, although this cued distractor rejection appears for only one distractor feature. Multiple distractor colors cannot be rejected effectively, even with extensive experience. We asked if this apparent limit on distractor rejection was caused by a restriction on the number of different features (i.e., colors) that could be learned and rejected as distractors. To explore this potential capacity limitation, we asked if attention can learn to reject the smallest possible number of multiple distractors, namely, two. In four experiments examining cued distractor rejection, individuals searched through heterogeneously colored arrays containing reliable, non-target color information. In Experiments 1 and 2, we explicitly cued individuals with which of two colors (both colors in Experiment 1 or one color in Experiment 2) could be safely ignored. Cued distractors were not reliably rejected, replicating previous findings. Additionally, in Experiment 2, we presented a to-be-ignored color without explicit cues and we found that these “uncued” distractors were reliably rejected. In Experiments 3 and 4, we presented the to-be-ignored color information without explicit cues; individuals learned to reliably ignore multiple distractor colors without explicit cueing. These results suggest that learned distractor rejection is better suited to experience-driven learning than explicitly cued distractor learning: Explicit cueing reliably interferes with learned distractor rejection.
      PubDate: 2018-11-12
  • Pupillometry tracks fluctuations in working memory performance
    • Abstract: In 3 experiments, we examined fluctuations in working memory (WM) performance and associated changes in pretrial and task-evoked pupil diameter. Additionally, we examined whether particularly poor trials were accompanied by self-reports of off-task attentional states. The results demonstrated that task-evoked pupillary responses can be used to measure moment-to-moment fluctuations in the success of WM maintenance during delay intervals. Further, when individuals reported being in an off-task attentional state, their WM performance suffered. Additionally, when probed directly after a particularly poor trial, participants reported being in an off-task attentional state more often than at random intervals throughout the task. So behavioral, subjective, and physiological data converged when people experienced WM failures. Although pretrial pupil diameter did not consistently differentiate between successful and unsuccessful trials, variability in pretrial pupil diameter accounted for a significant portion of variance in WM task performance. This effect persisted after controlling for mean task-evoked pupillary response and variability in task-evoked pupillary responses. Thus, one of the major reasons people varied in the consistency with which they utilized their WM system was variability in arousal. Such variability in arousal is potentially due to variation in the functioning of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) neuromodulatory system, and thus may underlie individual differences in WM capacity and attention control.
      PubDate: 2018-11-08
  • We can guide search by a set of colors, but are reluctant to do it
    • Abstract: For some real-world color searches, the target colors are not precisely known, and any item within a range of color values should be attended. Thus, a target representation that captures multiple similar colors would be advantageous. If such a multicolor search is possible, then search for two targets (e.g., Stroud, Menneer, Cave, and Donnelly, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38(1): 113-122, 2012) might be guided by a target representation that included the target colors as well as the continuum of colors that fall between the targets within a contiguous region in color space. Results from Stroud, Menneer, Cave, and Donnelly, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38(1): 113-122, (2012) suggest otherwise, however. The current set of experiments show that guidance for a set of colors that are all from a single region of color space can be reasonably effective if targets are depicted as specific discrete colors. Specifically, Experiments 1–3 demonstrate that a search can be guided by four and even eight colors given the appropriate conditions. However, Experiment 5 gives evidence that guidance is sometimes sensitive to how informative the target preview is to search. Experiments 6 and 7 show that a stimulus showing a continuous range of target colors is not translated into a search target representation. Thus, search can be guided by multiple discrete colors that are from a single region in color space, but this approach was not adopted in a search for two targets with intervening distractor colors.
      PubDate: 2018-11-06
  • Retraction Note: Losing control: Mostly incongruent lists postpone, but do
           not eliminate, the Stroop effect
    • Abstract: This article has been retracted at the request of all authors. In Experiments 3 and 4 an honest error in the experimental script pointed to the wrong stimulus file on 6.25% of trials, resulting in inaccurate output for each participant.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
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