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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 896 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 445)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 218)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 238)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 146)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access  
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Behavioural Processes
  [SJR: 0.654]   [H-I: 57]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0376-6357
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3118 journals]
  • On the presence and absence of suckling order in polytocous mammals
    • Authors: Nikolina Mesarec; Maja Prevolnik Povše; Dejan Škorjanc; Janko Skok
      Pages: 44 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Janko Skok
      Mammals have developed a variety of suckling behaviours ranging from tenacious nipple attachment in some rodents and marsupials to once-a-day suckling in rabbit. However, a common feature of suckling that was found in most mammals is the suckling order, or a partial preference to suckle a particular teat (teat fidelity) or part of the udder (suckling preference). A lack of suckling order is observed only in a few mammals. In this article, the possible background of the presence or absence of suckling order in eutherian polytocous mammals are discussed, either from the maternal investment and sibling competition point of view. Characteristics related to maternal investment in species in which the suckling order has already been studied at least partially, were classified using C4.5 algorithm (J48 classifier in Weka 3.8.1), and decision tree was built. In the context of sibling competition, an extensive form game (game theory) was predicted to show the optimal suckling strategy considering the basic relations among littermates in two situations (littermates of equal strength/dominance and littermates with different strength/dominance). Although no ultimate conclusion can be drawn, it appears that the suckling order is typical for species whose reproductive system requires a lower maternal investment (up to one litter/year, monogamy, biparental care, lower litter birth weight); and, it appears that the suckling order is inherent to the weaker (inferior) siblings.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T20:46:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2017.05.018
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2018)
       
  • Learning profitable habitat types by juvenile crayfish
    • Authors: Taylor M. Johnson; Adam L. Crane
      Pages: 31 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 148
      Author(s): Taylor M. Johnson, Adam L. Crane
      Habitat selection is fundamentally important to animal ecology, and animals that can learn about habitats can increase the probability of avoiding detection by predators or quickly finding food. Here, we tested whether juveniles of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, can learn preference for habitat types based on experience with food availability. Crayfish were housed in arenas with two habitat types, half leaf habitat and half rock habitat. Over several days, crayfish were fed consistently in one of the habitat types. Initial tests revealed that crayfish had an innate preference for the leaf habitat, but conditioning over 2–3 weeks was sufficient to shift this preference to the rock habitat based on habitat cues rather than other spatial cues in their environment. The ability to learn the relevance of habitat features may be an important trait for the colonization success, and subsequent impact, of introduced species.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T01:23:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 148 (2018)
       
  • Comparing the antipredator behaviour of two sympatric, but not syntopic,
           Liolaemus lizards
    • Authors: Javiera Constanzo-Chávez; Mario Penna; Antonieta Labra
      Pages: 34 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 148
      Author(s): Javiera Constanzo-Chávez, Mario Penna, Antonieta Labra
      The microhabitat preferences of prey animals can modulate how they perceive predation risk, and therefore, their antipredator behaviour. We tested under standardized conditions how microhabitat preferences of two Liolaemus lizards affected their responses when confronted with two types of ambush predators (raptor vs. snake), under two levels of predation risk (low vs. high). These lizard species are sympatric, but not syntopic; L. chiliensis basks on bushes, a complex microhabitat that may provide protection against visual predators, while L. nitidus prefers open microhabitats, basking on the top of large bare rocks, highly exposed to visual predators. If microhabitat complexity modulates the antipredator response, L. chiliensis may perceive lower predation risk, exhibiting lower intensity of antipredator responses than L. nitidus. Both species reduced their activity after being exposed to both predators, but lizards differed in the assessment of predation risk; L. nitidus reduced its activity independently of the predation risk experienced, while L. chiliensis only reduced its activity in the high-risk condition. The microhabitat preferences shaped during the evolution of these species seem to modulate their perception of predation risk, which may cause interspecific differences in the associated costs of their antipredator responses.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T01:23:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 148 (2018)
       
  • The influence of periodic increases of human activity on crepuscular and
           nocturnal mammals: Testing the weekend effect
    • Authors: Joshua H. Nix; Ryan G. Howell; Lucas K. Hall; Brock R. McMillan
      Pages: 16 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 146
      Author(s): Joshua H. Nix, Ryan G. Howell, Lucas K. Hall, Brock R. McMillan
      Human recreation can negatively affect wildlife, particularly on weekends when human activity is highest (i.e., the weekend effect). Much of what we understand about the weekend effect is based on research conducted on diurnal species, which have greater temporal overlap with humans. Because nocturnal species generally avoid times when humans are active, they are likely less affected by anthropogenic activity on weekends. Our objective was to test the weekend effect in relation to the degree of nocturnality of mammals in a recreational area. We predicted that as nocturnality increased, the effect of human activity would decrease. To address our objective, we placed 50 remote cameras along the Diamond Fork River in Utah from January to June 2015. We found that three out of the four focal species supported our predictions. Mule deer (crepuscular) reduced activity throughout our entire study area during weekends and avoided campgrounds. Beavers and mountain lions (both nocturnal) did not negatively respond to increased human activity. Raccoons (nocturnal) reduced activity during weekends, but only within campground areas. Our findings indicate that as the temporal overlap increases between wildlife and humans, so does the influence that humans have on wildlife.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T20:46:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 146 (2018)
       
  • Mouth-licking by dogs as a response to emotional stimuli
    • Authors: Natalia Albuquerque; Kun Guo; Anna Wilkinson; Briseida Resende; Daniel S. Mills
      Pages: 42 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 146
      Author(s): Natalia Albuquerque, Kun Guo, Anna Wilkinson, Briseida Resende, Daniel S. Mills
      Dogs are able to perceptually discriminate emotional displays of conspecifics and heterospecifics and possess the cognitive prototypes for emotional categorisation, however, it remains unclear whether dogs can respond appropriately to this information. One way to assess associations between specific behaviours and the perception of emotionally competent stimuli is to look at other reliable measures that are related to cognitive and physiological processing. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm (Albuquerque et al., 2016), we presented dogs with pairs of facial expressions (positive and negative) combined with an emotionally charged vocalisation (positive or negative) or a control sound (neutral) and coded their mouth-licking behaviour. We found an effect of the valence of the face image dogs were seeing on the onset of the mouth-licking, with higher frequencies of this behaviour in response to the negative faces compared to images with positive valence. However, neither the sound being played nor the interaction between image valence and sound affected the behaviour. We also found an effect of species with mouth-licking occurring more often towards human stimuli. This spontaneous differential behavioural response, combined with previous evidence of cognitive emotional processing in these animals, suggests that dogs may have a functional understanding of emotional expressions.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T20:46:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 146 (2018)
       
  • The flight of the locus of selection: Some intricate relationships between
           evolutionary elements
    • Authors: April M. Becker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): April M. Becker
      Selection has enriched our understanding of the world since it was first applied to the evolution of species. Selection stands as an alternative to essentialist thinking, as a generalized and multiply applicable concept, and as a causal explanation for current forms within biology and behavior. Attempts to describe selection processes in a generalizable way have provided clarity about their minimal elements, such as replicators and interactors. This paper discusses the interconnectedness among different levels of selection using evidence garnered from evolutionary biology, development, epigenetics, neuroscience, and behavior analysis. Currently, it appears that replicators and interactors may be more fluid than previously supposed and that selection for particular traits may rely on both multiple levels of interaction and multiple levels of replication. Replicators, interactors, and environment share influence on one another, and different replicators may exchange critical control over similar interactor variation as evolution proceeds. Our current understanding of selection continues to undergo revision, and reference to a number of disparate fields can help to account for the complexity of these processes. An understanding of their interconnectedness may help resolve some mysteries that develop in fields that exclusively focus on one or a few, such as the focused study of behavior.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T01:23:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.01.002
       
  • Grouping promotes risk-taking in unfamiliar settings
    • Authors: Kyriacos Kareklas; Robert W. Elwood; Richard A. Holland
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Kyriacos Kareklas, Robert W. Elwood, Richard A. Holland
      Acting collectively in a group provides risk-reducing benefits. Yet individuals differ in how they take risks, with some being more willing than others to approach dangerous or unfamiliar settings. Therefore, individuals may need to adjust their behaviour when in groups, either as a result of perceiving greater safety or to coordinate collective responses, the latter of which may rely on within-group dynamics biased by group composition. In zebrafish we explored how these aspects of grouping affect risk-taking behaviour by comparing solitary to group conditions and testing the ability of group-member solitary responses to predict collective responses. We focused on approach-latency towards a novel object and an unusual food to test this, for shoals of five fish. There was no indication that collective latencies are predicted by how each fish responded when alone in terms of the extremes, the variance or the mean of group-member latency towards the unusual food and the novel-object. However, fish were overall faster and less variable in their approach when shoaling. This indicates lower risk aversion by individuals in groups, presumably as a result of group safety. An interesting consequence of the overall low risk-aversion in shoals is that more risk-aversive fish adjust their behaviour more than less risk averse fish.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T01:23:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.01.003
       
  • Evaluation of the confusion matrix method in the validation of an
           automated system for measuring feeding behaviour of cattle
    • Authors: Ruuska Salla; Hämäläinen Wilhelmiina; Kajava Sari; Mughal Mikaela; Matilainen Pekka; Mononen Jaakko
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Ruuska Salla, Hämäläinen Wilhelmiina, Kajava Sari, Mughal Mikaela, Matilainen Pekka, Mononen Jaakko
      The aim of the present study was to evaluate empirically confusion matrices in device validation. We compared the confusion matrix method to linear regression and error indices in the validation of a device measuring feeding behaviour of dairy cattle. In addition, we studied how to extract additional information on classification errors with confusion probabilities. The data consisted of 12 h behaviour measurements from five dairy cows; feeding and other behaviour were detected simultaneously with a device and from video recordings. The resulting 216 000 pairs of classifications were used to construct confusion matrices and calculate performance measures. In addition, hourly durations of each behaviour were calculated and the accuracy of measurements was evaluated with linear regression and error indices. All three validation methods agreed when the behaviour was detected very accurately or inaccurately. Otherwise, in the intermediate cases, the confusion matrix method and error indices produced relatively concordant results, but the linear regression method often disagreed with them. Our study supports the use of confusion matrix analysis in validation since it is robust to any data distribution and type of relationship, it makes a stringent evaluation of validity, and it offers extra information on the type and sources of errors.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T01:23:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.01.004
       
  • The non-Darwinian evolution of behavers and behaviors
    • Authors: Peter R. Killeen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Peter R. Killeen
      Many readers of this journal have been schooled in both Darwinian evolution and Skinnerian psychology, which have in common the vision of powerful control of their subjects by their sequalae. Individuals of species that generate more successful offspring come to dominate their habitat; responses of those individuals that generate more reinforcers come to dominate the repertoire of the individual in that context. This is unarguable. What is questionable is how large a role these forces of selection play in the larger landscape of existing organisms and the repertoires of their individuals. Here it is argued that non-Darwinian and non-Skinnerian selection play much larger roles in both than the reader may appreciate. The argument is based on the history of, and recent advances in, microbiology. Lessons from that history re-illuminate the three putative domains of selection by consequences: The evolution of species, response repertoires, and cultures. It is argued that before, beneath, and after the cosmically brief but crucial epoch of Darwinian evolution that shaped creatures such as ourselves, non-Darwinian forces pervade all three domains.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T20:46:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.024
       
  • Developing a Novel Preparation to Analyze the Onset of Derived Stimulus
           Relations
    • Authors: Adam H. Doughty; Casey M. Irwin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Adam H. Doughty, Casey M. Irwin
      The experimental analysis of derived stimulus relations is a critical research area. A training-then-testing preparation nearly always is used to study derived relations. In the training phase, participants learn the relevant baseline discriminations via differential consequences (e.g., AB and AC relations). In the testing phase, they are presented with probe trials in the absence of differential consequences (e.g., BA and CA symmetry trials and BC and CB equivalence trials). High accuracy levels sometimes are observed from the start of testing such that it is unclear whether the participants learned these relations before testing. The present experiment reports data from a novel preparation that monitors the development of derived relations as trained relations are acquired. Three college students were presented with both training trials (AB, AC) and testing trials (BA, CA, BC, CB) in every session from the start of experimentation. Each participant learned each of the six discriminations by the end of experimentation. Most importantly, they learned the trained and symmetrical relations in close temporal proximity and the equivalence relations only after learning the symmetrical relations. These results are consistent with several findings demonstrating disparities between learning different forms of derived relational responding. The results validate the utility of the present preparation in the experimental analysis of derived relational learning.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T20:46:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.013
       
  • Sex and size matters: selection on personality in natural prey-predator
           interactions
    • Authors: Maria Yli-Renko; Jenni E. Pettay; Outi Vesakoski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Maria Yli-Renko, Jenni E. Pettay, Outi Vesakoski
      Optimal life-history strategies are currently considered to be a major driving force for the maintenance of animal personalities. In this experimental study we tested whether naturally occurring predation causes personality-dependent mortality of a marine isopod (Idotea balthica), which could maintain personality variation in nature. Moreover, as isopods are known to have sex-differences in behaviour, we were interested in whether personality-dependent predation was sex-specific. We also hypothesised that predation pressure among personality types could vary according to habitat type, as it has been shown in correlative studies that habitat may influence to personality variation. We used natural predator (European perch Perca fluviatilis) of I. balthica and studied relative mortality of males and females with a different personality types in laboratory settings with two different habitats. We found that male survival was lower than in females for high active individuals. Moreover, predation pressure contributes differently to survival in females and males and this was linked to body size. Larger size was advantageous for low-active males and middle- and high-active females. Conversely, smaller size was advantageous for low-active females and middle-active males. Size did not affect survival in high-active males. Our results suggest that predation can encourage life-history differences between sexes, which leads to different optimal life-history strategies for both sexes and also maintains consistent activity for both sexes.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T20:46:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.023
       
  • Mother doesn't always know best: Maternal wormlion choice of oviposition
           habitat does not match larval habitat choice
    • Authors: Shay Adar; Roi Dor
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 147
      Author(s): Shay Adar, Roi Dor
      Habitat choice is an important decision that influences animals' fitness. Insect larvae are less mobile than the adults. Consequently, the contribution of the maternal choice of habitat to the survival and development of the offspring is considered to be crucial. According to the “preference-performance hypothesis”, ovipositing females are expected to choose habitats that will maximize the performance of their offspring. We tested this hypothesis in wormlions (Diptera: Vermileonidae), which are small sand-dwelling insects that dig pit-traps in sandy patches and ambush small arthropods. Larvae prefer relatively deep and obstacle-free sand, and here we tested the habitat preference of the ovipositing female. In contrast to our expectation, ovipositing females showed no clear preference for either a deep sand or obstacle-free habitat, in contrast to the larval choice. This suboptimal female choice led to smaller pits being constructed later by the larvae, which may reduce prey capture success of the larvae. We offer several explanations for this apparently suboptimal female behavior, related either to maximizing maternal rather than offspring fitness, or to constraints on the female’s behavior. Female's ovipositing habitat choice may have weaker negative consequences than expected for the offspring, as larvae can partially correct suboptimal maternal choice.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T08:07:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 147 (2017)
       
  • The selective cleaning behaviour of juvenile blue-headed wrasse
           (Thalassoma bifasciatum) in the Caribbean
    • Authors: Katie Dunkley; Jo Cable; Sarah E. Perkins
      Pages: 5 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 147
      Author(s): Katie Dunkley, Jo Cable, Sarah E. Perkins
      Through the removal of parasites, dead skin and mucus from the bodies of visiting reef fish (clients), cleaner fish have a significant ecosystem function in the ecology of coral reefs. Cleaners gain nutrition from these interactions and through offering a ‘service’ are afforded protection from predators. Given these benefits, it is unclear why more fish do not engage in cleaning, and why part-time cleaning strategies exist. On coral reefs, dedicated species clean throughout their life, whereas some species are facultative, employing opportunistic and/or temporary cleaning strategies. Here, we investigate the cleaning behaviour of a facultative species to assess the relative importance of this interaction to the cleaner. Using a combination of focal and event sampling from a coral reef in Tobago, we show that cleaning is not an essential food source for facultative juvenile blue-headed wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum), as cleaning rate was unrelated to their foraging rate on the substrate. These wrasse displayed two cleaning strategies: stationary versus wandering cleaning, with cleaning frequency being highest for stationary cleaners. A specific cleaning location facilitated increased cleaning frequency, and wrasse cleaning rate decreased as cleaner or client abundance increased. We also compared juvenile blue-headed wrasse cleaning behaviour to a resident dedicated cleaner, the sharknose goby (Elacatinus evelynae), and showed that, in comparison, juvenile wrasse clean a narrower client range, predominately cleaning three species of gregarious free-ranging surgeonfish (Acanthurus spp.). The wrasse, however, frequently approached these clients without cleaning, which suggests that their selective cleaning strategy may be driven by the acquisition of a particular parasitic food source. Juvenile blue-headed wrasse are generalist foragers, and may thus be limited in their cleaning behaviour by their nutritional requirements, the availability of a suitable cleaning site, and fish density, which ultimately means that they do not adopt more dedicated cleaning roles within the reef community.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T14:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 147 (2017)
       
  • Brain size does not impact shoaling dynamics in unfamiliar groups of
           guppies (Poecilia reticulata)
    • Authors: Alexander Kotrschal; Alexander Szorkovszky; Maksym Romenskyy; Andrea Perna; Severine D. Buechel; Hong-Li Zeng; Kristiaan Pelckmans; David Sumpter; Niclas Kolm
      Pages: 13 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 147
      Author(s): Alexander Kotrschal, Alexander Szorkovszky, Maksym Romenskyy, Andrea Perna, Severine D. Buechel, Hong-Li Zeng, Kristiaan Pelckmans, David Sumpter, Niclas Kolm
      Collective movement is achieved when individuals adopt local rules to interact with their neighbours. How the brain processes information about neighbours’ positions and movements may affect how individuals interact in groups. As brain size can determine such information processing it should impact collective animal movement. Here we investigate whether brain size affects the structure and organisation of newly forming fish shoals by quantifying the collective movement of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from large- and small-brained selection lines, with known differences in learning and memory. We used automated tracking software to determine shoaling behaviour of single-sex groups of eight or two fish and found no evidence that brain size affected the speed, group size, or spatial and directional organisation of fish shoals. Our results suggest that brain size does not play an important role in how fish interact with each other in these types of moving groups of unfamiliar individuals. Based on these results, we propose that shoal dynamics are likely to be governed by relatively basic cognitive processes that do not differ in these brain size selected lines of guppies.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T14:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 147 (2017)
       
  • Risk perception of vervet monkeys Chlorocebus pygerythrus to humans in
           urban and rural environments
    • Authors: Peter Mikula; Gabriel Šaffa; Emma Nelson; Piotr Tryjanowski
      Pages: 21 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 147
      Author(s): Peter Mikula, Gabriel Šaffa, Emma Nelson, Piotr Tryjanowski
      Like other animals, primates respond to predation using behavioural adaptations. Hence, they should optimise their escape strategy under the risk of predation, and flee at a distance, referred to as flight initiation distance (FID), when the fitness-related benefits of staying are balanced against the costs of escape. However, there is an absence of FID studies in primates. In this study, we used vervet monkeys Chlorocebus pygerythrus, a medium-sized African cercopithecoid, as a model species to investigate the influence of environment type (urban and rural), group size (defined as the number of visible neighbours), sex and age on FID when approached by a human. We found significantly shorter FID among urban than rural monkeys; urban individuals delayed their escape compared to rural individuals. We found no relationship between FID and sex and age class, but FID was positively correlated with group size in both settings; urban monkeys live in smaller groups than monkeys in rural areas. As FID and group size are important predictors of predation risk perception in primates, results suggest that, despite probable effects of habituation, vervet monkeys in Uganda adjust their antipredator behaviour when coping with novel environments within human settlements. Our findings are consistent with some previous studies of risk perception in animals, and indicate that FID could be used as an alternative measure for predation risk in primates.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T14:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.011
      Issue No: Vol. 147 (2017)
       
  • Multiple trial inhibitory avoidance acquisition and retrieval are
           resistant to chronic stress
    • Authors: J. Raya; C.E.N. Girardi; L.A. Esumi; L.B.T. Ferreira; D.C. Hipólide
      Pages: 28 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 147
      Author(s): J. Raya, C.E.N. Girardi, L.A. Esumi, L.B.T. Ferreira, D.C. Hipólide
      Chronic mild stress (CMS) is a widely accepted animal model relevant to depression that among other consequences, is chiefly known to induce anhedonia, often assessed as decreased preference for sucrose solution. CMS is also known to affect cognition, particularly memory tasks. In this study we have employed the multiple-trial inhibitory avoidance memory task (MTIA) to assess CMS effects on memory acquisition and retrieval. MTIA consists of repeated exposures to the unconditioned stimulus until a learning criterion is reached. Wistar rats underwent CMS for 5 weeks, and sucrose consumption was assessed once a week. At the end of CMS, animals were evaluated in the MTIA task. Overall decreased sucrose solution preference was highly variable. Further analyses showed that a subset of animals expressed resilience while another subset was sensitive to stress. CMS did not affect the number of acquisition sessions before reaching criterion or retrieval latency of MTIA task in neither sensitive nor resilient groups. Although tasks that assess learning ability in animal models relevant to depression indicate cognitive deficits, the ability to learn the association between compartment crossing and the aversive electric foot shock, which is strongly dependent on emotional aspects, was intact.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T14:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 147 (2017)
       
  • Changes in the time of day of conditioning with respect to the
           pre-exposure interfere with the latent inhibition of conditioned taste
           aversion in rats
    • Authors: Andrés Molero-Chamizo
      Pages: 22 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 146
      Author(s): Andrés Molero-Chamizo
      In rats, the reduction of the magnitude of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) that occurs after taste pre-exposures (that is, the latent inhibition of CTA) can be attenuated by contextual changes of the external cues in the conditioning stage. Similarly, circadian internal cues such as those induced by the time of day may also modulate the magnitude of the taste aversion. Under a long period of temporal-contextual habituation, the latent inhibition of CTA is reduced if the pre-exposure and conditioning stages occur at different times of day. However, it is unknown if this effect is consistent when different changes in the time of day of conditioning with respect to the pre-exposure are compared. In this study, the effect of two different changes in the time of day of conditioning (one from morning to evening, and one from evening to morning) on the latent inhibition of CTA was compared with the response of a typical latent inhibition group without temporal change between stages, and with control groups without pre-exposures. The results indicate that the latent inhibition of CTA of both groups with temporal change between pre-exposure and conditioning is significantly reduced when compared with the latent inhibition of the group without temporal change. These findings suggest that the temporal context may be a critical cue for the latent inhibition of CTA, and they show that different changes in the time of day of conditioning interfere similarly with this learning.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T22:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 146 (2017)
       
  • Changes in turn alternation pattern in response to substrate-borne
           vibrations in terrestrial isopods
    • Authors: Sofia Cividini; Giuseppe Montesanto
      Pages: 27 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 146
      Author(s): Sofia Cividini, Giuseppe Montesanto
      The present study focuses on the relationship existing between the phenomenon of turn alternation and substrate-borne vibrations in woodlice. Armadillo officinalis was utilized as a behavioral model in comparison to Armadillidium vulgare so as to assess its capability of perceiving external vibrations too. A T-maze with multiple exits was used to collect information on the pattern of turn alternation in i) adult individuals of A. officinalis exposed, and ii) not exposed to micro-vibrations, and iii) adult individuals of A. vulgare exposed to micro-vibrations. Turn alternation was assessed as the number of times that an animal turned on the opposite side in the T-maze. Our results showed a statistically significant association between turn alternation pattern and both exposure to micro-vibrations and species of the animals. According to our best-fitting model, A. officinalis not exposed and A. vulgare exposed to substrate-borne vibrations have 97% and 98% lower odds, respectively of being in a higher category of turn alternations compared to a lower category than exposed individuals of A. officinalis. A. officinalis seems to be very reactive to substrate-borne vibrations, unlike A. vulgare. This different reactivity might be related to a more complex defense mechanism developed as an evolutionary adaptation to the xeric environment, and/or to a means of communication mediated by substrate-borne vibrations, like in insects.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T22:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 146 (2017)
       
  • Examining object recognition and object-in-Place memory in plateau zokors,
           Eospalax baileyi
    • Authors: Ibrahim M. Hegab; Yuchen Tan; Chan Wang; Baohui Yao; Haifang Wang; Weihong Ji; Junhu Su
      Pages: 34 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 146
      Author(s): Ibrahim M. Hegab, Yuchen Tan, Chan Wang, Baohui Yao, Haifang Wang, Weihong Ji, Junhu Su
      Recognition memory is important for the survival and fitness of subterranean rodents due to the barren underground conditions that require avoiding the burden of higher energy costs or possible conflict with conspecifics. Our study aims to examine the object and object/place recognition memories in plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi) and test whether their underground life exerts sex-specific differences in memory functions using Novel Object Recognition (NOR) and Object-in-Place (OiP) paradigms. Animals were tested in the NOR with short (10min) and long-term (24h) inter-trial intervals (ITI) and in the OiP for a 30-min ITI between the familiarization and testing sessions. Plateau zokors showed a strong preference for novel objects manifested by a longer exploration time for the novel object after 10min ITI but failed to remember the familiar object when tested after 24h, suggesting a lack of long-term memory. In the OiP test, zokors effectively formed an association between the objects and the place where they were formerly encountered, resulting in a higher duration of exploration to the switched objects. However, both sexes showed equivalent results in exploration time during the NOR and OiP tests, which eliminates the possibility of discovering sex-specific variations in memory performance. Taken together, our study illustrates robust novelty preference and an effective short-term recognition memory without marked sex-specific differences, which might elucidate the dynamics of recognition memory formation and retrieval in plateau zokors.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T22:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 146 (2017)
       
  • The effects of exercise and calm interactions on in-kennel behavior of
           shelter dogs
    • Authors: Alexandra Protopopova; Hagar Hauser; Kissel J. Goldman; Clive D.L. Wynne
      Pages: 54 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 146
      Author(s): Alexandra Protopopova, Hagar Hauser, Kissel J. Goldman, Clive D.L. Wynne
      Over-activity, or excessive locomotion and barking in the kennel, may be unattractive to adopters and an indicator of poor welfare of kenneled dogs. The study assessed the efficacy of two common enrichment strategies, providing calm interaction and additional exercise, on in-kennel behavior in 16 shelter dogs. Both interventions resulted in appropriate behavior just prior to the sessions (t=2.10, df=7, p=0.03 and F [2216]=7.58, p=0.0007, respectively), but both also resulted in an increase of some undesirable behaviors immediately after the dogs were taken back to their kennels (F [3216]=7.77, p=0.0001 and F (5216)=10.1, p<0.0001 respectively). Right after receiving additional exercise, the dogs spent more time in back and forth motion in the kennel. Right after receiving the calm interaction, the dogs spent less time in the front of the kennel, less time facing forward, and more time engaging in back and forth motion. However, dogs also spent less time barking and jumping on the kennel door right after the calm interaction. The results suggest that both interventions may be useful, but shelter administrators and volunteers must take all of the behavioral changes into account when administering these interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-12-01T07:57:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.11.013
      Issue No: Vol. 146 (2017)
       
  • A conditioned reinforcer did not help to maintain an operant conditioning
           in the absence of a primary reinforcer in horses
    • Authors: Léa Lansade; Ludovic Calandreau
      Pages: 61 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 146
      Author(s): Léa Lansade, Ludovic Calandreau
      The use of conditioned reinforcers is increasingly promoted in animal training. Surprisingly, the efficiency of their use remains to be demonstrated in horses. This study aimed to determine whether an auditory signal which had previously been associated with a food reward 288 times could be used as a conditioned reinforcer to replace the primary reinforcer in an unrelated operant conditioning procedure. Fourteen horses were divided into two groups of 7: No Reinforcement (NR) and Conditioned Reinforcement (CR). All horses underwent nine sessions of Pavlovian conditioning during which the word “good” was associated with food (32 associations/session). The horses then followed five sessions of operant conditioning (30 trials/session) during which they had to touch a cone signaled by an experimenter to receive a food reward. The last day, horses underwent one test session of the operant response: no reward was given, but the word “good” was said each time a CR horse touched the cone. Nothing was said in the NR group. CR horses did not achieve more correct trials than NR horses during the test. These findings again show that the conditioned reinforcement was ineffective when used instead of the primary reinforcement to maintain conditioning.

      PubDate: 2017-12-01T07:57:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.11.012
      Issue No: Vol. 146 (2017)
       
  • Increased latencies to respond in a judgment bias test are not associated
           with pessimistic biases in rats
    • Authors: Timothy Hugh Barker; Gordon Stanley Howarth; Alexandra Louise Whittaker
      Pages: 64 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 146
      Author(s): Timothy Hugh Barker, Gordon Stanley Howarth, Alexandra Louise Whittaker
      Extinction of learning is a common, yet under-reported limitation of judgment bias testing methods Repeated exposure to the ambiguous probe of a judgment bias paradigm encourages the animal to cease display of the required behaviours. However, there remains a need to repeatedly test animals to achieve statistical power. A delicate balance therefore needs to be struck between over- and under-exposure of the animals to the test conditions. This study presents the data of rats, a common animal subject of judgment bias testing. Rats were exposed to the ambiguous probe of a common, active-choice judgment bias test for 11 consecutive days. There was a significant increase in the latency to respond to the ambiguous probe following day 8, with no significant increase experienced for either the positive or less-positive probes. Following day 8 there was a significant increase in both optimistic and pessimistic latencies in response to the ambiguous probe. Therefore, repeated exposure to the ambiguous probe caused an increased latency in response even though optimistic interpretations were recorded. This implies that the use of response latency alone as a measure in judgment bias testing can falsely identify pessimism. Researchers should modify experimental design to include both choice and latency measures.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T08:07:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.11.016
      Issue No: Vol. 146 (2017)
       
  • A test of the reward-contrast hypothesis
    • Authors: Stefan J. Dalecki; Danielle E. Panoz-Brown; Jonathon D. Crystal
      Pages: 15 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 145
      Author(s): Stefan J. Dalecki, Danielle E. Panoz-Brown, Jonathon D. Crystal
      Source memory, a facet of episodic memory, is the memory of the origin of information. Whereas source memory in rats is sustained for at least a week, spatial memory degraded after approximately a day. Different forgetting functions may suggest that two memory systems (source memory and spatial memory) are dissociated. However, in previous work, the two tasks used baiting conditions consisting of chocolate and chow flavors; notably, the source memory task used the relatively better flavor. Thus, according to the reward-contrast hypothesis, when chocolate and chow were presented within the same context (i.e., within a single radial maze trial), the chocolate location was more memorable than the chow location because of contrast. We tested the reward-contrast hypothesis using baiting configurations designed to produce reward-contrast. The reward-contrast hypothesis predicts that under these conditions, spatial memory will survive a 24-h retention interval. We documented elimination of spatial memory performance after a 24-h retention interval using a reward-contrast baiting pattern. These data suggest that reward contrast does not explain our earlier findings that source memory survives unusually long retention intervals.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T22:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.018
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2017)
       
  • A duetting perspective on avian song learning
    • Authors: Karla D. Rivera-Cáceres; Christopher N. Templetron
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Karla D. Rivera-Cáceres, Christopher N. Templetron
      Avian song learning has a rich history of study and has become the preeminent system for understanding the ontogeny of vocal communication in animals. Song learning in birds has many parallels with human language learning, ranging from the neural mechanisms involved to the importance of social factors in shaping signal acquisition. While much has been learned about the process of song learning, virtually all of the research done to date has focused on temperate species, where often only one sex (the male) sings. Duetting species, in which both males and females learn to sing and learn to combine their songs into temporally coordinated joint displays, could provide many insights into the processes by which vocal learning takes place. Here we highlight three key features of song learning—neuroendocrine control mechanisms, timing and life history stages of song acquisition, and the role of social factors in song selection and use—that have been elucidated from species where only males sing, and compare these with duetting species. We summarize what is known about song learning in duetting species and then provide several suggestions for fruitful directions for future research. We suggest that focusing research efforts on duetting species could significantly advance our understanding of vocal learning in birds and further cement the importance of avian species as models for understanding human conversations and the processes of vocal learning more broadly.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T14:49:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.007
       
  • Seven myths of memory
    • Authors: Nicola S. Clayton; Clive Wilkins
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Nicola S. Clayton, Clive Wilkins
      In this paper we highlight seven myths about memory, which centre around the fact that memories, as we experience them, are not only about the past, they are also prospective. Although episodic memory provides the template for future scenarios, it can be reassessed each time it is recalled, and in part is dependent on the sequence in which events unfold. We explore seven myths about memory, and the relationship between memory and experience. We refer to ‘The Moustachio Quartet’, a series of novels, which highlight themes and ideas relevant to our argument, and ‘The Creatures in the Night’, a picture book of paintings that explore the passage of time. We integrate evidence from science and the arts to explore the subjective nature of memory and mental time travel, arguing that our capacity to juggle multiple perspectives evolved for the act of prospection, as an aid to move time forward to the advantage of our species by imagining future scenarios.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T14:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.018
       
  • The Development and Evolution of a Computerized Testing System for
           Primates: Cognition, Welfare, and the Rumbaughx
    • Authors: Bonnie M. Perdue; Michael J. Beran; David A. Washburn
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Bonnie M. Perdue, Michael J. Beran, David A. Washburn
      Innovations in apparatus technology come about for a variety of reasons such as the need to use the same methodology with various species, the opportunity to present dynamic and carefully controlled stimuli, the goal of using automation to make data collection more precise or efficient, and the need to control for and/or eliminate the presence of experimenters in the testing context. At the Language Research Center (LRC) of Georgia State University, a computer-based system has been developed and used extensively with nonhuman primate species. This system involves the animal working in an enclosure that provides visual access to a computer screen, access to a joystick to control a cursor on the screen, and access to a food dish where pellets are delivered for correct responses. Here we will describe the history and development of this system as well as some considerations that might be applied to expanding this apparatus to a new environment, including the mobility of test stations, equipment needs, training protocols, and the cost and considerations for initial set up of such a system. A variety of computer based programs have been developed for use with this system. These programs have allowed insight into many nonhuman primate cognitive abilities and we highlight some that have been the focus of study at the LRC such as metacognition, numerical cognition, inhibitory processes, prospective memory, attention, and cognitive control. In addition, this cognitive testing apparatus has been shown to create a stimulating and enriching environment for the animals. We advocate that the computerized testing apparatus is useful for advancing our understanding of nonhuman animal cognition and may be uniquely suited to optimizing animal welfare. This area of research is already rapidly expanding in zoos, and we hope to offer some insight from one journey of designing, implementing and adapting a computerized testing paradigm.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T14:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.019
       
  • Selection as a Domain-general Evolutionary Process
    • Authors: Carsta Simon; Dag O. Hessen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Carsta Simon, Dag O. Hessen
      The behavioral phenotype of an organism results from selective processes acting on variation in behavioral traits during ontogeny (during life span) and phylogeny (across generations). Different adaptive processes can be categorized as environment-phenotype feedback loops. In this cross-disciplinary approach, we discuss the interaction of ontogenetic selective processes, traditionally studied by behavior analysts, and phylogenetic selection processes, traditionally studied by biologists. We elaborate upon the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis by addressing the connection between selection as a domain-general process and phenomena such as classical and operant conditioning, imprinting, adjunctive behavior, and gene-culture coevolution. Selection is in this context understood as a dynamic iterative feedback loop producing a phenotype beyond the strict morphotype. The extended phenotype is related to the concept of niche construction in which the behavior of organisms shapes their environment, which again selects the behavior of the organisms in an iterative process. A discussion of interacting environmental factors selecting human food choice both during phylogeny and ontogeny exemplifies the generality of selection processes acting on behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T14:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.020
       
  • Foraging motivation favors the occurrence of Lévy walks
    • Authors: Patrick Anselme; Tobias Otto; Onur Güntürkün
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Patrick Anselme, Tobias Otto, Onur Güntürkün
      Lévy walks are a property of random movements often observed among foraging animals (and humans), and they might confer some advantages for survival in an unpredictable environment, in comparison with Brownian walks. In animals with a nervous system, specific neurotransmitters associated with some psychological states could play a crucial role in controlling the occurrence of Lévy walks. We argue that incentive motivation, a dopamine-dependent process that in vertebrates makes rewards and their predictive conditioned stimuli attractive, has behavioral effects that may favor their occurrence: incentive motivation is higher when food is unpredictable and it strongly underpins foraging activity. An individual-based computer model is used to determine whether changes in incentive motivation can influence the probability that Lévy walks occur among foraging agents. Our results suggest that they are produced more often under an unpredictable than a predictable food access, and more often in strongly rather than weakly motivated foragers exposed to an unpredictable food access. Also, our motivational framework indicates that the occurrence of Lévy walks are correlated with, but not causally linked to, the number of food items consumed and the ability to store fat reserves. We conclude that Lévy walks can confer some advantages for survival in an unpredictable environment, provided that they appear in foragers with a high motivation to seek food.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T14:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.014
       
  • Spatial integration during performance in pigeons
    • Authors: Aaron P. Blaisdell; Julia E. Schroeder; Cynthia D. Fast
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Aaron P. Blaisdell, Julia E. Schroeder, Cynthia D. Fast
      We’ve shown that pigeons can integrate separately acquired spatial maps into a cognitive map. Integration requires an element shared between maps. In two experiments using a spatial-search task in pigeons, we test spatial combination rules when no shared element was present during training. In all three experiments, pigeons first learned individual landmark-target maps. In subsequent tests involving combinations of landmarks, we found evidence that landmarks collaborate in guiding spatial choice at test (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, pigeons were trained on two landmarks with different proximities to the target. On tests on a compound of both landmarks, pigeons showed stronger spatial control by the more proximal landmark, a performance overshadowing effect. Extinction of the proximal landmark shifted spatial control to the non-extinguished distal landmark. This reveals that the performance overshadowing effect was associative in nature, and not due to perceptual or spatial biases. This emphasis on spatial control during performance reflects the emphasis on performance processes that were a major focus in Ralph Miller’s lab.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T14:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.012
       
  • ESCAPING BEHAVIOR IN GOITERED GAZELLE.
    • Authors: D.A. Blank
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): D.A. Blank
      Prey species modify their behaviors in response to predation risks to minimize their vulnerability and enhance their survival. When a predation risk arises, gregarious, open-habitat-dwelling ungulates usually increase their vigilance rate and enlarge their herd sizes, which are the two antipredator responses that are most often investigated. However, other reactive responses, as well as prey risk assessments and escape strategies depending on a predator’s approach behavior, are less explored. In this paper I want to discuss the responses of goitered gazelles and their escape strategies when they encountered humans or vehicles in their natural habitat in Kazakhstan. I found that in most cases adult goitered gazelles, being more experienced and habituated to dangerous situations, usually made a preflight risk assessment and stopped in mid escape for an additional scan of their surroundings. The younger, more reactive individuals behaved this way less often and instead ran immediately instead regardless of threat level. In cases with a more obvious, direct danger, all goitered gazelles, irrespective of age, galloped immediately without stopping, and ran mainly in a sideways direction almost perpendicular to or even across the path of the approaching predator. Goitered gazelles also preferred to run upward to elevated points or toward mountain foothills, where they could get higher than the perceived threat. Furthermore, this study has shown that the goitered gazelles, preferring rough open terrain of lowlands and foothills, combined escape features found in typical antipredator strategies of both open-habitat antelopes (first assessment of danger mainly through sight, then galloping to outrun the predator) and mountain-dwelling ungulates (use of rough terrain as refuge, running to the highest elevation for a better view, and attempting to get higher on the slope than their pursuer). The goitered gazelles, however, did not demonstrate any freezing pattern for concealment, typical for forest-dwelling ungulates.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T14:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.021
       
  • The “olfactory mirror” and other recent attempts to demonstrate
           self-recognition in non-primate species
    • Authors: Gordon G. Gallup
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Gordon G. Gallup
      The recent attempt by Horowitz (2017) to develop an “olfactory mirror” test of self-recognition in domestic dogs raises some important questions about the kind of data that are required to provide definitive evidence for self-recognition in dogs and other species. We conclude that the “olfactory mirror” constitutes a compelling analog to the mark test for mirror self-recognition in primates, but despite claims to the contrary neither dogs, elephants, dolphins, magpies, horses, manta rays, squid, or ants have shown compelling, reproducible evidence for self-recognition in any modality.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T14:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.010
       
  • The neural response of female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to
           conspecific, heterospecific, and isolate song depends on early-life song
           exposure
    • Authors: Adriana Diez; Alice Cui; Scott A. MacDougall-Shackleton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Adriana Diez, Alice Cui, Scott A. MacDougall-Shackleton
      The auditory forebrain regions caudo-medial nidopallium (NCM) and caudo-medial mesopallium (CMM) of songbirds exhibit differential expression of the immediate-early gene ZENK in response to playback of different song stimuli, and dependent on early-life auditory experience. Similarly, song preferences depend both on auditory experience and unlearned biases for particular song features. We explored the contributions of early-life auditory experience and the type of song stimuli on the Zenk response in the auditory forebrain of female zebra finches. Females were raised in three different early tutoring conditions: conspecific tutors that sang isolate song, heterospecific tutors, or conspecific tutors that sang wild-type song. At maturity, these females were exposed to one of five different playback conditions: wild-type song, isolate song, tutor song, heterospecific song, or white noise. Subsequently, the number of cells immunoreactive for ZENK in CMM and NCM was measured. We predicted that birds exposed to conspecific song early in life, and during the song playback in adulthood, would have the highest neural response. Instead, we found that the Zenk response varied across playback conditions with the highest response to conspecific wild-type and conspecific isolate song. In addition, we found a main effect of tutoring, with the lowest overall Zenk response in females tutored by males singing isolate song. Most importantly, there was a significant interaction in that females tutored by wild-type conspecific or heterospecific songs showed a similar increased response to zebra finch songs (wild-type or isolate), but females tutored by isolate song showed no differential response to conspecific song and only showed elevated Zenk response to the particular songs they were tutored with. Combined, our results indicate that unlearned response biases to conspecific song elements depend on previous auditory experience. That is, early experience appears to modulate the expression of innate biases.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T14:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.022
       
  • Sources of Maladaptive Behavior in ‘Normal’ Organisms
    • Authors: Ralph R. Miller; Cody W. Polack
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Ralph R. Miller, Cody W. Polack
      A basic assumption of most researchers is that behavior is generally functional, and indeed, in most instances the function is obvious. But in a number of cases, some behaviors of neurophysiologically ‘normal’ organisms appear to be maladaptive. Considerable research has been conducted to understand the basis of such behavior as well as how the frequency of such behavior can be reduced. Here we provide a brief panoramic review of the major sources of maladaptive behavior in neurophysiologically ‘normal’ organisms: a) altered environmental contingencies relative to those faced by ancestral generations in their environment of evolutionary adaptation, b) altered environmental contingencies within the lifespan of the animal, c) linked behaviors in which the dysfunctional behavior is a linked companion of a more valuable beneficial trait, and d) the labeling of some behaviors as ‘maladaptive’ when more careful examination finds that they provide net benefit. Most of our attention is on the consequences of altered contingencies across and within a generation, with altered contingencies within a generation constituting a form of associative interference. The central issue in these two cases can be framed in terms of insufficient or excessive transfer of training resulting in maladaptive behavior. We discuss the functional basis of successful and unsuccessful near transfer (i.e., stimulus and response generalization) and far transfer (including rule learning and abstraction).

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T14:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.017
       
  • Associative versus predictive processes in Pavlovian conditioning
    • Authors: Jérémie Jozefowiez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Jérémie Jozefowiez
      Learning and memory are so obviously related that it is hard to see how the understanding of one could proceed without an understanding of the other. Yet, in psychology, they are studied by two different research communities. The concept of association, which is central both to the field of conditioning and to that of retrieval and forgetting, could be used to bridge the gap between the two concepts. However, the concept is quite different in the fields of learning and memory, a situation for which this article argues that the Rescorla-Wagner model is mainly to blame. By viewing Pavlovian conditioning as the outcome of a predictive process but using the traditional associative language developed in memory studies to describe this process, it has introduced an unnecessary confusion between memory and prediction within the field of learning. This confusion needs to be acknowledged so that the concepts of associations and predictions can again be differentiated. This would allow for better integration of the fields of learning and memory.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T14:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.016
       
  • Fighting cichlids: dynamic of intrasexual aggression in dyadic agonistic
           encounters
    • Authors: María Florencia Scaia; Leonel Morandini; Cristobal Alejandro Noguera; Martín Roberto Ramallo; Gustavo Manuel Somoza; Matías Pandolfi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): María Florencia Scaia, Leonel Morandini, Cristobal Alejandro Noguera, Martín Roberto Ramallo, Gustavo Manuel Somoza, Matías Pandolfi
      Aggression is an extremely complex behaviour and female aggression is understudied when compared to males. Despite the fact that it has been suggested that conflict among females may be more frequently resolved peacefully, in many species females show high levels of aggression. We used Cichlasoma dimerus to describe dynamics and conflict outcome in intrasexual agonistic encounters. We performed encounters of two sex-matched animals in a neutral arena and we recorded agonistic interactions during one hour. All aggressive and submissive behaviours were described and quantified to perform the ethogram. Encounters followed three phases: pre-contest, contest and post-resolution. Latency, time of resolution and frequency of aggressive displays did not differ between sexes. Relative variations in size between female opponents better explained aggression outcome in each contest, since higher levels of aggression occurred in dyads of more similar fish. However, this was not observed in males, suggesting that probably morphological characteristics could be less relevant in male conflict resolution. Altogether these results suggest that in this ethological context, C. dimerus females are as aggressive as males and that they have similar motivation towards territorial aggression, emphasizing the need of deepening the study of aggression in females and not only in males.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T14:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.015
       
  • Older and wiser' Age differences in foraging and learning by an
           endangered passerine.
    • Authors: Victoria R. Franks; Rose Thorogood
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Victoria R. Franks, Rose Thorogood
      Birds use cues when foraging to help relocate food resources, but natural environments provide many potential cues and choosing which to use may depend on previous experience. Young animals have less experience of their environment compared to adults, so may be slower to learn cues or may need to sample the environment more. Whether age influences cue use and learning has, however, received little experimental testing in wild animals. Here we investigate effects of age in a wild population of hihi (Notiomystis cincta), a threatened New Zealand passerine. We manipulated bird feeders using a novel colour cue to indicate a food reward; once hihi learned its location, we rotated the feeder to determine whether the birds followed the colour or returned to the previous location. Both age groups made fewer errors over trials and learned the location of the food reward, but juveniles continued to sample unrewarding locations more than adults. Following a second rotation, more adults preferred to forage from the hole indicated by the colour cue than juveniles, despite this no longer being rewarding. Overall, juveniles spent longer in the feeder arena to reach the same proportion of foraging time as adults. Combined, these results suggest that juveniles and adults may use an “explore and exploit” foraging strategy differently, and this affects how efficiently they forage. Further work is needed to understand how juveniles may compensate for their inexperience in learning and foraging strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T14:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.009
       
  • Neural Activity Associated with Rhythmicity of Song in Juvenile Male and
           Female Zebra Finches
    • Authors: Jennifer Lampen; J. Devin McAuley; Soo-Eun Chang; Juli Wade
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Jennifer Lampen, J. Devin McAuley, Soo-Eun Chang, Juli Wade
      Rhythm is an important aspect of both human speech and birdsong. Adult zebra finches show increased neural activity following exposure to arrhythmic compared to rhythmic song in regions similar to the mammalian auditory association cortex and amygdala. This pattern may indicate that birds are detecting errors in the arrhythmic song relative to their learned song template or to more general expectations of song structure. Here we exposed juvenile zebra finches to natural conspecific song (rhythmic) or song with altered inter-syllable intervals (arrhythmic) prior to or during template formation, or afterward as males are matching vocal production to a memorized song template (sensorimotor integration). Before template formation, expression of the immediate early gene ZENK was increased in the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) of birds exposed to rhythmic relative to arrhythmic song. During template formation, ZENK expression was increased in the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM) of birds exposed to arrhythmic relative to rhythmic song. These results suggest that the youngest birds may be predisposed to respond to a more natural stimulus, and a template may be required for arrhythmic song to elicit increased neural activity. Compared to data from adults, it also appears that functional development across the brain regions investigated continues to maturity.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T14:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.003
       
  • Is state-dependent valuation more adaptive than simpler rules'
    • Authors: Joseph Y. Halpern; Lior Seeman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Joseph Y. Halpern, Lior Seeman
      McNamara, Trimmer, and Houston (2012) claim to provide an explanation of certain systematic deviations from rational behavior using a mechanism that could arise through natural selection. We provide an arguably much simpler mechanism in terms of computational limitations, that performs better in the environment described by McNamara, Trimmer, and Houston (2012). To argue convincingly that animals’ use of state-dependent valuation is adaptive and is likely to be selected for by natural selection, one must argue that, in some sense, it is a better approach than the simple strategies that we propose.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T14:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.001
       
  • Female Songbirds: The unsung drivers of courtship behavior and its neural
           substrates
    • Authors: Ammon Perkes; David White; Martin Wild; Marc Schmidt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Ammon Perkes, David White, Martin Wild, Marc Schmidt
      Songbirds hold a prominent role in the fields of neurobiology, evolution, and social behavior. Many of these fields have assumed that females lacked the ability to produce song and have therefore treated song as a male-specific behavior. Consequently, much of our understanding regarding the evolution and neural control of song behavior has been driven by these assumptions. Here we review literature from diverse fields to provide a broader perspective of the role of females in vocal communication and courtship. Recent evidence indicates that song evolved in both males and females, and instances of female song are still common. The specialized neural circuit, known as the “song system” which is necessary for singing in males, is also present in females, including those that do not sing, implying broader functions that include evaluating male song and controlling courtship behavior. In addition to having flexible, individualized preferences, females actively shape their social network through their interactions with males, females, and juveniles. We suggest that by developing more accurate hypotheses concerning the role of females, we may better understand the evolution and neural mechanisms of song production and courtship behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T08:07:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.004
       
  • Social management of laboratory rhesus macaques housed in large groups
           using a network approach: A review
    • Authors: Brenda McCowan; Brianne Beisner; Darcy Hannibal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Brenda McCowan, Brianne Beisner, Darcy Hannibal
      Biomedical facilities across the nation and worldwide aim to develop cost-effective methods for the reproductive management of macaque breeding groups, typically by housing macaques in large, multi-male multi-female social groups that provide monkey subjects for research as well as appropriate socialization for their psychological well-being. One of the most difficult problems in managing socially housed macaques is their propensity for deleterious aggression. From a management perspective, deleterious aggression (as opposed to less intense aggression that serves to regulate social relationships) is undoubtedly the most problematic behavior observed in group-housed macaques, which can readily escalate to the degree that it causes social instability, increases serious physical trauma leading to group dissolution, and reduces psychological well-being. Thus for both welfare and other management reasons, aggression among rhesus macaques at primate centers and facilities needs to be addressed with a more proactive approach.Management strategies need to be instituted that maximize social housing while also reducing problematic social aggression due to instability using efficacious methods for detection and prevention in the most cost effective manner. Herein we review a new proactive approach using social network analysis to assess and predict deleterious aggression in macaque groups. We discovered three major pathways leading to instability, such as unusually high rates and severity of trauma and social relocations.These pathways are linked either directly or indirectly to network structure in rhesus macaque societies. We define these pathways according to the key intrinsic and extrinsic variables (e.g., demographic, genetic or social factors) that influence network and behavioral measures of stability (see Fig. 1). They are: (1) presence of natal males, (2) matrilineal genetic fragmentation, and (3) the power structure and conflict policing behavior supported by this power structure. We discuss how these three major pathways leading to greater understanding and predictability of deleterious aggression in macaque social groups.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T08:07:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.11.014
       
  • Social identity and cooperation in cultural evolution
    • Authors: Paul E. Smaldino
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Paul E. Smaldino
      I discuss the function of social identity signaling in facilitating cooperative group formation, and how the nature of that function changes with the structure of social organization. I propose that signals of social identity facilitate assortment for successful coordination in large-scale societies, and that the multidimensional, context-dependent nature of social identity is crucial for successful coordination when individuals have to cooperate in different contexts. Furthermore, the structure of social identity is tied to the structure of society, so that as societies grow larger and more interconnected, the landscape of social identities grows more heterogeneous. This discussion bears directly on the need to articulate the dynamics of emergent, ephemeral groups as a major factor in human cultural evolution.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T08:07:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.11.015
       
  • High-runner mice have reduced incentive salience for a sweet-taste reward
           when housed with wheel access
    • Authors: Zoe Thompson; Erik M. Kolb; Theodore Garland
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Zoe Thompson, Erik M. Kolb, Theodore Garland
      To explore reward substitution in the context of voluntary exercise, female mice from four replicate high-runner (HR) lines (bred for wheel running) and four non-selected control (C) lines were given simultaneous access to wheels and palatable solutions as competing rewards (two doses of saccharin [0.1, 0.2% w/v]; two doses of common artificial sweetener blends containing saccharin [Sweet ‘N Low®: 0.1, 0.2% w/v], aspartame [Equal®: 0.04, 0.08% w/v], or sucralose [Splenda®: 0.08, 0.16% w/v]; or two doses of sucrose [3.5, 10.5% w/v]). Wheel running and fluid consumption were measured daily, with each dose (including plain water) lasting two days and two “washout” days between solutions. In a separate set of mice, the experiment was repeated without wheel access. The artificial sweeteners had no statistical effect on wheel running. However, based on proportional responses, both doses of sucrose significantly elevated wheel running in C but not HR mice. In contrast, the high dose of sucrose suppressed home-cage activity for both linetypes. Both sucrose and the artificial blends generally increased fluid consumption in a dose-dependent manner. When they had access to wheels, HR had a significantly smaller increase in consumption of artificial sweetener blends when compared with C mice, but not when housed without wheels. Overall, these results provide further evidence that the reward system of HR mice has evolved, and specifically suggest that HR mice have a reduced incentive salience for some artificial sweetener blends, likely attributable to the stronger competing reward of wheel running that has evolved in these lines.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T22:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.11.004
       
  • Effects of age on the courtship, copulation, and fecundity of Pardosa
           pseudoannulata (Araneae: Lycosidae)
    • Authors: Xinyi Jiang; Yao Zhao; Qian Yan; Changchun Li; Qinghong Jiang; Yueli Yun; Yu Peng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Xinyi Jiang, Yao Zhao, Qian Yan, Changchun Li, Qinghong Jiang, Yueli Yun, Yu Peng
      According to sexual selection theory, age affects the preference of mate choice, and this preference ultimately influences the fecundity of the female. Pardosa pseudoannulata (Araneae: Lycosidae) is a valued predator in many cropping systems. By determining oviposition rate, egg hatching rate, and also the number and carapace width of the 2nd instar spiderlings of the F1 generation, we explored the effects of age on fecundity of the female spider. There were no significant effects of age on courtship duration, sexual cannibalism rate, mating rate, oviposition rate, egg hatching rate, or the number and carapace width of 2nd instar spiderings of P. pseudoannulata. However, age had a significant effect on courtship latency, courtship intensity, and mating duration of the spider. Courtship latency decreased significantly with an increase in the age of the male, and courtship intensity of the low-age male increased with increasing female age. Increasing age of male and female spiders was associated with significantly prolonged mating duration. The results indicated that low-age male spiders were more inclined to mate with high-age females, and age had no significant effect on sexual cannibalism rate or the fecundity of the female.

      PubDate: 2017-11-04T19:28:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.10.012
       
  • Species differences in urine scent-marking and counter-marking in
           Peromyscus
    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Becker; Frank R. Castelli; Christine N. Yohn; Lindsey Spencer; Catherine A. Marler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Elizabeth A. Becker, Frank R. Castelli, Christine N. Yohn, Lindsey Spencer, Catherine A. Marler
      Species comparisons indicate that scent-marking may differ as a function of mating system and co-housing with the opposite sex (“pairing”). We previously demonstrated that pairing may decrease male solicitation to unfamiliar females in the monogamous Peromyscus californicus but not in the non-monogamous P. leucopus. Whether urine scent-marking of females changes following pairing and whether scent-marking of paired males varies in response to scent-marks of their cagemate versus those of an unfamiliar female has not been examined. Therefore, we tested P. californicus and P. leucopus for within and between species differences in urine scent-marking of: 1) paired and non-paired females in an unscented arena, and 2) paired males in response to their female cagemate’s or an unfamiliar female’s scent-marks (counter-marking). Consistent with previous findings, P. californicus of both sexes deposited more urine scent-marks and covered greater surface area than P. leucopus. In both species, female scent-marking did not differ according to pairing status and male counter-marking did not differ in response to the scent-marks of their female cagemate versus an unfamiliar female. More females of both species and more P. leucopus, but not P. californicus, males scent-marked more around the perimeter than centrally. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-04T19:28:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.10.011
       
  • Bayesian analysis improves experimental studies about temporal patterning
           of aggression in fish.
    • Authors: Eurico Mesquita Noleto-Filho; Ana Carolina Gauy; Maria Grazia Pennino; Eliane Gonçalves de Freitas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Eurico Mesquita Noleto-Filho, Ana Carolina Gauy, Maria Grazia Pennino, Eliane Gonçalves de Freitas
      This study aims to describe a Bayesian Hierarchical Linear Model (HLM) approach for longitudinal designs in fish’s experimental aggressive behavior studies as an alternative to classical methods In particular, we discuss the advantages of Bayesian analysis in dealing with combined variables, non-statistically significant results and required sample size using an experiment of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) species as case study. Groups of 3 individuals were subjected to daily observations recorded for 10minutes during 5 days. The frequencies of attacks, displays and the total attacks (attacks+displays) of each record were modeled using Monte Carlo Markov chains. In addition, a Bayesian HLM was performed for measuring the rate of increase/decrease of the aggressive behavior during the time and to assess the probability of difference among days. Results highlighted that using the combined variable of total attacks could lead to biased conclusions as displays and attacks showed an opposite pattern in the experiment. Moreover, depending of the study, this difference in pattern can happen more clearly or more subtly. Subtle changes cannot be detected when p-values are implemented. On the contrary, Bayesian methods provide a clear description of the changes even when patterns are subtle. Additionally, results showed that the number of replicates (15 or 11) invariant the study conclusions as well that using a small sample size could be more evident within the overlapping days, that includes the social rank stability. Therefore, Bayesian analysis seems to be a richer and an adequate statistical approach for fish’s aggressive behavior longitudinal designs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T16:42:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.017
       
  • Flattening of a Generalization Gradient Following a Retention Interval:
           Evidence for Differential Forgetting of Stimulus Features
    • Authors: Marta Gil; Michelle Symonds; Geoffrey Hall; Isabel de Brugada
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Marta Gil, Michelle Symonds, Geoffrey Hall, Isabel de Brugada
      In two experiments, rats received exposure to a compound consisting of a solution of salt plus a distinctive flavor (A), followed by an injection of furo-doca to induce a salt need. Experiment 1, established that this procedure successfully generated a preference for flavor A in a subsequent choice test between A and water. Experiment 2 used this within-event learning effect to investigate generalization, testing the rats with both A and a novel flavor (B). For different groups the interval between the training phase and the test phase was varied. Subjects tested immediately after training showed a steep generalization gradient (i.e., a strong preference for A, and a weak preference for B). Subjects given a 14-day retention interval showed a flattened gradient, a reduced level of preference for A and an enhanced preference for B. These results are interpreted in terms of changes in stimulus representations over the retention interval that act to reduce the effectiveness of the distinctive features of stimuli (the features that are necessary to ensure discrimination between them).

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T16:42:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.016
       
  • Prior Commitment: Its Effect on Suboptimal Choice in a Gambling-Like Task
    • Authors: Thomas R. Zentall; Danielle M. Andrews; Jacob P. Case
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Thomas R. Zentall, Danielle M. Andrews, Jacob P. Case
      Animals choose suboptimally when provided with cues that signal whether reinforcement is coming or not. For example, pigeons do not prefer an alternative that always provides them with a signal for reinforcement over an alternative that provides them with a signal for reinforcement only half of the time and a signal for the absence of reinforcement the rest of the time. In the present research, we tested the hypothesis that if the results of the choice are delayed, pigeons will choose less suboptimally. We tested this hypothesis by forcing pigeons to wait following their choice, requiring them to complete a fixed-interval 20-s schedule prior to receiving the signals for reinforcement. In Experiment 1, we gave the pigeons a choice between (a) a 50% chance of receiving a signal for reinforcement or a 50% chance of receiving a signal for the absence of reinforcement (b) and a 100% chance of receiving a signal for reinforcement. When the signal for reinforcement was delayed, most of the pigeons chose optimally. When it was not delayed, most of the pigeons chose suboptimally. In Experiment 2, we gave the pigeons a choice between (a) a 25% chance of receiving a signal for reinforcement or a 75% chance of receiving a signal for nonreinforcement and (b) a 100% chance of receiving an unreliable signal for reinforcement (predicting reinforcement 75% of the time). When the signal was not delayed, the pigeons showed a strong tendency to choose suboptimally but they chose suboptimally much less when the signal was delayed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.008
       
 
 
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