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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 889 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 417)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 200)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 228)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 140)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coaching | Theorie & Praxis     Open Access  
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Behavior Research Methods
  [SJR: 2.235]   [H-I: 88]   [18 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1554-351X - ISSN (Online) 1554-3528
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2354 journals]
  • Erratum to: Subjective age-of-acquisition norms for 600 Turkish words from
           four age groups
    • Authors: İlyas Göz; Ali İ. Tekcan; Aslı Aktan Erciyes
      Pages: 1747 - 1747
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.3758/s13428-017-0914-6
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 5 (2017)
  • Erratum to: Characterization of graphomotor functions in individuals with
           Parkinson’s disease and essential tremor
    • Authors: Nan-Ying Yu; Arend W. A. Van Gemmert; Shao-Hsia Chang
      Pages: 1966 - 1966
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.3758/s13428-016-0815-0
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 5 (2017)
  • Erratum to: Exploratory factor analysis for small samples
    • Authors: Sunho Jung; Soonmook Lee
      Pages: 1967 - 1967
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.3758/s13428-016-0816-z
      Issue No: Vol. 49, No. 5 (2017)
  • MorphoLex: A derivational morphological database for 70,000 English words
    • Abstract: Most of the new words a reader will find are morphologically complex. Also, theoretical models of language processing propose that morphology plays an important role in visual word processing. Nevertheless, studies on the subject show contradicting results that are difficult to reconcile. One factor that may explain this is the lack of a sizeable and reliable morphological database. As a consequence, there are enormous methodological differences in the way the values for morphological variables are calculated across studies. We present a sizeable and freely available database with six new variables for affixes and three for roots for 68,624 words from the English Lexicon Project. We further studied by means of regression models the influence of these new variables on the lexical decision latencies of 4,724 morphologically complex nouns that included one root and one suffix. Results showed that root frequency and suffix length had a facilitatory effect, whereas the percentage of more frequent words in the morphological family of the suffix had an inhibitory effect on latencies. After controlling for collinearity, root family size, suffix family size, suffix P*, and suffix frequency also had facilitatory effects. These results shed new light on the importance of suffix length and the frequency of the lexical competitors of the family of a suffix. This database represents a valuable resource for studies on the effect of morphology in visual word processing in English and can be found at
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.3758/s13428-017-0981-8
  • The Bangor Voice Matching Test: A standardized test for the assessment of
           voice perception ability
    • Abstract: Recognising the identity of conspecifics is an important yet highly variable skill. Approximately 2 % of the population suffers from a socially debilitating deficit in face recognition. More recently the existence of a similar deficit in voice perception has emerged (phonagnosia). Face perception tests have been readily available for years, advancing our understanding of underlying mechanisms in face perception. In contrast, voice perception has received less attention, and the construction of standardized voice perception tests has been neglected. Here we report the construction of the first standardized test for voice perception ability. Participants make a same/different identity decision after hearing two voice samples. Item Response Theory guided item selection to ensure the test discriminates between a range of abilities. The test provides a starting point for the systematic exploration of the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying voice perception. With a high test-retest reliability (r=.86) and short assessment duration (~10 min) this test examines individual abilities reliably and quickly and therefore also has potential for use in developmental and neuropsychological populations.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.3758/s13428-017-0985-4
  • Applying cognitive acuity theory to the development and scoring of
           situational judgment tests
    • Authors: J. Peter Leeds
      Abstract: The theory of cognitive acuity (TCA) treats the response options within items as signals to be detected and uses psychophysical methods to estimate the respondents’ sensitivity to these signals. Such a framework offers new methods to construct and score situational judgment tests (SJT). Leeds (2012) defined cognitive acuity as the capacity to discern correctness and distinguish between correctness differences among simultaneously presented situation-specific response options. In this study, SJT response options were paired in order to offer the respondent a two-option choice. The contrast in correctness valence between the two options determined the magnitude of signal emission, with larger signals portending a higher probability of detection. A logarithmic relation was found between correctness valence contrast (signal stimulus) and its detectability (sensation response). Respondent sensitivity to such signals was measured and found to be related to the criterion variables. The linkage between psychophysics and elemental psychometrics may offer new directions for measurement theory.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.3758/s13428-017-0988-1
  • Semantic ambiguity effects on traditional Chinese character naming: A
           corpus-based approach
    • Authors: Ya-Ning Chang; Chia-Ying Lee
      Abstract: Words are considered semantically ambiguous if they have more than one meaning and can be used in multiple contexts. A number of recent studies have provided objective ambiguity measures by using a corpus-based approach and have demonstrated ambiguity advantages in both naming and lexical decision tasks. Although the predictive power of objective ambiguity measures has been examined in several alphabetic language systems, the effects in logographic languages remain unclear. Moreover, most ambiguity measures do not explicitly address how the various contexts associated with a given word relate to each other. To explore these issues, we computed the contextual diversity (Adelman, Brown, & Quesada, Psychological Science, 17; 814–823, 2006) and semantic ambiguity (Hoffman, Lambon Ralph, & Rogers, Behavior Research Methods, 45; 718–730, 2013) of traditional Chinese single-character words based on the Academia Sinica Balanced Corpus, where contextual diversity was used to evaluate the present semantic space. We then derived a novel ambiguity measure, namely semantic variability, by computing the distance properties of the distinct clusters grouped by the contexts that contained a given word. We demonstrated that semantic variability was superior to semantic diversity in accounting for the variance in naming response times, suggesting that considering the substructure of the various contexts associated with a given word can provide a relatively fine scale of ambiguity information for a word. All of the context and ambiguity measures for 2,418 Chinese single-character words are provided as supplementary materials.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.3758/s13428-017-0993-4
  • Stuck at the starting line: How the starting procedure influences
           mouse-tracking data
    • Authors: Stefan Scherbaum; Pascal J. Kieslich
      Abstract: Mouse-tracking is an increasingly popular method to trace cognitive processes. As is common for a novel method, the exact methodological procedures employed in an individual study are still relatively idiosyncratic and the effects of different methodological setups on mouse-tracking measures have not been explored so far. Here, we study the impact of one commonly occurring methodological variation, namely whether participants have to initiate their mouse movements to trigger stimulus presentation (dynamic starting condition) or whether the stimulus is presented automatically after a fixed delay and participants can freely decide when to initiate their movements (static starting condition). We compared data from a previous study in which participants performed a mouse-tracking version of a Simon task with a dynamic starting condition to data from a new study that employed a static starting condition in an otherwise identical setup. Results showed reliable Simon effects and Congruency Sequence effects on response time (RT) and discrete trial-level mouse-tracking measures (i.e., average deviation) in both starting conditions. In contrast, within-trial continuous measures (i.e., extracted temporal segments) were weaker and occurred in a more temporally compressed way in the static compared to the dynamic starting condition. This was in line with generally less consistent movements within and across participants in the static compared to the dynamic condition. Our results suggest that studies that use within-trial continuous measures to assess dynamic aspects of mouse movements should apply dynamic starting procedures to enhance the leakage of cognitive processing into the mouse movements.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
      DOI: 10.3758/s13428-017-0977-4
  • Computerized summary scoring: crowdsourcing-based latent semantic analysis
    • Authors: Haiying Li; Zhiqiang Cai; Arthur C. Graesser
      Abstract: In this study we developed and evaluated a crowdsourcing-based latent semantic analysis (LSA) approach to computerized summary scoring (CSS). LSA is a frequently used mathematical component in CSS, where LSA similarity represents the extent to which the to-be-graded target summary is similar to a model summary or a set of exemplar summaries. Researchers have proposed different formulations of the model summary in previous studies, such as pregraded summaries, expert-generated summaries, or source texts. The former two methods, however, require substantial human time, effort, and costs in order to either grade or generate summaries. Using source texts does not require human effort, but it also does not predict human summary scores well. With human summary scores as the gold standard, in this study we evaluated the crowdsourcing LSA method by comparing it with seven other LSA methods that used sets of summaries from different sources (either experts or crowdsourced) of differing quality, along with source texts. Results showed that crowdsourcing LSA predicted human summary scores as well as expert-good and crowdsourcing-good summaries, and better than the other methods. A series of analyses with different numbers of crowdsourcing summaries demonstrated that the number (from 10 to 100) did not significantly affect performance. These findings imply that crowdsourcing LSA is a promising approach to CSS, because it saves human effort in generating the model summary while still yielding comparable performance. This approach to small-scale CSS provides a practical solution for instructors in courses, and also advances research on automated assessments in which student responses are expected to semantically converge on subject matter content.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
      DOI: 10.3758/s13428-017-0982-7
  • Objective measurement of gestalts: Quantifying grouping effect by tilt
    • Authors: Ning Wei; Tiangang Zhou; Lin Chen
      Abstract: The importance of holistic perception is described by Gestalt psychology and its principles. Gestalt psychologists have promoted a formal and testable framework for these principles. Quantitative measurements have been introduced from Gestalt psychology in order to complement traditional phenomenal descriptions. Here we demonstrated a new method of measuring grouping effects objectively and quantitatively, by means of tilt aftereffect (TAE) from visual adaptation. Experiment 1 validated the method by measuring grouping based on either proximity or color similarity. Experiments 2 and 3 verified that this paradigm is also effective with dimotif lattices in which different perceptual organizations compete. The novel TAE-based paradigm is an objective and effective method for studying perceptual organization, especially the relationship between different Gestalt principles.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26
      DOI: 10.3758/s13428-017-0919-1
  • Gaze3DFix: Detecting 3D fixations with an ellipsoidal bounding volume
    • Authors: Sascha Weber; Rebekka S. Schubert; Stefan Vogt; Boris M. Velichkovsky; Sebastian Pannasch
      Abstract: Nowadays, the use of eyetracking to determine 2-D gaze positions is common practice, and several approaches to the detection of 2-D fixations exist, but ready-to-use algorithms to determine eye movements in three dimensions are still missing. Here we present a dispersion-based algorithm with an ellipsoidal bounding volume that estimates 3D fixations. Therefore, 3D gaze points are obtained using a vector-based approach and are further processed with our algorithm. To evaluate the accuracy of our method, we performed experimental studies with real and virtual stimuli. We obtained good congruence between stimulus position and both the 3D gaze points and the 3D fixation locations within the tested range of 200–600 mm. The mean deviation of the 3D fixations from the stimulus positions was 17 mm for the real as well as for the virtual stimuli, with larger variances at increasing stimulus distances. The described algorithms are implemented in two dynamic linked libraries (Gaze3D.dll and Fixation3D.dll), and we provide a graphical user interface (Gaze3DFixGUI.exe) that is designed for importing 2-D binocular eyetracking data and calculating both 3D gaze points and 3D fixations using the libraries. The Gaze3DFix toolkit, including both libraries and the graphical user interface, is available as open-source software at
      PubDate: 2017-10-26
      DOI: 10.3758/s13428-017-0969-4
  • Unsupervised parsing of gaze data with a beta-process vector
           auto-regressive hidden Markov model
    • Authors: Joseph W. Houpt; Mary E. Frame; Leslie M. Blaha
      Abstract: The first stage of analyzing eye-tracking data is commonly to code the data into sequences of fixations and saccades. This process is usually automated using simple, predetermined rules for classifying ranges of the time series into events, such as “if the dispersion of gaze samples is lower than a particular threshold, then code as a fixation; otherwise code as a saccade.” More recent approaches incorporate additional eye-movement categories in automated parsing algorithms by using time-varying, data-driven thresholds. We describe an alternative approach using the beta-process vector auto-regressive hidden Markov model (BP-AR-HMM). The BP-AR-HMM offers two main advantages over existing frameworks. First, it provides a statistical model for eye-movement classification rather than a single estimate. Second, the BP-AR-HMM uses a latent process to model the number and nature of the types of eye movements and hence is not constrained to predetermined categories. We applied the BP-AR-HMM both to high-sampling rate gaze data from Andersson et al. (Behavior Research Methods 49(2), 1–22 2016) and to low-sampling rate data from the DIEM project (Mital et al., Cognitive Computation 3(1), 5–24 2011). Driven by the data properties, the BP-AR-HMM identified over five categories of movements, some which clearly mapped on to fixations and saccades, and others potentially captured post-saccadic oscillations, smooth pursuit, and various recording errors. The BP-AR-HMM serves as an effective algorithm for data-driven event parsing alone or as an initial step in exploring the characteristics of gaze data sets.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26
      DOI: 10.3758/s13428-017-0974-7
  • Detecting treatment-subgroup interactions in clustered data with
           generalized linear mixed-effects model trees
    • Authors: M. Fokkema; N. Smits; A. Zeileis; T. Hothorn; H. Kelderman
      Abstract: Identification of subgroups of patients for whom treatment A is more effective than treatment B, and vice versa, is of key importance to the development of personalized medicine. Tree-based algorithms are helpful tools for the detection of such interactions, but none of the available algorithms allow for taking into account clustered or nested dataset structures, which are particularly common in psychological research. Therefore, we propose the generalized linear mixed-effects model tree (GLMM tree) algorithm, which allows for the detection of treatment-subgroup interactions, while accounting for the clustered structure of a dataset. The algorithm uses model-based recursive partitioning to detect treatment-subgroup interactions, and a GLMM to estimate the random-effects parameters. In a simulation study, GLMM trees show higher accuracy in recovering treatment-subgroup interactions, higher predictive accuracy, and lower type II error rates than linear-model-based recursive partitioning and mixed-effects regression trees. Also, GLMM trees show somewhat higher predictive accuracy than linear mixed-effects models with pre-specified interaction effects, on average. We illustrate the application of GLMM trees on an individual patient-level data meta-analysis on treatments for depression. We conclude that GLMM trees are a promising exploratory tool for the detection of treatment-subgroup interactions in clustered datasets.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25
      DOI: 10.3758/s13428-017-0971-x
  • A few remarks on spatial interference in visual stimuli
    • Authors: Bernt Christian Skottun
      Abstract: Many vision experiments, e.g., tests of masking and visual crowding, involve the effect of adding a second stimulus to an initial one. The effects of such additions are generally considered in terms of physiological mechanisms and the possibility of interference in the stimuli is generally not considered. In the present study, interference between two stimuli was assessed by comparing the sum of amplitudes in the combined stimulus to the sums of the amplitudes in the two stimuli determined separately. With this approach, evidence for interference was found. It was also found that adding a second stimulus may alter the phase angles. These observations mean that the same stimulus presented together with other stimuli may have less stimulus power than when presented by itself. Thus, it is necessary to take account of the possibility of interference when interpreting results from experiments in which the effect of one stimulus element upon another is explored.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24
      DOI: 10.3758/s13428-017-0978-3
  • Differentiating between mixed-effects and latent-curve approaches to
           growth modeling
    • Authors: Daniel McNeish; Tyler Matta
      Abstract: In psychology, mixed-effects models and latent-curve models are both widely used to explore growth over time. Despite this widespread popularity, some confusion remains regarding the overlap of these different approaches. Recent articles have shown that the two modeling frameworks are mathematically equivalent in many cases, which is often interpreted to mean that one’s choice of modeling framework is merely a matter of personal preference. However, some important differences in estimation and specification can lead to the models producing very different results when implemented in software. Thus, mathematical equivalence does not necessarily equate to practical equivalence in all cases. In this article, we discuss these two common approaches to growth modeling and highlight contexts in which the choice of the modeling framework (and, consequently, the software) can directly impact the model estimates, or in which certain analyses can be facilitated in one framework over the other. We show that, unless the data are pristine, with a large sample size, linear or polynomial growth, and no missing data, and unless the participants have the same number of measurements collected at the same set of time points, one framework is often more advantageous to adopt. We provide several empirical examples to illustrate these situations, as well as ample software code so that researchers can make informed decisions regarding which framework will be the most beneficial and most straightforward for their research interests.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24
      DOI: 10.3758/s13428-017-0976-5
  • Once more with feeling: Normative data for the aha experience in insight
           and noninsight problems
    • Authors: Margaret E. Webb; Daniel R. Little; Simon. J. Cropper
      Abstract: Despite the presumed ability of insight problems to elicit the subjective feeling of insight, as well as the use of so-called insight problems to investigate this phenomenon for over 100 years, no research has collected normative data regarding the ability of insight problems to actually elicit the feeling of insight in a given individual. The work described in this article provides an overview of both classic and contemporary problems used to examine the construct of insight and presents normative data on the success rate, mean time to solution, and mean rating of aha experience for each problem and task type. We suggest using these data in future work as a reference for selecting problems on the basis of their ability to elicit an aha experience.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.3758/s13428-017-0972-9
  • Is human classification by experienced untrained observers a gold standard
           in fixation detection'
    • Authors: Ignace T. C. Hooge; Diederick C. Niehorster; Marcus Nyström; Richard Andersson; Roy S. Hessels
      Abstract: Manual classification is still a common method to evaluate event detection algorithms. The procedure is often as follows: Two or three human coders and the algorithm classify a significant quantity of data. In the gold standard approach, deviations from the human classifications are considered to be due to mistakes of the algorithm. However, little is known about human classification in eye tracking. To what extent do the classifications from a larger group of human coders agree' Twelve experienced but untrained human coders classified fixations in 6 min of adult and infant eye-tracking data. When using the sample-based Cohen’s kappa, the classifications of the humans agreed near perfectly. However, we found substantial differences between the classifications when we examined fixation duration and number of fixations. We hypothesized that the human coders applied different (implicit) thresholds and selection rules. Indeed, when spatially close fixations were merged, most of the classification differences disappeared. On the basis of the nature of these intercoder differences, we concluded that fixation classification by experienced untrained human coders is not a gold standard. To bridge the gap between agreement measures (e.g., Cohen’s kappa) and eye movement parameters (fixation duration, number of fixations), we suggest the use of the event-based F1 score and two new measures: the relative timing offset (RTO) and the relative timing deviation (RTD).
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.3758/s13428-017-0955-x
  • The Evaluative Lexicon 2.0: The measurement of emotionality, extremity,
           and valence in language
    • Authors: Matthew D. Rocklage; Derek D. Rucker; Loran F. Nordgren
      Abstract: The rapid expansion of the Internet and the availability of vast repositories of natural text provide researchers with the immense opportunity to study human reactions, opinions, and behavior on a massive scale. To help researchers take advantage of this new frontier, the present work introduces and validates the Evaluative Lexicon 2.0 (EL 2.0)—a quantitative linguistic tool that specializes in the measurement of the emotionality of individuals’ evaluations in text. Specifically, the EL 2.0 utilizes natural language to measure the emotionality, extremity, and valence of evaluative reactions and attitudes. The present article describes how we used a combination of 9 million real-world online reviews and over 1,500 participant judges to construct the EL 2.0 and an additional 5.7 million reviews to validate it. To assess its unique value, the EL 2.0 is compared with two other prominent text analysis tools—LIWC and Warriner et al.’s (Behavior Research Methods, 45, 1191–1207, 2013) wordlist. The EL 2.0 is comparatively distinct in its ability to measure emotionality and explains a significantly greater proportion of the variance in individuals’ evaluations. The EL 2.0 can be used with any data that involve speech or writing and provides researchers with the opportunity to capture evaluative reactions both in the laboratory and “in the wild.” The EL 2.0 wordlist and normative emotionality, extremity, and valence ratings are freely available from
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.3758/s13428-017-0975-6
  • A methodological review of meta-analyses of the effectiveness of clinical
           psychology treatments
    • Authors: María Rubio-Aparicio; Fulgencio Marín-Martínez; Julio Sánchez-Meca; José Antonio López-López
      Abstract: This article presents a methodological review of 54 meta-analyses of the effectiveness of clinical psychological treatments, using standardized mean differences as the effect size index. We statistically analyzed the distribution of the number of studies of the meta-analyses, the distribution of the sample sizes in the studies of each meta-analysis, the distribution of the effect sizes in each of the meta-analyses, the distribution of the between-studies variance values, and the Pearson correlations between effect size and sample size in each meta-analysis. The results are presented as a function of the type of standardized mean difference: posttest standardized mean difference, standardized mean change from pretest to posttest, and standardized mean change difference between groups. These findings will help researchers design future Monte Carlo and theoretical studies on the performance of meta-analytic procedures, based on the manipulation of realistic model assumptions and parameters of the meta-analyses. Furthermore, the analysis of the distribution of the mean effect sizes through the meta-analyses provides a specific guide for the interpretation of the clinical significance of the different types of standardized mean differences within the field of the evaluation of clinical psychological interventions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.3758/s13428-017-0973-8
  • Normative ratings for perceptual and motor attributes of 750 object
           concepts in Spanish
    • Authors: Antonio M. Díez-Álamo; Emiliano Díez; María Ángeles Alonso; C. Alejandra Vargas; Angel Fernandez
      Abstract: Subjective ratings of perceptual and motor attributes were obtained for a set of 750 concrete concepts in Spanish by requiring scale-based judgments from a sample of university students (N = 539). Following on the work of Amsel, Urbach, and Kutas (2012), the seven attributes were color, motion, sound, smell, taste, graspability, and pain. Normative data based on the obtained ratings are provided as a tool for future investigations. Additionally, the relationships of these attributes to other lexical dimensions (e.g., familiarity, frequency, concreteness) and the factorial organization of concepts around the main components were analyzed. The pattern of results is consistent with prior findings that highlight the relevance of dimensions related to survival as being crucially involved in conceptual processing.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.3758/s13428-017-0970-y
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