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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 992 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 470)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 226)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 280)
Anuario de investigaciones (Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Buenos Aires)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Psicología     Open Access  
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario Pilquen : Sección Divulgación Científica     Open Access  
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 192)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy Online     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 173)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Buletin Psikologi     Open Access  
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health     Open Access  
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Community Psychology in Global Perspective     Open Access  
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling et spiritualité / Counselling and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Creativity. Theories ? Research ? Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cuadernos de Marte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.992
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 14  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1943-3921 - ISSN (Online) 1943-393X
Published by Psychonomic Society Publications Homepage  [4 journals]
  • The role of foreign accent and short-term exposure in speech-in-speech
           recognition
    • Abstract: Daily speech communication often takes place in suboptimal listening conditions, in which interlocutors typically need to segregate the target signal from the background sounds. The present study investigated the influence on speech recognition of a relatively familiar foreign accent in background speech (Exp. 1) and whether short-term immediate exposure to the target talker’s voice (Exp. 2) or the background babble (Exp. 3) would either help or hinder the segregation of target from background. A total of 72 native Dutch participants were asked to listen to Dutch target sentences in the presence of Dutch or German-accented Dutch babble without (Exp. 1) or with (Exps. 2 and 3) an exposure phase. Their task was to write down what they heard. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that listeners gained a release from masking when the background speech was accented, indicating that dissimilar and less familiar signals are easier to segregate effectively. Experiment 2 demonstrated that short-term immediate exposure to the target talker had no effect on speech-in-speech recognition, whereas exposure to the background babble could hinder separating the target voice from the background speech (Exp. 3). However, this reduced release from masking only appeared in the more difficult and more familiar babble condition (Dutch in Dutch), in which the speech recognition system may have remained attuned to the babble as a potential source of communicatively relevant information. Overall, this research provides evidence that both short-term adaptation and the degrees of target–background similarity and familiarity are of importance for speech-in-speech recognition.
      PubDate: 2019-05-22
       
  • Effects of changing object identity on location working memory
    • Abstract: It is widely accepted that features and locations are represented independently in an initial stage of visual processing. But to what degree are they represented separately at a later stage, after objects enter visual working memory (VWM)' In one of her last studies on VWM, Treisman raised an open question about how people represent locations in VWM, suggesting that locations may be remembered independently of what occupies them. Using photographs of real-world objects, we tested the independence of location memory from object identity in a location change detection task. We introduced changes to object identities between the encoding and test arrays, but instructed participants to treat the objects as placeholders. Three experiments showed that location memory was disrupted when the placeholders changed shape or orientation. The disruption was more noticeable for elongated than for round placeholders and was comparable between real-world objects and rectangles of similar aspect ratio. These findings suggest that location representation is sensitive to the placeholders’ geometric properties. Though they contradict the idea that objects are just placeholders in location working memory (WM), the findings support Treisman’s proposal that the items in VWM are bound to the global configuration of the memory array.
      PubDate: 2019-05-22
       
  • Searching for illusory motion
    • Abstract: In a series of four experiments, standard visual search was used to explore whether the onset of illusory motion pre-attentively guides vision in the same way that the onset of real-motion is known to do. Participants searched for target stimuli based on Akiyoshi Kitaoka’s classic illusions, configured so that they either did or did not give the subjective impression of illusory motion. Distractor items always contained the same elements as target items, but did not convey a sense of illusory motion. When target items contained illusory motion, they popped-out, with flat search slopes that were independent of set size. Search for control items without illusory motion – but with identical structural differences to distractors – was slow and serial in nature (> 200 ms/item). Using a nulling task, we estimated the speed of illusory rotation in our displays to be approximately 2 °/s. Direct comparison of illusory and real-motion targets moving with matched velocity showed that illusory motion targets were detected more quickly. Blurred target items that conveyed a weak subjective impression of illusory motion gave rise to serial but faster (< 100 ms/item) search than control items. Our behavioral findings of parallel detection across the visual field, together with previous imaging and neurophysiological studies, suggests that relatively early cortical areas play a causal role in the perception of illusory motion. Furthermore, we hope to re-emphasize the way in which visual search can be used as a flexible, objective measure of illusion strength.
      PubDate: 2019-05-22
       
  • Regressive spectral assimilation bias in speech perception
    • Abstract: Speech perception presents a parsing problem: construing information from the acoustic input we receive as evidence for the speech sounds we recognize as language. Most work on segmental perception has focused on how listeners use differences between successive speech sounds to solve this problem. Prominent models either assume (a) that listeners attribute acoustics to the sounds whose articulation created them, or (b) that the auditory system exaggerates the changes in the auditory quality of the incoming speech signal. Both approaches predict contrast effects in that listeners will usually judge two successive phones to be distinct from each other. Few studies have examined cases in which listeners hear two sounds in a row as similar, apparently failing to differentiate them. We examine such under-studied cases. In a series of experiments, listeners were faced with ambiguity about the identity of the first of two successive phones. Listeners consistently heard the first sound as spectrally similar to the second sound in a manner suggesting that they construed the transitions between the two as evidence about the identity of the first. In these and previously reported studies, they seemed to default to this construal when the signal was not sufficiently informative for them to do otherwise. These effects go unaccounted for in the two prominent models of speech perception, but they parallel known domain-general effects in perceptual processing, and as such are likely a consequence of the structure of the human auditory system.
      PubDate: 2019-05-21
       
  • Association between cue lead time and template-for-rejection effect
    • Abstract: The human visual system can actively prioritize task-relevant features to search for a target. Recent studies have reported cases in which the system may suppress irrelevant features by using a template for rejection. However, in those studies, the templates used for rejection were limited to the color domain, and they have yielded mixed results. Our literature review identified three differences among studies that may be responsible for such mixed results: differences in the spatial segmentation of items (i.e., segregated or intermixed across the display), differences in how features are defined and reported (i.e., combined or separate), and differences in cue lead times (short or long). Participants searched for a target-line segment in a shape and identified its orientation from among non-target line-shaped compound shapes that were preceded by one of three cue displays. Positive cues indicated that the target segment would appear in a shape, and negative cues that it would not appear in a shape. Neutral cues indicated that a particular shape would not appear in the current search display. The results demonstrated that reaction times were faster under the negative-cue condition than the neutral-cue condition, reflecting the effect of a shape-based template for rejection (Experiment 1). Experiment 2 replicated the absence of the effect in the shape domain. Experiment 3 indicated that the template-for-rejection effect occurred only when the cue lead time was relatively long, suggesting that time is required (approximately 2,400 ms or longer) for the visual system to form rejection templates. Experiment 4 excluded the possibility that a confound in the target-defining/reporting feature was involved. These results indicated that apparent inconsistencies in research on the template-for-rejection effect can be explained in terms of the time required for templates to be configured.
      PubDate: 2019-05-21
       
  • Effects of arousal on biased competition in attention and short-term
           memory
    • Abstract: A recent theory proposes that arousal amplifies the competition between stimulus representations, strengthening already strong representations and weakening already weak representations in perception and memory. Here, we report a stringent test of this arousal-biased competition theory in the context of visual attention and short-term memory. We examined whether pre-trial arousal enhances the bottom-up attentional bias toward physically salient versus less salient stimuli in a multi-letter identification task. Arousal was manipulated by presenting an arousing versus a neutral picture (Experiment 1) or sound (Experiment 2) at the start of each trial. Bayesian statistics revealed strong evidence for the null hypothesis in both experiments: Arousal did not modulate the effects of physical salience on letter identification. The experiments were repeated with EEG measurements and subjective stimulus ratings, which confirmed that the stimuli successfully manipulated physiological and subjective arousal. These results pose a challenge for the arousal-biased competition theory.
      PubDate: 2019-05-20
       
  • Stop stereotyping
    • Abstract: Restraining the expression of stereotypes is a necessary requirement for harmonious living, yet surprisingly little is known about the efficacy of this process. Accordingly, in two experiments, here we used a stop-signal task to establish how effectively stereotype-related responses can be inhibited. In Experiment 1, following the presentation of gender-typed occupational contexts, participants reported the sex of target faces (i.e., Go trials) unless an occasional auditory tone indicated they should withhold their response (i.e., Stop trials). In Experiment 2, following the presentation of male and female faces, participants made either stereotypic or counter-stereotypic judgments, unless a stop signal was presented. Regardless of whether stereotyping was probed indirectly (Experiment 1) or directly (Experiment 2), a consistent pattern of results was observed; inhibition was faster for stereotypic compared with counter-stereotypic responses. These findings demonstrate that stopping stereotyping may be less challenging than has widely been assumed.
      PubDate: 2019-05-20
       
  • Learning math by hand: The neural effects of gesture-based instruction in
           8-year-old children
    • Abstract: Producing gesture can be a powerful tool for facilitating learning. This effect has been replicated across a variety of academic domains, including algebra, chemistry, geometry, and word learning. Yet the mechanisms underlying the effect are poorly understood. Here we address this gap using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We examine the neural correlates underlying how children solve mathematical equivalence problems learned with the help of either a speech + gesture strategy, or a speech-alone strategy. Children who learned through a speech + gesture were more likely to recruit motor regions when subsequently solving problems during a scan than children who learned through speech alone. This suggests that gesture promotes learning, at least in part, because it is a type of action. In an exploratory analysis, we also found that children who learned through speech + gesture showed subthreshold activation in regions outside the typical action-learning network, corroborating behavioral findings suggesting that the mechanisms supporting learning through gesture and action are not identical. This study is one of the first to explore the neural mechanisms of learning through gesture.
      PubDate: 2019-05-20
       
  • Sequences in popular cinema generate inconsistent event segmentation
    • Abstract: Popular movies have an event structure that includes scenes and sequences. Scenes are fashioned to be perceived as smoothly flowing, a feature called continuity. Discontinuity is said to occur when scene (event) boundaries are crossed. This article focuses on the structure and perception of sequences that have subscenes (i.e., scene-like components) but whose boundaries, unlike those of scenes, tend to demonstrate some perceived continuity. Although the structure of sequences has been addressed by film theory, this topic has not received psychological attention. Here, data are used from viewer judgments and physical measurements of 24 popular movies, released from 1940 to 2010. Each film was inspected for narrative shift patterns—that is, changes in location, character, or time—across shots. Sequences were determined by repeated shift types, common sound coverage, and the shorter durations of subscenes than of scenes. By these criteria, sequences have increased in movies over time. The results also show that viewer judgments of event boundaries diminish in the presence of music and of shorter and less modulated shot durations. These results fit snugly within event segmentation theory, and this categorization of movie sequences by narrative shifts can accommodate previous accounts of sequence structure.
      PubDate: 2019-05-15
       
  • A note on detecting statistical outliers in psychophysical data
    • Abstract: This paper considers how to identify statistical outliers in psychophysical datasets where the underlying sampling distributions are unknown. Eight methods are described, and each is evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations of a typical psychophysical experiment. The best method is shown to be one based on a measure of spread known as Sn. This is shown to be more sensitive than popular heuristics based on standard deviations from the mean, and more robust than non-parametric methods based on percentiles or interquartile range. Matlab code for computing Sn is included.
      PubDate: 2019-05-14
       
  • Listeners can anticipate future segments before they identify the current
           one
    • Abstract: Speech unfolds rapidly over time, and the information necessary to recognize even a single phoneme may not be available simultaneously. Consequently, listeners must both integrate prior acoustic cues and anticipate future segments. Prior work on stop consonants and vowels suggests that listeners integrate asynchronous cues by partially activating lexical entries as soon as any information is available, and then updating this when later cues arrive. However, a recent study suggests that for the voiceless sibilant fricatives (/s/ and /ʃ/), listeners wait to initiate lexical access until all cues have arrived at the onset of the vowel. Sibilants also contain coarticulatory cues that could be used to anticipate the vowel upcoming. However, given these results, it is unclear if listeners could use them fast enough to speed vowel recognition. The current study examines anticipation by asking when listeners use coarticulatory information in the frication to predict the upcoming vowel. A visual world paradigm experiment found that listeners do not wait: they anticipate the vowel immediately from the onset of the frication, even as they wait several hundred milliseconds to identify the fricative. This finding suggests listeners do not strictly process phonemes in the order that they appear; rather the dynamics of language processing may be largely internal and only loosely coupled to the dynamics of the input.
      PubDate: 2019-05-13
       
  • A comparison of methods for investigating the perceptual center of musical
           sounds
    • Abstract: In speech and music, the acoustic and perceptual onset(s) of a sound are usually not congruent with its perceived temporal location. Rather, these "P-centers" are heard some milliseconds after the acoustic onset, and a variety of techniques have been used in speech and music research to find them. Here we report on a comparative study that uses various forms of the method of adjustment (aligning a click or filtered noise in-phase or anti-phase to a repeated target sound), as well as tapping in synchrony with a repeated target sound. The advantages and disadvantages of each method and probe type are discussed, and then all methods are tested using a set of musical instrument sounds that systematically vary in terms of onset/rise time (fast vs. slow), duration (short vs. long), and center frequency (high vs. low). For each method, the dependent variables were (a) the mean P-center location found for each stimulus type, and (b) the variability of the mean P-center location found for each stimulus type. Interactions between methods and stimulus categories were also assessed. We show that (a) in-phase and anti-phase methods of adjustment produce nearly identical results, (b) tapping vs. click alignment can provide different yet useful information regarding P-center locations, (c) the method of adjustment is sensitive to different sounds in terms of variability while tapping is not, and (d) using filtered noise as an alignment probe yields consistently earlier probe-onset locations in comparison to using a click as a probe.
      PubDate: 2019-05-10
       
  • Learning to be in control involves response-specific mechanisms
    • Abstract: Conflict adaptation refers to our ability to modulate our attention in line with changing situational demands, so we can engage in goal-directed behavior. While there is ample evidence demonstrating that such adaptation in conflict tasks can be captured using different response modalities, it remains unknown whether these effects rely on domain-general mechanisms applied to different response modalities, or are the result of more inherently response-specific processes. Here, we used an individual-differences approach to evaluate whether conflict adaptation in two highly similar tasks using different response modalities are related. Specifically, participants performed two versions of a Stroop task, one in which they responded via key presses and one in which they responded via mouse movements. In both tasks, we manipulated the item-specific proportion of (in)congruent trials (80% vs. 20% congruent). This allowed us to evaluate the item-specific proportion congruency (ISPC) effect, a hallmark indicator of conflict adaptation. ISPC effects were observed in both response modalities. However, we found no indications that individual differences in the ISPC effects of the two response modalities were related. This raises the question whether findings from studies on conflict adaptation measured by different modalities can reliably be compared. Furthermore, these results suggest that response modality plays a more integrative role in these adaptive processes, rather than being the mere output of a domain-general control mechanism. This is consistent with contingency learning accounts of the ISPC effect and associative learning models of cognitive control.
      PubDate: 2019-05-09
       
  • Task order choices in cognitive and perceptual-motor tasks: The
           cognitive-load-reduction (CLEAR) hypothesis
    • Abstract: A core question in the study of the dynamics of cognition is how tasks are ordered. Given two tasks, neither of which is prerequisite for the other and neither of which brings a clearly greater reward, which task will be done first' Few studies have addressed this question, though recent work has suggested one possible answer, which we here call the cognitive-load-reduction (CLEAR) hypothesis. According to the CLEAR hypothesis, there is a strong drive to reduce cognitive load (to “clear one’s mind”). Given two tasks, one of which is more cognitively demanding than the other, the more cognitively demanding task will tend to be done first. We tested this prediction using a novel method inviting participants to freely choose when to perform each of c = 5, 10, or 15 items per category in item-generation tasks relative to b = 10 box-moving tasks. The box-moving tasks were cognitively undemanding relative to the item generation tasks, whose cognitive difficulty presumably grew with c. A full half of our n = 122 participants chose to complete all of the c tasks before performing any of the b tasks, and most other participants chose to complete a majority of the c tasks before any of the b tasks. This result is consistent with the CLEAR hypothesis. Speed on the box-moving task decreased the later the category-generation task was completed, supporting another CLEAR prediction. The general method used here provides direction for future work on task order choices in cognitive and perceptual-motor tasks.
      PubDate: 2019-05-09
       
  • Limited-capacity identity processing of multiple integers
    • Abstract: The architecture of the numerical cognition system is currently not well understood, but at a general level, assumptions are made about two core components: a quantity processor and an identity processor. The quantity processor is concerned with accessing and using the stored magnitude denoted by a given digit, and the identity processor is concerned with recovery of the corresponding digit’s identity. Blanc-Goldhammer and Cohen (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40, 1389–1403, 2014) established that the recovery and use of quantity information operates in an unlimited-capacity fashion. Here we assessed whether the identity processor operates in a similar fashion. We present two experiments that were digit identity variations of Blanc-Goldhammer and Cohen’s magnitude estimation paradigm. The data across both experiments reveal a limited-capacity identity processor whose operation reflects cross-talk with the quantity processor. Such findings provide useful evidence that can be used to adjudicate between competing models of the human number-processing system.
      PubDate: 2019-05-09
       
  • Value associations bias ensemble perception
    • Abstract: Ensemble perception refers to awareness of average properties, e.g. size, of “noisy” elements that often comprise visual arrays in natural scenes. Here, we asked how ensemble perception might be influenced when some but not all array elements are associated with monetary reward. Previous studies show that reward associations can speed object processing, facilitate selection, and enhance working-memory maintenance, suggesting they may bias ensemble judgments. To investigate, participants reported the average element size of brief arrays of different-sized circles. In the learning phase, all circles had the same color, but different colors produced high or low performance-contingent rewards. Then, in an unrewarded test phase, arrays comprised three spatially inter-mixed subsets, each with a different color, including the high-reward color. In different trials, the mean size of the subset with the high-reward color was smaller, larger, or the same as the ensemble mean. Ensemble size estimates were significantly biased by the high-reward-associated subset, showing that value associations modulate ensemble perception. In the test phase of a second experiment, a pattern mask appeared immediately after array presentation to limit top-down processing. Not only was value-biasing eliminated, ensemble accuracy improved, suggesting that value associations distort consciously available ensemble representation via late high-level processing.
      PubDate: 2019-05-08
       
  • Tapping doesn’t help: Synchronized self-motion and judgments of
           musical tempo
    • Abstract: For both musicians and music psychologists, beat rate (BPM) has often been regarded as a transparent measure of musical speed or tempo, yet recent research has shown that tempo is more than just BPM. In a previous study, London, Burger, Thompson, and Toiviainen (Acta Psychologica, 164, 70–80, 2016) presented participants with original as well as “time-stretched” versions of classic R&B songs; time stretching slows down or speeds up a recording without changing its pitch or timbre. In that study we discovered a tempo anchoring effect (TAE): Although relative tempo judgments (original vs. time-stretched versions of the same song) were correct, they were at odds with BPM rates of each stimulus. As previous studies have shown that synchronous movement enhances rhythm perception, we hypothesized that tapping along to the beat of these songs would reduce or eliminate the TAE and increase the salience of the beat rate of each stimulus. In the current study participants were presented with the London et al. (Acta Psychologica, 164, 70–80, 2016) stimuli in nonmovement and movement conditions. We found that although participants were able to make BPM-based tempo judgments of generic drumming patterns, and were able to tap along to the R&B stimuli at the correct beat rates, the TAE persisted in both movement and nonmovement conditions. Thus, contrary to our hypothesis that movement would reduce or eliminate the TAE, we found a disjunction between correctly synchronized motor behavior and tempo judgment. The implications of the tapping–TAE dissociation in the broader context of tempo and rhythm perception are discussed, and further approaches to studying the TAE–tapping dissociation are suggested.
      PubDate: 2019-05-06
       
  • Semi-supervised learning of a nonnative phonetic contrast: How much
           feedback is enough'
    • Abstract: Semi-supervised learning refers to learning that occurs when feedback about performance is provided on only a subset of training trials. Algorithms for semi-supervised learning are popular in machine learning because of their minimal reliance on labeled data. There have been, however, only a few reports of semi-supervised learning in humans. Here we document human semi-supervised learning on a nonnative phonetic classification task. Classification performance remained unchanged when 60 feedback trials were provided on each of the two days of training. In contrast, performance improved when 60 feedback trials were combined with 240 no-feedback trials each day. In variants of this successful semi-supervised regimen, increasing the daily number of feedback trials from 60 to 240 did not increase the amount of learning, while decreasing that number to 30 abolished learning. Finally, replacing the no-feedback trials with stimulus exposure alone had little effect on the outcome. These results were an unexpected consequence of combining training periods with feedback and testing periods without feedback, illustrating that no-feedback testing can influence learning outcomes. More broadly, these data suggest that task performance with feedback can function as an all-or-none trigger for recruiting the contribution of trials without feedback, or mere stimulus exposures, to human learning.
      PubDate: 2019-05-06
       
  • Letter migration errors reflect spatial pooling of orthographic
           information
    • Abstract: Prior research has shown that readers may misread words by switching letters across words (e.g., the word sand in sand lane being recognized as land). These so-called letter migration errors have been observed using a divided attention paradigm whereby two words are briefly presented simultaneously, and one is postcued for identification. Letter migrations might therefore be due to a task-induced division of attention across the two words. Here, we show that a similar rate of migration errors is obtained in a flanker paradigm in which a central target word is flanked to the left and to the right by task-irrelevant flanking words. Three words were simultaneously presented for the same brief duration. Asked to type the target word postoffset, participants produced more migration errors when the migrating letter occupied the same position in the flanker and target words, with significantly fewer migrations occurring across adjacent positions, and the effect disappearing across nonadjacent positions. Our results provide further support for the hypothesis that orthographic information spanning multiple words is processed in parallel and spatially integrated (pooled) within a single channel. It is the spatial pooling of sublexical orthographic information that is thought to drive letter migration errors.
      PubDate: 2019-05-06
       
  • Within the framework of the dual-system model, voluntary action is central
           to cognition
    • Abstract: A new version of the dual-system hypothesis is described. Consistent with earlier models, the improvisational subsystem of the instrumental system, which includes the occipital cortex, inferior temporal cortex, and medial temporal cortex, especially the hippocampus, directs the construction of visual representations of the world and constructs ad-hoc responses to novel targets. The habit system, which includes the occipital cortex; parietal cortex; premotor, supplementary motor, and ventrolateral areas of frontal cortex; and the basal ganglia, especially the caudate nucleus, encodes sequences of actions and generates previously successful actions to familiar targets. However, unlike in previous dual-system models, human cognitive activity involved in task performance is not exclusively associated with one system or the other. Rather, the two systems make it possible for people to learn a variety of skills that draw on the competencies of both systems. The collective effects of these skills define human cognition. So, in contrast with earlier versions of the dual-system hypothesis, which identified the habit system solely with procedural learning and implicit improvements in task performance, the model presented here attributes a direct role in declarative-memory tasks to the habit system. Furthermore, within the model, the computational competencies of the two systems are used to construct purposeful sequences of actions—that is, skills. Human cognition is the result of the performance of these skills. Thus, voluntary action is central to human cognition.
      PubDate: 2019-05-06
       
 
 
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