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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 995 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 468)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 231)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 282)
Anuario de investigaciones (Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Buenos Aires)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Psicología     Open Access  
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario Pilquen : Sección Divulgación Científica     Open Access  
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 197)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy Online     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 176)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Buletin Psikologi     Open Access  
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Cahiers d’Études sur la Représentation     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health     Open Access  
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Community Psychology in Global Perspective     Open Access  
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling et spiritualité / Counselling and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Creativity. Theories ? Research ? Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cuadernos de Marte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Behavioural Processes
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.849
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 9  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0376-6357
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3185 journals]
  • Testing the dear enemy relationship in fiddler crabs: Is there a
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): Bruno R. Fogo, Fábio H.C. Sanches, Tânia M. Costa Reduction of aggressiveness toward familiar neighbors, when compared to aggressiveness toward unfamiliar strangers, can decrease the costs of territory defense. This phenomenon is known as the “dear enemy effect”. Individuals may shift their aggressiveness toward neighbors or strangers from the same or different species, depending on the relative threat associated with different opponents. Therefore, a reduced level of aggressiveness between heterospecific neighbors is expected in relation to conspecific intruders, since the latter compete not only for territory, but also for mates. Herein we investigated the occurrence of the dear enemy effect in territorial fights between conspecific pairs of Leptuca leptodactyla and heterospecific pairs of L. leptodactyla versus Leptuca uruguayensis. Across both conspecific and heterospecific fights, medium- and high-intensity fight components were more used in resident–stranger than in resident–neighbor fights. Thus, residents showed a dear enemy response, regardless of opponent species. Moreover, conspecific fights induced a greater number of low- and medium-intensity fight components than did fights between heterospecifics, both neighbors and strangers. Finally, conspecific resident–stranger fights took longer than heterospecific resident–stranger fights. Our results indicate that fiddler crabs adjust their territorial response according to the species and resident status of intruders, consistent with the risks posed by different intruder types.
  • Disequilibrium in behavior analysis: A disequilibrium theory redux
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): Kenneth W. Jacobs, Zachary H. Morford, James E. King Disequilibrium theory is an approach to reinforcement that reconsiders the putative response strengthening prowess of stimuli. This disequilibrium approach—the pinnacle of the response deprivation hypothesis—reliably predicts changes in behavior without reference to a response strengthening process. While the strengthening model of reinforcement has received renewed and critical appraisal in behavior analysis, its appraisers have not fully considered the role that a disequilibrium conceptualization might play in their respective theories of reinforcement. In this essay we celebrate William Timberlake’s legacy by elucidating the assumptions of disequilibrium theory and by exploring its predictions and implications within behavior analysis. We treat the disequilibrium approach to reinforcement as the theory of reinforcement in behavior analysis, and in doing so, we distinguish disequilibrium conditions from motivating operations and explore future directions regarding the potential to predict generalization and maintenance outcomes. The disequilibrium approach to reinforcement is not a mere deprivation operation used for the purposes of establishing a stimulus as a “reinforcer,” as it is a general theory of behavior.
  • Distributed cognition criteria: Defined, operationalized, and applied to
           human-dog systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): Mary Jean Amon, Luis H. Favela Distributed cognition generally refers to situations in which task requirements are shared among multiple agents or, potentially, off-loaded onto the environment. With few exceptions, socially distributed cognition has largely been discussed in terms of intraspecific interactions. This conception fails to capture some forms of group-level cognition among human and non-human animals that are not readily measured or explained in mentalistic or verbal terms. In response to these limitations, we argue for a more stringent set of empirically-verifiable criteria for assessing whether a system is an instance of distributed cognition: interaction-dominant dynamics, agency, and shared task orientation. We apply this framework to humans and working dogs, and contrast the human-dog socially distributed cognitive system with humans using non-biological tools and human interaction with draft animals. The human-dog system illustrates three operationalizable factors for classifying phenomena as socially distributed cognition and extends the framework to interspecies distributed cognition.
  • Does the sex and age of birds and the size of human settlements affect
           recapturing of the Great Tit (Parus major) at bird feeders'
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): Artur Golawski, Michał Polakowski, Piotr Filimowski, Krzysztof Stępniewski, Katarzyna Stępniewska, Grzegorz Kiljan, Dawid Kilon, Małgorzata Pietkiewicz, Hanna Sztwiertnia, Anna Cichocka, Jakub Z. Kosicki Urban and rural habitats provide different conditions to wintering birds mainly due to different access to bird feeders. Returning to the food sources, even under the stress related to trapping, could play an important role in the energetic budget of wintering birds. We studied the duration of period between the first and the second capture of the Great Tits (Parus major) caught and ringed at bird feeders. We expected that recapturing of birds, which could be connected with their experience, would depend on their sex, age and on the size of human settlements (urban vs. rural areas), which could modify the behavior of wintering birds. We found that the length of the period was the shortest for immature females and the longest for adult males (the difference being 3.8 days in average). In contrast to more experienced adults, more frequent visits in case of immature tits, which increased probability of being trapped, could be affected by their weaker condition and smaller size, which resulted in feeding whenever it was possible. At the same time we did not find any differences between urban (duration of 29.5 days in average) and rural (28.5 days) areas. Differentiation in bird densities, access to feeders and various environmental factors seems to be the reason why this issue awaits further, more detailed studies including influence of weather on the behavior of birds.
  • Genomic basis of delayed reward discounting
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): Joshua C. Gray, Sandra Sanchez-Roige, Harriet de Wit, James MacKillop, Abraham A. Palmer Delayed reward discounting (DRD) is a behavioral economic measure of impulsivity, reflecting how rapidly a reward loses value based on its temporal distance. In humans, more impulsive DRD is associated with susceptibility to a number of psychiatric diseases (e.g., addiction, ADHD), health outcomes (e.g., obesity), and lifetime outcomes (e.g., educational attainment). Although the determinants of DRD are both genetic and environmental, this review focuses on its genetic basis. Both rodent studies using inbred strains and human twin studies indicate that DRD is moderately heritable, a conclusion that was further supported by a recent human genome-wide association study (GWAS) that used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) to estimate heritability. The GWAS of DRD also identified genetic correlations with psychiatric diagnoses, health outcomes, and measures of cognitive performance. Future research priorities include rodent studies probing putative genetic mechanisms of DRD and human GWASs using larger samples and non-European cohorts. Continuing to characterize genomic influences on DRD has the potential to yield important biological insights with implications for a variety of medically and socially important outcomes.
  • Water restriction influences intra-pair vocal behavior and the acoustic
           structure of vocalisations in the opportunistically breeding zebra finch
           (Taeniopygia guttata)
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): Nora H. Prior, Marie S.A. Fernandez, Hédi A. Soula, Clémentine Vignal Seasonally-breeding species experience significant and predictable shifts in vocal behaviour; however, it is unclear to what extent this is true for species that breed opportunistically. The Australian zebra finch is an opportunistically breeding species, which means individuals must time breeding bouts based on many environmental factors. Here we tested the effect of experimental water restriction, which suppresses reproductive readiness in zebra finches, on vocal behaviour of males and females. More specifically, we quantified the effect of water restriction on three parameters of vocal behaviour in pair-bonded zebra finches: vocal activity, patterns of vocal exchanges, and the acoustic structure of vocalisations (calls and male song). We found that water restriction caused a decrease in vocal output (both song and call rate). Additionally, water restriction affected the composition of male songs. However, there was no effect of water restriction on the patterns of calling exchanges for monogamous partners (temporal coordination and turn taking). Finally, water restriction had vocalisation- and sex-specific effects on the acoustic structure of song syllables and calls. Because the direction of these effects were vocalisation- and sex- specific, there may be different mechanisms underlying the effects of water restriction on acoustic structure depending on context. These results contribute to the growing body of research highlighting the rich communicative potential of bird calls. Our current results raise the hypothesis that zebra finches may use changes in vocal behaviour and/or the structure of vocalisations of their conspecifics when making breeding decisions.
  • Behavioral responses to changes in group size and composition: a case
           study on grooming behavior of female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): Yosuke Kurihara, Mari Nishikawa, Koji Mochida Primates flexibly change their grooming behavior depending on group size and composition to maintain social relationships among group members. However, how drastic social changes influence their grooming behavior remains unclear. We observed the grooming behavior of adult female Japanese macaques in two groups temporarily formed as one-female groups from multi-female groups and compared their behaviors between the multi-female and one-female periods. Adult females more frequently performed grooming with both their relatives and unrelated juveniles during the one-female period when other adult females were unavailable as alternatives to their absent familiar partners. The increased grooming time and diversity of grooming partners might alleviate the short-term stress caused by the loss of grooming partners and reduce social instability or mitigate the long-term stress due to disadvantages in intergroup conflicts. Our study provides rare evidence on the flexibility in grooming behavior of primates and encourages accumulating case reports for understanding behavioral responses of primates to drastic social changes.
  • Decoy effects in intertemporal and probabilistic choices the role of time
           pressure, immediacy, and certainty
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): Marco Marini, Fabio Paglieri A decoy is an irrelevant option that, when added to a binary choice, is not selected but nonetheless alters the subjects’ preferences, systematically biasing towards its target. The decoy effect, also known as attraction effect, is considered an anomaly of rational decision-making, albeit its applicability to real-life choices outside of laboratory settings has been challenged. In particular, when decoys have been studied in choices between outcomes occurring at different points in time, i.e. intertemporal choices, or with different probabilities of realizing their utility, i.e. probabilistic choices, results were mixed: sometimes decoys are impactful, sometimes they are not, and they seem to be more effective in biasing towards, respectively, larger-and-later and larger-and-riskier outcomes, rather than towards sooner-and-smaller or sooner-and-safer rewards. We suggest that this puzzling set of results can be clarified by focusing on two important influencing factors: time pressure and immediacy/certainty. Moreover, we argue that decoy effects constitute an excellent testbed to assess similarities and differences between intertemporal choice and risky decision-making, which constitutes another open issue in the study of human choice. Two studies are presented to support these claims. In Study 1 (N = 92), we demonstrate that asymmetrically dominated decoys influence both intertemporal choice and risky decision-making only in the absence of time pressure, since otherwise the comparative process required for the decoy to have an impact cannot occur, consistently with predictions made by connectionist models of decision. In Study 2 (N = 53), we show that, when the smaller option is no longer presented as immediate/certain (but rather as sooner/safer), the impact of decoys becomes symmetrical – that is, they can prompt subjects to become either more future-oriented/risk-prone or more present-oriented/risk-averse. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for our understanding of the multifaceted role of time and chance in decision making.
  • Self-organizing conflicts: Group assessment and the spatio-temporal
           dynamics of ant territory battles
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): Eldridge S. Adams, Nicola J.R. Plowes Territorial battles among ants exhibit temporal and spatial patterns that self-organize, arising spontaneously from distributed decisions by large numbers of individuals. We describe agent-based models of inter-group fights in ants and show that two behavioral mechanisms that are rarely quantified have large effects on the dynamics of intraspecific battles; specifically, the pattern of search by unengaged ants, and assessment of relative numbers. In the absence of assessment, recruitment by both colonies rises to steady averages. Alternatively, if ants tend to lay trails only when they detect that their nestmates outnumber opponents, fights can be rapidly resolved as one colony ceases recruiting. If ants tend to lay trails when their nestmates are locally outnumbered, the position of the battle may oscillate. We show that the collective ability of fighting ants to accurately compare group sizes may be high even if each ant has limited perception and memory. However, amplification of small initial numerical advantages can lead to priority effects favoring the first colony to recruit even if it is the smaller colony.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Lateralization in accuracy, reaction time and behavioral processes in a
           visual discrimination task in an Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): Eszter Matrai, Matthias Hoffmann-Kuhnt, Shaw Ting Kwok Perceptual and behavioral asymmetry has been observed in a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate species with its origin estimated to go back over 500 million years. Previously, hemispheric lateralization in marine mammals has been recorded during foraging, parental care, preferred swimming direction as well as when solving cognitive challenges. Visual laterality has been demonstrated in preferred eye use and performance accuracy. A female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin was trained to associate eight pairs of non-identical visual stimuli. Her performance was tested and compared under binocular and monocular conditions. No significant difference was found in accuracy, while a clear left eye advantage was demonstrated in reaction time. In addition, behavioral asymmetry was observed in movement pattern preference during the stimulus discrimination.
  • Rats' optimal choice behavior in a gambling-like task
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): Vladimir Orduña, Rodrigo Alba Among the different procedures that model gambling behavior in non-human animals, the “suboptimal choice procedure” has been extensively employed for analyzing the impact of environmental cues on choice behavior. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that pigeons prefer an alternative that infrequently presents a stimulus that signals a larger amount of reinforcement, than another alternative that always presents a stimulus associated with a smaller amount of reinforcement, even though the net rate of reinforcement is lower in the former. In the present study, we tested rats in the magnitude version of the suboptimal choice procedure. Eight rats were given a choice between two alternatives: a) one in which a stimulus predicting the delivery of ten pellets was presented with probability (p) = 0.2 and a stimulus predicting zero pellets was presented with p = 0.8, and b) one in which either of two stimuli predicted the delivery of three pellets with p = 1.0. Contrary to the consistent and robust suboptimal behavior of pigeons, rats preferred the optimal alternative. This effect occurred despite the high index of discrimination of the stimuli associated with the different outcomes shown by the rats. The relevance of this result to the development of animal models of gambling behavior is discussed.
  • Defense by exploitation in Negev gerbils
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): Jorge F.S. Menezes, Burt P. Kotler, Austin K. Dixon In this study, we addressed how frequently a non-traplining animal should visit food patches. More specifically, we investigate if non-traplining animals engage in a behavior called "defense by exploitation", which is characterized by an increase in visitation rates with increased intra-specific competition. We ran four tests with two gerbil species in the Negev Desert. Firstly, we measured patch use of Gerbillus pyramidum and Gerbillus andersoni allenbyi. We assumed that activity and competition would decrease through the night and that patch use would decrease with number of visits. Secondly, we measured how the number of visits to resource patches increased with the addition of individuals. Thirdly, we repeated this experiment, but instead removed individuals. Lastly, we conducted a simulation to compare these results against theoretical expectations. In the first test, we found support for defense by exploitation in G. pyramidum. The second and third test found no support. The fourth test found support for this increase visitation, but only if costs of locomotion are relatively small.
  • Resurgence of a target behavior suppressed by a combination of punishment
           and alternative reinforcement
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): Rusty W. Nall, Jillian M. Rung, Timothy A. Shahan Differential-reinforcement-based treatments involving extinction of target problem behavior and reinforcement of an alternative behavior are highly effective. However, extinction of problem behavior is sometimes difficult or contraindicated in clinical settings. In such cases, punishment instead of extinction may be used in combination with alternative reinforcement. Although it is well documented that omitting alternative reinforcement can produce recurrence (i.e., resurgence) of behavior previously suppressed by extinction plus alternative reinforcement, it remains unclear if resurgence similarly occurs for behavior previously suppressed by punishment plus alternative reinforcement. The present experiment examined this question with rats. In Phase 1, a target behavior (lever pressing) was reinforced with food pellets. In Phase 2, the target behavior continued to be reinforced, but it also produced mild foot shock and an alternative behavior (nose poking) also produced food. Finally, all consequences were removed and resurgence of target behavior occurred. Resurgence did not occur for another group that similarly received punishment of target behavior in Phase 2 but not alternative reinforcement. These results indicate that resurgence was a product of the history of exposure to and then removal of alternative reinforcement and that the removal of punishment alone did not produce resurgence of target behavior.
  • Chemical alarm cues allow prey to adjust their defensive behaviour to
           cover abundance
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato Aquatic prey species show sophisticated mechanisms to adjust their antipredator behaviours to the level of risk, which they estimate either by direct experience with predators or from indirect indicators such as chemical alarm cues released by injured conspecifics. For instance, evidence suggests that the alarm cues of tadpoles exposed to high levels of background predation risk elicit a stronger antipredator response compared to alarm cues of tadpoles exposed to low risk. Similarly, the alarm cues of tadpoles from environments with reduced vegetation cover might cause a stronger response than alarm cues of tadpoles from environments with abundant vegetation because tadpoles suffer high predation when vegetation is scarce. I tested this hypothesis in the edible frog, Pelophylax esculentus, by comparing the response of focal tadpoles (not exposed to vegetation manipulation) to alarm cues of donor tadpoles raised from eggs in either high- or low-vegetation treatment. I also tested the alarm cues of donor tadpoles switched from high- to low-vegetation treatments and vice versa after hatching because this would enable understanding whether an eventual difference in alarm cues occurred due to the embryonic or larval environments and whether the treatments at the two developmental stages had interactive effects. Alarm cues from the low-vegetation, and thus the high-risk, treatment elicited stronger antipredator response in focal tadpoles in comparison to the alarm cues from the high-vegetation, low-risk treatment. Results from switching donor tadpoles between vegetation treatments after hatching suggested that the observed effect was due to the vegetation treatment experienced by donor tadpoles during the larval stage, with no interactive effects. Chemical alarm cues convey information about cover abundance, an environmental factor that indirectly covaries with predation risk.
  • Overwinter temperature has no effect on problem solving abilities or
           responses to novelty in Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus)
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): R. Jeffrey Martin, David F. Sherry Birds overwintering at northern latitudes face challenging environments in which refined cognitive and behavioural responses to environmental stimuli could be a benefit. Populations of the same species from different latitudes have been shown to differ in their cognitive and behavioural responses, and these differences have been attributed to local adaptation. However, individuals overwintering at intermediate latitudes experience great breadth and variation in environmental conditions, and thus it is reasonable that these individuals would alter their responses based on current conditions. To determine within-species responses to environmental conditions we sampled birds from a single population at an intermediate latitude and assessed their problem solving abilities and their responses to novelty. We held birds overwinter in one of three experimental temperature regimes and assessed problem solving abilities and responses to novel stimuli in the spring. We found that overwinter temperature had no effect on problem solving ability. We also show that overwinter temperature had no effect on an individual’s response to novelty. These findings strengthen the argument that differences in these behaviours seen at the population level are in fact driven by local adaptation, and that current environmental condition may have limited effects on these behaviours.
  • Behavioral persistence is associated with poorer olfactory discrimination
           learning in domestic dogs
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): S. Dalal, N.J. Hall Domestic dogs are trained for a wide variety of jobs; however, half of dogs that enter working dog training organizations never become certified. The aim of this study was to identify whether a basic measure of behavioral persistence was associated with sixteen dogs’ performance on an odor discrimination learning task. Further, we evaluated whether dogs that adopted more of a win-stay or win-shift strategy during discrimination learning was associated with greater persistence. Lastly, we tested if measures of a standardized canine behavior questionnaire (the CBARQ) predicted discrimination learning. We found greater persistence during extinction was associated with poorer discrimination learning. Further, dogs that employed more of a win-stay strategy (compared to win-shift) during the discrimination learning phase showed greater persistence in the persistence task and poorer performance on the odor discrimination task. Lastly, the CBARQ measure of trainability showed a trend association with odor discrimination performance, but no other behavioral characteristics were related. Overall, high levels of behavioral persistence is detrimental to olfactory discrimination learning.
  • Auditory sequence perception in common marmosets (Callithrix
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): Masumi Wakita One of the essential linguistic and musical faculties of humans is the ability to recognize the structure of sound configurations and to extract words and melodies from continuous sound sequences. However, monkeys’ ability to process the temporal structure of sounds is controversial. Here, to investigate whether monkeys can analyze the temporal structure of auditory patterns, two common marmosets were trained to discriminate auditory patterns in three experiments. In Experiment 1, the marmosets were able to discriminate trains of either 0.5- or 2-kHz tones repeated in either 50- or 200-ms intervals. However, the marmosets were not able to discriminate ABAB from AABB patterns consisting of A (0.5-kHz/50-ms pulse) and B (2-kHz/200-ms pulse) elements in Experiment 2, and A (0.5-kHz/50-ms pulse) and B (0.5-kHz/200-ms pulse) [or A (0.5-kHz/200-ms pulse) and B (2-kHz/200-ms pulse)] in Experiment 3. Consequently, the results indicated that the marmosets could not perceive tonal structures in terms of the temporal configuration of discrete sounds, whereas they could recognize the acoustic features of the stimuli. The present findings were supported by cognitive and brain studies that indicated a limited ability to process sound sequences. However, more studies are needed to confirm the ability of auditory sequence perception in common marmosets.
  • A review of boundary conditions and variables involved in the prevention
           of return of fear after post-retrieval extinction
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): Pedro Fonseca Zuccolo, Maria Helena Leite Hunziker Experimental evidence suggests that the return of fear may be prevented by post-retrieval extinction (PRE), a procedure consisting of extinction training after the presentation of a retrieval cue. However, attempts to replicate these findings have yielded mixed results, with some studies showing diminished fear responses after PRE, whereas others show no effect on the return of fear following this procedure. The discrepancies across studies have been interpreted as evidence that there might be conditions under which PRE is not effective (boundary conditions), but these variables have yet to be fully described. We aimed to provide an overview of PRE in humans. We briefly present the theory and research that originated post-retrieval procedures with a focus on the experimental setup used in human studies. We continue with a compilation of possible experimental boundary conditions along with some questions for future research.
  • Progression and stop organization reveals conservation of movement
           organization during dark exploration across rats and mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): T.N. Donaldson, K.T. Jennings, L.A. Cherep, P.A. Blankenship, A.A. Blackwell, R.M. Yoder, D.G. Wallace Spatial orientation is a ubiquitous feature of animal behavior. Environmental and self-movement cues are sources of information used to maintain spatial orientation. The literature has typically focused on differences between mice and rats using environmental cues to guide movement. The current study uses the organization of exploratory behavior under dark conditions to investigate species differences in self-movement cue processing. Mouse and rat exploratory behavior was recorded under dark conditions on a circular table without walls. The resulting movements were segmented in progressions (movement ≥ 3 cm/s) and stops (movement < 3 cm/s). Mice exhibited longer travel distances, faster progression peak speeds, and weaker tendency to scale progression peak speeds to Euclidean distances relative to rats. In contrast, similar levels of performance were observed on measures (progression path circuity, change in heading, stability of stopping behavior) sensitive to vestibular pathology. These results are consistent with species differences in a variety of performance variables; however, self-movement cue based spatial orientation did not differentiate between mice and rats. This work establishes a translational foundation for future work investigating the neurobiology of self-movement cue processing using species-unique neuroscience techniques.
  • The effect of economy type on reinforcer value
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): David N. Kearns This article reviews studies investigating the effect of economy type on reinforcer value. In a closed economy, consumption of the reinforcer depends entirely on the subject’s behavior, whereas in an open economy it does not, due, for example, to the provision of free reinforcers after the session. In theory, reinforcers should have higher value in a closed economy than in an open economy. Experimental results relevant to this prediction and methods used to test economy type effects are summarized and discussed here. Studies have tested the effect of economy type on the value of a variety of reinforcers, including food, water, saccharin, various drugs, and video games. Subjects used have varied also and include humans, monkeys, rats, and mice. Whether economy type had an effect on reinforcer value appears to depend on the particular reinforcer studied and on the species used. In general, where there was a difference in reinforcer value across economies, the effect was consistent with the prediction that value should be lower in the open economy. In some studies, however, satiation across economy types may have been responsible for the difference, or at least contributed to it. Potential explanations for the economy type effect, including substitution of future reinforcers for current reinforcers, contingency degradation, anticipatory contrast, and optimal foraging, are discussed.
  • Do dogs experience frustration' New contributions on successive
           negative contrast in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris)
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): V. Dzik, C. Cavalli, M. Iglesias, M. Bentosela An unexpected change in reward quantity or quality frequently elicits a sharp decrease of responses as well as a negative emotional state. This phenomenon is called successive negative contrast (SNC) and, although it has been observed in numerous mammals, results in dogs have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate SNC in dogs, comparing the effects of rewards of different qualities in a non-social task carried out in the dogs’ usual environment. Dogs were separated into two experimental groups that experienced a downshift from a high quality reward (liver or sausage) to a low quality one (dry food), as well as a control group that always received dry food. The task involved a dog toy with bone shaped pieces that had to be removed to get the food hidden underneath. When the reward changed from liver to dry food, dogs picked up significantly fewer bones than the control group. However, this effect was not observed with sausage. Results show SNC in dogs in a non-social task carried out in their home environment. Additionally, the importance of the discrepancy in the hedonic value of the rewards is highlighted.
  • Gastrointestinal nematode infection and feeding behaviour of goats in a
           heterogeneous vegetation: No evidence of therapeutic self-medication
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): L.K. Novelo-Chi, P.G. González-Pech, J. Ventura-Cordero, J.F.J. Torres-Acosta, C.A. Sandoval-Castro, R. Cámara-Sarmiento The aim of this study was to identify modifications in the feeding behaviour of goats browsing a tropical deciduous forest (TDF) when natural gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection was suppressed. Continuous bite monitoring through direct observation was implemented in 12 Criollo goats (adults, non-pregnant) foraging for 4 h per day during the rainy season. In the first Period (P1, one observation point) all goats were maintained with natural GIN infection. In the second Period (P2, three observation points), goats were equally distributed into 2 groups: i) moxidectin treated group (TG) used in a suppressive scheme; and ii) naturally infected group (IG). For each observation point, goats were monitored at three timepoints per day (80 min each), for three consecutive days, to estimate their intake of dry matter (DM), condensed tannins (CT), crude protein, metabolizable energy and digestible DM. Live weight (LW), faecal samples and blood samples were obtained every 28 days to determine LW change, faecal egg counts (FEC) and packed cell volume (PCV). During P1 and P2, the TG and IG had similar LW change and PCV. During both periods, the intake of DM, CT and all macronutrients were similar for TG and IG. The suppression of GIN infection did not modify the feeding behaviour of goats. Therefore, a therapeutic self-medicative behaviour was not identified in Criollo goats browsing a TDF.
  • Perceptual learning after test-stimulus exposure in humans
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): Mª del Carmen Sanjuan, J.B. Nelson Exposure to a to-be-tested stimulus produces a reduction in generalization to that stimulus from another similar conditioned stimulus (e.g. Bennett et al., 1994; Symonds and Hall, 1997). Generally, this effect has been interpreted as the result of a loss of effectiveness of the common elements of the stimulus to be conditioned (e.g., latent inhibition). However, Sanjuan et al. (2006) questioned this interpretation after finding that exposing rats to either the test stimulus or to its elements had different effects when the amount of exposure to the common elements was equated. Only exposure to the test stimulus reduced generalization. In the study presented here, this effect was assessed in human participants using a videogame method and colors as stimuli. Generalization after exposure to the test stimulus, or to its elements was assessed. Results show that with people, as in rats, pre-exposure to the test stimulus leads to a greater reduction in generalization than to the elements. Therefore, latent inhibition cannot be the only mechanism responsible for this perceptual learning effect. Results are discussed in terms of current associative theories addressing perceptual-learning phenomenon.
  • The behavior system for sexual learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 162Author(s): Michael Domjan, Germán Gutiérrez In this paper we review and update evidence relevant to formulating a behavior system for sexual learning. We emphasize behavioral rather than neurobiological evidence and mechanisms. Our analysis focuses on three types of responses or response modes: general search, focal search, and consummatory or copulatory behavior. We consider how these response modes are influenced by three categories of stimuli: spatially distributed contextual cues, arbitrary localized stimuli, and species-typical cues provided by the sexual partner. We characterize behavior control by these types of stimuli before and after various Pavlovian conditioning procedures in which the unconditioned stimulus is provided by copulation with a sexual partner. The results document extensive Pavlovian modifications of sexual behavior. These conditioning effects reflect new conditioned responses that come to be elicited by various categories of stimuli. In addition, the conditioning of contextual cues and localized stimuli facilitate sexual responding to species-typical cues. Thus, learning experiences enhance how the species-typical cues of a sexual partner stimulate sexual behavior. These modulatory conditioning effects not only produce significant behavioral changes but also increase rates of fertilization of eggs and numbers of offspring produced. These latter findings suggest that sexual learning can lead to differential reproductive success, which in turn can contribute to evolutionary change.
  • What’s going on at the entrance' A characterisation of the
           social interface in ant nests
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 160Author(s): Marine Lehue, Claire Detrain Nest entrances are key locations where information about environmental opportunities and constraints are shared between foragers and inner-nest workers. However, despite its functional value, we still lack a detailed characterisation of the interface between the nest and the environment. Here, we identified the social interface in the ant Myrmica rubra as being the population of ants that faced the nest entrance and that received significantly more contacts from returning foragers than other nearby ants. We also spatially delineated the entrance area that hosted the social interface, a 2-centimetre radius area from the nest openings, which influences the position, orientation, and behaviour of ants. Then, we studied the impact of additional entrances on this social interface as well as on the flow of foragers. The size of the social interface increased according to the number of open entrances through the progressive reorientation of the ants toward new openings. We also observed a significant, although less than proportional, increase in the flows of ants that were progressively distributed homogeneously between all open entrances. Thus, our work highlights the flexibility of both the social interface and the flow of foragers to changes in the numbers of passageways between the nest and the environment.
  • Consistent meal times improve performance on a daily time-place learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 160Author(s): Kayla Wall, Leanna M. Lewis, Scott H. Deibel, Darcy Hallett, Darlene M. Skinner, Christina M. Thorpe The ability of an animal to learn the spatiotemporal variability of stimuli is known as time-place learning (TPL). The present study investigated the role of the food-entrainable oscillator (FEO) in TPL. Rats were trained in an operant conditioning chamber which contained two levers that distributed a food reward, such that one lever provided food rewards in morning sessions, while the other lever provided food rewards in afternoon sessions. We expected that having access to the FEO would provide rats with more accurate depictions of time of day, leading to better performance. Rats received either one meal per day (1M group), which permitted FEO access, or many meals per day (MM group), which prevented FEO access. As predicted, 1M rats had a significantly higher percentage of correct first presses than MM rats. Once rats successfully learned the task, probe tests were conducted to determine the timing strategy used. Of the 10 rats that successfully learned the time-place discrimination, six used a circadian timing strategy. Future research should determine whether the advantage in learning seen in the rats having access to the FEO is specific to the daily TPL task used in this study, or to learning and memory tasks more generally.
  • Is play a behavior system, and, if so, what kind'
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 160Author(s): Sergio M. Pellis, Vivien C. Pellis, Amanda Pelletier, Jean-Baptiste Leca Given that many behavior patterns cluster together in sequences that are organized to solve specific problems (e.g., foraging), a fruitful perspective within which to study behaviors is as distinct ‘behavior systems’. Unlike many behavior systems that are widespread (e.g., anti-predator behavior, foraging, reproduction), behavior that can be relegated as playful is diverse, involving behavior patterns that are typically present in other behavior systems, sporadic in its phylogenetic distribution and relatively rare, suggesting that play is not a distinct behavior system. Yet the most striking and complex forms of play have the organizational integrity that suggests that it is a behavior system. One model that we develop in this paper, involves three stages of evolutionary transition to account for how the former can evolve into the latter. First, play-like behavior emerges from the incomplete development of other, functional behavior systems in some lineages. Second, in some of those lineages, the behavior patterns typical of particular behavior systems (e.g., foraging) are reorganized, leading to the evolution of specific ‘play behavior systems’. Third, some lineages that have independently evolved more than one such play behavior system, coalesce these into a ‘super system’, allowing some animals to combine behavior patterns from different behavior systems during play. Alternative models are considered, but irrespective of the model, the overall message from this paper is that the conceptual framework of the behavior system approach can provide some new insights into the organization and diversity of play present in the animal kingdom.
  • Standing on shoulders of a giant: Marcia Spetch’s contributions to the
           study of spatial reorientation
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 160Author(s): Alexandra D. Twyman Navigation is an important skill for mobile creatures. One important aspect of navigation is the ability to regain your position (reorient) if you become lost. Over the last 20 years, Marcia Spetch has added substantially to our understanding of reorientation and has advanced the fields of both comparative cognition and spatial cognition. The aim of the paper is to review her contributions, and in particular focus on a) the complexity of geometric cues that can guide reorientation; b) how short- and long-term experiences influence the relative use of geometric and feature cues; c) comparisons of reorientation behavior across species; d) discuss her contributions to theories of reorientation.
  • Costly curiosity: People pay a price to resolve an uncertain gamble early
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 160Author(s): J.A. Max Rodriguez Cabrero, Jian-Qiao Zhu, Elliot A. Ludvig Humans are inherently curious creatures, continuously seeking out information about future outcomes. Such advance information is often valuable, potentially allowing people to select better courses of action. In non-human animals, this drive for information can be so strong that they forego food or water to find out a few seconds earlier whether an uncertain option will provide a reward. Here, we assess whether people will exhibit a similar sub-optimal preference for advance information. Participants played a card-flipping task where they were probabilistically rewarded based on the pattern of 3 cards that were revealed after a 5-s delay. During this delay, participants could instead pay a cost to find out the next card’s identity immediately. This choice to find out early did not influence the eventual outcome. Participants preferred to find out early about 80% of the time when the information was free; they were even willing to incur an expense to get advance information about the eventual outcome. The expected magnitude of the outcome, however, had little impact on the likelihood of finding out early. These results suggest that humans, like animals, value non-instrumental information and will pay a price for such information, independent of its utility.
  • Comparative inspiration: From puzzles with pigeons to novel discoveries
           with humans in risky choice
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Behavioural Processes, Volume 160Author(s): Christopher R. Madan, Elliot A. Ludvig, Marcia L. Spetch Both humans and non-human animals regularly encounter decisions involving risk and uncertainty. This paper provides an overview of our research program examining risky decisions in which the odds and outcomes are learned through experience in people and pigeons. We summarize the results of 15 experiments across 8 publications, with a total of over 1300 participants. We highlight 4 key findings from this research: (1) people choose differently when the odds and outcomes are learned through experience compared to when they are described; (2) when making decisions from experience, people overweight values at or near the ends of the distribution of experienced values (i.e., the best and the worst, termed the “extreme-outcome rule”), which leads to more risk seeking for relative gains than for relative losses; (3) people show biases in self-reported memory whereby they are more likely to report an extreme outcome than an equally-often experienced non-extreme outcome, and they judge these extreme outcomes as having occurred more often; and (4) under certain circumstances pigeons show similar patterns of risky choice as humans, but the underlying processes may not be identical. This line of research has stimulated other research in the field of judgement and decision making, illustrating how investigations from a comparative perspective can lead in surprising directions.
  • Corrigendum to “Interventions aimed at changing impulsive choice in
           rats: Effects of immediate and relatively long delay to reward training”
           [Behav. Process. 158 (2019) 126–136
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2019Source: Behavioural ProcessesAuthor(s): Adam E. Fox, Emma J. Visser, Alycia M. Nicholson
  • Models of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2019Source: Behavioural ProcessesAuthor(s): Peter R. Killeen One of the most notable aspects of the behavior of individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is increased variability in many aspects of their behavior, including response times and attentional focus. Among the many theories of ADHD is one that identifies its material cause as phasic malnutrition of the neurons required to maintain constancy of performance. Of the diverse predictions issuing from this theory, one concerns ubiquitous data: response times and their variance in decision tasks. This paper reviews that behavioral neuroenergetics theory and model, shows how they predict representative data, and suggests their relevance to researchers studying animal models of ADHD.
  • Courtship behavior and coloration influence conspicuousness of wolf
           spiders (Schizocosa ocreata (Hentz)) to avian predators
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2019Source: Behavioural ProcessesAuthor(s): Tricia L. Rubi, David L. Clark, Jonathan S. Keller, George W. Uetz Signalers must balance the benefits of detection by intended receivers with the costs of detection by eavesdroppers. This trade-off is exemplified by sexual signaling systems, in which signalers experience sexual selection for conspicuousness to mates as well as natural selection for crypsis to predators. In this study, we examined how courtship behavior and body coloration influenced the conspicuousness of males to avian predators in the well-studied brush-legged wolf spider system (Schizocosa ocreata (Hentz)). We focused on three behaviors (courtship, walking, and freezing) and two coloration schemes (natural coloration and idealized background-matching coloration). We presented captive blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) with video playbacks of male spiders in a presence-absence detection task and characterized conspicuousness by measuring response latency and detectability. We found that any type of motion significantly increased detectability, and that body coloration and behavior interacted to determine detectability while the spiders were in motion. Among spiders in motion, courting spiders were detected faster than walking spiders. Stationary (frozen) spiders, in contrast, were rarely detected. These results illustrate that male S. ocreata can be both highly conspicuous and highly cryptic to avian predators. Thus, while we find that courtship is conspicuous to avian predators in this system, we suggest that behavioral plasticity may mitigate some of the predation costs of the sexual signal.
  • Vocal tract constancy in birds and humans
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Behavioural ProcessesAuthor(s): Cleopatra Diana Pike, Buddhamas Pralle Kriengwatana Humans perceive speech as being relatively stable despite acoustic variation caused by vocal tract (VT) differences between speakers. Humans use perceptual ‘vocal tract normalisation’ (VTN) and other processes to achieve this stability. Similarity in vocal apparatus/acoustics between birds and humans means that birds might also experience VT variation. This has the potential to impede bird communication. No known studies have explicitly examined this, but a number of studies show perceptual stability or ‘perceptual constancy’ in birds similar to that seen in humans when dealing with VT variation. This review explores similarities between birds and humans and concludes that birds show sufficient evidence of perceptual constancy to warrant further research in this area. Future work should 1) quantify the multiple sources of variation in bird vocalisations, including, but not limited to VT variations, 2) determine whether vocalisations are perniciously disrupted by any of these and 3) investigate how birds reduce variation to maintain perceptual constancy and perceptual efficiency.
  • Pathways to cognitive design
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2018Source: Behavioural ProcessesAuthor(s): Annie E. Wertz, Cristina Moya Despite a shared recognition that the design of the human mind and the design of human culture are tightly linked, researchers in the evolutionary social sciences tend to specialize in understanding one at the expense of the other. The disciplinary boundaries roughly correspond to research traditions that focus more on natural selection and those that focus more on cultural evolution. In this paper, we articulate how two research traditions within the evolutionary social sciences—evolutionary psychology and cultural evolution—approach the study of design. We focus our analysis on the design of cognitive mechanisms that are the result of the interplay of genetic and cultural evolution. We aim to show how the approaches of these two research traditions can complement each other, and provide a framework for developing a wider range of testable hypotheses about cognitive design. To do so, we provide concrete illustrations of how this integrated approach can be used to interrogate cognitive design using examples from our own work on plant and symbolic group boundary cognition. We hope this recognition of different pathways to design will broaden the hypothesis space in the evolutionary social sciences and encourage methodological pluralism in the investigation of the mind.
  • Selected emergence in the evolution of behavior and cognition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018Source: Behavioural ProcessesAuthor(s): H. Clark Barrett In the evolution of cognition and behavior, a recurrent question concerns the degree to which any given aspect of the phenotype has been “selected for” or “specified,” as opposed to arising as a byproduct of some other process. In some sense this is the key question for evolutionary theories of development that seek to connect ultimate evolutionary accounts to proximate developmental accounts of ontogeny. A popular solution to the specification problem is to invoke “emergence,” in which phenotypes are co-constructed by many causes and cannot be reduced to any one of them. However, the concept of emergence, while appealing, can obscure sources of ultimate causation by leaving them unspecified. Here I explore the idea of selected emergence, in which phenotypic outcomes do emerge from a confluence of factors, some haphazard, but which include in part a history of selection, genetic and / or cultural, to produce phenotypic outcomes of that type. I discuss potential case studies of selected emergence, explore its empirical implications and provide suggestions for future research on the evolution of emergent outcomes.
  • An evolutionary approach to complex hierarchical societies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018Source: Behavioural ProcessesAuthor(s): Theodore Koditschek Evolutionary anthropologists have been remarkably successful in developing ‘dual inheritance’ theories of gene/culture coevolution that analyze the interaction of each of these factors without reducing either one to the other’s terms. However, efforts to extend this type of analysis to encompass complex, class-divided hierarchical societies, grounded in formal laws, political institutions, and trajectories of sustained economic development have scarcely begun. This article proposes a provisional framework for advancing such a multi-level co-evolutionary analysis that can encompass multiple forms of social organization from simple hunting/foraging groups to agrarian states and empires, up through the global capitalist system of our own day. The article formulates tools to conceptualize some of the ways in which ‘selection’ and ‘adaptation’ operate at every level to bring genes, cultures, states, and market exchange into provisional alignment with one another. It considers some of the ways in which modes of production’, ‘modes of coercion’ and ‘modes of persuasion’ interact complexly, at different societal levels.
  • Zoon politikon: The evolutionary origins of human socio-political systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2018Source: Behavioural ProcessesAuthor(s): Herbert Gintis, Carel van Schaik, Christopher Boehm We deploy the most up-to-date evidence available in various behavioral fields in support of the following hypothesis: The emergence of bipedalism and cooperative breeding in the hominin line, together with environmental developments that made a diet of meat from large animals adaptive, as well as cultural innovations in the form of fire, cooking, and lethal weapons, created a niche for hominins in which there was a significant advantage to individuals with the ability to communicate and persuade in a moral context. These forces added a unique political dimension to human social life which, through gene-culture coevolution, became Homo ludens—Man, the game player—with the power to conserve and transform the social order. Homo sapiens became, in the words of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, a zoon politikon.
  • Stress-induced flexibility and individuality in female and male zebra
           finch distance calls
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2018Source: Behavioural ProcessesAuthor(s): H.A. Soula, D. Carnino, M.S.A. Fernandez, E.C. Perez, A.S. Villain, C. Vignal Vocal recognition is central to the coordination and organization of behavior in pair-bonding species such as zebra finches. Zebra finches’ vocalizations are individualized and support acoustic discrimination processes. Physiological states - such as the ones involved in emotional stress - can modify vocal production and consequently the structure of vocalizations. These modifications might signal the state of the caller but also impair individual recognition processes. This may represent a signaling trade-off, especially in contexts where both pieces of information can be critically important, for example when mates use calls to reunite after social isolation. Here we study the impact of a stress on the individual vocal signature in both female and male zebra finch distance calls.We built a manually curated database of distance calls of several individuals (both females and males) recorded in control and stress conditions. The stress was induced either by social isolation of the bird or using exogenous corticosterone. We developed a machine learning approach to assess the impact of stress on the individual characterization of calls.We show that while calls’ spectral structure is significantly modified by stress, it still allows for the correct classification of calls to the caller. Moreover, we also show that the stress-induced modification of calls’ structure is not a 'general feature signal' that can be detected as a 'stress' signal regardless of identity. Thus, female and male zebra finch calls’ structure show stress-induced flexibility that stays within the range of individual vocal signatures.
  • Song ontogeny in Nuttall’s white-crowned sparrows tutored with
           individual phrases
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2018Source: Behavioural ProcessesAuthor(s): Jill A. Soha Behavioral ontogeny involves the interaction of innate predispositions and experience. In bird song learning, one approach to exploring this interaction is to examine the songs rehearsed by young birds whose exposure to tutor models has been carefully controlled. Here, I analyzed the rehearsed repertoire in Nuttall’s white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys nuttalli) tutored with individual phrases of conspecific and heterospecific songs. The proportions of phrase types rehearsed indicate that the learning biases evident in crystallized song are manifest early on, suggesting preferential memorization rather than preferential retention during attrition. The proportion of songs beginning with whistles increased during song rehearsal and phrase sequence variability decreased, consistent with the idea that innate syntax specifications guide song rehearsal. Single-phrase tutored birds overproduced phrases to the same extent previously observed in birds tutored with full, normal song but retained fewer phrase types in their crystallized repertoires. This suggests that in this subspecies, acquired syntax information does not affect the number of phrase types memorized and rehearsed but does affect repertoire attrition at the end of the sensorimotor phase. I discuss these results with a focus on the action of innate templates in song development and subspecies differences in this process.
  • The roles of the analogy with natural selection in B.F. Skinner’s
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2018Source: Behavioural ProcessesAuthor(s): Terry L. Smith Beginning in the 1950s, B.F. Skinner made increasing reference to an analogy between operant conditioning and natural selection. This analogy is the basis of an argument that, in contrast to Skinner’s other critiques of cognitive science, is neither epistemological nor pragmatic. Instead, it is based on the claim that ontogenetic adaptation is due to a special mode of causation he called “selection by consequences.” He argued that this mode of causation conflicts with explanations that attribute action to an autonomous agent with reasons for acting. This argument dismisses ordinary explanations of action, and has implications not only for cognitive science but also for morals. Skinner cited the latter implications to counter objections to the application of behavior analysis to the reform of society and its institutions.Skinner’s critique, however, rests upon empirical assumptions that have been criticized by other behavior analysts. Although for Skinner the major role of the analogy was to propose an empirical thesis, it also can play a metaphysical role—namely, to demonstrate the possibility of ontogenetic adaptation without reference to agents who have reasons for acting. These two roles, empirical and metaphysical, are the mirror image of the empirical and metaphysical roles of the computer analogy for cognitive science. That analogy also can be (and has been) interpreted as an empirical thesis. Its empirical implications, however, have been difficult to confirm. It also, however, has played a metaphysical role—namely, to demonstrate the possibility that a physical process could perform logical operations on states having propositional content. Neither analogy provides a well-confirmed, general answer to the question of how to explain the process of ontogenetic adaptation. But together they show there are two metaphysically coherent, but conflicting, answers to this question. Depending upon one’s epistemology, the analogy with natural selection may provide a useful point of departure for a strategy of research. Such a pragmatic grounding for a research strategy does not, however, provide sufficient reason to abandon for purposes of ethics the concept of persons as autonomous agents.
  • Enriching behavioral ecology with reinforcement learning methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018Source: Behavioural ProcessesAuthor(s): Willem E. Frankenhuis, Karthik Panchanathan, Andrew G. Barto This article focuses on the division of labor between evolution and development in solving sequential, state-dependent decision problems. Currently, behavioral ecologists tend to use dynamic programming methods to study such problems. These methods are successful at predicting animal behavior in a variety of contexts. However, they depend on a distinct set of assumptions. Here, we argue that behavioral ecology will benefit from drawing more than it currently does on a complementary collection of tools, called reinforcement learning methods. These methods allow for the study of behavior in highly complex environments, which conventional dynamic programming methods do not feasibly address. In addition, reinforcement learning methods are well-suited to studying how biological mechanisms solve developmental and learning problems. For instance, we can use them to study simple rules that perform well in complex environments. Or to investigate under what conditions natural selection favors fixed, non-plastic traits (which do not vary across individuals), cue-driven-switch plasticity (innate instructions for adaptive behavioral development based on experience), or developmental selection (the incremental acquisition of adaptive behavior based on experience). If natural selection favors developmental selection, which includes learning from environmental feedback, we can also make predictions about the design of reward systems. Our paper is written in an accessible manner and for a broad audience, though we believe some novel insights can be drawn from our discussion. We hope our paper will help advance the emerging bridge connecting the fields of behavioral ecology and reinforcement learning.
  • An integrated bayesian theory of phenotypic flexibility
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2018Source: Behavioural ProcessesAuthor(s): Peter J. Richerson Phenotypic flexibility includes systems such as individual learning, social learning, and the adaptive immune system. Since the evolution of genes by natural selection is a relatively slow process, mechanisms of phenotypic flexibility are evolved to adapt to contingencies on the time scales ranging from a few hundred milliseconds (e.g. avoidance of immediate physical threats) to a few millennia (e.g. cultural adaptations to local environmental variation in the Holocene). Because environmental variation is non-stationary and fat tailed, systems of phenotypic flexibility sometimes have to be creative. They do this by means of random innovation, or exploration, and selective retention. The canonically rational way to deal with variable, uncertain environments is the Bayesian process of using new data to update priors based on past experience. Organic evolution updates the gene frequencies of populations based upon the fitness of alleles. Learning updates behavioral priors based upon the reinforcement of alternate behaviors. Genes and mechanisms of phenotypic flexibility are not isolated but richly interact. Classically, genes are said to code for the reinforcers that shape behavior in individual learning, for example. It is currently controversial whether or not these interactions include a role for the products phenotypic flexibility directly shaping selection on genes.
  • State-dependent cognition and its relevance to cultural evolution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2018Source: Behavioural ProcessesAuthor(s): Daniel Nettle Individuals cope with their worlds by using information. In humans in particular, an important potential source of information is cultural tradition. Evolutionary models have examined when it is advantageous to use cultural information, and psychological studies have examined the cognitive biases and priorities that may transform cultural traditions over time. However, these studies have not generally incorporated the idea that individuals vary in state. I argue that variation in state is likely to influence the relative payoffs of using cultural information versus gathering personal information; and also that people in different states will have different cognitive biases and priorities, leading them to transform cultural information in different ways. I explore hunger as one example of state variable likely to have consequences for cultural evolution. Variation in state has the potential to explain why cultural traditions and dynamics are so variable between individuals and populations. It offers evolutionarily-grounded links between the ecology in which individuals live, individual-level cognitive processes, and patterns of culture. However, incorporating heterogeneity of state also makes the modelling of cultural evolution more complex, particularly if the distribution of states is itself influenced by the distribution of cultural beliefs and practices.
  • Selection by reinforcement: A critical reappraisal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018Source: Behavioural ProcessesAuthor(s): José E. Burgos This essay is a critical reappraisal of the idea of ontogenetic selection by reinforcement, according to which learning, specifically conditioning, in the individual animal is deeply analogous to phylogenetic evolution by natural selection. I focus on two general versions of this idea. The traditional Skinnerian version restricts the idea to operant conditioning and excludes Pavlovian conditioning, based on a sharp dichotomy between the two types of conditioning. The other version extends the idea to Pavlovian conditioning, based on a unified principle of reinforcement that applies to both types of conditioning, and linked to a neural-network model. I criticize both versions on the same grounds, for being: 1) unable to capture Pavlovian conditioning; 2) unnecessary to formulate said model and use it for explanation and prediction (its combination with a genetic algorithm allows for a substantive contact with the theory of evolution by selection, without the idea of selection by reinforcement), and 3) metaphysically unsound. Non-selectionist accounts of conditioning are not only possible but also more intelligible, explanatory, and heuristic.
  • Equifinality in empirical studies of cultural transmission
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018Source: Behavioural ProcessesAuthor(s): Brendan J. Barrett Cultural systems exhibit equifinal behavior – a single final state may be arrived at via different mechanisms and/or from different initial states. Potential for equifinality exists in all empirical studies of cultural transmission including controlled experiments, observational field research, and computational simulations. Acknowledging and anticipating the existence of equifinality is important in empirical studies of social learning and cultural evolution; it helps us understand the limitations of analytical approaches and can improve our ability to predict the dynamics of cultural transmission. Here, I illustrate and discuss examples of equifinality in studies of social learning, and how certain experimental designs might be prone to it. I then review examples of equifinality discussed in the social learning literature, namely the use of s-shaped diffusion curves to discern individual from social learning and operational definitions and analytical approaches used in studies of conformist transmission. While equifinality exists to some extent in all studies of social learning, I make suggestions for how to address instances of it, with an emphasis on using data simulation and methodological verification alongside modern statistical approaches that emphasize prediction and model comparison. In cases where evaluated learning mechanisms are equifinal due to non-methodological factors, I suggest that this is not always a problem if it helps us predict cultural change. In some cases, equifinal learning mechanisms might offer insight into how both individual learning, social learning strategies and other endogenous social factors might by important in structuring cultural dynamics and within- and between-group heterogeneity.
  • The flight of the locus of selection: Some intricate relationships between
           evolutionary elements
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018Source: Behavioural ProcessesAuthor(s): April M. Becker Selection has enriched our understanding of the world since it was first applied to the evolution of species. Selection stands as an alternative to essentialist thinking, as a generalized and multiply applicable concept, and as a causal explanation for current forms within biology and behavior. Attempts to describe selection processes in a generalizable way have provided clarity about their minimal elements, such as replicators and interactors. This paper discusses the interconnectedness among different levels of selection using evidence garnered from evolutionary biology, development, epigenetics, neuroscience, and behavior analysis. Currently, it appears that replicators and interactors may be more fluid than previously supposed and that selection for particular traits may rely on both multiple levels of interaction and multiple levels of replication. Replicators, interactors, and environment share influence on one another, and different replicators may exchange critical control over similar interactor variation as evolution proceeds. Our current understanding of selection continues to undergo revision, and reference to a number of disparate fields can help to account for the complexity of these processes. An understanding of their interconnectedness may help resolve some mysteries that develop in fields that exclusively focus on one or a few, such as the focused study of behavior.
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