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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 942 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 437)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 193)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 239)
Anuario de investigaciones (Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Buenos Aires)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 163)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy Online     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 150)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Buletin Psikologi     Open Access  
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling et spiritualité / Counselling and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Diversitas : Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  

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Journal Cover
Behavioural Processes
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.849
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 8  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0376-6357
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3163 journals]
  • Sexual selection on the multicomponent display of black morph male
           Girardinus metallicus (Pisces: Poeciliidae)
    • Authors: E.M. Wojan; S.M. Bertram; D.A. Clendenen; C. Castillo; H.M. Neldner; G.R. Kolluru
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 153
      Author(s): E.M. Wojan, S.M. Bertram, D.A. Clendenen, C. Castillo, H.M. Neldner, G.R. Kolluru
      Sexually selected displays often include suites of integrated traits. Black morph males of the poeciliid fish Girardinus metallicus perform courtship and aggressive displays that exhibit their conspicuous yellow and black coloration. Body size, gonopodium size and ventral black area are correlated with intermale aggression, which is key for access to mates. A previous study showed that females may prefer dominant males prior to watching them fight; however, that result was obtained in trials that allowed for male-male interactions across partitions, and to date no study has uncovered the traits important in female choice. We performed a more comprehensive investigation of the multicomponent sexual display including measures of male yellow hue, saturation and brightness. We examined the behavior of size-matched males paired to maximize the difference in yellow saturation, and measured female choice exclusive of male-male interactions and chemical cues. We found no female preference for any traits in the multicomponent sexual display. Males with brighter and more saturated yellow coloration were more likely to be dominant, and dominant males courted and attempted copulations more. Our results suggest that yellow coloration is sexually selected; however, the courtship display requires further investigation because we did not identify targets of female preference, and we discuss possible explanations for this finding.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.04.021
      Issue No: Vol. 153 (2018)
       
  • Taste as a marker for behavioral energy regulation:Replication and
           extension of meal pattern evidence from selectively bred rats
    • Authors: Nancy K. Dess; Kira R. Schreiber; Gabriel M. Winter; Clinton D. Chapman
      Pages: 9 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 153
      Author(s): Nancy K. Dess, Kira R. Schreiber, Gabriel M. Winter, Clinton D. Chapman
      A key feature of energy regulation among species that eat discrete meals is meal patterning – meal frequency, size, and duration. Such animals can adjust to internal states and external circumstances with changes in one or more of those meal parameters, with or without altering total food intake. Relatively little is known about individual differences in meal patterning. We previously reported meal patterning differences between rat lines selectively bred for differential saccharin solution intake, lines that also differ in sensitivity to metabolic challenges: Relative to high-saccharin-consuming counterparts (HiS), male low-saccharin-consuming rats (LoS) ate smaller, more frequent meals. Those findings provided evidence of an association between taste and short term satiety. Twenty generations later, we describe systematic replication of the line difference in meal patterns in males and females using two different kinds of reinforcer pellet. The previous study was further extended by examining meal parameters (1) with bi- and multivariate analyses and (2) after acute food restriction and a moderate stressor. Results are discussed within a behavior-systems framework incorporating taste as a marker for behavioral energy regulation.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 153 (2018)
       
  • Habitat selection of intertidal caprellid amphipods in a changing scenario
    • Authors: G. Martínez-Laiz; M. Ros; C. Navarro-Barranco; J.M. Guerra-García
      Pages: 16 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 153
      Author(s): G. Martínez-Laiz, M. Ros, C. Navarro-Barranco, J.M. Guerra-García
      Habitat selection is a complex process, dependent on numerous fluctuating conditions and key to species coexistence. In a changing global scenario, it will greatly determine the fate of marine organisms and hence is an important subject to be explored. The present study evaluates host specificity of two caprellid amphipod species, Caprella grandimana and Caprella takeuchii, dwelling on a rocky intertidal where the calcifying macroalgae Jania rubens and Ellisolandia elongata show opposite seasonal fluctuation patterns throughout the year. To avoid confounding preference with other factors, the substrate selection experimental design included both multiple choice and non-choice treatments. Macroalgal structure analyses using fractals and interstitial space index were included in the study, as substrate complexity is a main factor driving preference for epifauna. Caprella grandimana actively selected J. rubens, whereas C. takeuchii did not show any preference; both behaviours remaining consistent regardless of the original substrate. Preference for J. rubens is probably owed to its interstitial space and thalli characteristics, as the complexity analysis suggested, since these allow for better refuge against predators and a more suitable surface for grasping. Meanwhile, the plasticity of C. takeuchii seems to favor an ongoing taking over of its congener at the time of the year when J. rubens drops. We highlight the need for rigor when performing substrate selection experiments; the importance of including habitat selection lessons in conservation strategies and modelling studies dealing with global change; and the risk in generalizing results within the family or genus level, which is occasionally inadequate for understanding the functioning of the ecosystem as a whole.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 153 (2018)
       
  • Combined effects of physiological condition and environmental attributes
           in determining call plasticity
    • Authors: Lucia Ziegler; Matias Arim; Francisco Bozinovic
      Pages: 25 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 153
      Author(s): Lucia Ziegler, Matias Arim, Francisco Bozinovic
      Evidence is growing on the ability of anurans to make immediate call adjustments in response to the propagation properties of the environment. However, our understanding of such flexibility is typically based on dichotomous stimuli (i.e. presence/absence), while its condition-dependence has been little explored. We experimentally studied the ability of adjustment and its condition dependence of advertisement calls of Hypsiboas pulchellus in response to different levels of attenuation. Individuals modified most call parameters analyzed, although the direction of adjustments was contingent on individual identity, level of attenuation and trait category (i.e. spectral or temporal). Under low attenuation conditions males lengthened some call elements, partially supporting the hypothesis of plasticity oriented towards maintaining signal transmission, but this trend was not present in the high attenuation treatment. Also, under both attenuation treatments males gave higher frequency notes, as expected from an energy-saving response to changes in social environment or reducing attractiveness due to risk perception. Across treatments individuals in better condition tended to exhibit higher plasticity. These results indicate that call structure could depend on the integration of different cues such as habitat propagation characteristics, acoustic competition for females, and predation risk, while the ability to behave flexibly depends on current body reserves.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 153 (2018)
       
  • Effects of rearing environment and population origin on responses to
           repeated behavioural trials in cane toads (Rhinella marina)
    • Authors: Jodie Gruber; Martin J. Whiting; Gregory Brown; Richard Shine
      Pages: 40 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 153
      Author(s): Jodie Gruber, Martin J. Whiting, Gregory Brown, Richard Shine
      Behavioural responses to repeated trials in captivity can be driven by many factors including rearing environment, population of origin, habituation to captivity/trial conditions and an individual’s behavioural type (e.g., bold versus shy). We tested the effect of rearing environment (captive raised common-garden versus wild-caught) and population origin (range-edge versus range-front) on the responses of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) to repeated exploration and risk-taking assays in captivity. We found that behavioural responses to identical assays performed on two occasions were complex and showed few consistent patterns based on rearing environment or population of origin. However, behavioural traits were repeatable across Trial Blocks when all sample populations were grouped together, indicating general consistency in individual toad behaviour across repeated behavioural assays. Our findings exemplify the complexity and unpredictability of behavioural responses and their effects on the repeatability and interpretation of behavioural traits across repeated behavioural assays in captivity. To meaningfully interpret the results from repeated behavioural assays, we need to consider how multiple factors may affect behavioural responses to these tests and importantly, how these responses may affect the repeatability of behavioural traits across time.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 153 (2018)
       
  • Factors that influence the onset of parental care in zebra finches: Roles
           for egg stimuli and prolactin
    • Authors: Kristina O. Smiley; Elizabeth Adkins-Regan
      Pages: 47 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 153
      Author(s): Kristina O. Smiley, Elizabeth Adkins-Regan
      Parental care is a critical component for determining reproductive success both for a current set of offspring but also over the lifetime of the individual. The hormone prolactin has often been implicated as a parental care hormone across taxa but causal relationships have only been strongly demonstrated in mammals and in a few select species of birds. For instance, in mammals, maternal care towards foster pups can be induced by exogenous treatment with prolactin, in concert with other reproductive hormones involved in pregnancy. We aimed to address this causal mechanism in birds by artificially elevating prolactin during the nest building and egg laying stages using vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and then exposing them to foster chicks. We predicted that increasing prolactin would increase brooding and feeding behaviors towards foster chicks compared to the saline control group. Parental behavior towards foster chicks was only shown by individuals who had initiated clutches regardless of treatment. VIP treatment had no effect on parental behavior; however, a positive relationship was found between male and female feeding rates in the VIP but not control group. Our results suggest that both eggs and chicks are sufficient to stimulate foster care, perhaps through endogenous prolactin signalling, while further elevations of prolactin may serve to synchronize parental behaviors between pairs.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 153 (2018)
       
  • Are laboratory studies on behavior of troglobitic species always
           trustful' A case study with an isopod from Brazil
    • Authors: Ana Paula Bueno da Silva; Isabel Pires Mascarenhas Ribeiro Oliveira; Rafaela Bastos-Pereira; Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira
      Pages: 55 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 153
      Author(s): Ana Paula Bueno da Silva, Isabel Pires Mascarenhas Ribeiro Oliveira, Rafaela Bastos-Pereira, Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira
      There is a huge lack of information regarding the natural history of subterranean species, particularly focusing on aspects of the behavioral ecology of Brazilian cave fauna. In the present work, we aimed to describe and evaluate the behavioral repertoire of Xangoniscus itacarambiensis (Isopoda, Styloniscidae) through observations in the field and laboratory and also by means of complementary experiments. Overall, we recorded 25 spontaneous behaviors. Besides describing the physical habitat, we recorded some intraspecific interactions, agonistic and territorial behaviors, as well as the amphibian habit. There was a direct relationship between the size of travertine dams where they live (measurements of length and width) and the mean number of individuals, although there was no significant correlation with the pool depth. Behaviors observed in the laboratory differed qualitatively and quantitatively from those observed in the field, with individuals more active in the latter. This scenario alerts about the significant behavioral alteration of such isopods when removed from their natural habitat, what must be considered in future behavioral studies including troglobites given their natural sensitivity to environmental changes.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.05.009
      Issue No: Vol. 153 (2018)
       
  • Social environment as a factor affecting exploration and learning in
           pre-juvenile rats
    • Authors: Klaudia Modlinska; Rafał Stryjek; Anna Chrzanowska; Wojciech Pisula
      Pages: 77 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 153
      Author(s): Klaudia Modlinska, Rafał Stryjek, Anna Chrzanowska, Wojciech Pisula
      Stress associated with social isolation in early life can lead to disturbances in the emotional regulation in adult rats. However, there are no reports on the impact of isolation from the mother while providing contact with peers. Under such conditions, young individuals have the opportunity to interact with others, are able to develop social behaviour, etc. Yet, there is no stimulation and care provided by the mother. We examined the relative impact of maternal contact and sibling contact in the rarely studied pre-juvenile (3rd and 4th week post birth) period on subsequent development. An experiment was designed to compare the impact of different social environments on the animals’ behaviour in adulthood. There were three breeding conditions: young with mother, young with peers, and standard breeding conditions. Adult rats were subjected to a T-Maze test to measure the level of exploratory behaviour. Spatial learning was assessed by placing water bottles in the side corridors. The analysis revealed that a distorted environment during the development process has a negative impact on the rats’ emotional regulation and a subtle effect on related aspects of adaptive behaviours (i.e. exploration). In the pre-juvenile period, to some degree, contact with peers may be complementary to the mother’s influence.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.05.010
      Issue No: Vol. 153 (2018)
       
  • Influence of second outcome on monetary discounting
    • Authors: David J. Cox; Jesse Dallery
      Pages: 84 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 153
      Author(s): David J. Cox, Jesse Dallery
      The rates that an outcome (e.g., money) loses value as delay increases or probability decreases are called delay and probability discounting, respectively. Discounting is typically studied by asking participants to make choices between two options that vary in amount and delay (e.g., $50 now vs. $100 in 3 months) or probability (e.g., 100% chance of $50 vs. 60% chance of $100). Little is known about how more complex options affect discounting. We asked participants (N = 56) to choose between two options that each resulted in two outcomes (e.g., getting $50 now and losing $1000 in 6 months vs. getting $100 in 3 months and losing $500 now). The second outcome varied across a range of delays and probabilities. Results indicated the probability of the second outcome had a greater influence on rates of discounting compared to the delay to the second outcome. Increasing the probability of the loss decreased rates of discounting the first outcome (i.e., increased preference for the larger-later alternative). Finally, a multiplicative model best described discounting of two, delayed-and-probabilistic outcomes. This suggests the value of two outcomes interact to influence rates of discounting.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.05.012
      Issue No: Vol. 153 (2018)
       
  • SQAB 2017: Quantitative and Comparative Analyses of Behavior
    • Authors: Christopher A. Podlesnik; Federico Sanabria
      Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 152
      Author(s): Christopher A. Podlesnik, Federico Sanabria


      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 152 (2018)
       
  • Seven myths of memory
    • Authors: Nicola S. Clayton; Clive Wilkins
      Pages: 3 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 152
      Author(s): Nicola S. Clayton, Clive Wilkins
      In this paper we highlight seven myths about memory, which centre around the fact that memories, as we experience them, are not only about the past, they are also prospective. Although episodic memory provides the template for future scenarios, it can be reassessed each time it is recalled, and in part is dependent on the sequence in which events unfold. We explore seven myths about memory, and the relationship between memory and experience. We refer to ‘The Moustachio Quartet’, a series of novels, which highlight themes and ideas relevant to our argument, and ‘The Creatures in the Night’, a picture book of paintings that explore the passage of time. We integrate evidence from science and the arts to explore the subjective nature of memory and mental time travel, arguing that our capacity to juggle multiple perspectives evolved for the act of prospection, as an aid to move time forward to the advantage of our species by imagining future scenarios.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.12.018
      Issue No: Vol. 152 (2018)
       
  • Spatial midsession reversal learning in rats: Effects of egocentric Cue
           use and memory
    • Authors: Rebecca M. Rayburn-Reeves; Mary K. Moore; Thea E. Smith; Daniel A. Crafton; Kelly L. Marden
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 152
      Author(s): Rebecca M. Rayburn-Reeves, Mary K. Moore, Thea E. Smith, Daniel A. Crafton, Kelly L. Marden
      The midsession reversal task has been used to investigate behavioral flexibility and cue use in non-human animals, with results indicating differences in the degree of control by environmental cues across species. For example, time-based control has been found in rats only when tested in a T-maze apparatus and under specific conditions in which position and orientation (i.e., egocentric) cues during the intertrial interval could not be used to aid performance. Other research in an operant setting has shown that rats often produce minimal errors around the reversal location, demonstrating response patterns similar to patterns exhibited by humans and primates in this task. The current study aimed to reduce, but not eliminate, the ability for rats to utilize egocentric cues by placing the response levers on the opposite wall of the chamber in relation to the pellet dispenser. Results showed that rats made minimal errors prior to the reversal, suggesting time-based cues were not controlling responses, and that they switched to the second correct stimulus within a few trials after the reversal event. Video recordings also revealed highly structured patterns of behavior by the majority of rats, which often differed depending on which response was reinforced. We interpret these findings as evidence that rats are adept at utilizing their own egocentric cues and that these cues, along with memory for the recent response-reinforcement contingencies, aid in maximizing reinforcement over the session.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 152 (2018)
       
  • Algorithmic analysis of relational learning processes in instructional
           technology: Some implications for basic, translational, and applied
           research
    • Authors: William J. McIlvane; Joanne B. Kledaras; Christophe J. Gerard; Lorin Wilde; David Smelson
      Pages: 18 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 152
      Author(s): William J. McIlvane, Joanne B. Kledaras, Christophe J. Gerard, Lorin Wilde, David Smelson
      A few noteworthy exceptions notwithstanding, quantitative analyses of relational learning are most often simple descriptive measures of study outcomes. For example, studies of stimulus equivalence have made much progress using measures such as percentage consistent with equivalence relations, discrimination ratio, and response latency. Although procedures may have ad hoc variations, they remain fairly similar across studies. Comparison studies of training variables that lead to different outcomes are few. Yet to be developed are tools designed specifically for dynamic and/or parametric analyses of relational learning processes. This paper will focus on recent studies to develop (1) quality computer-based programmed instruction for supporting relational learning in children with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disabilities and (2) formal algorithms that permit ongoing, dynamic assessment of learner performance and procedure changes to optimize instructional efficacy and efficiency. Because these algorithms have a strong basis in evidence and in theories of stimulus control, they may have utility also for basic and translational research. We present an overview of the research program, details of algorithm features, and summary results that illustrate their possible benefits. It also presents arguments that such algorithm development may encourage parametric research, help in integrating new research findings, and support in-depth quantitative analyses of stimulus control processes in relational learning. Such algorithms may also serve to model control of basic behavioral processes that is important to the design of effective programmed instruction for human learners with and without functional disabilities.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 152 (2018)
       
  • To free, or not to free: Social reinforcement effects in the social
           release paradigm with rats
    • Authors: Lisa C. Hiura; Lavinia Tan; Timothy D. Hackenberg
      Pages: 37 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 152
      Author(s): Lisa C. Hiura, Lavinia Tan, Timothy D. Hackenberg
      The present research measured social reinforcement in rats, using a social-release procedure in which lever presses permitted 10-s access to a familiar social partner. The work requirements for reinforcement increased systematically according to progressive-ratio (PR) schedules. Social and food reinforcement value were compared across blocks of sessions (Experiment 1) and concurrently within the same sessions (Experiment 2). To assess motivational effects, response and reinforcer rates for both reinforcer types were studied under food restriction, social restriction, and combined food and social restriction. Responding was maintained by both reinforcers, albeit at substantially higher levels for food than for social access. Responding for social access decreased to low levels under extinction conditions, demonstrating functional control by the social-reinforcement contingency. Sensitivity to social restriction was seen in some conditions in Experiment 2, in which social reinforcers were earned earlier in the session (at lower food prices) under social restriction than under the other deprivation conditions. Altogether, results are consistent with a social reinforcement conceptualization, and demonstrate an important role for social contact in social release behavior. The study demonstrates a promising set of methods for analyzing and quantifying social reinforcement.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 152 (2018)
       
  • Drug-sensitive Reward in Crayfish: Exploring the Neural Basis of Addiction
           with Automated Learning Paradigms
    • Authors: Robert Huber; Adebobola Imeh-Nathaniel; Thomas I. Nathaniel; Sayali Gore; Udita Datta; Rohan Bhimani; Jules B. Panksepp; Jaak Panksepp; Moira J. van Staaden
      Pages: 47 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 152
      Author(s): Robert Huber, Adebobola Imeh-Nathaniel, Thomas I. Nathaniel, Sayali Gore, Udita Datta, Rohan Bhimani, Jules B. Panksepp, Jaak Panksepp, Moira J. van Staaden
      Results of recent work from our labs and those of others have broadened perspectives on addiction beyond a human-specific, cognitive phenomenon. Addictive plant alkaloids are defensive compounds which have arisen to counter herbivory. With insects the true targets of the coevolutionary arms race, humans may be little more than collateral damage when impacted by ‘human’ drugs of abuse. The present paper summarizes recent contributions, with a primary focus on our own research in crayfish, where we characterize the behavioral and neural consequences resulting from chronic and acute exposure to psychostimulant and addictive drugs. Substituted phenethylamines, like amphetamine and cocaine, exhibit a wide range of effects in crayfish with direct parallels to those described from mammalian preparations. Unconditioned effects include intoxication and psychostimulation, where repeated exposure is accompanied by tolerance and sensitization, respectively. Psychostimulants exhibit powerful reinforcing properties in conditioned place preference, subject to extinction and reinstatement. Crayfish readily self-administer amphetamines using instrumental learning approaches. With a nervous system modular and uniquely accessible to neural probing, crayfish offer unique opportunities for studying the basic biological mechanisms of drug effects, for exploring how the appetitive disposition is implemented, and for examining how this is related to the rewarding action of drugs of abuse.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 152 (2018)
       
  • Durability and generalizability of time-based intervention effects on
           impulsive choice in rats
    • Authors: Carrie Bailey; Jennifer R. Peterson; Aaron Schnegelsiepen; Sarah L. Stuebing; Kimberly Kirkpatrick
      Pages: 54 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 152
      Author(s): Carrie Bailey, Jennifer R. Peterson, Aaron Schnegelsiepen, Sarah L. Stuebing, Kimberly Kirkpatrick
      Impulsive choice involves choosing a smaller-sooner (SS) reward over a larger-later (LL) reward. Due to the importance of timing processes in impulsive choice, time-based interventions have been developed to decrease impulsive choice. The present set of experiments assessed the durability and generalizability of time-based interventions. Experiment 1 assessed fixed interval (FI) or variable interval (VI) intervention efficacy over 9 months. The FI intervention decreased impulsive choice, and this effect persisted over time, but the VI intervention effects were only apparent when tested immediately after the intervention. Experiment 2 examined the generalizability of the FI and VI interventions on choice tasks manipulating the SS delay, LL delay, or LL magnitude. The FI intervention decreased sensitivity to delay, promoting LL choices in both delay tasks, but the VI intervention only altered choices when manipulating the SS delay. Experiment 3 further examined the FI intervention effects on tasks that manipulated the LL delay or magnitude immediately following the intervention. The intervention decreased sensitivity to both delay and magnitude. The experiments indicate that the FI intervention is effective at decreasing impulsive choice behavior for an extended period across changing delays and magnitudes, suggesting a relatively broad effect on choice behavior.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 152 (2018)
       
  • Ultimate explanations and suboptimal choice
    • Authors: Marco Vasconcelos; Armando Machado; Josefa N.S. Pandeirada
      Pages: 63 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 152
      Author(s): Marco Vasconcelos, Armando Machado, Josefa N.S. Pandeirada
      Researchers have unraveled multiple cases in which behavior deviates from rationality principles. We propose that such deviations are valuable tools to understand the adaptive significance of the underpinning mechanisms. To illustrate, we discuss in detail an experimental protocol in which animals systematically incur substantial foraging losses by preferring a lean but informative option over a rich but non-informative one. To understand how adaptive mechanisms may fail to maximize food intake, we review a model inspired by optimal foraging principles that reconciles sub-optimal choice with the view that current behavioral mechanisms were pruned by the optimizing action of natural selection. To move beyond retrospective speculation, we then review critical tests of the model, regarding both its assumptions and its (sometimes counterintuitive) predictions, all of which have been upheld. The overall contention is that (a) known mechanisms can be used to develop better ultimate accounts and that (b) to understand why mechanisms that generate suboptimal behavior evolved, we need to consider their adaptive value in the animal’s characteristic ecology.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.023
      Issue No: Vol. 152 (2018)
       
  • Paradoxical choice in rats: Subjective valuation and mechanism of choice
    • Authors: Andrés Ojeda; Robin A. Murphy; Alex Kacelnik
      Pages: 73 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 152
      Author(s): Andrés Ojeda, Robin A. Murphy, Alex Kacelnik
      Decision-makers benefit from information only when they can use it to guide behavior. However, recent experiments found that pigeons and starlings value information that they cannot use. Here we show that this paradox is also present in rats, and explore the underlying decision process. Subjects chose between two options that delivered food probabilistically after a fixed delay. In one option (“info”), outcomes (food/no-food) were signaled immediately after choice, whereas in the alternative (“non-info”) the outcome was uncertain until the delay lapsed. Rats sacrificed up to 20% potential rewards by preferring the info option, but reversed preference when the cost was 60%. This reversal contrasts with the results found with pigeons and starlings and may reflect species’ differences worth of further investigation. Results are consistent with predictions of the Sequential Choice Model (SCM), that proposes that choices are driven by the mechanisms that control action in sequential encounters. As expected from the SCM, latencies to respond in single-option trials predicted preferences in choice trials, and latencies in choice trials were the same or shorter than in single-option trials. We argue that the congruence of results in distant vertebrates probably reflects evolved adaptations to shared fundamental challenges in nature, and that the apparently paradoxical overvaluing of information is not sub-optimal as has been claimed, even though its functional significance is not yet understood.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.024
      Issue No: Vol. 152 (2018)
       
  • Spacing extinction sessions as a behavioral technique for preventing
           relapse in an animal model of voluntary actions
    • Authors: Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa; A. Matías Gámez; Javier Nieto
      Pages: 54 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 151
      Author(s): Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa, A. Matías Gámez, Javier Nieto
      Instrumental extinction has been proposed as a model for understanding the suppression of problematic voluntary actions. Consequently, it has been suggested that response recovery after extinction could model relapse. Four experiments with rats used a free operant procedure to explore the impact of spacing extinction sessions on spontaneous recovery, renewal, reinstatement, and rapid reacquisition of extinguished lever-pressing. Initially, in all experiments, hungry rats were trained to perform two responses (R1 and R2) for food. Then, all responses underwent extinction. For R1, rats experienced a longer intersession interval (72 h) than for R2 (24 h). During the final restoration test, it was observed that using spaced extinction sessions reduced spontaneous recovery, renewal, and reinstatement. However, implementing a longer intersession interval throughout extinction exposure did not slow the rate of reacquisition of operant responses. The present findings suggest that in most cases extinction is more enduring when the extinction sessions are spaced. Since expanding the intersession interval during extinction might be interpreted as conducting extinction in multiple temporal contexts, the overall pattern of results was explained based on contextual modulation.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T19:02:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.01.021
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2018)
       
  • Lower light intensity reduces larval aggression in matrinxã, Brycon
           amazonicus
    • Authors: Ana Caroliny C. Lopes; Marle Angélica Villacorta-Correa; Thaís B. Carvalho
      Pages: 62 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 151
      Author(s): Ana Caroliny C. Lopes, Marle Angélica Villacorta-Correa, Thaís B. Carvalho
      Brycon amazonicus shows a high frequency of aggressive behavior, which can be a limiting factor in intensive farming systems. Environmental changes can modulate the social interactions of fish and reduce aggression during the different stages of production. Groups of three larvae at 12 h after hatching (HAH) were subjected to different levels of light intensity: low (17 ± 3 lx), intermediate (204 ± 12.17 lx) and high (1,613.33 ± 499.03 lx), with eight replicates for each level. The lower light intensity reduced the frequency of aggressive interactions and locomotor activity exhibited by the animals. Based on these results, light intensity modulates aggression in B. amazonicus larvae. Manipulation of this factor could improve the social conditions of this species during farming and contribute to the development of new production technologies.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T19:02:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2018)
       
  • A nematode that can manipulate the behaviour of slugs
    • Authors: Alex Morris; Michael Green; Hayley Martin; Katie Crossland; William T. Swaney; Sally M. Williamson; Robbie Rae
      Pages: 73 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 151
      Author(s): Alex Morris, Michael Green, Hayley Martin, Katie Crossland, William T. Swaney, Sally M. Williamson, Robbie Rae
      The ability of parasites to manipulate the behaviour of their hosts has evolved multiple times, and has a clear fitness benefit to the parasite in terms of facilitating growth, reproduction and transfer to suitable hosts. The mechanisms by which these behavioural changes are induced are poorly understood, but in many cases parasite manipulation of serotonergic signalling in the host brain is implicated. Here we report that Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, a parasite of terrestrial gastropod molluscs, can alter the behaviour of slugs. Uninfected slugs (Deroceras panormitanum, Arion subfuscus and Arion hortensis) avoid areas where P. hermaphrodita is present, but slugs infected with P. hermaphrodita are more likely to be found where the nematodes are present. This ability is specific to P. hermaphrodita and other nematodes (Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) do not induce this behavioural change. To investigate how P. hermaphrodita changes slug behaviour we exposed slugs to fluoxetine (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and cyproheptadine (a serotonin receptor antagonist). Uninfected slugs fed fluoxetine no longer avoided areas where P. hermaphrodita was present; and conversely, infected slugs fed cyproheptadine showed no increased attraction to areas with nematodes. These findings suggest that a possible mechanism by which P. hermaphrodita is able to manipulate parasite avoidance behaviour in host slugs is by manipulating serotonergic signalling in the brain, and that increased serotonin levels are potentially associated with a reduction in parasite avoidance.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T19:02:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.021
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2018)
       
  • Effect of the exploratory behaviour on a bird’s ability to
           categorize a predator
    • Authors: Jana Nácarová; Petr Veselý; Roman Fuchs
      Pages: 89 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 151
      Author(s): Jana Nácarová, Petr Veselý, Roman Fuchs
      Despite the encountering of a predator always being extremely threatening, there is a significant plasticity among individuals in how they cope with such a situation. In laboratory experiments with wild-caught great tits (Parus major), we tested the effect of exploratory behaviour (performance in novel food, object and environment test, startle test) on the ability of individual birds to assess the threat represented by a predator. We presented a wooden dummy of the European sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), an extremely dangerous predator, and its visual modifications (chimeras), changing the beak or head to be non-threatening (those of a pigeon – Columba livia f. domestica). We showed that the differences between ‘slow’ and ‘fast explorers’ are not very distinct, but that ‘slow explorers’ generally tended to be more cautious in the presence of an unmodified sparrowhawk dummy, while the ‘fast explorers’ tended to observe the dummy. On the contrary, ‘slow explorers’ tended to treat both chimaeras (and the pigeon dummy as well) as less-threatening than ‘fast explorers’. Since ‘slow explorers’ are usually considered to be more sensitive to environmental cues, it came as no surprise that most of them correctly assessed the unmodified sparrowhawk dummy as threatening, while they probably subjected the chimeras to a detailed inspection and were not confused by the presence of sparrowhawk features and assessed them as non-threatening.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T19:02:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.021
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2018)
       
  • Differential reinforcement of low rates differentially decreased timing
           precision
    • Authors: Matthew L. Eckard; Elizabeth G.E. Kyonka
      Pages: 111 - 118
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 151
      Author(s): Matthew L. Eckard, Elizabeth G.E. Kyonka
      Timing processes have been implicated as potential mechanisms that underlie self-controlled choice. To investigate the impact of an intervention that has been shown to increase self-controlled choice on timing processes, accuracy and precision of temporal discrimination were assessed in an 18-s peak procedure (18-s fixed interval trials; 54-s peak trials). During an intervention phase, mice in three treatment groups experienced differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) schedules of reinforcement of 27 s, 18 s, or 9 s. A fourth group received continued exposure to the peak procedure. After the DRL intervention, timing was reassessed using the peak procedure. In contrast to previous reports, the DRL intervention resulted in less precise timing as indicated by increased peak spread and disrupted single-trial measures of temporal control. These effects were only detected just after the DRL intervention suggesting a transient effect of DRL exposure on timing. The increase in peak spread in the present experiment suggests delay exposure via DRL schedules may produce a “dose-dependent” effect on temporal discrimination, which may also increase self-controlled choice.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T19:02:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.022
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2018)
       
  • Corrigendum to “Choosing the right delay-discounting task: Completion
           times and rates of nonsystematic data” [Behav. Processes 151 (2018)
           119–125]
    • Authors: Jillian M. Rung; Thomas M. Argyle; Jodi L. Siri; Gregory J. Madden
      Pages: 119 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Jillian M. Rung, Thomas M. Argyle, Jodi L. Siri, Gregory J. Madden


      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.022
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2018)
       
  • Choosing the right delay-discounting task: Completion times and rates of
           nonsystematic data
    • Authors: Jillian M. Rung; Thomas M. Argyle; Jodi L. Siri; Gregory J. Madden
      Pages: 119 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 151
      Author(s): Jillian M. Rung, Thomas M. Argyle, Jodi L. Siri, Gregory J. Madden
      A variety of delay discounting tasks are widely used in human studies designed to quantify the degree to which individuals discount the value of delayed rewards. It is currently unknown which task(s) yields the largest proportion of valid and systematic data using standard criteria (Johnson & Bickel, 2008). The goal of this study was to compare three delay-discounting tasks on task duration and amount of valid and systematic data produced. In Experiment 1, 180 college students completed one of three tasks online (fixed alternatives, titrating, or visual analogue scale [VAS]). Invalid and nonsystematic data, identified using standard criteria, were most prevalent with the VAS (47.3% of participants). The other tasks produced more (and similar amounts of) valid and systematic data, but required more time to complete than the VAS. Viewing systematic data as more important than completion times, Experiment 2 (n = 153 college students) sought to reduce the amount of invalid datasets in the fixed-alternatives task, and compare amounts of nonsystematic data with the titrating task. Completion times were superior in the titrating task, which produced modestly more systematic data than the fixed-alternatives task. Causes of invalid and nonsystematic data are discussed, as are methods for reducing data exclusion.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T19:02:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.022
      Issue No: Vol. 151 (2018)
       
  • Testing aggressive behaviour in a feeding context: Importance of
           ethologically relevant stimuli
    • Authors: Daniel González; Péter Szenczi; Oxána Bánszegi; Robyn Hudson
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 150
      Author(s): Daniel González, Péter Szenczi, Oxána Bánszegi, Robyn Hudson
      The choice of stimuli used in tests of animal behaviour can have a critical effect on the outcome. Here we report two experiments showing how different foods influenced aggressive behaviour in competition tests at weaning among littermates of the domestic cat. Whereas in Experiment 1 canned food elicited almost no overt competition, a piece of raw beef rib elicited clearly aggressive behaviour among littermates. In Experiment 2 the food stimuli were chosen to differ from raw beef rib in various combinations of taste/smell, texture and monopolizability. Kittens showed different levels of aggression in response to the five stimuli tested, which suggests that the strong effect of beef rib in eliciting aggressive behaviour was due to a complex combination of features. We suggest that using stimuli approximating the evolved, functional significance to the species concerned is more likely to result in robust, biologically relevant behaviours than more artificial stimuli.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T02:45:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 150 (2018)
       
  • Spatial behaviour of an overlooked alien squirrel: the case of Siberian
           chipmunks Eutamias sibiricus
    • Authors: Rudy Zozzoli; Mattia Menchetti; Emiliano Mori
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Rudy Zozzoli, Mattia Menchetti, Emiliano Mori
      Alien species of concern within the European Union have been recently listed and their populations need to be monitored, to plan addressed eradication or control programs. Therefore, the assessment of their presence should be rapidly carried out, particularly for elusive species or for those living at low densities. The Siberian chipmunk Eutamias sibiricus is a ground-dwelling squirrel, naturally distributed in northern and eastern Asia. Many introduced populations occur in Europe and Italy too. This species has been listed within the invasive species concern within the European Union and, thus, monitoring is mandatory to manage its potential range expansion. We carried out a hair-tube survey on 31 wood patches in northern and central Italy, where reproductive populations of Siberian chipmunk have been recorded. Hair tubes provided reliable data in assessing the presence of the Siberian chipmunk, with only 1% pseudo-absence and a high detection probability. The occurrence of Siberian chipmunk was positively influenced by study site and by the distance from release site, confirming low dispersal abilities by this species. Dense understorey also affected the presence of chipmunks, preventing them to search for food on the ground and to dig burrows.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.05.014
       
  • Pathways to Cognitive Design
    • Authors: Annie E. Wertz; Cristina Moya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Annie E. Wertz, Cristina Moya
      Despite a shared recognition that the design of the human mind and the design of human culture are tightly linked, researchers in the evolutionary social sciences tend to specialize in understanding one at the expense of the other. The disciplinary boundaries roughly correspond to research traditions that focus more on natural selection and those that focus more on cultural evolution. In this paper, we articulate how two research traditions within the evolutionary social sciences—evolutionary psychology and cultural evolution—approach the study of design. We focus our analysis on the design of cognitive mechanisms that are the result of the interplay of genetic and cultural evolution. We aim to show how the approaches of these two research traditions can complement each other, and provide a framework for developing a wider range of testable hypotheses about cognitive design. To do so, we provide concrete illustrations of how this integrated approach can be used to interrogate cognitive design using examples from our own work on plant and symbolic group boundary cognition. We hope this recognition of different pathways to design will broaden the hypothesis space in the evolutionary social sciences and encourage methodological pluralism in the investigation of the mind.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.05.013
       
  • Behavioral variation post-invasion: resemblance in some, but not all,
           behavioral patterns among invasive and native praying mantids
    • Authors: Cameron Jones; Nicolas DiRienzo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Cameron Jones, Nicolas DiRienzo
      Animal invasions can be devastating for native species. Behavioral variation is known to influence animal invasions, yet comparatively less is known about how behavioral variation influences invasive-native species interactions. Here we examined how the mean and variance surrounding several behavioral traits in two sympatric species of praying mantis differ and how these behavioral types translate to actual prey capture success using the introduced European mantis, Mantis religiosa, and the native bordered mantis, Stagmomantis limbata. We assayed time spent in the open (risk proneness), response towards a novel prey, and voracity within a population of M. religiosa and S. limbata. We found that the native and invasive mantids displayed no differences in their average behavioral tendencies. The native exhibited significant levels of repeatability in voracity while the invasive did not. The lack of repeatability in the invasive appears to be driven by lower levels of among-individual variation in voracity. This may have evolutionary consequences for native S. limbata if it results in strong selection in native levels of mean and among-individual variation. Significant levels of among-individual differences were found in other behaviors (response to a novel prey and risk proneness) across species, suggesting less selection on invasive behavioral variation in these traits. Risk proneness and response towards a novel prey also formed a behavioral syndrome across species, yet neither behavior was correlated with voracity in either species. Our results illustrate the need to examine the ecological effects of behavioral variation of both invasive and native species to determine how that might impact invasive-native interactions.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.05.011
       
  • Selected emergence in the evolution of behavior and cognition
    • Authors: H. Clark Barrett
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): H. Clark Barrett
      In the evolution of cognition and behavior, a recurrent question concerns the degree to which any given aspect of the phenotype has been “selected for” or “specified,” as opposed to arising as a byproduct of some other process. In some sense this is the key question for evolutionary theories of development that seek to connect ultimate evolutionary accounts to proximate developmental accounts of ontogeny. A popular solution to the specification problem is to invoke “emergence,” in which phenotypes are co-constructed by many causes and cannot be reduced to any one of them. However, the concept of emergence, while appealing, can obscure sources of ultimate causation by leaving them unspecified. Here I explore the idea of selected emergence, in which phenotypic outcomes do emerge from a confluence of factors, some haphazard, but which include in part a history of selection, genetic and / or cultural, to produce phenotypic outcomes of that type. I discuss potential case studies of selected emergence, explore its empirical implications and provide suggestions for future research on the evolution of emergent outcomes.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.04.019
       
  • Evolutionary Approaches to Complex, Asymmetrically Structured Societies
    • Authors: Theodore Koditschek
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Theodore Koditschek


      PubDate: 2018-06-01T01:42:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.04.020
       
  • Implicit relational learning in a multiple-object tracking task
    • Authors: Olga F. Lazareva; John McInnerney; Tiffany Williams
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Olga F. Lazareva, John McInnerney, Tiffany Williams
      We studied implicit relational learning by embedding contextual relational information into a multiple-object tracking task. In two experiments, participants were instructed to track two or four out of eight moving objects and report at the end of the trial whether a single cued object was among those they tracked (yes/no task). The stimulus display also contained two background strips of different width. In the informative condition, the location of the cued object predicted the correct choice: If the answer was "yes", then the cued object was always located next to the narrower strip; otherwise, it was always located next to the wider strip (or vice versa). In the random condition, the location of the object did not predict the correct choice. Participants in the informative condition consistently displayed lower tracking accuracy than in the random condition, possibly due to attentional demands introduced by implicit relational task. At the same time, participants in the informative condition demonstrated no awareness of the task structure; instead, their reports were consistent with the attempts to track moving objects. Our task can provide a suitable model for studying implicit relational learning in adult participants that is essential for establishing generality of factors affecting relational learning.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T19:02:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.04.014
       
  • A predator’s response to a prey’s deterrent signal changes
           with experience
    • Authors: Rao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): S. Aguilar-Argüello, C. Díaz-Castelazo, D. Rao
      Prey signalling to predators is an attempt to divert or nullify an attack even before it occurs. If these signals are backed up by a potent defence, then the likelihood of the predators learning to avoid them is high. In species that use deceptive signalling, predators could learn to overcome such a display and diminish the efficacy of the display. We studied the effect of experience on the efficacy of tephritid fly displays against jumping spiders. We compared attacks on displaying flies, non-displaying flies, and two other prey species (a facile prey and a prey with a defence). Spiders were more likely to attack displaying flies over time. However, spiders that were familiar with the fly appearance but not display also increased their attack rates. We suggest that spiders attend to both components of the fly display, i.e. motion and appearance, but with motion cues taking priority.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T03:23:08Z
       
  • Increased exploratory activity in rats with deficient sensorimotor gating:
           a study of schizophrenia-relevant symptoms with genetically heterogeneous
           NIH-HS and Roman rat strains
    • Authors: Carles Tapias-Espinosa; Cristóbal Río-Álamos; Daniel Sampedro-Viana; Cristina Gerbolés; Ignasi Oliveras; Ana Sánchez-González; Adolf Tobeña; Alberto Fernández-Teruel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Carles Tapias-Espinosa, Cristóbal Río-Álamos, Daniel Sampedro-Viana, Cristina Gerbolés, Ignasi Oliveras, Ana Sánchez-González, Adolf Tobeña, Alberto Fernández-Teruel
      Schizophrenia involves positive, negative and cognitive symptoms, as well as comorbidity with anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response is a measure of sensorimotor gating that is impaired in schizophrenia and animal models of the disease. Remarkably, impaired PPI has been related to other schizophrenia-like features in rodent models, such as cognitive deficits and hyperactivity. However, it remains to be investigated whether deficient PPI and increased exploratory activity are associated in genetically heterogeneous (outbred) naïve animals. This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationships among PPI and other schizophrenia-related symptoms, such as augmented exploratory activity, anxiety and compulsivity in the genetically heterogeneous (outbred) NIH-HS rat stock (HS) and in the genetically-selected inbred Roman High-Avoidance (RHA) and Low-avoidance (RLA) rats. Animals underwent the following tests: open-field (exploratory activity), elevated zero-maze (anxiety-like behavior), marble burying (compulsive-like behavior), and PPI. Three groups of HS rats were formed according to their PPI scores, i.e. Low-PPI, Medium-PPI and High-PPI. The HS Low-PPI group displayed higher exploratory activity in the open-field than the HS Medium-PPI and HS High-PPI groups. Likewise, compared with their RLA counterparts, RHA rats exhibited lower PPI and more intense exploratory activity in the open-field test. Correlational and factorial analyses of the whole HS sample and the RHA/RLA data globally corroborated the results of the PPI-stratified HS subgroups. These data suggest that such a consistent association between impaired PPI and increased exploratory activity in outbred HS and inbred RHA/RLA rats is a relevant parameter that must be taken into account when modeling clusters of schizophrenia-relevant symptoms.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T03:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.019
       
  • Impulsivity and Behaviour Problems in Dogs: A Reinforcement Sensitivity
           Theory Perspective
    • Authors: Patrizia Piotti; Liam Paul Satchell; Tom Steven Lockhart
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Patrizia Piotti, Liam Paul Satchell, Tom Steven Lockhart
      Trait impulsivity is an increasingly relevant topic for human and non-human animal personality research. There are similarities in dog and human manifestations of trait impulsivity at the behavioural, genetic, and neurobiological level. We investigated a well-validated measure of dog impulsivity and responsivity (the Dog Impulsivity Assessment Scale, DIAS) and a neuropsychological theory of human trait approach and avoidance (the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of personality, RST). Owners reported their dogs’ dispositional behaviour on the DIAS, an RST scale modified to describe dogs’ behaviour, and a list of common dog behaviour problems. In a sample of 730 dogs, we observed convergence between the RST and the DIAS. There was a negative correlation between RST ‘Behaviour Inhibition System’ and DIAS impulsivity factor (‘Behavioural Regulation’). RST ‘Behavioural Approach System’ correlated positively with DIAS ‘Responsiveness’. The RST ‘Fight-Flight-Freeze System’ (FFFS) and the DIAS ‘Aggression and response to novelty factor were both distinct from other factors. However, the DIAS ‘Aggression and response to novelty’ factor and the RST FFFS explained different aspects of dog behaviour problems. Importantly, whilst the DIAS factors indicated tendencies towards avoidant behaviours, the FFFS discriminated between active and passive avoidance. The findings suggest a partial overlapping between the DIAS and RST scales, and highlights the utility of personality models in investigating behaviour problems in dogs.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T03:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.012
       
  • To take or not to take the shortcut: Flexible spatial behaviour of rats
           based on cognitive map in a lattice maze
    • Authors: Nobuya Sato; Chihiro Fujishita; Atsuhito Yamagishi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Nobuya Sato, Chihiro Fujishita, Atsuhito Yamagishi
      To examine the flexibility of rats’ spatial behaviour, we required rats to navigate to one of four boxes on the corners of a lattice maze. The maze consisted of five vertical and five horizontal corridors on a plane parallel to the ground and allowed us to design diverse routes. One box was set as goal and the other three were set as starting points. Both the time to arrive at the goal and the number of errors at the intersections on the route decreased, suggesting that the rats learned the route. As the goal boxes were successively changed, the decrease in the errors and the time to reach the goal became faster. This suggests that the rats learned the spatial layout of the maze, i.e., developed a cognitive map. We then carried out a shortcut test by removing one wall located near the centre of the maze. The rats took the shortcut route when passing through the location around the removed wall made the entire route shorter, but did not pass through the location when passing through the location made the entire route longer. These suggest that rats can flexibly utilize their internal representation of a spatial structure to respond to a change in a learned environment.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T03:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.010
       
  • THE USE OF TAIL-FLAGGING AND WHITE RUMP-PATCH IN ALARM BEHAVIOR OF
           GOITERED GAZELLES
    • Authors: D.A. Blank
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): D.A. Blank
      Tail signals and rump patch exposure in ungulates are well-documented phenomena, but there is no consensus about their functional significance, which has remained disputed. In addition, these patterns have been analyzed for only a limited number of ungulate species; and until now did not include goitered gazelles. This paper, then, will discuss these aspects of goitered gazelle antipredator behavior. I chose human harassments as predator threats and found that tail-flagging, stotting and presentation of the white rump-patch were displayed mostly by adult females, less often by adult males, and least in sub-adults. Adult females used tail-flagging and rump-patch exposure primarily for communication with their fawns especially frequently in July when fawns finished their hiding period. In August, adult females further strengthened their alarm signals by frequent stotting. Unlike females, adult males displayed tail- flagging and stotting quite randomly over months, likely depending on frequencies of encountered threats. However, females and males both displayed tail-flagging significantly more frequently than stotting (with a few exceptions) suggesting that tail-flagging has an independent communicative function, even if one signal amplifies the other. Goitered gazelles used tail-flagging and white rump-patch exposure likely as an alarm and cohesive signal for conspecifics, and adult females communicated by these signals mostly with their fawns.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T03:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.011
       
  • The influence of lameness and individuality on movement patterns in sheep
    • Authors: Amanda K. Doughty; Brian J. Horton; Nguyen T.D. Huyen; C. Rowdy Ballagh; Ross Corkrey; Geoff N. Hinch
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Amanda K. Doughty, Brian J. Horton, Nguyen T.D. Huyen, C. Rowdy Ballagh, Ross Corkrey, Geoff N. Hinch
      We investigated how individuality and lameness altered social organisation by assessing food-directed movement patterns in sheep. One hundred and ninety-six mature Merino ewes were walked in 16 different runs around a 1.1 km track following a food source. Flock position and lameness, were measured and temperament was assessed using an Isolation Box Test. The mean value for the correlations of position between a run and the run preceding it was r = 0.55 ± SEM 0.03. All correlations between runs were positive (r = 0.08 – 0.76) and all but two were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The weakest and least statistically significant correlations were for run 14; where all 16 runs were conducted 3 to 4 times a week, except with an interval of 20 weeks between runs 13 and 14. Additionally, there were differences in overall positions for a lame versus a non-lame individual (all P < 0.05) with lame sheep being further back in position when compared to their non-lame mean positions. These results indicate the movement patterns, as measured by flock position during a food-directed forced movement exercise, are relatively stable provided tests occur frequently, possibly on a bi-weekly basis. However, further work would be required to better account for individual animal variation.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:54:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.008
       
  • The influence of familiarity and temperature on the huddling behavior of
           two mouse species with contrasting social systems
    • Authors: Zita Groó; Péter Szenczi; Oxána Bánszegi; Zsófia Nagy; Vilmos Altbäcker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Zita Groó, Péter Szenczi, Oxána Bánszegi, Zsófia Nagy, Vilmos Altbäcker
      Huddling with other individuals is an effective way, to reduce heat loss. This cooperative behavior requires that the individuals tolerate each other’s presence at least for a certain time or under certain circumstances. In our study, we investigated the effects of ambient temperature and familiarity on the huddling behavior of two closely related mouse species, the mound-building mouse (Mus spicilegus) and the house mouse (Mus musculus musculus). While their geographic distribution overlaps, their social systems differ in many aspects. Whereas house mice are territorial, mound-building mice tolerate each other and live in groups during winter. In laboratory experiments we found that familiarity and ambient temperature influenced the huddling behavior of both species. Familiar individuals were more likely to huddle, but while mound-building mice did so at all temperatures, huddling in house mice increased with lower temperatures. Our results are consistent with the previous knowledge about these species’ social system and might provide us more details about their sociality. Investigating huddling behavior might be a good way to measure social tolerance between individuals within a species and compare social systems of different species.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:54:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.007
       
  • The ontogeny of food-caching behaviour in New Zealand robins (Petroica
           longipes)
    • Authors: Lisabertha L. Clark; Rachael C. Shaw
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Lisabertha L. Clark, Rachael C. Shaw
      Hoarding or caching behaviour is a widely-used paradigm for examining a range of cognitive processes in birds, such as social cognition and spatial memory. However, much is still unknown about how caching develops in young birds, especially in the wild. Studying the ontogeny of caching in the wild will help researchers to identify the mechanisms that shape this advantageous foraging strategy. We examined the ontogeny of food caching behaviour in a wild New Zealand passerine, the North Island robin (Petroica longipes). For 12-weeks following fledging, we observed 34 juveniles to examine the development of caching and cache retrieval. Additionally, we compared the caching behaviour of juveniles at 12 weeks post-fledging to 35 adult robins to determine whether juveniles had developed adult-like caching behaviour by this age. Juveniles began caching mealworms shortly after achieving foraging independency. Multivariate analyses revealed that caching rate increased and handling time decreased with increasing age. Juveniles spontaneously began retrieving caches as soon as they had begun to cache and their retrieval rates then remained constant throughout their ensuing development. Likewise, the number of sites used by juveniles did not change with age. Juvenile sex, caregiver sex and the duration of post-fledging parental care did not influence the development of caching, cache retrieval, the number of cache sites used and the time juveniles spent handling mealworms. At 12 weeks post-fledging, juveniles demonstrated levels of caching, cache retrieval and cache site usage that were comparable to adults. However, juvenile prey handling time was still longer than adults. The spontaneous emergence of cache retrieval and the consistency in the number of cache sites used throughout development suggests that these aspects of caching in North Island robins are likely to be innate, but that age and experience have an important role in the development of adult caching behaviours.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:54:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.03.006
       
  • Attracted by a magnet: Exploration behaviour of rodents in the presence of
           magnetic objects
    • Authors: Sandra Malewski; E. Pascal Malkemper; František Sedláček; Radim Šumbera; Kai R. Caspa; Hynek Burda; Sabine Begall
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Sandra Malewski, E. Pascal Malkemper, František Sedláček, Radim Šumbera, Kai R. Caspa, Hynek Burda, Sabine Begall
      Magnetosensitivity is widespread among animals with rodents being the most intensively studied mammalian group. The available behavioural assays for magnetoreception are time-consuming, which impedes screens for treatment effects that could characterize the enigmatic magnetoreceptors. Here, we present a fast and simple approach to test if an animal respond to magnetic stimuli: the magnetic novel object assay (MNOA). The MNOA focuses on investigating an animal’s spontaneous exploration behaviour in the presence of a strong bar magnet compared to a demagnetised control. We present consistently longer exploration of the magnet in three different rodent species: Ansell’s mole-rat (Fukomys anselli), C57BL/6J laboratory mouse, and naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber). For the naked mole-rat this is the first report that this species reacts on magnetic stimuli. We conclude that the MNOA holds the potential to screen if an animal responds to magnetic stimuli, possibly indicating the possession of a magnetic sense. Thus, a reliable basis to apply more complex magnetobiological assays would be created.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:54:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.023
       
  • Male preference for conspecific mates is stronger than females’ in
           Betta splendens
    • Authors: Kevin T. Justus; Tamra C. Mendelson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Kevin T. Justus, Tamra C. Mendelson
      The higher energetic cost related to female gamete investment is classically considered the driving force behind sexual selection. This asymmetric cost of reproduction is thought to cause female preference for elaborate male ornamentation. Subsequent co-evolution of female preferences and male ornaments is thought then to lead to a greater preference for conspecific mates in females as compared to males. Thus, female choice is classically assumed to contribute more than male choice to behavioral isolation between sexually dimorphic species. However, this hypothesis fails to account for the cost of maintaining a territory, building a nest, courtship displays, ornament investment, and parental care, as seen in males of the Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Here we show that male B. splendens have a greater preference for female conspecifics than females have for male conspecifics, when given a choice between conspecifics and the allopatric Betta imbellis. We hypothesize that in B. splendens, the cost of mating may be higher for males than females, and predict that male choice would contribute to behavioral isolation upon secondary contact of wild populations.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:54:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.024
       
  • Quantification and Validation of Measures for Risky and Delayed Food and
           Monetary Outcome Choices
    • Authors: L.R. Rodriguez; K.L. Hendrickson; E.B. Rasmussen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): L.R. Rodriguez, K.L. Hendrickson, E.B. Rasmussen
      Probability discounting (PD) measures risky choice patterns between smaller, more certain vs. larger, less certain outcomes. PD is associated with obesity as well as higher intake of foods high in fat and sugar. We developed and validated a brief PD task specifically for food-related choices–the Probabilistic Food Choice Questionnaire (PFCQ). We also validated a brief, existing PD monetary measure, the Probabilistic Monetary Choice Questionnaire (PMCQ) by comparing it to a titrating PD task. Participants (N = 110) were randomly assigned to either a food or money condition. Those assigned to the food condition completed the PFCQ and a more established, adjusting-amount PD task for hypothetical food outcomes. Those assigned to the money condition completed the PMCQ and a more established, adjusting-amount PD task. Participants also completed delay discounting (DD) tasks for the same outcome commodity. The PFCQ and adjusting-amount PD tasks strongly correlated across three magnitudes suggesting that the PFCQ may be a satisfactory and briefer measure for risky food choice. The PMCQ also showed significant correlations with the adjusting-amount monetary PD task, supporting its use for a brief measure of monetary discounting. For DD, the choice questionnaires demonstrated significant correlations with the adjusting-amount DD procedures, replicating previous research.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:54:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2018.02.020
       
 
 
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