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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 927 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 429)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 192)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 238)
Anuario de investigaciones (Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Buenos Aires)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 143)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access  
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling et spiritualité / Counselling and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas : Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)

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Journal Cover Behavioural Processes
  [SJR: 0.654]   [H-I: 57]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0376-6357
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • On the presence and absence of suckling order in polytocous mammals
    • Authors: Nikolina Mesarec; Maja Prevolnik Povše; Dejan Škorjanc; Janko Skok
      Pages: 44 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Janko Skok
      Mammals have developed a variety of suckling behaviours ranging from tenacious nipple attachment in some rodents and marsupials to once-a-day suckling in rabbit. However, a common feature of suckling that was found in most mammals is the suckling order, or a partial preference to suckle a particular teat (teat fidelity) or part of the udder (suckling preference). A lack of suckling order is observed only in a few mammals. In this article, the possible background of the presence or absence of suckling order in eutherian polytocous mammals are discussed, either from the maternal investment and sibling competition point of view. Characteristics related to maternal investment in species in which the suckling order has already been studied at least partially, were classified using C4.5 algorithm (J48 classifier in Weka 3.8.1), and decision tree was built. In the context of sibling competition, an extensive form game (game theory) was predicted to show the optimal suckling strategy considering the basic relations among littermates in two situations (littermates of equal strength/dominance and littermates with different strength/dominance). Although no ultimate conclusion can be drawn, it appears that the suckling order is typical for species whose reproductive system requires a lower maternal investment (up to one litter/year, monogamy, biparental care, lower litter birth weight); and, it appears that the suckling order is inherent to the weaker (inferior) siblings.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T20:46:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2017.05.018
      Issue No: Vol. 195 (2018)
  • Testing aggressive behaviour in a feeding context: Importance of
           ethologically relevant stimuli
    • Authors: Daniel González; Péter Szenczi; Oxána Bánszegi; Robyn Hudson
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 150
      Author(s): Daniel González, Péter Szenczi, Oxána Bánszegi, Robyn Hudson
      The choice of stimuli used in tests of animal behaviour can have a critical effect on the outcome. Here we report two experiments showing how different foods influenced aggressive behaviour in competition tests at weaning among littermates of the domestic cat. Whereas in Experiment 1 canned food elicited almost no overt competition, a piece of raw beef rib elicited clearly aggressive behaviour among littermates. In Experiment 2 the food stimuli were chosen to differ from raw beef rib in various combinations of taste/smell, texture and monopolizability. Kittens showed different levels of aggression in response to the five stimuli tested, which suggests that the strong effect of beef rib in eliciting aggressive behaviour was due to a complex combination of features. We suggest that using stimuli approximating the evolved, functional significance to the species concerned is more likely to result in robust, biologically relevant behaviours than more artificial stimuli.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:45:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 150 (2018)
  • Effects of orientation and differential reinforcement II: Transitivity and
           Transfer across five-member sets
    • Authors: Micah Amd; Marlon A. de Oliveira; Denise A. Passarelli; Livia C. Balog; Julio C. de Rose
      Pages: 8 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Micah Amd, Marlon A. de Oliveira, Denise A. Passarelli, Livia C. Balog, Julio C. de Rose
      A recent report by Amd and colleagues (2017) demonstrated that orienting towards successively presented stimulus-stimulus pairs yielded significantly more transitive relations then when those same pairs were differentially reinforced following training for three, 3-member stimulus sets. We build on that work in four important ways. First, transitivity yields produced by Pavlovian and instrumental procedures were compared following training for three 5-member sets (A1-B1-C1-D1-E1, A2-B2-C2-D2-E2, A3-B3-C3-D3-E3), where the ‘A’ stimuli were emotional faces and all remaining stimuli were nonsense words. Second, our instrumental task here required two orienting/observing responses per trial. Third, we compared differences in multi-nodal transfer following Pavlovian and instrumental relational learning procedures. Finally, we tested whether functioning as ‘end terms’ in a relational series can mitigate transfer following instrumental conditioning. Transitivity, as measured by sorting tests, was significantly more pronounced following Pavlovian training. Transfer, assessed before and after relational training with two visual analog scales corresponding to valence and arousal dimensions, appeared marginally more robust observed for participants exposed to the Pavlovian condition. Transfer magnitude was positively related with demonstrations of transitivity, regardless of type of conditioning.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T15:54:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 150 (2018)
  • Forming groups of aggressive sows based on a predictive test of aggression
           does not affect overall sow aggression or welfare
    • Authors: Megan Verdon; R.S. Morrison; P.H. Hemsworth
      Pages: 17 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 150
      Author(s): Megan Verdon, R.S. Morrison, P.H. Hemsworth
      This experiment examined the effects of group composition on sow aggressive behaviour and welfare. Over 6 time replicates, 360 sows (parity 1–6) were mixed into groups (10 sows per pen, 1.8 m2/sow) composed of animals that were predicted to be aggressive (n = 18 pens) or groups composed of animals that were randomly selected (n = 18 pens). Predicted aggressive sows were selected based on a model-pig test that has been shown to be related to the aggressive behaviour of parity 2 sows when subsequently mixed in groups. Measurements were taken on aggression delivered post-mixing, and aggression delivered around feeding, fresh skin injuries and plasma cortisol concentrations at days 2 and 24 post-mixing. Live weight gain, litter size (born alive, total born, stillborn piglets), and farrowing rate were also recorded. Manipulating the group composition based on predicted sow aggressiveness had no effect (P > 0.05) on sow aggression delivered at mixing or around feeding, fresh injuries, cortisol, weight gain from day 2 to day 24, farrowing rate, or litter size. The lack of treatment effects in the present experiment could be attributed to (1) a failure of the model-pig test to predict aggression in older sows in groups, or (2) the dependence of the expression of the aggressive phenotype on factors such as social experience and characteristics (e.g., physical size and aggressive phenotype) of pen mates. This research draws attention to the intrinsic difficulties associated with predicting behaviour across contexts, particularly when the behaviour is highly dependent on interactions with conspecifics, and highlights the social complexities involved in the presentation of a behavioural phenotype.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:45:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.016
      Issue No: Vol. 150 (2018)
  • Loss of red opsin genes relaxes sexual isolation between skin-colour
           variants of medaka
    • Authors: Makiko Kamijo; Mayuko Kawamura; Shoji Fukamachi
      Pages: 25 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Makiko Kamijo, Mayuko Kawamura, Shoji Fukamachi
      Colour vision is often essential for animals. Fine discrimination of colours enhances the ability of animals to find food, predators, or mating partners. Using two colour variants of medaka (Oryzias latipes), which mate assortatively depending on visual cues (pale grey versus dark orange), we recently established red colour-blind strains by knocking out the red opsin (long-wavelength-sensitive) genes and elucidated that the fish were indeed insensitive to red light. In the present study, we investigated the mate choice of these red-blind fish. The colour variants with normal colour vision strongly preferred to mate with their own strain. The red-blind ones also preferred their own strain; i.e. they still mated assortatively. However, their preference was significantly weaker than that of fish with normal colour vision. In other words, the red-blind fish showed increased sexual interest in the other colour variant. These results indicated that reduced sensitivity to red light also reduced their ability to discriminate colours. This empirical evidence directly demonstrates that a change in cone-opsin repertoire changes mating decision behaviours, which would affect gene flow and speciation processes between conspecific colour variants in nature, as suggested in other studies.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T15:54:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 150 (2018)
  • Proprioceptive Stimuli and habit formation: Interresponse time mediated
           behavior in CD-1 mice
    • Authors: J. Mark Cleaveland; Anna Roselle; Delaney K. Fischer
      Pages: 29 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): J. Mark Cleaveland, Anna Roselle, Delaney K. Fischer
      The consolidation of behavioral sequences into relatively ballistic habits is thought to involve the formation of stimulus – response associations. Typically, the stimuli in these associations are assumed to be exteroceptive, i.e., external to the organism. However, responses, themselves, also possess stimulus properties that can mediate behavior. Indeed, these “proprioceptive cues” have long been hypothesized to underlie habit formation (Hull, 1934a, 1934b). One such stimulus involves the time durations between responses – a stimulus termed interresponse time (IRT). We hypothesize that IRTs can come to serve as stimuli that differentially control response elements during habit formation. To examine this hypothesis we report on two experiments that asked whether CD-1 mice utilize IRTs to structure behavior in a two-choice environment. In experiment 1, eight mice were exposed to a free-operant concurrent variable-interval (VI) 30-s VI 60-s reinforcement schedule. We found that switch and stay responses were differentially correlated with IRT durations. In Experiment 2 we directly and differentially reinforced stay / switch responses based on IRT durations in a two-lever procedure. For four of the subjects, the probability of receiving reinforcement after switch responses was proportional to IRT duration. For five of the subjects, these reinforcement probabilities were inversely proportional to IRT duration. Regardless, all of our subjects learned to emit IRT-mediated switching behavior that matched the reinforcement contingencies. Together, Experiments 1 and 2 provide the first evidence of which we are aware that IRTs can come to control sequential choice behavior in mice.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:45:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.015
      Issue No: Vol. 150 (2018)
  • The effects of changeover delays on local choice
    • Authors: Stephanie Gomes-Ng; Jason Landon; Douglas Elliffe; Joshua Bensemann; Sarah Cowie
      Pages: 36 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 150
      Author(s): Stephanie Gomes-Ng, Jason Landon, Douglas Elliffe, Joshua Bensemann, Sarah Cowie
      In concurrent schedules with a changeover delay (COD), choice often strongly favours the just-reinforced alternative immediately after a reinforcer delivery. These ‘preference pulses’ may be caused by a change in reinforcer availability created by the COD, and/or because the COD decreases the overall probability of switching. We investigated which explanation better accounts for preference pulses by arranging concurrent schedules that allowed us to separate the COD’s effects on reinforcer availability from its effects on the probability of switching. When the reinforcer ratio was 1:1, pulses were inconsistently accompanied by changes in reinforcer availability, but consistently accompanied by longer visits. These pulses appeared to be related only to the decreased probability of switching caused by the COD, providing the first evidence of pulses after reinforcers caused by the probability of switching alone. When the reinforcer ratio was 1:5 or 5:1; preference pulses were accompanied by changes in reinforcer availability and by longer visits. These pulses appeared to be related to the COD’s effects on reinforcer availability, although a small portion appeared to be related to low probability of switching. These findings suggest that the COD affects preference pulses by both decreasing the probability of switching and creating a change in reinforcer availability.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:54:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.019
      Issue No: Vol. 150 (2018)
  • Dynamics of social behaviour at parturition in a gregarious ungulate
    • Authors: F.J. Pérez-Barbería; D.M. Walker
      Pages: 75 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 150
      Author(s): F.J. Pérez-Barbería, D.M. Walker
      Group living is the behavioural response that results when individuals assess the costs vs benefits of sociality, and these trade-offs vary across an animal’s life. Here we quantitatively assess how periparturient condition (mother/non-mother) and births affect the dynamics of social interactions of a gregarious ungulate, and how such can help to explain evolutionary hypotheses of the mother-offspring bond. To achieve this we used data of the individual movement of a group of Scottish blackface sheep (Ovis aries) marked with GPS collars and properties of mathematical graphs (networks). Euclidean pair-wise distance between sheep were threshold at different percentiles to determine network links, and these thresholds have a profound effect on the connectivity of the resulting network. Births increased the average pair-wise distance between mothers, and between mothers and non-mothers, with less effect on the distance between non-mothers. Mothers occupied peripheral positions within the flock, more evident following births. Associations between individuals (i.e. network community change) were highly dynamic, though mothers were less likely to change community than non-mothers, especially after births. Births hampered individual communication within the flock (assessed via network closeness centrality), especially in mothers. Overall leadership (lead positioning relative to flock movement) was not associated to reproductive condition, and individual leadership rank was not affected by births. A ten minute GPS acquisition time was adequate to capture complex social dynamics in sheep movement. The results on mother’s isolation behaviour support the hypotheses of selection for maternal imprint facilitation, reducing risks to nursing alien offspring, and group/multilevel selection on group formation.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T03:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 150 (2018)
  • Stability of motor bias in the domestic dog, Canis familiaris
    • Authors: Deborah L. Wells; Peter G. Hepper; Adam D.S. Milligan; Shanis Barnard
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 149
      Author(s): Deborah L. Wells, Peter G. Hepper, Adam D.S. Milligan, Shanis Barnard
      This study explored the relationship between four measures of canine paw preference to establish whether the distribution, direction or strength of motor bias was consistent between tasks. Thirty-two dogs had their paw preferences tested using the Kong ball, tape, lift paw and First-stepping tests. A smaller sample were re-tested 6 months later. The distribution of the dogs’ paw preferences was not significantly different from that expected by chance for the Kong ball and lift paw tests; dogs were significantly more inclined towards ambilaterality on the tape and First-stepping tests. More female dogs employed their right paw on the lift paw test; males were more likely to be ambilateral or left-pawed. There was no significant correlation in the direction of dogs’ paw use for any tests. The First-stepping and lift paw tests were positively correlated for strength of paw use. Analysis revealed a significant correlation in direction and strength of dogs’ paw use between the first and second attempts of all measures, except the tape test. Findings suggest that paw preference in the dog is not consistent between tasks, although stable over time. The study raises questions as to which test of paw preference is the most appropriate to employ.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T10:49:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 149 (2018)
  • Comparison of potentially real versus hypothetical food outcomes in delay
           and probability discounting tasks
    • Authors: Stephen H. Robertson; Erin B. Rasmussen
      Pages: 8 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 149
      Author(s): Stephen H. Robertson, Erin B. Rasmussen
      Much of the research on human delay and probability discounting involves the use of hypothetical outcomes, in which participants indicate preferences for outcomes but do not receive them. Research generally shows that hypothetical and potentially real outcomes are discounted at similar rates. One study, however, shows that potentially real cigarettes are discounted more steeply than hypothetical cigarettes in smokers, calling into question the generality of the finding that potentially real and hypothetical money are discounted at similar rates. Using a within-subject design, we tested the extent to which potentially real and hypothetical monetary (Experiment 1) and food-related (Experiment 2) outcomes were discounted at similar rates. We found mixed results for monetary outcomes, in that potentially real outcomes were discounted more steeply than hypothetical outcomes when all participants were included; however, this effect disappeared when only systematic responders were used. In addition, potentially real and hypothetical monetary outcomes were significantly correlated. For food-related outcomes, we found robust and consistent effects that potentially real and hypothetical food outcomes are discounted similarly and that they correlate strongly. Generally, these findings suggest that using hypothetical outcomes generate similar levels of discounting, in particular for food, which is useful for researchers interested in characterizing food-related impulsivity.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T10:49:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 149 (2018)
  • The temporal dynamics of waiting when reward is increasing
    • Authors: Michael E. Young; Lisa Vangsness; Anthony W. McCoy
      Pages: 16 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 149
      Author(s): Michael E. Young, Lisa Vangsness, Anthony W. McCoy
      The temporal dynamics of waiting are complex. The present study used a video game involving contingencies that produced differential reinforcement of wait times by arranging for the magnitude of the reward to be related to the duration of each inter-response time. In previous research, when outcomes were gradually increasing in value from a minimum to a maximum, two modes of behavior are observed: waiting as little as possible before cashing in (i.e., responding rapidly) or waiting until the maximum is available (i.e., responding slowly). When outcomes were either a smaller sooner or larger later reward, two modes of behavior were again observed which corresponded to choosing either reward immediately after it was available. In the present study, outcome values increased linearly for a period of time, leveled off, increased abruptly, and then increased linearly. This configuration produced three modes of wait times in people – responding immediately, responding immediately after the abrupt increase, and responding when the maximum possible reward was achieved on each trial. Three factors were evaluated as possible causes of each behavioral mode, a desire for immediacy or action, the trade-off between molecular and molar maximization, and ease of responding.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T10:49:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.01.015
      Issue No: Vol. 149 (2018)
  • Impacts of nectar robbing on the foraging ecology of a territorial
    • Authors: Jenny A. Hazlehurst; Jordan O. Karubian
      Pages: 27 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 149
      Author(s): Jenny A. Hazlehurst, Jordan O. Karubian
      While the effects of nectar robbing on plants are relatively well-studied, its impacts from the perspective of the pollinators of robbed plants is not. Numerous studies do consider the impacts of robbing on pollinator visitation to robbed plants, but rarely do they focus on its scaled-up impacts on individual pollinator behavior. We used radio telemetry to track the spatial and behavioral responses of the territorial hummingbird Aglaeactis cupripennis to experimental nectar robbing over a period of several days. Simulated nectar robbing impacted foraging behavior by increasing territory area, distance flown, and reliance on novel food resources, especially small-bodied flying insects. We did not observe any impact on the amount of time individuals spent foraging, nor did we observe territory abandonment. These findings indicate that nectar robbing may impose a significant energetic cost on pollinators via increased flight distances and shifts towards potentially less profitable food resources, and demonstrate the importance of quantifying the indirect effects of nectar robbing on pollinators in addition to plants.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T10:49:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 149 (2018)
  • Extending the analysis of zebrafish behavioral endophenotypes for modeling
           psychiatric disorders: Fear conditioning to conspecific alarm response
    • Authors: Caio Maximino; Daniele L. Meinerz; Barbara D. Fontana; Nathana J. Mezzomo; Flavia V. Stefanello; Alessandro de S. Prestes; Cibele B. Batista; Maribel A. Rubin; Nilda V. Barbosa; João Batista T. Rocha; Monica G. Lima; Denis B. Rosemberg
      Pages: 35 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 149
      Author(s): Caio Maximino, Daniele L. Meinerz, Barbara D. Fontana, Nathana J. Mezzomo, Flavia V. Stefanello, Alessandro de S. Prestes, Cibele B. Batista, Maribel A. Rubin, Nilda V. Barbosa, João Batista T. Rocha, Monica G. Lima, Denis B. Rosemberg
      Anxiety, trauma- and stressor-related disorders are severe psychiatric conditions that affect human population worldwide. Given their genetic tractability, evolutionarily conserved neurotransmitter systems, and extensive behavioral repertoire, zebrafish have become an emergent model organism in translational neuroscience. Here, we investigate whether a single exposure to conspecific alarm substance (CAS) produces fear conditioning in zebrafish using a conditioned place aversion (CPA) paradigm, as well as the persistence of aversive responses at different time intervals. While CAS elicited freezing and erratic movements at conditioning phase, zebrafish showed a robust avoidance for the CAS-paired compartment and increased risk assessment up to 7 days postconditioning. Additionally, we observed the existence of two behavioral phenotypes (high- and low-avoider fish) that present different fear-like responses at conditioning phase and evasion of the conditioning side at postconditioning trials. Collectively, we show a prolonged conditioned place aversion in zebrafish after a single CAS conditioning session, reinforcing the use of fear conditioning protocols as valuable strategies for modeling psychiatric disorders-related phenotypes in zebrafish.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T10:49:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.01.020
      Issue No: Vol. 149 (2018)
  • An integrated analysis of social stress in laying hens: The interaction
           between physiology, behaviour, and hierarchy
    • Authors: Renata Rezende Carvalho; Rupert Palme; Angélica da Silva Vasconcellos
      Pages: 43 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 149
      Author(s): Renata Rezende Carvalho, Rupert Palme, Angélica da Silva Vasconcellos
      Livestock is the category of animals that suffers the most severe welfare problems. Among these, physical, physiological, and behavioural distress caused by artificial grouping are some of the challenges faced by these animals. Groups whose members are frequently changed have been reported as socially unstable, which could jeopardise the welfare of animals. Here, we assessed the effect of social instability on aggression, stress, and productivity in groups of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We studied 36 females, distributed into three stable groups (without group membership change) and three unstable groups (where the dominant member was rotated every week) over the course of 10 weeks. We evaluated the frequency of agonistic interactions, glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) concentrations, and egg production. In both treatments, dominant hens produced more eggs compared to intermediate and subordinates, and intermediate hens had the highest GCM concentrations. Socially unstable groups had lower productivity and higher frequencies of agonistic interactions than stable groups. Social instability also affected GCM of the animals: in stable groups, subordinate hens had higher concentrations than dominants; in unstable groups, this pattern was reversed. Our results point to a social destabilisation in groups whose members were alternated, and suggest the welfare of individuals in unstable groups was compromised. Our results pointed to a complex relationship between hierarchy, productivity, physiological stress and aggression in laying hens, and have implications for their husbandry and management and, consequently, for their welfare levels.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T15:54:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 149 (2018)
  • Shy herbivores forage more efficiently than bold ones regardless of
           information-processing overload
    • Authors: Ming Kai Tan; Chia-chen Chang; Hugh T.W. Tan
      Pages: 52 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 149
      Author(s): Ming Kai Tan, Chia-chen Chang, Hugh T.W. Tan
      The neural constraint hypothesis is central to understanding decision-making by foraging herbivorous insects which make decisions less efficiently when they face multiple choices for numerous resource types and/or at high densities instead of a fewer choices. Previous studies have also shown the relationship between personality type and decision-making style. How personality types correlate with foraging efficiency among herbivores is however, largely untested. To answer this question, we used a widespread, polyphagous, floriphilic katydid, Phaneroptera brevis (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and two naturalised, Asteraceae, food plants, Bidens pilosa and Sphagneticola trilobata, as model systems. After we determined each katydid’s exploration and boldness levels, we examined its foraging efficiency across different combinations of floral resource choice and density. We showed: (1) For the first time within the Tettigonioidea lineage that this katydid exhibits different personality types in exploration and boldness. (2) Contrary to our prediction, we did not find any support for the neural constraint hypothesis because more floral resource choice at a high density did not reduce foraging efficiency. (3) Surprisingly, bold katydids tend to be less efficient foragers than shy ones. Our findings have enhanced understanding of herbivore behavioural ecology and knowledge to better deal with potential pest herbivores.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T15:54:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 149 (2018)
  • Long-term early life adverse experience impairs responsiveness to
           exteroceptive stimuli in adult rats
    • Authors: Anna Holubová; Anna Mikulecká; Marie Pometlová; Kateryna Nohejlová; Romana Šlamberová
      Pages: 59 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Anna Holubová, Anna Mikulecká, Marie Pometlová, Kateryna Nohejlová, Romana Šlamberová
      It has been shown that early life traumatic events strongly alter the physiology and behavior in adult rats. In the present study, the effect of postnatal stressor on the spontaneous behavior of adult male rats was evaluated. A method of positive habituation based on a detailed analysis of behavioral patterns and attention of animals to a stimulus object was used. Twenty-four dams and twenty-four of their male progeny were used. Pups were divided into three groups (n = 8): controls (C); maternal social stressor (S); maternal social and physical stressors (SW). Animals (postnatal day 70–80) were individually placed in the open field arena in two habituation sessions with a 24-h delay between them (Test day 1 and Test day 2). Before the start of third session (Test day 3) a solid object was fixed in the center of the arena. Each test lasted 10 min. Our results showed the habituation effect in both stressed-groups. Although there were no significant differences in the number of investigations of the novel object among all tested groups, stress-exposed rats spent less time investigating the object. In conclusion, our findings indicate that long-term neonatal stress may impair an animal’s ability to sustain attention to stimuli.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T15:54:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 149 (2018)
  • Willingness to initiate a fight but not contest behaviour depends on
           intruder size in Lethrus apterus (Geotrupidae)
    • Authors: Márta E. Rosa; Zoltán Barta; András Kosztolányi
      Pages: 65 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 149
      Author(s): Márta E. Rosa, Zoltán Barta, András Kosztolányi
      In resident-intruder contests, residents are expected to win more often than intruders unless the intruder has significantly higher competitive ability that is often determined by its size. Therefore, small intruders are expected to be less motivated to engage in contests than large ones and intruder size is predicted to have a positive relationship with the duration and escalation of the encounters. In a field experiment we tested these hypotheses in Lethrus apterus, a biparental beetle breeding in underground tunnels, by placing either a small or a large male in front of a tunnel occupied by a resident male. In agreement with our predictions residents won most of the encounters. Small intruders were less willing to engage in a contest and were less successful in their takeover attempts than large intruders. Contrary to many studies however, the duration and escalation (measured by the occurrence and latency of the different contest stages) of the fight in front of the burrow did not differ between the two intruder size categories. These findings suggest that in this species, small and large intruders adjust their prior decisions to their competitive abilities but once a fight started, they behave similarly during the contest.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:45:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 149 (2018)
  • Learning profitable habitat types by juvenile crayfish
    • Authors: Taylor M. Johnson; Adam L. Crane
      Pages: 31 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 148
      Author(s): Taylor M. Johnson, Adam L. Crane
      Habitat selection is fundamentally important to animal ecology, and animals that can learn about habitats can increase the probability of avoiding detection by predators or quickly finding food. Here, we tested whether juveniles of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, can learn preference for habitat types based on experience with food availability. Crayfish were housed in arenas with two habitat types, half leaf habitat and half rock habitat. Over several days, crayfish were fed consistently in one of the habitat types. Initial tests revealed that crayfish had an innate preference for the leaf habitat, but conditioning over 2–3 weeks was sufficient to shift this preference to the rock habitat based on habitat cues rather than other spatial cues in their environment. The ability to learn the relevance of habitat features may be an important trait for the colonization success, and subsequent impact, of introduced species.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T01:23:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 148 (2018)
  • Comparing the antipredator behaviour of two sympatric, but not syntopic,
           Liolaemus lizards
    • Authors: Javiera Constanzo-Chávez; Mario Penna; Antonieta Labra
      Pages: 34 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 148
      Author(s): Javiera Constanzo-Chávez, Mario Penna, Antonieta Labra
      The microhabitat preferences of prey animals can modulate how they perceive predation risk, and therefore, their antipredator behaviour. We tested under standardized conditions how microhabitat preferences of two Liolaemus lizards affected their responses when confronted with two types of ambush predators (raptor vs. snake), under two levels of predation risk (low vs. high). These lizard species are sympatric, but not syntopic; L. chiliensis basks on bushes, a complex microhabitat that may provide protection against visual predators, while L. nitidus prefers open microhabitats, basking on the top of large bare rocks, highly exposed to visual predators. If microhabitat complexity modulates the antipredator response, L. chiliensis may perceive lower predation risk, exhibiting lower intensity of antipredator responses than L. nitidus. Both species reduced their activity after being exposed to both predators, but lizards differed in the assessment of predation risk; L. nitidus reduced its activity independently of the predation risk experienced, while L. chiliensis only reduced its activity in the high-risk condition. The microhabitat preferences shaped during the evolution of these species seem to modulate their perception of predation risk, which may cause interspecific differences in the associated costs of their antipredator responses.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T01:23:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 148 (2018)
  • A predator’s response to a prey’s deterrent signal changes
           with experience
    • Authors: Rao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): S. Aguilar-Argüello, C. Díaz-Castelazo, D. Rao
      Prey signalling to predators is an attempt to divert or nullify an attack even before it occurs. If these signals are backed up by a potent defence, then the likelihood of the predators learning to avoid them is high. In species that use deceptive signalling, predators could learn to overcome such a display and diminish the efficacy of the display. We studied the effect of experience on the efficacy of tephritid fly displays against jumping spiders. We compared attacks on displaying flies, non-displaying flies, and two other prey species (a facile prey and a prey with a defence). Spiders were more likely to attack displaying flies over time. However, spiders that were familiar with the fly appearance but not display also increased their attack rates. We suggest that spiders attend to both components of the fly display, i.e. motion and appearance, but with motion cues taking priority.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T03:23:08Z
  • Increased exploratory activity in rats with deficient sensorimotor gating:
           a study of schizophrenia-relevant symptoms with genetically heterogeneous
           NIH-HS and Roman rat strains
    • Authors: Carles Tapias-Espinosa; Cristóbal Río-Álamos; Daniel Sampedro-Viana; Cristina Gerbolés; Ignasi Oliveras; Ana Sánchez-González; Adolf Tobeña; Alberto Fernández-Teruel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Carles Tapias-Espinosa, Cristóbal Río-Álamos, Daniel Sampedro-Viana, Cristina Gerbolés, Ignasi Oliveras, Ana Sánchez-González, Adolf Tobeña, Alberto Fernández-Teruel
      Schizophrenia involves positive, negative and cognitive symptoms, as well as comorbidity with anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response is a measure of sensorimotor gating that is impaired in schizophrenia and animal models of the disease. Remarkably, impaired PPI has been related to other schizophrenia-like features in rodent models, such as cognitive deficits and hyperactivity. However, it remains to be investigated whether deficient PPI and increased exploratory activity are associated in genetically heterogeneous (outbred) naïve animals. This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationships among PPI and other schizophrenia-related symptoms, such as augmented exploratory activity, anxiety and compulsivity in the genetically heterogeneous (outbred) NIH-HS rat stock (HS) and in the genetically-selected inbred Roman High-Avoidance (RHA) and Low-avoidance (RLA) rats. Animals underwent the following tests: open-field (exploratory activity), elevated zero-maze (anxiety-like behavior), marble burying (compulsive-like behavior), and PPI. Three groups of HS rats were formed according to their PPI scores, i.e. Low-PPI, Medium-PPI and High-PPI. The HS Low-PPI group displayed higher exploratory activity in the open-field than the HS Medium-PPI and HS High-PPI groups. Likewise, compared with their RLA counterparts, RHA rats exhibited lower PPI and more intense exploratory activity in the open-field test. Correlational and factorial analyses of the whole HS sample and the RHA/RLA data globally corroborated the results of the PPI-stratified HS subgroups. These data suggest that such a consistent association between impaired PPI and increased exploratory activity in outbred HS and inbred RHA/RLA rats is a relevant parameter that must be taken into account when modeling clusters of schizophrenia-relevant symptoms.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T03:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.019
  • Are both notes of the common cuckoo’s call necessary for familiarity
    • Authors: Csaba Moskát; Márk E. Hauber; Miklós Bán; Attila Fülöp; Nikoletta Geltsch; Attila Marton; Zoltán Elek
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Csaba Moskát, Márk E. Hauber, Miklós Bán, Attila Fülöp, Nikoletta Geltsch, Attila Marton, Zoltán Elek
      Common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) are best known for their simple two-note calls ("cu-coo"), which are uttered only by males during the breeding season. A previous playback study revealed that territorial males were more tolerant toward playbacks of the calls of familiar, neighbouring individuals than toward unfamiliar, stranger simulated intruders, exhibiting the classical “dear-enemy” phenomenon. Here we experimentally assessed whether the acoustic cues for familiarity recognition are encoded in the first and/or second note of these simple calls. To do so, we played mixed sound files to radio-tagged cuckoos, where the first part of the two-note calls was taken from strangers and the second part from neighbours, or vice versa. As controls, we used behavioural data from two-note neighbour and two-note stranger call playbacks. Cuckoos responded consistently to the two types of mixed sound files. When either the first or second note of the call was taken from a stranger and the other note from a neighbour, they responded to these sound files similarly to two-note playbacks of strangers: they approached the speaker of the playbacks more closely and the calling response-latency to playbacks was longer than to familiar controls. These findings point to the importance of both notes in familiarity recognition. We conclude that familiarity recognition in male common cuckoos needs the complete structure of the two-note cuckoo call, which is characteristic for this species.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T03:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.017
  • Drug-sensitive Reward in Crayfish: Exploring the Neural Basis of Addiction
           with Automated Learning Paradigms
    • Authors: Robert Huber; Adebobola Imeh-Nathaniel; Thomas I. Nathaniel; Sayali Gore; Udita Datta; Rohan Bhimani; Jules B. Panksepp; Jaak Panksepp; Moira J. van Staaden
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Robert Huber, Adebobola Imeh-Nathaniel, Thomas I. Nathaniel, Sayali Gore, Udita Datta, Rohan Bhimani, Jules B. Panksepp, Jaak Panksepp, Moira J. van Staaden
      Results of recent work from our labs and those of others have broadened perspectives on addiction beyond a human-specific, cognitive phenomenon. Addictive plant alkaloids are defensive compounds which have arisen to counter herbivory. With insects the true targets of the coevolutionary arms race, humans may be little more than collateral damage when impacted by ‘human’ drugs of abuse. The present paper summarizes recent contributions, with a primary focus on our own research in crayfish, where we characterize the behavioral and neural consequences resulting from chronic and acute exposure to psychostimulant and addictive drugs. Substituted phenethylamines, like amphetamine and cocaine, exhibit a wide range of effects in crayfish with direct parallels to those described from mammalian preparations. Unconditioned effects include intoxication and psychostimulation, where repeated exposure is accompanied by tolerance and sensitization, respectively. Psychostimulants exhibit powerful reinforcing properties in conditioned place preference, subject to extinction and reinstatement. Crayfish readily self-administer amphetamines using instrumental learning approaches. With a nervous system modular and uniquely accessible to neural probing, crayfish offer unique opportunities for studying the basic biological mechanisms of drug effects, for exploring how the appetitive disposition is implemented, and for examining how this is related to the rewarding action of drugs of abuse.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T03:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.015
  • Social behaviour of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) in a public off-leash
           dog park
    • Authors: Melissa S. Howse; Rita E. Anderson; Carolyn J. Walsh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Melissa S. Howse, Rita E. Anderson, Carolyn J. Walsh
      This study examines the activity budgets and social behaviours initiated and received by 69 focal dogs in an off-leash dog park for 400 seconds after entry, a time of high activity about which little is known. Using motivationally-neutral labels for social behaviour categories, we describe the frequency of behaviours, and correlations among them. We then examine these relationships in the context of proposed functions for some behaviours in dogs, in terms of information gathering and communication, including visual and tactile signalling. Time spent with other dogs decreased rapidly over the visit, and much of this early interaction involved greeting the park newcomer. Snout-muzzle contact behaviours were ubiquitous, while other behaviours were rarely observed, including aggressive behaviours. Correlations among certain non-contact behaviours initiated and received by focal dogs are consistent with their function as visual signals that may influence the continuation and form of social interactions, and their possible role in social mimicry (i.e., play bow and pull-rear away). Age, sex, and number of dogs present in the park influenced specific aspects of dogs’ activity budgets, and a few behaviours. This ethological study provides fundamental data on dog social behaviour in dog parks, about which surprisingly little has been published.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T03:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.016
  • Durability and Generalizability of Time-Based Intervention Effects on
           Impulsive Choice in Rats
    • Authors: Carrie Bailey; Jennifer R. Peterson; Aaron Schnegelsiepen; Sarah L. Stuebing; Kimberly Kirkpatrick
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Carrie Bailey, Jennifer R. Peterson, Aaron Schnegelsiepen, Sarah L. Stuebing, Kimberly Kirkpatrick
      Impulsive choice involves choosing a smaller-sooner (SS) reward over a larger-later (LL) reward. Due to the importance of timing processes in impulsive choice, time-based interventions have been developed to decrease impulsive choice. The present set of experiments assessed the durability and generalizability of time-based interventions. Experiment 1 assessed fixed interval (FI) or variable interval (VI) intervention efficacy over 9 months. The FI intervention decreased impulsive choice, and this effect persisted over time, but the VI intervention effects were only apparent when tested immediately after the intervention. Experiment 2 examined the generalizability of the FI and VI interventions on choice tasks manipulating the SS delay, LL delay, or LL magnitude. The FI intervention decreased sensitivity to delay, promoting LL choices in both delay tasks, but the VI intervention only altered choices when manipulating the SS delay. Experiment 3 further examined the FI intervention effects on tasks that manipulated the LL delay or magnitude immediately following the intervention. The intervention decreased sensitivity to both delay and magnitude. The experiments indicate that the FI intervention is effective at decreasing impulsive choice behavior for an extended period across changing delays and magnitudes, suggesting a relatively broad effect on choice behavior.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T03:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.003
  • Algorithmic Analysis of Relational Learning Processes in Instructional
           Technology: Some Implications for Basic, Translational, and Applied
    • Authors: William J. McIlvane; Joanne B. Kledaras; Christophe J. Gerard; Lorin Wilde; David Smelson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): William J. McIlvane, Joanne B. Kledaras, Christophe J. Gerard, Lorin Wilde, David Smelson
      A few noteworthy exceptions notwithstanding, quantitative analyses of relational learning are most often simple descriptive measures of study outcomes. For example, studies of stimulus equivalence have made much progress using measures such as percentage consistent with equivalence relations, discrimination ratio, and response latency. Although procedures may have ad hoc variations, they remain fairly similar across studies. Comparison studies of training variables that lead to different outcomes are few. Yet to be developed are tools designed specifically for dynamic and/or parametric analyses of relational learning processes. This paper will focus on recent studies to develop (1) quality computer-based programmed instruction for supporting relational learning in children with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disabilities and (2) formal algorithms that permit ongoing, dynamic assessment of learner performance and procedure changes to optimize instructional efficacy and efficiency. Because these algorithms have a strong basis in evidence and in theories of stimulus control, they may have utility also for basic and translational research. We present an overview of the research program, details of algorithm features, and summary results that illustrate their possible benefits. It also presents arguments that such algorithm development may encourage parametric research, help in integrating new research findings, and support in-depth quantitative analyses of stimulus control processes in relational learning. Such algorithms may also serve to model control of basic behavioral processes that is important to the design of effective programmed instruction for human learners with and without functional disabilities.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T03:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.001
  • To free, or not to free: Social reinforcement effects in the social
           release paradigm with rats
    • Authors: Lisa C. Hiura; Lavinia Tan; Timothy D. Hackenberg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Lisa C. Hiura, Lavinia Tan, Timothy D. Hackenberg
      The present research measured social reinforcement in rats, using a social-release procedure in which lever presses permitted 10-s access to a familiar social partner. The work requirements for reinforcement increased systematically according to progressive-ratio (PR) schedules. Social and food reinforcement value were compared across blocks of sessions (Experiment 1) and concurrently within the same sessions (Experiment 2). To assess motivational effects, response and reinforcer rates for both reinforcer types were studied under food restriction, social restriction, and combined food and social restriction. Responding was maintained by both reinforcers, albeit at substantially higher levels for food than for social access. Responding for social access decreased to low levels under extinction conditions, demonstrating functional control by the social-reinforcement contingency. Sensitivity to social restriction was seen in some conditions in Experiment 2, in which social reinforcers were earned earlier in the session (at lower food prices) under social restriction than under the other deprivation conditions. Altogether, results are consistent with a social reinforcement conceptualization, and demonstrate an important role for social contact in social release behavior. The study demonstrates a promising set of methods for analyzing and quantifying social reinforcement.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T03:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.014
  • Impulsivity and Behaviour Problems in Dogs: A Reinforcement Sensitivity
           Theory Perspective
    • Authors: Patrizia Piotti; Liam Paul Satchell; Tom Steven Lockhart
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Patrizia Piotti, Liam Paul Satchell, Tom Steven Lockhart
      Trait impulsivity is an increasingly relevant topic for human and non-human animal personality research. There are similarities in dog and human manifestations of trait impulsivity at the behavioural, genetic, and neurobiological level. We investigated a well-validated measure of dog impulsivity and responsivity (the Dog Impulsivity Assessment Scale, DIAS) and a neuropsychological theory of human trait approach and avoidance (the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of personality, RST). Owners reported their dogs’ dispositional behaviour on the DIAS, an RST scale modified to describe dogs’ behaviour, and a list of common dog behaviour problems. In a sample of 730 dogs, we observed convergence between the RST and the DIAS. There was a negative correlation between RST ‘Behaviour Inhibition System’ and DIAS impulsivity factor (‘Behavioural Regulation’). RST ‘Behavioural Approach System’ correlated positively with DIAS ‘Responsiveness’. The RST ‘Fight-Flight-Freeze System’ (FFFS) and the DIAS ‘Aggression and response to novelty factor were both distinct from other factors. However, the DIAS ‘Aggression and response to novelty’ factor and the RST FFFS explained different aspects of dog behaviour problems. Importantly, whilst the DIAS factors indicated tendencies towards avoidant behaviours, the FFFS discriminated between active and passive avoidance. The findings suggest a partial overlapping between the DIAS and RST scales, and highlights the utility of personality models in investigating behaviour problems in dogs.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T03:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.012
  • Spatial midsession reversal learning in rats: Effects of egocentric Cue
           use and memory
    • Authors: Rebecca M. Rayburn-Reeves; Mary K. Moore; Thea E. Smith; Daniel A. Crafton; Kelly L. Marden
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Rebecca M. Rayburn-Reeves, Mary K. Moore, Thea E. Smith, Daniel A. Crafton, Kelly L. Marden
      The midsession reversal task has been used to investigate behavioral flexibility and cue use in non-human animals, with results indicating differences in the degree of control by environmental cues across species. For example, time-based control has been found in rats only when tested in a T-maze apparatus and under specific conditions in which position and orientation (i.e., egocentric) cues during the intertrial interval could not be used to aid performance. Other research in an operant setting has shown that rats often produce minimal errors around the reversal location, demonstrating response patterns similar to patterns exhibited by humans and primates in this task. The current study aimed to reduce, but not eliminate, the ability for rats to utilize egocentric cues by placing the response levers on the opposite wall of the chamber in relation to the pellet dispenser. Results showed that rats made minimal errors prior to the reversal, suggesting time-based cues were not controlling responses, and that they switched to the second correct stimulus within a few trials after the reversal event. Video recordings also revealed highly structured patterns of behavior by the majority of rats, which often differed depending on which response was reinforced. We interpret these findings as evidence that rats are adept at utilizing their own egocentric cues and that these cues, along with memory for the recent response-reinforcement contingencies, aid in maximizing reinforcement over the session.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T03:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.005
  • ecco: An error correcting comparator theory
    • Authors: Stefano Ghirlanda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Stefano Ghirlanda
      Building on the work of Ralph Miller and coworkers (Miller and Matzel, 1988; Denniston et al., 2001; Stout and Miller, 2007), I propose a new formalization of the comparator hypothesis that seeks to overcome some shortcomings of existing formalizations. The new model, dubbed ecco for “Error-Correcting COmparisons,” retains the comparator process and the learning of CS–CS associations based on contingency. ecco assumes, however, that learning of CS–US associations is driven by total error correction, as first introduced by Rescorla and Wagner (1972). I explore ecco's behavior in acquisition, compound conditioning, blocking, backward blocking, and unovershadowing. In these paradigms, ecco appears capable of avoiding the problems of current comparator models, such as the inability to solve some discriminations and some paradoxical effects of stimulus salience. At the same time, ecco exhibits the retrospective revaluation phenomena that are characteristic of comparator theory.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T03:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.009
  • To take or not to take the shortcut: Flexible spatial behaviour of rats
           based on cognitive map in a lattice maze
    • Authors: Nobuya Sato; Chihiro Fujishita; Atsuhito Yamagishi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Nobuya Sato, Chihiro Fujishita, Atsuhito Yamagishi
      To examine the flexibility of rats’ spatial behaviour, we required rats to navigate to one of four boxes on the corners of a lattice maze. The maze consisted of five vertical and five horizontal corridors on a plane parallel to the ground and allowed us to design diverse routes. One box was set as goal and the other three were set as starting points. Both the time to arrive at the goal and the number of errors at the intersections on the route decreased, suggesting that the rats learned the route. As the goal boxes were successively changed, the decrease in the errors and the time to reach the goal became faster. This suggests that the rats learned the spatial layout of the maze, i.e., developed a cognitive map. We then carried out a shortcut test by removing one wall located near the centre of the maze. The rats took the shortcut route when passing through the location around the removed wall made the entire route shorter, but did not pass through the location when passing through the location made the entire route longer. These suggest that rats can flexibly utilize their internal representation of a spatial structure to respond to a change in a learned environment.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T03:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.010
    • Authors: D.A. Blank
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): D.A. Blank
      Tail signals and rump patch exposure in ungulates are well-documented phenomena, but there is no consensus about their functional significance, which has remained disputed. In addition, these patterns have been analyzed for only a limited number of ungulate species; and until now did not include goitered gazelles. This paper, then, will discuss these aspects of goitered gazelle antipredator behavior. I chose human harassments as predator threats and found that tail-flagging, stotting and presentation of the white rump-patch were displayed mostly by adult females, less often by adult males, and least in sub-adults. Adult females used tail-flagging and rump-patch exposure primarily for communication with their fawns especially frequently in July when fawns finished their hiding period. In August, adult females further strengthened their alarm signals by frequent stotting. Unlike females, adult males displayed tail- flagging and stotting quite randomly over months, likely depending on frequencies of encountered threats. However, females and males both displayed tail-flagging significantly more frequently than stotting (with a few exceptions) suggesting that tail-flagging has an independent communicative function, even if one signal amplifies the other. Goitered gazelles used tail-flagging and white rump-patch exposure likely as an alarm and cohesive signal for conspecifics, and adult females communicated by these signals mostly with their fawns.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T03:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.011
  • The influence of lameness and individuality on movement patterns in sheep
    • Authors: Amanda K. Doughty; Brian J. Horton; Nguyen T.D. Huyen; C. Rowdy Ballagh; Ross Corkrey; Geoff N. Hinch
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Amanda K. Doughty, Brian J. Horton, Nguyen T.D. Huyen, C. Rowdy Ballagh, Ross Corkrey, Geoff N. Hinch
      We investigated how individuality and lameness altered social organisation by assessing food-directed movement patterns in sheep. One hundred and ninety-six mature Merino ewes were walked in 16 different runs around a 1.1 km track following a food source. Flock position and lameness, were measured and temperament was assessed using an Isolation Box Test. The mean value for the correlations of position between a run and the run preceding it was r = 0.55 ± SEM 0.03. All correlations between runs were positive (r = 0.08 – 0.76) and all but two were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The weakest and least statistically significant correlations were for run 14; where all 16 runs were conducted 3 to 4 times a week, except with an interval of 20 weeks between runs 13 and 14. Additionally, there were differences in overall positions for a lame versus a non-lame individual (all P < 0.05) with lame sheep being further back in position when compared to their non-lame mean positions. These results indicate the movement patterns, as measured by flock position during a food-directed forced movement exercise, are relatively stable provided tests occur frequently, possibly on a bi-weekly basis. However, further work would be required to better account for individual animal variation.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:54:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.008
  • The influence of familiarity and temperature on the huddling behavior of
           two mouse species with contrasting social systems
    • Authors: Zita Groó; Péter Szenczi; Oxána Bánszegi; Zsófia Nagy; Vilmos Altbäcker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Zita Groó, Péter Szenczi, Oxána Bánszegi, Zsófia Nagy, Vilmos Altbäcker
      Huddling with other individuals is an effective way, to reduce heat loss. This cooperative behavior requires that the individuals tolerate each other’s presence at least for a certain time or under certain circumstances. In our study, we investigated the effects of ambient temperature and familiarity on the huddling behavior of two closely related mouse species, the mound-building mouse (Mus spicilegus) and the house mouse (Mus musculus musculus). While their geographic distribution overlaps, their social systems differ in many aspects. Whereas house mice are territorial, mound-building mice tolerate each other and live in groups during winter. In laboratory experiments we found that familiarity and ambient temperature influenced the huddling behavior of both species. Familiar individuals were more likely to huddle, but while mound-building mice did so at all temperatures, huddling in house mice increased with lower temperatures. Our results are consistent with the previous knowledge about these species’ social system and might provide us more details about their sociality. Investigating huddling behavior might be a good way to measure social tolerance between individuals within a species and compare social systems of different species.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:54:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.007
  • Two route landmarks are more useful to navigating ant colonies when they
           are dissimilar
    • Authors: Edmund R. Hunt; Christopher Kendall; Emma Stanbury; Ana B. Sendova-Franks; Nigel R. Franks
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Edmund R. Hunt, Christopher Kendall, Emma Stanbury, Ana B. Sendova-Franks, Nigel R. Franks
      Visual landmarks are important navigational aids to many animals, and when more than one is available their juxtaposition can convey valuable new information to a navigator about progress toward a goal, depending on the landmarks’ comparative distinctiveness. We investigated the effect of presenting rock ant colonies (Temnothorax albipennis) with identical horizontal landmarks either side of their route, versus one horizontal landmark paired with a sloping landmark, as they navigated to a new nest site. Our findings suggest that ants can obtain more navigational information from a combination of dissimilar landmarks: the average tortuosity of the route taken between old and new nests was significantly lower when a horizontal landmark was paired with a monotonically downward sloping landmark (the paths were more direct). The impact on available navigational information from the similarity or dissimilarity of nearby landmarks is likely made through more distinctive visual panoramas, and could be an influential factor in individual and collective animal decision-making about which routes are followed. Furthermore, the effect of landmark complementarity may be relevant to a wide range of species, such as navigating honey bees relying on multiple landmarks, for example a straight line of trees and the sloping brow of a hill.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:54:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.004
  • Quantifying the social structure of a large captive flock of greater
           flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus): potential implications for management
           in captivity
    • Authors: Paul E. Rose; Darren P. Croft
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Paul E. Rose, Darren P. Croft
      An appropriate social environment for species held in captivity is key for ensuring both good welfare and reproductive performance. Species with a complex social structure may suffer if their social requirements are not taken into consideration as part of management and husbandry strategies. Here we aim to understand the drivers of social structure, and the link between social structure and reproduction in a flock of 281 greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) at WWT Slimbridge Wetland Centre. Proximity-based associations between birds were measured three and four times per day (depending upon season and husbandry) from 2012 to 2016. To determine the effect of reproductive activity on social structure, display and nesting behaviour were also recorded for the 2015 breeding season (April to July). Results showed that birds displayed a wider range of social relationships, and that affiliations within the flock were not random. This flamingo flock was differentiated into discrete subgroups, and social structure was stable across some years, but not over all seasons. Social bonds were more consistent across seasons into the nesting period rather than outside of it. During breeding, not all birds that displayed built a nest, and not all displaying birds nested. Future research should further investigate differences in display and nesting patterns within a flock, and determine how the social structure of large flocks compares to smaller flocks of this species. Comparing captive data to information on wild bird sociality would be relevant to highlight any differences in patterns of assortment and connectivity.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:54:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.002
  • The ontogeny of food-caching behaviour in New Zealand robins (Petroica
    • Authors: Lisabertha L. Clark; Rachael C. Shaw
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Lisabertha L. Clark, Rachael C. Shaw
      Hoarding or caching behaviour is a widely-used paradigm for examining a range of cognitive processes in birds, such as social cognition and spatial memory. However, much is still unknown about how caching develops in young birds, especially in the wild. Studying the ontogeny of caching in the wild will help researchers to identify the mechanisms that shape this advantageous foraging strategy. We examined the ontogeny of food caching behaviour in a wild New Zealand passerine, the North Island robin (Petroica longipes). For 12-weeks following fledging, we observed 34 juveniles to examine the development of caching and cache retrieval. Additionally, we compared the caching behaviour of juveniles at 12 weeks post-fledging to 35 adult robins to determine whether juveniles had developed adult-like caching behaviour by this age. Juveniles began caching mealworms shortly after achieving foraging independency. Multivariate analyses revealed that caching rate increased and handling time decreased with increasing age. Juveniles spontaneously began retrieving caches as soon as they had begun to cache and their retrieval rates then remained constant throughout their ensuing development. Likewise, the number of sites used by juveniles did not change with age. Juvenile sex, caregiver sex and the duration of post-fledging parental care did not influence the development of caching, cache retrieval, the number of cache sites used and the time juveniles spent handling mealworms. At 12 weeks post-fledging, juveniles demonstrated levels of caching, cache retrieval and cache site usage that were comparable to adults. However, juvenile prey handling time was still longer than adults. The spontaneous emergence of cache retrieval and the consistency in the number of cache sites used throughout development suggests that these aspects of caching in North Island robins are likely to be innate, but that age and experience have an important role in the development of adult caching behaviours.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:54:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.006
  • Attracted by a magnet: Exploration behaviour of rodents in the presence of
           magnetic objects
    • Authors: Sandra Malewski; E. Pascal Malkemper; František Sedláček; Radim Šumbera; Kai R. Caspa; Hynek Burda; Sabine Begall
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Sandra Malewski, E. Pascal Malkemper, František Sedláček, Radim Šumbera, Kai R. Caspa, Hynek Burda, Sabine Begall
      Magnetosensitivity is widespread among animals with rodents being the most intensively studied mammalian group. The available behavioural assays for magnetoreception are time-consuming, which impedes screens for treatment effects that could characterize the enigmatic magnetoreceptors. Here, we present a fast and simple approach to test if an animal respond to magnetic stimuli: the magnetic novel object assay (MNOA). The MNOA focuses on investigating an animal’s spontaneous exploration behaviour in the presence of a strong bar magnet compared to a demagnetised control. We present consistently longer exploration of the magnet in three different rodent species: Ansell’s mole-rat (Fukomys anselli), C57BL/6J laboratory mouse, and naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber). For the naked mole-rat this is the first report that this species reacts on magnetic stimuli. We conclude that the MNOA holds the potential to screen if an animal responds to magnetic stimuli, possibly indicating the possession of a magnetic sense. Thus, a reliable basis to apply more complex magnetobiological assays would be created.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:54:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.023
  • Male preference for conspecific mates is stronger than females’ in
           Betta splendens
    • Authors: Kevin T. Justus; Tamra C. Mendelson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Kevin T. Justus, Tamra C. Mendelson
      The higher energetic cost related to female gamete investment is classically considered the driving force behind sexual selection. This asymmetric cost of reproduction is thought to cause female preference for elaborate male ornamentation. Subsequent co-evolution of female preferences and male ornaments is thought then to lead to a greater preference for conspecific mates in females as compared to males. Thus, female choice is classically assumed to contribute more than male choice to behavioral isolation between sexually dimorphic species. However, this hypothesis fails to account for the cost of maintaining a territory, building a nest, courtship displays, ornament investment, and parental care, as seen in males of the Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Here we show that male B. splendens have a greater preference for female conspecifics than females have for male conspecifics, when given a choice between conspecifics and the allopatric Betta imbellis. We hypothesize that in B. splendens, the cost of mating may be higher for males than females, and predict that male choice would contribute to behavioral isolation upon secondary contact of wild populations.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:54:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.024
  • Quantification and Validation of Measures for Risky and Delayed Food and
           Monetary Outcome Choices
    • Authors: L.R. Rodriguez; K.L. Hendrickson; E.B. Rasmussen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): L.R. Rodriguez, K.L. Hendrickson, E.B. Rasmussen
      Probability discounting (PD) measures risky choice patterns between smaller, more certain vs. larger, less certain outcomes. PD is associated with obesity as well as higher intake of foods high in fat and sugar. We developed and validated a brief PD task specifically for food-related choices–the Probabilistic Food Choice Questionnaire (PFCQ). We also validated a brief, existing PD monetary measure, the Probabilistic Monetary Choice Questionnaire (PMCQ) by comparing it to a titrating PD task. Participants (N = 110) were randomly assigned to either a food or money condition. Those assigned to the food condition completed the PFCQ and a more established, adjusting-amount PD task for hypothetical food outcomes. Those assigned to the money condition completed the PMCQ and a more established, adjusting-amount PD task. Participants also completed delay discounting (DD) tasks for the same outcome commodity. The PFCQ and adjusting-amount PD tasks strongly correlated across three magnitudes suggesting that the PFCQ may be a satisfactory and briefer measure for risky food choice. The PMCQ also showed significant correlations with the adjusting-amount monetary PD task, supporting its use for a brief measure of monetary discounting. For DD, the choice questionnaires demonstrated significant correlations with the adjusting-amount DD procedures, replicating previous research.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:54:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.020
  • Atypical assortative mating based on body size in an explosive-breeding
           toad from a tropical island of southern China
    • Authors: Tongliang Wang; Lele Jia; Xiaofei Zhai; Jianguo Cui; Jichao Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Tongliang Wang, Lele Jia, Xiaofei Zhai, Jianguo Cui, Jichao Wang
      Mating patterns exhibit considerable intra- and interspecific variation. Sexual selection can lead to the occurrence of random and assortative mating in different populations of the same species. Thus, understanding variation in mating decisions is crucial to understanding variation in the direction of sexual selection. We investigated natural mating patterns in Black-spectacled toads (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), an explosive-breeding species that breeds throughout the year. We captured amplectant pairs (137) and non-amplectant males (212) during breeding seasons from November 2016 to April 2017 in tropical-island population of southern China. Our study found no significant difference in snout-vent length (SVL) between amplectant and non-amplectant males. Female and male SVL were positively correlated with each other. Small females were paired more frequently with small males, less frequently with large males, but had no preference for or against medium males. Medium females exhibited no preference. Large females showed no preference for large males, but were paired less frequently with small males. These data suggested that successful amplectant males had body sizes representative of the entire population. Both random and size-assortative mating were present simultaneously in the same population and within the same breeding season. Female choice was important in shaping the mating behavior of Black-spectacled toads, promoting genotype-frequency stabilization and body-size diversity in the population.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:54:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.018
  • Does male preference play a role in maintaining female limited
           polymorphism in a Batesian mimetic butterfly'
    • Authors: E.L. Westerman; R. Letchinger; A. Tenger-Trolander; D. Massardo; D. Palmer; M.R. Kronforst
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): E.L. Westerman, R. Letchinger, A. Tenger-Trolander, D. Massardo, D. Palmer, M.R. Kronforst
      Female-limited polymorphism occurs in multiple butterfly species with Batesian mimicry. While frequency-dependent selection is often argued as the driving force behind polymorphism in Batesian mimicry systems, male preference and alternative female mating strategies may also influence the maintenance of multiple female forms. Through a series of behavioural assays with the female-limited Batesian mimetic butterfly Papilio polytes, we show that males prefer stationary mimetic females over stationary non-mimetic females, but weigh female activity levels more heavily than female wing pattern when choosing between active mimetic and active non-mimetic females. Male preference for mimetic vs. non-mimetic females is independent of male genotype at the locus responsible for the female wing pattern, the autosomal gene doublesex. However male genotype does influence their response to active females. Male emphasis on female behaviour instead of appearance may reduce sexual selection pressures on female morphology, thereby facilitating frequency-dependent natural selection due to predation risk and toxic model abundance.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:45:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.014
  • Augmented voluntary consumption of ethanol induced by reward downshift
           increases locomotor activity of male Wistar rats in the elevated plus maze
    • Authors: Rocio Donaire; Shannon E. Conrad; Joanna B. Thompson; Mauricio R. Papini; Carmen Torres
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Rocio Donaire, Shannon E. Conrad, Joanna B. Thompson, Mauricio R. Papini, Carmen Torres
      Rats exposed to unexpected reward loss increase voluntary oral consumption of ethanol. Such consumption has been assumed to attenuate loss-induced negative affect (called emotional self-medication). To test this assumption, food-deprived male Wistar rats were exposed to 10 sessions of access to 32% sucrose followed by 5 sessions of access to 4% sucrose (reward downshift). A two-bottle preference test was initiated immediately after each consummatory session to assess ethanol intake. The experimental group received access to 2% ethanol and water, whereas the control group received access to two water bottles. On sessions 11, 12, and 15, immediately after the preference test, animals were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM) for signs of anxiety. Sucrose consumption was reduced after the 32-to-4% sucrose downshift on sessions 11 and 12, but behavior recovered by session 15. Consummatory suppression was followed by increased ethanol intake in the preference test after sessions 11 and 12, but intake was reduced to preshift levels by session 15; no changes were observed in water controls. Finally, general activity (closed-arm entries and total arm entries) in the EPM increased in the ethanol group on session 12, but not on session 15, relative to water controls. The increase in ethanol consumption induced by reward downshift had measurable effects on activity as assessed in the EPM. These results show that voluntary oral 2% ethanol consumption after reward downshift can affect subsequent behavior, but fall short of providing unambiguous evidence that such ethanol consumption reduces negative affect.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T15:54:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.013
  • Grouping promotes risk-taking in unfamiliar settings
    • Authors: Kyriacos Kareklas; Robert W. Elwood; Richard A. Holland
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Kyriacos Kareklas, Robert W. Elwood, Richard A. Holland
      Acting collectively in a group provides risk-reducing benefits. Yet individuals differ in how they take risks, with some being more willing than others to approach dangerous or unfamiliar settings. Therefore, individuals may need to adjust their behaviour when in groups, either as a result of perceiving greater safety or to coordinate collective responses, the latter of which may rely on within-group dynamics biased by group composition. In zebrafish we explored how these aspects of grouping affect risk-taking behaviour by comparing solitary to group conditions and testing the ability of group-member solitary responses to predict collective responses. We focused on approach-latency towards a novel object and an unusual food to test this, for shoals of five fish. There was no indication that collective latencies are predicted by how each fish responded when alone in terms of the extremes, the variance or the mean of group-member latency towards the unusual food and the novel-object. However, fish were overall faster and less variable in their approach when shoaling. This indicates lower risk aversion by individuals in groups, presumably as a result of group safety. An interesting consequence of the overall low risk-aversion in shoals is that more risk-aversive fish adjust their behaviour more than less risk averse fish.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T01:23:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.01.003
  • Developing a Novel Preparation to Analyze the Onset of Derived Stimulus
    • Authors: Adam H. Doughty; Casey M. Irwin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Adam H. Doughty, Casey M. Irwin
      The experimental analysis of derived stimulus relations is a critical research area. A training-then-testing preparation nearly always is used to study derived relations. In the training phase, participants learn the relevant baseline discriminations via differential consequences (e.g., AB and AC relations). In the testing phase, they are presented with probe trials in the absence of differential consequences (e.g., BA and CA symmetry trials and BC and CB equivalence trials). High accuracy levels sometimes are observed from the start of testing such that it is unclear whether the participants learned these relations before testing. The present experiment reports data from a novel preparation that monitors the development of derived relations as trained relations are acquired. Three college students were presented with both training trials (AB, AC) and testing trials (BA, CA, BC, CB) in every session from the start of experimentation. Each participant learned each of the six discriminations by the end of experimentation. Most importantly, they learned the trained and symmetrical relations in close temporal proximity and the equivalence relations only after learning the symmetrical relations. These results are consistent with several findings demonstrating disparities between learning different forms of derived relational responding. The results validate the utility of the present preparation in the experimental analysis of derived relational learning.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T20:46:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.013
  • Sex and size matters: selection on personality in natural prey-predator
    • Authors: Maria Yli-Renko; Jenni E. Pettay; Outi Vesakoski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Maria Yli-Renko, Jenni E. Pettay, Outi Vesakoski
      Optimal life-history strategies are currently considered to be a major driving force for the maintenance of animal personalities. In this experimental study we tested whether naturally occurring predation causes personality-dependent mortality of a marine isopod (Idotea balthica), which could maintain personality variation in nature. Moreover, as isopods are known to have sex-differences in behaviour, we were interested in whether personality-dependent predation was sex-specific. We also hypothesised that predation pressure among personality types could vary according to habitat type, as it has been shown in correlative studies that habitat may influence to personality variation. We used natural predator (European perch Perca fluviatilis) of I. balthica and studied relative mortality of males and females with a different personality types in laboratory settings with two different habitats. We found that male survival was lower than in females for high active individuals. Moreover, predation pressure contributes differently to survival in females and males and this was linked to body size. Larger size was advantageous for low-active males and middle- and high-active females. Conversely, smaller size was advantageous for low-active females and middle-active males. Size did not affect survival in high-active males. Our results suggest that predation can encourage life-history differences between sexes, which leads to different optimal life-history strategies for both sexes and also maintains consistent activity for both sexes.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T20:46:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.023
  • The “olfactory mirror” and other recent attempts to demonstrate
           self-recognition in non-primate species
    • Authors: Gordon G. Gallup
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Gordon G. Gallup
      The recent attempt by Horowitz (2017) to develop an “olfactory mirror” test of self-recognition in domestic dogs raises some important questions about the kind of data that are required to provide definitive evidence for self-recognition in dogs and other species. We conclude that the “olfactory mirror” constitutes a compelling analog to the mark test for mirror self-recognition in primates, but despite claims to the contrary neither dogs, elephants, dolphins, magpies, horses, manta rays, squid, or ants have shown compelling, reproducible evidence for self-recognition in any modality.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T14:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.010
  • Older and wiser' Age differences in foraging and learning by an
           endangered passerine.
    • Authors: Victoria R. Franks; Rose Thorogood
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Victoria R. Franks, Rose Thorogood
      Birds use cues when foraging to help relocate food resources, but natural environments provide many potential cues and choosing which to use may depend on previous experience. Young animals have less experience of their environment compared to adults, so may be slower to learn cues or may need to sample the environment more. Whether age influences cue use and learning has, however, received little experimental testing in wild animals. Here we investigate effects of age in a wild population of hihi (Notiomystis cincta), a threatened New Zealand passerine. We manipulated bird feeders using a novel colour cue to indicate a food reward; once hihi learned its location, we rotated the feeder to determine whether the birds followed the colour or returned to the previous location. Both age groups made fewer errors over trials and learned the location of the food reward, but juveniles continued to sample unrewarding locations more than adults. Following a second rotation, more adults preferred to forage from the hole indicated by the colour cue than juveniles, despite this no longer being rewarding. Overall, juveniles spent longer in the feeder arena to reach the same proportion of foraging time as adults. Combined, these results suggest that juveniles and adults may use an “explore and exploit” foraging strategy differently, and this affects how efficiently they forage. Further work is needed to understand how juveniles may compensate for their inexperience in learning and foraging strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T14:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.009
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