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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 995 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 469)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 234)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 283)
Anuario de investigaciones (Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Buenos Aires)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Psicología     Open Access  
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario Pilquen : Sección Divulgación Científica     Open Access  
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy Online     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 176)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Buletin Psikologi     Open Access  
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Cahiers d’Études sur la Représentation     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health     Open Access  
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Community Psychology in Global Perspective     Open Access  
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling et spiritualité / Counselling and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Creativity. Theories ? Research ? Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cuadernos de Marte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Behavior Research Methods
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.099
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 21  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1554-351X - ISSN (Online) 1554-3528
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Simple Bayesian testing of scientific expectations in linear regression
    • Abstract: Scientific theories can often be formulated using equality and order constraints on the relative effects in a linear regression model. For example, it may be expected that the effect of the first predictor is larger than the effect of the second predictor, and the second predictor is expected to be larger than the third predictor. The goal is then to test such expectations against competing scientific expectations or theories. In this paper, a simple default Bayes factor test is proposed for testing multiple hypotheses with equality and order constraints on the effects of interest. The proposed testing criterion can be computed without requiring external prior information about the expected effects before observing the data. The method is implemented in R-package called ‘lmhyp’ which is freely downloadable and ready to use. The usability of the method and software is illustrated using empirical applications from the social and behavioral sciences.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
  • SUBTLEX-CAT: Subtitle word frequencies and contextual diversity for
    • Abstract: SUBTLEX-CAT is a word frequency and contextual diversity database for Catalan, obtained from a 278-million-word corpus based on subtitles supplied from broadcast Catalan television. Like all previous SUBTLEX corpora, it comprises subtitles from films and TV series. In addition, it includes a wider range of TV shows (e.g., news, documentaries, debates, and talk shows) than has been included in most previous databases. Frequency metrics were obtained for the whole corpus, on the one hand, and only for films and fiction TV series, on the other. Two lexical decision experiments revealed that the subtitle-based metrics outperformed the previously available frequency estimates, computed from either written texts or texts from the Internet. Furthermore, the metrics obtained from the whole corpus were better predictors than the ones obtained from films and fiction TV series alone. In both experiments, the best predictor of response times and accuracy was contextual diversity.
      PubDate: 2019-03-20
  • Investigation of adolescents’ developmental stages in deductive
           reasoning: An application of a specialized confirmatory mixture IRT
    • Abstract: In this paper, we propose a specialized confirmatory mixture IRT model to analyze complex cognitive assessment data that is designed to evaluate adolescents’ developmental stages in deductive reasoning. The model is specified for the following purposes: (1) to measure multiple deductive reasoning traits, (2) to identify adolescents’ differential developmental stages based on their ability levels in the multiple dimensions, (3) to quantify the differences in dimension-specific performance between developmental stages, and (4) to examine the difficulty levels of test design factors. A Bayesian estimation of the model is described. The overall goodness-of-fit of the model is assessed as well as its parameter recovery to validate the application of the model to the data.
      PubDate: 2019-03-20
  • Confounder detection in linear mediation models: Performance of
           kernel-based tests of independence
    • Abstract: It is well-known that the identification of direct and indirect effects in mediation analysis requires strong unconfoundedness assumptions. Even when the predictor is under experimental control, unconfoundedness assumptions must be imposed on the mediator–outcome relation in order to guarantee valid indirect-effect identification. Researchers are therefore advised to test for unconfoundedness when estimating mediation effects. Significance tests to evaluate unconfoundedness usually rely on an instrumental variable (IV)—that is, a variable that is nonindependent of the explanatory variable and, at the same time, independent of all exogenous factors that affect the outcome when the explanatory variable is held constant. Because IVs may be hard to come by, the present study shows that confounders of the mediator–outcome relation can be detected without making use of IVs when variables are nonnormal. We show that kernel-based tests of independence are able to detect confounding under nonnormality. Results from a simulation study are presented that suggest that these tests perform well in terms of Type I error protection and statistical power, independent of the distribution or measurement level of the confounder. A real-world data example from the Job Search Intervention Study (JOBS II) illustrates how the presented approach can be used to minimize the risk of obtaining biased indirect-effect estimates. The data requirements and role of unconfoundedness tests as diagnostic tools are discussed. A Monte Carlo–based power analysis tool for sample size planning is also provided.
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
  • Implementing a concept network model
    • Abstract: The same concept can mean different things or be instantiated in different forms, depending on context, suggesting a degree of flexibility within the conceptual system. We propose that a feature-based network model can be used to capture and predict this flexibility. We modeled individual concepts (e.g., banana, bottle) as graph-theoretical networks, in which properties (e.g., yellow, sweet) were represented as nodes and their associations as edges. In this framework, networks capture within-concept statistics that reflect how properties relate to one another across instances of a concept. We extracted formal measures of these networks that capture different aspects of network structure, and explored whether a concept’s network structure relates to its flexibility of use. To do so, we compared network measures to a text-based measure of semantic diversity, as well as to empirical data from a figurative-language task and an alternative-uses task. We found that network-based measures were predictive of the text-based and empirical measures of flexible concept use, highlighting the ability of this approach to formally capture relevant characteristics of conceptual structure. Conceptual flexibility is a fundamental attribute of the cognitive and semantic systems, and in this proof of concept we reveal that variations in concept representation and use can be formally understood in terms of the informational content and topology of concept networks.
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
  • A regularization approach for the detection of differential item
           functioning in generalized partial credit models
    • Abstract: Most common analysis tools for the detection of differential item functioning (DIF) in item response theory are restricted to the use of single covariates. If several variables have to be considered, the respective method is repeated independently for each variable. We propose a regularization approach based on the lasso principle for the detection of uniform DIF. It is applicable to a broad range of polytomous item response models with the generalized partial credit model as the most general case. A joint model is specified where the possible DIF effects for all items and all covariates are explicitly parameterized. The model is estimated using a penalized likelihood approach that automatically detects DIF effects and provides trait estimates that correct for the detected DIF effects from different covariates simultaneously. The approach is evaluated by means of several simulation studies. An application is presented using data from the children’s depression inventory.
      PubDate: 2019-03-18
  • Comparing the accuracy and speed of four data-checking methods
    • Abstract: Double entry locates and corrects more data-entry errors than does visual checking or reading the data out loud with a partner. However, many researchers do not use double entry, because it is substantially slower. Therefore, in this study we examined the speed and accuracy of solo read aloud, which has never before been examined and might be faster than double entry. To compare these four methods, we deliberately introduced errors while entering 20 data sheets and then asked 412 randomly assigned undergraduates to locate and correct these errors. Double entry was significantly and substantially more accurate than the other data-checking methods. However, the double-entry participants still made some errors. Close examination revealed that whenever double-entry participants made errors, they made the two sets of entries match, sometimes by introducing new errors into the dataset. This suggests that double entry can be improved by focusing attention on making entries match the original data sheets (rather than each other), perhaps by using a new person for mismatch correction. Solo read aloud was faster than double entry, but not as accurate. Double entry remains the gold standard in data-checking methods. However, solo read aloud was often substantially more accurate than partner read aloud and was more accurate than visual checking for one type of data. Therefore, when double entry is not possible, we recommend that researchers use solo read aloud or visual checking.
      PubDate: 2019-03-11
  • Think of the consequences: A decade of discourse about same-sex marriage
    • Abstract: Approaching issues through the lens of nonnegotiable values increases the perceived intractability of debate (Baron & Spranca in Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 70, 1–16, 1997), while focusing on the concrete consequences of policies instead results in the moderation of extreme opinions (Fernbach, Rogers, Fox, & Sloman in Psychological Science, 24, 939–946, 2013) and a greater likelihood of conflict resolution (Baron & Leshner in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 6, 183–194, 2000). Using comments on the popular social media platform Reddit from January 2006 until September 2017, we showed how changes in the framing of same-sex marriage in public discourse relate to changes in public opinion. We used a topic model to show that the contributions of certain protected-values-based topics to the debate (religious arguments and freedom of opinion) increased prior to the emergence of a public consensus in support of same-sex marriage (Gallup, 2017), and declined afterward. In contrast, the discussion of certain consequentialist topics (the impact of politicians’ stance and same-sex marriage as a matter of policy) showed the opposite pattern. Our results reinforce the meaningfulness of protected values and consequentialism as relevant dimensions for describing public discourse and highlight the usefulness of unsupervised machine-learning methods in tackling questions about social attitude change.
      PubDate: 2019-03-11
  • An automated segmentation approach to calibrating infantile nystagmus
    • Abstract: Infantile nystagmus (IN) describes a regular, repetitive movement of the eyes. A characteristic feature of each cycle of the IN eye movement waveform is a period in which the eyes are moving at minimal velocity. This so-called “foveation” period has long been considered the basis for the best vision in individuals with IN. In recent years, the technology for measuring eye movements has improved considerably, but there remains the challenge of calibrating the direction of gaze in tracking systems when the eyes are continuously moving. Identifying portions of the nystagmus waveform suitable for calibration typically involves time-consuming manual selection of the foveation periods from the eye trace. Without an accurate calibration, the exact parameters of the waveform cannot be determined. In this study, we present an automated method for segmenting IN waveforms with the purpose of determining the foveation positions to be used for calibration of an eye tracker. On average, the “point of regard” was found to be within 0.21° of that determined by hand-marking by an expert observer. This method enables rapid clinical quantification of waveforms and the possibility of gaze-contingent research paradigms being performed with this patient group.
      PubDate: 2019-03-11
  • A robust method for calibration of eye tracking data recorded during
    • Abstract: Eye tracking is a useful tool when studying the oscillatory eye movements associated with nystagmus. However, this oscillatory nature of nystagmus is problematic during calibration since it introduces uncertainty about where the person is actually looking. This renders comparisons between separate recordings unreliable. Still, the influence of the calibration protocol on eye movement data from people with nystagmus has not been thoroughly investigated. In this work, we propose a calibration method using Procrustes analysis in combination with an outlier correction algorithm, which is based on a model of the calibration data and on the geometry of the experimental setup. The proposed method is compared to previously used calibration polynomials in terms of accuracy, calibration plane distortion and waveform robustness. Six recordings of calibration data, validation data and optokinetic nystagmus data from people with nystagmus and seven recordings from a control group were included in the study. Fixation errors during the recording of calibration data from the healthy participants were introduced, simulating fixation errors caused by the oscillatory movements found in nystagmus data. The outlier correction algorithm improved the accuracy for all tested calibration methods. The accuracy and calibration plane distortion performance of the Procrustes analysis calibration method were similar to the top performing mapping functions for the simulated fixation errors. The performance in terms of waveform robustness was superior for the Procrustes analysis calibration compared to the other calibration methods. The overall performance of the Procrustes calibration methods was best for the datasets containing errors during the calibration.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Do your eyes give you away' A validation study of eye-movement
           measures used as indicators for mindless reading
    • Abstract: Identifying eye-movement measures as objective indicators of mind wandering seems to be a work in progress. We reviewed research comparing eye movements during self-categorized episodes of normal versus mindless reading and found little consensus regarding the specific measures that are sensitive to attentional decoupling during mind wandering. To address this issue of inconsistency, we conducted a new, high-powered eye-tracking experiment and considered all previously identified mind-wandering indicators. In our experiment, only three measures (reading time, fixation count, and first-fixation duration) positively predicted self-categorized mindless reading. Aside from these single measures, the word-frequency effect was found to be generally less pronounced during mindless-reading than during normal-reading episodes. To additionally test for convergent validity between the objective and subjective mind-wandering measures, we utilized eye-movement measures as well as thought reports, to examine the effect of metacognitive awareness on mind-wandering behavior. We expected that participants anticipating a difficult comprehension test would mind wander less during reading than would those anticipating an easy test. Although we were able to induce metacognitive expectancies about task difficulty, we found no evidence that these difficulty expectancies affected either subjectively reported or objectively measured mind wandering.
      PubDate: 2019-02-27
  • SOLID-Similar object and lure image database
    • Abstract: Stimulus selection is a critical part of experimental designs in the cognitive sciences. Quantifying and controlling item similarity using a unified scale provides researchers with the tools to eliminate item-dependent effects and improve reproducibility. Here we present a novel Similar Object and Lure Image Database (SOLID) that includes 201 categories of grayscale objects, with approximately 17 exemplars per set. Unlike existing databases, SOLID offers both a large number of stimuli and a considerable range of similarity levels. A common scale of dissimilarity was obtained by using the spatial-arrangement method (Exps. 1a and 1b) as well as a pairwise rating procedure to standardize the distances (Exp. 2). These dissimilarity distances were then validated in a recognition memory task, showing better performance and decreased response times as dissimilarity increased. These methods were used to produce a large stimulus database (3,498 images) with a wide range of comparable similarities, which will be useful for improving experimental control in fields such as memory, perception, and attention. Enabling this degree of control over similarity is critical for high-level studies of memory and cognition, and combining this strength with the option to use it across many trials will allow research questions to be addressed using neuroimaging techniques.
      PubDate: 2019-02-25
  • Dealing with missing data by EM in single-case studies
    • Abstract: Single-case experimental design (SCED) research plays an important role in establishing and confirming evidence-based practices. Due to multiple measures of a target behavior in such studies, missing information is common in their data. The expectation–maximization (EM) algorithm has been successfully applied to deal with missing data in between-subjects designs, but only in a handful of SCED studies. The present study extends the findings from Smith, Borckardt, and Nash (2012) and Velicer and Colby (2005b, Study 2) by systematically examining the performance of EM in a baseline–intervention (or AB) design under various missing rates, autocorrelations, intervention phase lengths, and magnitudes of effects, as well as two fitted models. Three indicators of an intervention effect (baseline slope, level shift, and slope change) were estimated. The estimates’ relative bias, root-mean squared error, and relative bias of the estimated standard error were used to assess EM’s performance. The findings revealed that autocorrelation impacted the estimates’ qualities most profoundly. Autocorrelation interacted with missing rate in impacting the relative bias of the estimates, impacted the root-mean squared error nonlinearly, and interacted with the fitted model in impacting the relative bias of the estimated standard errors. A simpler model without autocorrelation can be used to estimate baseline slope and slope change in time-series data. EM is recommended as a principled method to handle missing data in SCED studies. Two decision trees are presented to assist researchers and practitioners in applying EM. Emerging research directions are identified for treating missing data in SCED studies.
      PubDate: 2019-02-25
  • Chinese character handwriting: A large-scale behavioral study and a
    • Abstract: We report on a psycholinguistic database of Chinese character handwriting based on a large-scale study that involved 203 participants, each handwriting 200 characters randomly sampled from a cohort of 1,600 characters. Apart from collecting writing latencies, durations, and accuracy, we also compiled 14 lexical variables for each character. Regressions showed that frequency, age of acquisition, and the word context (in which a character appears) are all-around and influential predictors of orthographic access (as reflected in writing latency), motor execution of handwriting (as reflected in writing duration), and accuracy. In addition, phonological factors (phonogram status, spelling regularity, and homophone density) impacted orthographic access but not handwriting execution. Semantic factors (imageability and concreteness) only affected accuracy. These results suggest, among other things, that phonology is consulted in orthographic access while handwriting. As the first of its kind, this database can be used as a source of secondary data analyses and a tool for stimulus construction in handwriting research.
      PubDate: 2019-02-25
  • The SNARC and MARC effects measured online: Large-scale assessment methods
           in flexible cognitive effects
    • Abstract: The Spatial–Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) effect (i.e., faster reactions to small/large numbers on the left-/right-hand side) is usually observed along with the linguistic Markedness of Response Codes (MARC) effect—that is, faster left-/right-hand responses to odd/even numbers. The SNARC effect is one of the most thoroughly investigated phenomena in numerical cognition. However, almost all SNARC and MARC studies to date were conducted with sample sizes smaller than 100. Here we report on a study with 1,156 participants from various linguistic and cultural backgrounds performing a typical parity judgment task. We investigated whether (1) the SNARC and MARC effects can be observed in an online setup, (2) the properties of these effects observed online are similar to those observed in laboratory setups, (3) the effects are reliable, and (4) they are valid. We found robust SNARC and MARC effects. Their magnitude and reliabilities were comparable to values previously reported in in-lab studies. Furthermore, we reproduced commonly observed validity correlations of the SNARC and MARC effects. Namely, SNARC and MARC correlated with mean reaction times and intraindividual variability in reaction times. Additionally, we found interindividual differences in the SNARC and MARC effects (e.g., finger-counting routines for the SNARC and handedness for the MARC). Large-scale testing via web-based data acquisition not only produces SNARC and MARC effects and validity correlations similar to those from small, in-lab studies, but also reveals substantial insights with regard to interindividual differences that usually cannot be revealed in the offline laboratory, due to power considerations.
      PubDate: 2019-02-25
  • Systematic mappings between semantic categories and types of iconic
           representations in the manual modality: A normed database of silent
    • Abstract: An unprecedented number of empirical studies have shown that iconic gestures—those that mimic the sensorimotor attributes of a referent—contribute significantly to language acquisition, perception, and processing. However, there has been a lack of normed studies describing generalizable principles in gesture production and in comprehension of the mappings of different types of iconic strategies (i.e., modes of representation; Müller, 2013). In Study 1 we elicited silent gestures in order to explore the implementation of different types of iconic representation (i.e., acting, representing, drawing, and personification) to express concepts across five semantic domains. In Study 2 we investigated the degree of meaning transparency (i.e., iconicity ratings) of the gestures elicited in Study 1. We found systematicity in the gestural forms of 109 concepts across all participants, with different types of iconicity aligning with specific semantic domains: Acting was favored for actions and manipulable objects, drawing for nonmanipulable objects, and personification for animate entities. Interpretation of gesture–meaning transparency was modulated by the interaction between mode of representation and semantic domain, with some couplings being more transparent than others: Acting yielded higher ratings for actions, representing for object-related concepts, personification for animate entities, and drawing for nonmanipulable entities. This study provides mapping principles that may extend to all forms of manual communication (gesture and sign). This database includes a list of the most systematic silent gestures in the group of participants, a notation of the form of each gesture based on four features (hand configuration, orientation, placement, and movement), each gesture’s mode of representation, iconicity ratings, and professionally filmed videos that can be used for experimental and clinical endeavors.
      PubDate: 2019-02-20
  • Make-A-Dice Test: Assessing the intersection of mathematical and spatial
    • Abstract: Individuals with better spatial thinking have increased interest and greater achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines (Wai, Lubinski, & Benbow in Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 817–835, 2009). This relationship means that STEM education may benefit from leveraging spatial thinking, but measures of spatial thinking as they relate to specific STEM disciplines are needed. The present work presents an assessment of spatial and mathematical reasoning, called Make-A-Dice. In Make-A-Dice, individuals are presented with a cube net (i.e., a flattened cube) with numbers on two sides. Their goal is to “make a dice” by filling in the blank sides using two rules: opposite sides add to 7, and the numbers 1 through 6 should be used once each. Make-A-Dice was given to adults (Study 1) and elementary students (Studies 2 and 3) along with math, spatial, and other measures, across two sessions in all studies. Make-A-Dice had both internal and test–retest reliability, with items ordered by difficulty. Furthermore, performance was related to spatial and mathematical reasoning. In Study 1, adults reported a range of strategies used to complete Make-A-Dice, and one strategy predicted performance. Studies 2 and 3 showed that Make-A-Dice is age-appropriate for elementary students. Make-A-Dice shows promise as an individual-difference measure linking spatial and mathematical thinking and has the potential to identify elementary-aged children who may benefit from spatial training.
      PubDate: 2019-02-20
  • spreadr: An R package to simulate spreading activation in a network
    • Abstract: The notion of spreading activation is a central theme in the cognitive sciences; however, the tools for implementing spreading activation computationally are not as readily available. This article introduces the spreadr R package, which can implement spreading activation within a specified network structure. The algorithmic method implemented in the spreadr subroutines follows the approach described in Vitevitch, Ercal, and Adagarla (Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 369, 2011), who viewed activation as a fixed cognitive resource that could “spread” among connected nodes in a network. Three sets of simulations were conducted using the package. The first set of simulations successfully reproduced the results reported in Vitevitch et al. (Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 369, 2011), who showed that a simple mechanism of spreading activation could account for the clustering coefficient effect in spoken word recognition. The second set of simulations showed that the same mechanism could be extended to account for higher false alarm rates for low clustering coefficient words in a false memory task. The final set of simulations demonstrated how spreading activation could be applied to a semantic network to account for semantic priming effects. It is hoped that this package will encourage cognitive and language scientists to explicitly consider how the structures of cognitive systems such as the mental lexicon and semantic memory interact with the process of spreading activation.
      PubDate: 2019-02-20
  • Unrestricted factor analysis of multidimensional test items based on an
           objectively refined target matrix
    • Abstract: A common difficulty in the factor analysis of items designed to measure psychological constructs is that the factor structures obtained using exploratory factor analysis tend to be rejected if they are tested statistically with a confirmatory factor model. An alternative to confirmatory factor analysis is unrestricted factor analysis based on Procrustes rotation, which minimizes the distance from a target matrix proposed by the researcher. In the present article, we focus on the situation in which researchers propose a partially specified target matrix but are prepared to allow their initial target to be refined. Here we discuss RETAM as a new procedure for objectively refining target matrices. To date, it has been recommended that this kind of refinement be guided by human judgment. However, our approach is objective, because the threshold value is computed automatically (not decided on by the researcher) and there is no need to manually compute a number of factor rotations every time. The new procedure was tested in an extensive simulation study, and the results suggest that it may be a useful procedure in factor analysis applications based on incomplete measurement theory. Its feasibility in practice is illustrated with an empirical example from the personality domain. Finally, RETAM is implemented in a well-known noncommercial program for performing unrestricted factor analysis.
      PubDate: 2019-02-19
  • Measuring the importance of context when modeling language comprehension
    • Abstract: It is widely accepted that language requires context in order to function as communication between speakers and listeners. As listeners, we make use of background knowledge — about the speaker, about entities and concepts, about previous utterances — in order to infer the speaker’s intended meaning. But even if there is consensus that these sources of information are a necessary component of linguistic communication, it is another matter entirely to provide a thorough, quantitative accounting for context’s interaction with language. When does context matter' What kinds of context matter in which kinds of domains' The empirical investigation of these questions is inhibited by a number of factors: the challenge of quantifying language, the boundless combinations of domains and types of context to be measured, and the challenge of selecting and applying a given construct to natural language data. In response to these factors, we introduce and demonstrate a methodological framework for testing the importance of contextual information in inferring speaker intentions from text. We apply Long Short-term Memory (LSTM) networks, a standard for representing language in its natural, sequential state, and conduct a set of experiments for predicting the persuasive intentions of speakers in political debates using different combinations of text and background information about the speaker. We show, in our modeling and discussion, that the proposed framework is suitable for empirically evaluating the manner and magnitude of context’s relevance for any number of domains and constructs.
      PubDate: 2019-02-19
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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