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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 882 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 411)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 180)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 225)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 143)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Escritos de Psicología : Psychological Writings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover Behavioural Processes
  [SJR: 0.654]   [H-I: 57]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0376-6357
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3051 journals]
  • Changes in the time of day of conditioning with respect to the
           pre-exposure interfere with the latent inhibition of conditioned taste
           aversion in rats
    • Authors: Andrés Molero-Chamizo
      Pages: 22 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 146
      Author(s): Andrés Molero-Chamizo
      In rats, the reduction of the magnitude of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) that occurs after taste pre-exposures (that is, the latent inhibition of CTA) can be attenuated by contextual changes of the external cues in the conditioning stage. Similarly, circadian internal cues such as those induced by the time of day may also modulate the magnitude of the taste aversion. Under a long period of temporal-contextual habituation, the latent inhibition of CTA is reduced if the pre-exposure and conditioning stages occur at different times of day. However, it is unknown if this effect is consistent when different changes in the time of day of conditioning with respect to the pre-exposure are compared. In this study, the effect of two different changes in the time of day of conditioning (one from morning to evening, and one from evening to morning) on the latent inhibition of CTA was compared with the response of a typical latent inhibition group without temporal change between stages, and with control groups without pre-exposures. The results indicate that the latent inhibition of CTA of both groups with temporal change between pre-exposure and conditioning is significantly reduced when compared with the latent inhibition of the group without temporal change. These findings suggest that the temporal context may be a critical cue for the latent inhibition of CTA, and they show that different changes in the time of day of conditioning interfere similarly with this learning.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T22:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 146 (2017)
  • Changes in turn alternation pattern in response to substrate-borne
           vibrations in terrestrial isopods
    • Authors: Sofia Cividini; Giuseppe Montesanto
      Pages: 27 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 146
      Author(s): Sofia Cividini, Giuseppe Montesanto
      The present study focuses on the relationship existing between the phenomenon of turn alternation and substrate-borne vibrations in woodlice. Armadillo officinalis was utilized as a behavioral model in comparison to Armadillidium vulgare so as to assess its capability of perceiving external vibrations too. A T-maze with multiple exits was used to collect information on the pattern of turn alternation in i) adult individuals of A. officinalis exposed, and ii) not exposed to micro-vibrations, and iii) adult individuals of A. vulgare exposed to micro-vibrations. Turn alternation was assessed as the number of times that an animal turned on the opposite side in the T-maze. Our results showed a statistically significant association between turn alternation pattern and both exposure to micro-vibrations and species of the animals. According to our best-fitting model, A. officinalis not exposed and A. vulgare exposed to substrate-borne vibrations have 97% and 98% lower odds, respectively of being in a higher category of turn alternations compared to a lower category than exposed individuals of A. officinalis. A. officinalis seems to be very reactive to substrate-borne vibrations, unlike A. vulgare. This different reactivity might be related to a more complex defense mechanism developed as an evolutionary adaptation to the xeric environment, and/or to a means of communication mediated by substrate-borne vibrations, like in insects.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T22:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 146 (2017)
  • Examining object recognition and object-in-Place memory in plateau zokors,
           Eospalax baileyi
    • Authors: Ibrahim M. Hegab; Yuchen Tan; Chan Wang; Baohui Yao; Haifang Wang; Weihong Ji; Junhu Su
      Pages: 34 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 146
      Author(s): Ibrahim M. Hegab, Yuchen Tan, Chan Wang, Baohui Yao, Haifang Wang, Weihong Ji, Junhu Su
      Recognition memory is important for the survival and fitness of subterranean rodents due to the barren underground conditions that require avoiding the burden of higher energy costs or possible conflict with conspecifics. Our study aims to examine the object and object/place recognition memories in plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi) and test whether their underground life exerts sex-specific differences in memory functions using Novel Object Recognition (NOR) and Object-in-Place (OiP) paradigms. Animals were tested in the NOR with short (10min) and long-term (24h) inter-trial intervals (ITI) and in the OiP for a 30-min ITI between the familiarization and testing sessions. Plateau zokors showed a strong preference for novel objects manifested by a longer exploration time for the novel object after 10min ITI but failed to remember the familiar object when tested after 24h, suggesting a lack of long-term memory. In the OiP test, zokors effectively formed an association between the objects and the place where they were formerly encountered, resulting in a higher duration of exploration to the switched objects. However, both sexes showed equivalent results in exploration time during the NOR and OiP tests, which eliminates the possibility of discovering sex-specific variations in memory performance. Taken together, our study illustrates robust novelty preference and an effective short-term recognition memory without marked sex-specific differences, which might elucidate the dynamics of recognition memory formation and retrieval in plateau zokors.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T22:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 146 (2017)
  • A test of the reward-contrast hypothesis
    • Authors: Stefan J. Dalecki; Danielle E. Panoz-Brown; Jonathon D. Crystal
      Pages: 15 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 145
      Author(s): Stefan J. Dalecki, Danielle E. Panoz-Brown, Jonathon D. Crystal
      Source memory, a facet of episodic memory, is the memory of the origin of information. Whereas source memory in rats is sustained for at least a week, spatial memory degraded after approximately a day. Different forgetting functions may suggest that two memory systems (source memory and spatial memory) are dissociated. However, in previous work, the two tasks used baiting conditions consisting of chocolate and chow flavors; notably, the source memory task used the relatively better flavor. Thus, according to the reward-contrast hypothesis, when chocolate and chow were presented within the same context (i.e., within a single radial maze trial), the chocolate location was more memorable than the chow location because of contrast. We tested the reward-contrast hypothesis using baiting configurations designed to produce reward-contrast. The reward-contrast hypothesis predicts that under these conditions, spatial memory will survive a 24-h retention interval. We documented elimination of spatial memory performance after a 24-h retention interval using a reward-contrast baiting pattern. These data suggest that reward contrast does not explain our earlier findings that source memory survives unusually long retention intervals.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T22:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.018
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2017)
  • Can sequential vigilance be predicted'
    • Authors: Zhongqiu Li; Ye Che; Le Yang
      Pages: 81 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 145
      Author(s): Zhongqiu Li, Ye Che, Le Yang
      Sequential randomness is one of the three important assumptions for Pulliam’s vigilance model (1973). Here we tested the sequential randomness in Black-necked cranes Grus nigricollis, to see if the vigilance sequence can be predicted. Not similar to other recent studies, we found that most vigilance sequences (44/46) passed runs randomness test, and the length of an inter-scan interval was usually unrelated to its previous scan duration. Our findings suggest high predation risk might favor a random pattern of vigilance.

      PubDate: 2017-10-28T13:04:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 145 (2017)
  • Disruptive effects of light pollution on sleep in free-living birds:
           Season and/or light intensity-dependent'
    • Authors: Thomas Raap; Jiachen Sun; Rianne Pinxten; Marcel Eens
      Pages: 13 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 144
      Author(s): Thomas Raap, Jiachen Sun, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
      Light pollution or artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasing anthropogenic environmental pollutant posing an important potential threat for wildlife. Evidence of its effects on animal physiology and behaviour is accumulating. However, in order to effectively mitigate light pollution it is important to determine which factors contribute to the severity of effects of ALAN. In this experimental study we explored whether there are seasonal-dependent effects of ALAN on sleep in free-living great tits (Parus major), an important model species. Additionally, we looked at whether light intensity determined the severity of effects of ALAN on sleep. We therefore exposed animals to artificial light inside the nest box (3lx) in December (winter) and February (pre-breeding season). Results from February were compared with the results from a previous study in February, using a lower light intensity (1.6lx). We found little evidence for a season-dependent response. Effects of ALAN hardly differed between high and low light intensity. ALAN disrupted sleep with as main effect a decrease in sleep duration (≈–40min) as animals woke up earlier (≈–24min). However, compared to a natural dark situation sleep onset was delayed by high but not by low light intensity of ALAN. Our study underlines earlier found disruptive effects of ALAN on sleep of free-living animals. While we found no conclusive evidence for seasonal or light intensity-dependent effects of ALAN, additional experimental work using lower light intensities might show such differences. Examining potential management options is crucial in mitigating disruptive effects of light pollution, which will be an important focus for future studies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:46:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 144 (2017)
  • Effects of orientation and differential reinforcement on transitive
           stimulus control
    • Authors: Micah Amd; João H. de Almeida; Júlio C. de Rose; Carolina C. Silveira; Henrique M. Pompermaier
      Pages: 58 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 144
      Author(s): Micah Amd, João H. de Almeida, Júlio C. de Rose, Carolina C. Silveira, Henrique M. Pompermaier
      The emergence of transitive relations between stimuli that had never appeared together is a key process underlying concept formation. An unresolved theoretical issue with respect to transitive relations has been to determine whether differential reinforcement of stimulus-stimulus (S-S) relations though matching-to-sample, or contiguous S-S correlations/pairings, is more critical for producing transitivity. The current study inquired whether simple environmental S-S pairings, versus differential reinforcement of S-S relations, versus environmental S-S pairings with an orientation requirement, produced the greatest instances of transitivity. 12 groups of participants were parsed into one of four procedures (matching-to-sample, stimulus-paring, stimulus-pairing-w/response, stimulus-pairing-w/orientation) along one of three training structures (linear, many-to-one, one-to-many). All participants underwent a fixed number of training trials for establishing three, three-member stimulus sets (A1B1C1, A2B2C2, A3B3C3), followed by a single sorting test for AC transitivity. Our results demonstrate orienting towards environmental S-S pairings yield the greatest degree of transitivity. The effectivity of pairing procedures for establishing transitive relations, particularly when compared to matching-to-sample, can inform the development of educational interventions for individuals for whom the latter procedure (involving differential reinforcement) is ineffective.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.014
      Issue No: Vol. 144 (2017)
  • Avoiding escalation from play to aggression in adult male rats: The role
           of ultrasonic calls
    • Authors: Candace J. Burke; Theresa M. Kisko; Sergio M. Pellis; David R. Euston
      Pages: 72 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 144
      Author(s): Candace J. Burke, Theresa M. Kisko, Sergio M. Pellis, David R. Euston
      Play fighting is most commonly associated with juvenile animals, but in some species, including rats, it can continue into adulthood. Post-pubertal engagement in play fighting is often rougher and has an increased chance of escalation to aggression, making the use of play signals to regulate the encounter more critical. During play, both juvenile and adult rats emit many 50-kHz calls and some of these may function as play facilitating signals. In the present study, unfamiliar adult male rats were introduced in a neutral enclosure and their social interactions were recorded. While all pairs escalated their playful encounters to become rougher, only the pairs in which one member was devocalized escalated to serious biting. A Monte Carlo shuffling technique was used for the analysis of the correlations between the overt playful and aggressive actions performed and the types and frequencies of various 50-kHz calls that were emitted. The analysis revealed that lower frequency (20–30kHz) calls with a flat component maybe particularly critical for de-escalating encounters and so allowing play to continue. Moreover, coordinating calls reciprocally, with either the same call mimicked in close, temporal association or with complementary calls emitted by participants as they engage in complementary actions (e.g., attacking the nape, being attacked on the nape), appeared to be ways with which calls could be potentially used to avoid escalation to aggression and so sustain playful interactions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.014
      Issue No: Vol. 144 (2017)
  • Development of juvenile goitered gazelle social behavior during the hiding
    • Authors: D.A. Blank; K. Ruckstuhl; W. Yang
      Pages: 82 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 144
      Author(s): D.A. Blank, K. Ruckstuhl, W. Yang
      In many ungulate species, social organization of adults is based on a linear dominance hierarchy, which in turn often positively correlates with age, body mass, and horn/antler size. In contrast to the social behavior of adults and specific mother-offspring interactions, the process of ungulate socialization in juveniles through contacts with other conspecifics is poorly understood, especially for hider species during their initial hiding period. Therefore, we investigated this process in goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa), which is a typical hiding species, and analyzed all contacts between fawns and other conspecifics, omitting mother-young interactions, which are different by nature from other contacts and demands separate consideration. We found that apart from mothers, fawns interacted most often with nonmaternal adult females, less with other fawns and least with adult males and sub-adults. The frequency of the fawns’ contacts with conspecifics other than their mother increased during May and early-June, reaching a maximum in late-June, when fawns had the most mobility and independence from their mothers. This frequency decreased in July, when fawns spent more time with their mothers and when they mostly followed the mother’s behavior. The interactions of adult males and sub-adults of both sexes with fawns were the most aggressive in character, involving frequent displays of butting and chasing. Aggressive interactions were fewer between adult females and fawns, while fawn-fawn interactions had least aggressive displays. The main cause of interactions between fawns and other conspecifics were attempts of these young gazelles to suckle from other adults and sub-adults, especially frequently from nonmaternal females. Only fawn-fawn contacts were not linked to suckling and seemed to relate mostly to the development of social behavior and dominance hierarchies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.013
      Issue No: Vol. 144 (2017)
  • Adduction of untested derived stimulus relations depends on environmental
    • Authors: Sterling M. Rippy; Adam H. Doughty
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 143
      Author(s): Sterling M. Rippy, Adam H. Doughty
      The present research assessed adduction involving derived stimulus relations as a function of environmental complexity. In Group CA, four college students were trained with arbitrary-matching-to-sample discriminations that could have established four, 3-member stimulus classes. In Group EA, four other students were trained with discriminations that could have established four, 5-member classes. Neither group received derived-relations testing; instead, adduction was assessed immediately after the baseline discriminations were learned. The adduction assessment required participants to derive the untested CA (Group CA) or EA (Group EA) equivalence relations and combine them with their already learned math skills. All participants in Group CA showed above 90% accuracy during the adduction assessment, whereas only one of four Group EA participants responded in that manner. These results extend adduction to untested equivalence relations and clarify the environmental conditions under which such adduction is less likely to occur (i.e., with larger relational networks).

      PubDate: 2017-08-07T03:52:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.07.008
      Issue No: Vol. 143 (2017)
  • Transfer of function and prior derived-relations testing
    • Authors: Adam H. Doughty; Lauren Best
      Pages: 4 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 143
      Author(s): Adam H. Doughty, Lauren Best
      This experiment assessed transfer of function through equivalence relations with and without prior derived-stimulus-relations (DSR) testing. In a DSR-Testing Group, eight college students learned A-B and A–C discriminations in baseline. They then derived the B-C and C-B equivalence relations before being exposed to a transfer-of-function manipulation and test. Eight participants in a No-DSR Testing Group were exposed to the transfer-of-function manipulation and test immediately after learning the baseline discriminations (i.e., B-C and C-B testing were omitted). In the transfer-of-function manipulation, participants learned to respond differently in the presence of B1 and B2 to avoid money loss. In the transfer-of-function test, responding in the presence of C1 and C2 was measured in the absence of differential consequences. Transfer of function occurred reliably only in the DSR-Testing Group (i.e., participants responding to C1 and C2 in the manner they learned to respond to B1 and B2, respectively). These findings support the notion that prior DSR testing can be critical to observing transfer of function.

      PubDate: 2017-08-17T16:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.07.010
      Issue No: Vol. 143 (2017)
  • Object categorization by wild ranging birds—Winter feeder
    • Authors: Nela Nováková; Petr Veselý; Roman Fuchs
      Pages: 7 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 143
      Author(s): Nela Nováková, Petr Veselý, Roman Fuchs
      The object categorization is only scarcely studied using untrained wild ranging animals and relevant stimuli. We tested the importance of the spatial position of features salient for categorization of a predator using wild ranging birds (titmice) visiting a winter feeder. As a relevant stimulus we used a dummy of a raptor, the European sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), placed at the feeding location. This dummy was designed to be dismantled into three parts and rearranged with the head in the correct position, in the middle or at the bottom of the dummy. When the birds had the option of visiting an alternative feeder with a dummy pigeon, they preferred this option to visiting the feeder with the dummy sparrowhawk with the head in any of the three positions. When the birds had the option of visiting an alternative feeder with an un-rearranged dummy sparrowhawk, they visited both feeders equally often, and very scarcely. This suggests that the titmice considered all of the sparrowhawk modifications as being dangerous, and equally dangerous as the un-rearranged sparrowhawk. The position of the head was not the most important cue for categorization. The presence of the key features was probably sufficient for categorization, and their mutual spatial position was of lower importance.

      PubDate: 2017-08-17T16:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 143 (2017)
  • Seasonal changes in activity patterns of Japanese flying squirrel Pteromys
    • Authors: Kei K. Suzuki; Motokazu Ando
      Pages: 13 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Kei K. Suzuki, Motokazu Ando
      Seasonal changes of activity patterns are an important survival strategy for several species. Seasonal changes in the activity patterns of Japanese flying squirrels (Pteromys momonga) were studied at Daibosatsu Mountain on Honshu Island, Japan from 2 June to 20 November 2007 and 11 April to 14 November 2008, to discuss their survival strategy based on the change. Activity patterns were assessed using long-term sensor camera traps at 214 sites for 14 months of a 2-year period. The cameras were placed for a total of 7,317 camera trap nights over which total of 90 photographs of this species were collected from 22 of the 214 sites. Although distinct nocturnal activity was detected throughout the study period, activity patterns differed between temperate (June–September) and cold (April, May, October, and November) seasons. So, activity peaks were found to be bimodal during the temperate seasons and trimodal during the cold seasons. It is possible that the squirrels reduce their activity times per bout during the cold seasons to reduce energy loss arising from prolonged exposure to cold temperatures, as a survival strategy.

      PubDate: 2017-08-17T16:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 143 (2017)
  • Olfactory discrimination and memory deficits in the Flinders Sensitive
           Line rodent model of depression
    • Authors: A. Cook; L.-M. Pfeiffer; S. Thiele; V.A. Coenen; M.D. Döbrössy
      Pages: 25 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): A. Cook, L.-M. Pfeiffer, S. Thiele, V.A. Coenen, M.D. Döbrössy
      Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with broad symptomatic manifestations. The current study examined, for the first time, olfactory memory and discrimination in the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rodent model of depression. Male FSL rats and controls were trained on an Olfactory Discrimination (OD) and a Social Interaction (SI) test. On the OD test, the FSL and controls performed similarly at the shortest inter-trial interval (5min), however, with extended delay of 30min, the FSLs had a recall and odor discrimination deficit. At the longest delay (60min) both groups performed poorly. The FSL rats i.) had a deficit in olfactory discrimination suggesting impairment in olfactory memory and recall; ii.) were less likely to socialize with unfamiliar rats. The data suggests that FSL animals have an impaired olfactory information processing capacity.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 143 (2017)
  • High-runner mice have reduced incentive salience for a sweet-taste reward
           when housed with wheel access
    • Authors: Zoe Thompson; Erik M. Kolb; Theodore Garland
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Zoe Thompson, Erik M. Kolb, Theodore Garland
      To explore reward substitution in the context of voluntary exercise, female mice from four replicate high-runner (HR) lines (bred for wheel running) and four non-selected control (C) lines were given simultaneous access to wheels and palatable solutions as competing rewards (two doses of saccharin [0.1, 0.2% w/v]; two doses of common artificial sweetener blends containing saccharin [Sweet ‘N Low®: 0.1, 0.2% w/v], aspartame [Equal®: 0.04, 0.08% w/v], or sucralose [Splenda®: 0.08, 0.16% w/v]; or two doses of sucrose [3.5, 10.5% w/v]). Wheel running and fluid consumption were measured daily, with each dose (including plain water) lasting two days and two “washout” days between solutions. In a separate set of mice, the experiment was repeated without wheel access. The artificial sweeteners had no statistical effect on wheel running. However, based on proportional responses, both doses of sucrose significantly elevated wheel running in C but not HR mice. In contrast, the high dose of sucrose suppressed home-cage activity for both linetypes. Both sucrose and the artificial blends generally increased fluid consumption in a dose-dependent manner. When they had access to wheels, HR had a significantly smaller increase in consumption of artificial sweetener blends when compared with C mice, but not when housed without wheels. Overall, these results provide further evidence that the reward system of HR mice has evolved, and specifically suggest that HR mice have a reduced incentive salience for some artificial sweetener blends, likely attributable to the stronger competing reward of wheel running that has evolved in these lines.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T22:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.11.004
  • Regularities in zebra finch song beyond the repeated motif
    • Authors: Julia Hyland Bruno; Ofer Tchernichovski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Julia Hyland Bruno, Ofer Tchernichovski
      The proliferation of birdsong research into the neural mechanisms of vocal learning is indebted to the remarkable stereotypy of the zebra finch’s song motif. Motifs are composed of several copied syllables, which birds learn to produce in a fixed order. But at a higher level of organization—the bout—zebra finch song is no longer stereotyped. Song bouts include several repetitions of the motif, which are often linked by a variable number of short “connector” vocalizations. In this conceptual methods paper, we show that combinatorial analysis alone yields an incomplete description of this bout-level structure. In contrast, studying birdsong as a time-varying analog signal can reveal patterns of flexibility in the rhythmic organization of song bouts. Visualizing large song-samples in sorted raster plots, we find that motifs are strung together via two distinct categories of connections: tight or loose. Loose connections allow considerable timing variation across renditions. Even among co-tutored birds that acquired the same motif, we observe strong individual variability in the temporal plasticity of song bouts. These findings suggest that vocal flexibility could potentially allow individuals to express a variety of behavioral states through their songs, even in species that sing only a single stereotyped motif.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T22:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.11.001
  • The 24/7 approach to promoting optimal welfare for captive wild animals
    • Authors: Sabrina Brando; Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Sabrina Brando, Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith
      We have an ethical responsibility to provide captive animals with environments that allow them to experience good welfare. Husbandry activities are often scheduled for the convenience of care staff working within the constraints of the facility, rather than considering the biological and psychological requirements of the animals themselves. The animal welfare 24/7 across the lifespan concept provides a holistic framework to map features of the animal’s life cycle, taking into account their natural history, in relation to variations in the captive environment, across day and night, weekdays, weekends, and seasons. In order for animals to have the opportunity to thrive, we argue the need to consider their lifetime experience, integrated into the environments we provide, and with their perspective in mind. Here, we propose a welfare assessment tool based upon 14 criteria, to allow care staff to determine if their animals’ welfare needs are met. We conclude that animal habitat management will be enhanced with the use of integrated technologies that provide the animals with more opportunities to engineer their own environments, providing them with complexity, choice and control.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T22:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.010
  • Effects of age on the courtship, copulation, and fecundity of Pardosa
           pseudoannulata (Araneae: Lycosidae)
    • Authors: Xinyi Jiang; Yao Zhao; Qian Yan; Changchun Li; Qinghong Jiang; Yueli Yun; Yu Peng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Xinyi Jiang, Yao Zhao, Qian Yan, Changchun Li, Qinghong Jiang, Yueli Yun, Yu Peng
      According to sexual selection theory, age affects the preference of mate choice, and this preference ultimately influences the fecundity of the female. Pardosa pseudoannulata (Araneae: Lycosidae) is a valued predator in many cropping systems. By determining oviposition rate, egg hatching rate, and also the number and carapace width of the 2nd instar spiderlings of the F1 generation, we explored the effects of age on fecundity of the female spider. There were no significant effects of age on courtship duration, sexual cannibalism rate, mating rate, oviposition rate, egg hatching rate, or the number and carapace width of 2nd instar spiderings of P. pseudoannulata. However, age had a significant effect on courtship latency, courtship intensity, and mating duration of the spider. Courtship latency decreased significantly with an increase in the age of the male, and courtship intensity of the low-age male increased with increasing female age. Increasing age of male and female spiders was associated with significantly prolonged mating duration. The results indicated that low-age male spiders were more inclined to mate with high-age females, and age had no significant effect on sexual cannibalism rate or the fecundity of the female.

      PubDate: 2017-11-04T19:28:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.10.012
  • Species differences in urine scent-marking and counter-marking in
    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Becker; Frank R. Castelli; Christine N. Yohn; Lindsey Spencer; Catherine A. Marler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Elizabeth A. Becker, Frank R. Castelli, Christine N. Yohn, Lindsey Spencer, Catherine A. Marler
      Species comparisons indicate that scent-marking may differ as a function of mating system and co-housing with the opposite sex (“pairing”). We previously demonstrated that pairing may decrease male solicitation to unfamiliar females in the monogamous Peromyscus californicus but not in the non-monogamous P. leucopus. Whether urine scent-marking of females changes following pairing and whether scent-marking of paired males varies in response to scent-marks of their cagemate versus those of an unfamiliar female has not been examined. Therefore, we tested P. californicus and P. leucopus for within and between species differences in urine scent-marking of: 1) paired and non-paired females in an unscented arena, and 2) paired males in response to their female cagemate’s or an unfamiliar female’s scent-marks (counter-marking). Consistent with previous findings, P. californicus of both sexes deposited more urine scent-marks and covered greater surface area than P. leucopus. In both species, female scent-marking did not differ according to pairing status and male counter-marking did not differ in response to the scent-marks of their female cagemate versus an unfamiliar female. More females of both species and more P. leucopus, but not P. californicus, males scent-marked more around the perimeter than centrally. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-04T19:28:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.10.011
  • Distinct effects of two separately applied stressors on behavior in the
           red flour beetle
    • Authors: Yonatan Wexler; Inon Scharf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Yonatan Wexler, Inon Scharf
      Stress is ubiquitous in nature and organisms have evolved mechanisms to cope with it. Stress responses nevertheless vary based on the type of stress, its duration, magnitude, and the organism’s physiological status. We studied here the effect of two separately applied stress types, differing also in their duration, on various behavioral responses of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum). The two stress types applied were short-term cold stress and long-term low protein stress. The behavioral response variables were movement activity, preference to move along the test arena edges, latency to emerge from shelter, and preference for dark microhabitat, measured at two stages of the beetles’ lives, as young adults after eclosion and one month later. Behavioral responses were stress-specific. Cold-stressed beetles moved over the longest distances but were also the most reluctant to leave an accessible shelter. We interpret this to mean that cold-stressed beetles were the most active under unfavorable conditions and least bold under more favorable, protected conditions. As beetles aged, their movement activity decreased and latency to emerge from shelter increased. Non-stressed beetles were the most consistent in their behavior across all behavioral tests. This finding is similar to those in previous studies and suggests that moderate stress reduces behavioral consistency. While all beetles gained mass during the study period, the two stress types led to different patterns of body mass increase, which was more moderate for cold-stressed than for protein-stressed beetles.

      PubDate: 2017-10-28T13:04:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.10.008
  • Relational concept learning in domestic dogs: Performance on a two-choice
           size discrimination task generalises to novel stimuli
    • Authors: Sarah-Elizabeth Byosiere; Lynna C. Feng; Philippe A. Chouinard; Tiffani J. Howell; Pauleen C. Bennett
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Sarah-Elizabeth Byosiere, Lynna C. Feng, Philippe A. Chouinard, Tiffani J. Howell, Pauleen C. Bennett
      One central issue in the study of animal cognition concerns conceptual behaviour, where an organism categorises objects, events, and relationships so as to transfer previously learned rules to novel contexts. In this study, we investigated whether or not dogs demonstrate conceptual behaviour in the form of simple relational class concept learning. A two-choice visual discrimination task was used to assess if dogs are capable of simple relational class concept learning by generalising the same rule (i.e. circle is larger or smaller than) to various novel shapes. Eight purebred Lagotto Romagnolos were included in the study. The results demonstrated that they were capable of generalising a previously learned size discrimination rule to novel stimuli; however, there were differences in dog’s generalization capabilities across certain shapes. Considering their unique relationship with humans, and their immediacy in everyday life, a better understanding of conceptual behaviour and generalising abilities in domestic dogs may have implications for training and management methods, as well as contributing to comparative psychology and applied ethology.

      PubDate: 2017-10-28T13:04:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.10.009
  • Does audience affect the structure of warble song in budgerigars
           (Melopsittacus undulatus)'
    • Authors: Cole Tobin; Angela Medina-García; Gregory M. Kohn; Timothy F. Wright
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Cole Tobin, Angela Medina-García, Gregory M. Kohn, Timothy F. Wright
      In many bird species, male song functions both to defend a territory against other males and to attract a female mate. Male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) produce a song-like vocal signal, the warble, that can be directed at either females or other males. Warble is a long, complex, low amplitude, and variable vocalization composed of different element types. While there is some evidence that warble can induce reproduction, the function of this signal is largely uncertain and it is unclear whether male- and female-directed warble differ in either function or structure. We recorded male budgerigars in the presence of either their mate or a familiar male to identify whether the warbles produced with different audiences differed in structure. We dissected each warble into specific element units, classified units into a limited number of types by rule-based visual classification and calculated the proportion of each element type, element diversity, and total duration for the male- and female-directed warbles of each male. We also examined the sequential organization of warble element types (syntax) using time-window lagged sequential analysis. We found no differences in the proportions of different elements used, element diversity or duration of warbles between male- and female-directed warble. The syntax of warbles is similar when directed at males or females. However, we found greater between-individual similarity in the sequential organization of warbles directed towards females than in those directed towards males. The greater syntactical consistency in female-directed warble suggests that females may prefer either specific types of element sequences, or consistency itself, and thus shape the organization of warbles.

      PubDate: 2017-10-28T13:04:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.10.007
  • Song practice as a rewarding form of play in songbirds
    • Authors: Lauren V. Riters; Jeremy A. Spool; Devin P. Merullo; Allison H. Hahn
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Lauren V. Riters, Jeremy A. Spool, Devin P. Merullo, Allison H. Hahn
      In adult songbirds, the primary functions of song are mate attraction and territory defense; yet, many songbirds sing at high rates as juveniles and outside these primary contexts as adults. Singing outside primary contexts is critical for song learning and maintenance, and ultimately necessary for breeding success. However, this type of singing (i.e., song “practice”) occurs even in the absence of immediate or obvious extrinsic reinforcement; that is, it does not attract mates or repel competitors. Here we review studies that support the hypothesis that song practice is stimulated and maintained by intrinsic reward mechanisms (i.e., that it is associated with a positive affective state). Additionally, we propose that song practice can be considered a rewarding form of play behavior similar to forms of play observed in multiple young animals as they practice sequences of motor events that are used later in primary adult reproductive contexts. This review highlights research suggesting at least partially overlapping roles for neural reward systems in birdsong and mammalian play and evidence that steroid hormones modify these systems to shift animals from periods of intrinsically rewarded motor exploration (i.e., singing in birds and play in mammals) to the use of similar motor patterns in primary reproductive contexts.

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T17:38:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.10.002
  • Nestmate discrimination based on familiarity but not relatedness in
           eastern carpenter bees
    • Authors: J.L. Vickruck; M.H. Richards
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): J.L. Vickruck, M.H. Richards
      How animals recognize conspecific individuals has important outcomes in many contexts, but interactions among group members are particularly important. Two recognition criteria are often implicated in these interactions: kin recognition is based on relatedness cues and nestmate recognition is based on familiarity. For social insects, both types of recognition are possible, as many nestmates are close kin and familiarity can develop among individuals that encounter each other repeatedly. To discern whether social insects use kin or nestmate recognition, it is necessary to simultaneously assess how relatedness and familiarity influence behaviour. The facultatively social eastern carpenter bee, Xylocopa virginica, offers an excellent opportunity to study how either nestmate or kin recognition (or both) may influence interactions among nestmates, as many females disperse from their natal nests in spring, and often attempt to join new colonies that may contain unrelated individuals. This leads to frequent behavioural interactions among females that may be related or unrelated, and familiar or unfamiliar. We used observation nests and microsatellite loci to assess the influence of familiarity and relatedness on behavioural interactions during the early phase of colony development, when females establish reproductive queues prior to brood production. Females were more likely to feed and were less aggressive to familiar rather than related nestmates, regardless of their relatedness. This suggests that eastern carpenter bees primarily use learned cues to discriminate among nestmates. Interactions with nestmates were also context-dependent, as females returning to the nest without food were the recipients of more aggression than those returning with food. If spring dispersal leads to reduced relatedness in X. virginica colonies, then nestmate recognition based on familiarity would be an important factor in maintaining group cohesion.

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T17:38:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.10.005
  • Assessing colour preference in Aldabra giant tortoises (Geochelone
    • Authors: Caterina Spiezio; Carola Leonardi; Barbara Regaiolli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Caterina Spiezio, Carola Leonardi, Barbara Regaiolli
      Tortoises perceive different colours and rely on the visual system to find food. However, few studies have considered colour preference in tortoises, especially in land species. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Aldabra giant tortoises (Geochelone gigantea) housed in Parco Natura Viva (VR), an Italian zoological garden, show a specific colour preference in their social context. The study was divided into two different periods in which red and yellow balls of the same size were scattered around in the outdoor enclosure. In the first period, pieces of carrots were placed behind each ball whereas in the second period, carrots were replaced with apples. Data on the frequencies of interaction with red and yellow balls were collected. First, tortoises interacted more with the balls when pieces of apples rather than carrots were hidden behind them. No significant group-level colour preference was found; however, individual-level variation in colour preference was reported. In addition, tortoises interacted significantly more with the yellow balls in the second than in the first period. Food typology seems therefore to play an important role in determining colour preference in chelonians. Research aimed at identifying individual differences in animal preferences might be valuable to improve captive animal husbandry (e.g.: development of enrichment programmes, diets and rewards).

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T17:38:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.10.006
  • Enclosure utilisation and activity budgets of disabled Malayan sun bears
           (Helarctos malayanus)
    • Authors: Kate Lewis; Kris Descovich; Martin Jones
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Kate Lewis, Kris Descovich, Martin Jones
      Captive bears are housed in environments that differ greatly from their natural habitat, restricting their ability to perform normal species-specific behaviours. This may be detrimental to welfare, with disabled individuals at particular risk. The effect of physical disability on behaviour and enclosure utilisation was assessed in 12 adult Malayan sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) using 10minute interval scan sampling. Amputees spent less time performing locomotor behaviours than able-bodied bears, used their enclosures less evenly, but did not exhibit obvious stereotypies. This was possibly due to the increased energy demands of locomotion, or residual pain in amputated limbs. Amputees spent less time grooming, but did not differ in time spent climbing compared with non-amputees. Partially sighted bears did not differ from able-bodied controls in enclosure use or behaviour. Age was positively correlated with stereotypical behaviour, and negatively correlated with maintenance and resting. Medication use was associated with more resting and grooming, and reduced stereotypy. The findings suggest that enclosures for amputees can be smaller than those for able-bodied bears, but should still contain a variety of climbing structures. Partially sighted bears fare well in enclosures designed for able-bodied bears, not requiring any special provision.

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T17:38:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.10.004
  • Temporal relationships between food acquisition and voluntary exercise in
    • Authors: Neil Rowland; Melissa Cervantez Kimberly Robertson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Neil E. Rowland, Melissa R. Cervantez, Kimberly L. Robertson
      Patterns of operant food acquisition in a closed economy and bouts of either voluntary wheel running (WR) or spontaneous locomotor activity in a standard condition (SC) with no wheel were examined in young adult male and female C57BL/6 mice across a range of nose poke prices (FUP) per food pellet. Both sexes showed vigorous WR or locomotor activity. At each FUP, WR groups had higher food intake than SC groups. Despite substantially higher mean body weight of males compared with females, intakes and activity did not differ by sex in the SC groups and males lost weight more rapidly as FUP increased. In contrast, WR males ran ∼33% further per day than females, increased their food intake (above that of SC counterparts) more than females, and lost less body weight than SC males. By parsing the night in four 3h epochs it was found that food intake declined progressively through the night in both WR and SC mice and that the hyperphagia of WR relative to SC groups was most evident early in the night, coincident with highest activity. No large or systematic sex differences were revealed in these temporal analyses. Analysis of data at 60s resolution showed that pellet acquisition occurred in many small or short bouts, the timing of which was either intercalated or concurrent with either locomotor activity or WR. The results show that increased eating due to WR occurs concurrently with maximum running, and with no evidence of delayed compensation.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T17:13:45Z
  • Testing a cue outside the training context increases attention to the
           contexts and impairs performance in human predictive learning
    • Authors: Aristizabal Manuel; Callejas-Aguilera Juan Rosas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): José A. Aristizabal, Manuel M. Ramos-Álvarez, José E. Callejas-Aguilera, Juan M. Rosas
      One experiment in human predictive learning explored the impact of a context change on attention to contexts and predictive ratings controlled by the cue. In Context A: cue X was paired with an outcome four times, while cue Y was presented without an outcome four times in Context B:. In both contexts filler cues were presented without the outcome. During the test, target cues X and Y were presented either in the context where they were trained, or in the alternative context. With the context change expectation of the outcome X, expressed as predictive ratings, decreased in the presence of X and increased in the presence of Y. Looking at the contexts, expressed as a percentage of the overall gaze dwell time on a trial, was high across the four training trials, and increased with the context change. Results suggest that the presentation of unexpected information leads to increases in attention to contextual cues. Implications for contextual control of behavior are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T17:13:45Z
  • Effects of reinforcement value on instruction following under schedules of
           negative reinforcement
    • Authors: Alessandri Carlos; R.X. Josele Abreu-Rodrigues
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Jérôme Alessandri, Carlos R.X. Cançado, Josele Abreu-Rodrigues
      The effects of reinforcement value and social control on instruction following under a negative-reinforcement (escape) schedule were studied. Initially, responding produced timeouts from pressing a force cell under a low and a high force requirement on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement. Next, participants were reexposed to the low and high force requirements, but were instructed that the experimenter expected them to decrease the number of timeouts relative to the previous exposures to the procedure. Even though following the instruction led to a decrease in number of timeouts and to an increase in effort (i.e., was non-efficient), instruction following occurred consistently for each participant and was modulated by reinforcement value. That is, the decrease in the number of timeouts (i.e., instruction following) was lower under the high force requirement than under the low force requirement. These results replicate and extend previous findings that instructions interact with social and nonsocial contingencies in controlling human behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T17:13:45Z
  • Bayesian analysis improves experimental studies about temporal patterning
           of aggression in fish.
    • Authors: Eurico Mesquita Noleto-Filho; Ana Carolina Gauy; Maria Grazia Pennino; Eliane Gonçalves de Freitas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Eurico Mesquita Noleto-Filho, Ana Carolina Gauy, Maria Grazia Pennino, Eliane Gonçalves de Freitas
      This study aims to describe a Bayesian Hierarchical Linear Model (HLM) approach for longitudinal designs in fish’s experimental aggressive behavior studies as an alternative to classical methods In particular, we discuss the advantages of Bayesian analysis in dealing with combined variables, non-statistically significant results and required sample size using an experiment of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) species as case study. Groups of 3 individuals were subjected to daily observations recorded for 10minutes during 5 days. The frequencies of attacks, displays and the total attacks (attacks+displays) of each record were modeled using Monte Carlo Markov chains. In addition, a Bayesian HLM was performed for measuring the rate of increase/decrease of the aggressive behavior during the time and to assess the probability of difference among days. Results highlighted that using the combined variable of total attacks could lead to biased conclusions as displays and attacks showed an opposite pattern in the experiment. Moreover, depending of the study, this difference in pattern can happen more clearly or more subtly. Subtle changes cannot be detected when p-values are implemented. On the contrary, Bayesian methods provide a clear description of the changes even when patterns are subtle. Additionally, results showed that the number of replicates (15 or 11) invariant the study conclusions as well that using a small sample size could be more evident within the overlapping days, that includes the social rank stability. Therefore, Bayesian analysis seems to be a richer and an adequate statistical approach for fish’s aggressive behavior longitudinal designs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T16:42:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.017
  • Flattening of a Generalization Gradient Following a Retention Interval:
           Evidence for Differential Forgetting of Stimulus Features
    • Authors: Marta Gil; Michelle Symonds; Geoffrey Hall; Isabel de Brugada
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Marta Gil, Michelle Symonds, Geoffrey Hall, Isabel de Brugada
      In two experiments, rats received exposure to a compound consisting of a solution of salt plus a distinctive flavor (A), followed by an injection of furo-doca to induce a salt need. Experiment 1, established that this procedure successfully generated a preference for flavor A in a subsequent choice test between A and water. Experiment 2 used this within-event learning effect to investigate generalization, testing the rats with both A and a novel flavor (B). For different groups the interval between the training phase and the test phase was varied. Subjects tested immediately after training showed a steep generalization gradient (i.e., a strong preference for A, and a weak preference for B). Subjects given a 14-day retention interval showed a flattened gradient, a reduced level of preference for A and an enhanced preference for B. These results are interpreted in terms of changes in stimulus representations over the retention interval that act to reduce the effectiveness of the distinctive features of stimuli (the features that are necessary to ensure discrimination between them).

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T16:42:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.016
  • Sexual behavior in ladybird beetles: sex with lights on and a twist for
           Tenuisvalvae notata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
    • Authors: Elisabete A. dos Santos; Christian S.A. Silva-Torres; Paulo R.R. Barbosa; Jorge B. Torres; Maria C.B. Moraes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Elisabete A. dos Santos, Christian S.A. Silva-Torres, Paulo R.R. Barbosa, Jorge B. Torres, Maria C.B. Moraes
      The ladybird beetle Tenuisvalvae notata is an important predator of mealybugs (Pseudococcidae); however, little is known about its reproductive behavior. Thus, in order to improve methods of its rearing, this work studied several aspects regarding the sexual behavior of T. notata. We investigated its sexual activity period, age of the first copulation, mating frequency over 24hours, and oviposition during a 30-day interval. Sexual activity of T. notata is diurnal with peak between 1100h and 1500h. Males need about 4days to first copulation, whereas females can mate at emergence. Adults mate 1.17±0.16–1.91±0.29 times over 24hours with an average duration of 84±19.70seconds (ranging from 27 to 130seconds) per mating. Females produced an average of 54±6.42–64±7.08 offspring over 30 days. An ethogram was also constructed to organize the events that occurred during copulation as follows: the male mounts the female, inserts the aedeagus, touches its back with palps and mandibles, and attempts to hold it simultaneously. The female can walk while copulating or remains motionless; the male retracts its aedeagus and twist on the females’ back before moving apart.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.006
  • Prior Commitment: Its Effect on Suboptimal Choice in a Gambling-Like Task
    • Authors: Thomas R. Zentall; Danielle M. Andrews; Jacob P. Case
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Thomas R. Zentall, Danielle M. Andrews, Jacob P. Case
      Animals choose suboptimally when provided with cues that signal whether reinforcement is coming or not. For example, pigeons do not prefer an alternative that always provides them with a signal for reinforcement over an alternative that provides them with a signal for reinforcement only half of the time and a signal for the absence of reinforcement the rest of the time. In the present research, we tested the hypothesis that if the results of the choice are delayed, pigeons will choose less suboptimally. We tested this hypothesis by forcing pigeons to wait following their choice, requiring them to complete a fixed-interval 20-s schedule prior to receiving the signals for reinforcement. In Experiment 1, we gave the pigeons a choice between (a) a 50% chance of receiving a signal for reinforcement or a 50% chance of receiving a signal for the absence of reinforcement (b) and a 100% chance of receiving a signal for reinforcement. When the signal for reinforcement was delayed, most of the pigeons chose optimally. When it was not delayed, most of the pigeons chose suboptimally. In Experiment 2, we gave the pigeons a choice between (a) a 25% chance of receiving a signal for reinforcement or a 75% chance of receiving a signal for nonreinforcement and (b) a 100% chance of receiving an unreliable signal for reinforcement (predicting reinforcement 75% of the time). When the signal was not delayed, the pigeons showed a strong tendency to choose suboptimally but they chose suboptimally much less when the signal was delayed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.008
  • Behavioral responses of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) to
           environmental variation in an Arctic estuary
    • Authors: Paul A. Anderson; Russell B. Poe; Laura A. Thompson; Nansen Weber; Tracy A. Romano
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Paul A. Anderson, Russell B. Poe, Laura A. Thompson, Nansen Weber, Tracy A. Romano
      Some Arctic estuaries serve as substrate rubbing sites for beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the summer, representing a specialized resource for the species. Understanding how environmental variation affects the species’ behavior is essential to management of these habitats in coming years as the climate changes. Spatiotemporal and environmental variables were recorded for behavioral observations, during which focal groups of whales in an estuary were video-recorded for enumeration and behavioral analysis. Multiple polynomial linear regression models were optimized to identify the effects of spatiotemporal and environmental conditions on group size, composition, and the frequency of behaviors being performed. Results suggest that belugas take advantage of environmental variation to express behaviors that 1) protect young, e.g., bringing calves close to shore during cloudier days, obscuring visualization from terrestrial predators; 2) avoid predation, e.g., rubbing against substrates at higher Beaufort sea states to obscure visualization, and resting during low tides while swimming on outgoing tides to avoid stranding; and 3) optimize bioenergetic resources, e.g., swimming during lower Beaufort sea states and clearer days. Predictive models like the ones presented in this study can inform conservation management strategies as environmental conditions change in future years.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.007
  • Environmental enrichment in the absence of wheel running produces
           beneficial behavioural and anti-oxidative effects in rats
    • Authors: F. Mármol; J. Sánchez; M.N. Torres; V.D. Chamizo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): F. Mármol, J. Sánchez, M.N. Torres, V.D. Chamizo
      The effects of early environmental enrichment (EE) when solving a simple spatial task in adult male rats were assessed. After weaning, rats were housed in pairs in enriched or standard cages (EE and control groups) for two and a half months. Then the rats were trained in a triangular-shaped pool to find a hidden platform whose location was defined in terms of two sources of information, a landmark outside the pool and a particular corner of the pool. As expected, enriched rats reached the platform faster than control animals. Enriched rats also performed better on a subsequent test trial without the platform with the geometry cue individually presented (in the absence of the landmark). Most importantly, the beneficial effects of the present protocol were obtained in the absence of wheel running. Additionally, the antioxidative effects in the hippocampus produced by the previous protocol are also shown.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T01:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.009
  • Quantity discrimination in canids: Dogs (Canis familiaris) and wolves
           (Canis lupus) compared
    • Authors: Miletto Petrazzini Maria Elena; Clive D.L. Wynne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Miletto Petrazzini Maria Elena, Clive D.L. Wynne
      Accumulating evidence indicates that animals are able to discriminate between quantities. Recent studies have shown that dogs’ and coyotes’ ability to discriminate between quantities of food items decreases with increasing numerical ratio. Conversely, wolves’ performance is not affected by numerical ratio. Cross-species comparisons are difficult because of differences in the methodologies employed, and hence it is still unclear whether domestication altered quantitative abilities in canids. Here we used the same procedure to compare pet dogs and wolves in a spontaneous food choice task. Subjects were presented with two quantities of food items and allowed to choose only one option. Four numerical contrasts of increasing difficulty (range 1-4) were used to assess the influence of numerical ratio on the performance of the two species. Dogs’ accuracy was affected by numerical ratio, while no ratio effect was observed in wolves. These results align with previous findings and reinforce the idea of different quantitative competences in dogs and wolves. Although we cannot exclude that other variables might have played a role in shaping quantitative abilities in these two species, our results might suggest that the interspecific differences here reported may have arisen as a result of domestication.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T02:42:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.003
  • Social learning in a maze' Contrasting individual performance among
           wild zebrafish when associated with trained and naïve conspecifics
    • Authors: Tamal Roy; Anuradha Bhat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Tamal Roy, Anuradha Bhat
      Social learning facilitates informed decision making about foraging, mating and anti-predatory tactics among animals. We investigated the occurrence of social learning through performance in a spatial task among wild-caught zebrafish. Individual fish (demonstrators) were trained through a novel food finding task in a maze for 8days. Demonstrators were paired with naïve individuals (observers) and subjected to trials through maze for 4days followed by removal of the demonstrators and further training of observers for 4 more days. Paired naïve individuals were subjected to trials through the maze in similar fashion separately and the performance of observers were compared with theirs. Our results showed that observers associated with knowledgeable conspecifics did not perform the task better than naïve-paired individuals. Performances across trials improved for both sets while number of mistakes committed increased indicating no learning. The presence of a demonstrator could have increased the observer’s activity, increasing the chances for the observer to come in contact with the stimulus. Performance of observers and naïve-paired fish were probably affected by social distraction. Sex and body-size of the dyads (demonstrator-observer pairs and naïve pairs) could also have interfered with information transfer among individuals.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T02:42:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.004
  • Behavioural responses of two-spotted spider mites induced by
           predator-borne and prey-borne cues
    • Authors: Enikő Gyuris; Erna Szép; Jenő Kontschán; Attila Hettyey; Zoltán Tóth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Enikő Gyuris, Erna Szép, Jenő Kontschán, Attila Hettyey, Zoltán Tóth
      Applying predatory mites as biological control agents is a well established method against spider mites which are major pests worldwide. Although antipredator responses can influence the outcome of predator-prey interactions, we have limited information about what cues spider mites use to adjust their behavioural antipredator responses. We experimentally exposed two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) to different predator-borne cues (using a specialist predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis, or a generalist predator, Amblyseius swirskii), conspecific prey-borne cues, or both, and measured locomotion and egg-laying activity. The reactions to predator species compared to each other manifested in reversed tendencies: spider mites increased their locomotion activity in the presence of P. persimilis, whereas they decreased it when exposed to A. swirskii. The strongest response was triggered by the presence of a killed conspecific: focal spider mites decreased their locomotion activity compared to the control group. Oviposition activity was not affected by either treatment. Our results point out that spider mites may change their behaviour in response to predators, and also to the presence of killed conspecifics, but these effects were not enhanced when both types of cues were present. The effect of social contacts among prey conspecifics on predator-induced behavioural defences is discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:46:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.002
  • Larviculture of a carnivorous freshwater catfish, Lophiosilurus alexandri,
           screened by personality type
    • Authors: Isabela F.Araújo Torres; Gustavo S. da C. Júlio; Luis Gustavo Figueiredo; Natália L.C. de Lima; Ana Paula N. Soares; Ronald K. Luz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Isabela F.Araújo Torres, Gustavo S. da C. Júlio, Luis Gustavo Figueiredo, Natália L.C. de Lima, Ana Paula N. Soares, Ronald K. Luz
      Considering that each personality type in animals presents distinct physiological and behavioural responses, this study evaluated the efficiency of the Novel Environment test to classify larvae of Lophiosilurus alexandri into bold and shy individuals, which were then investigated for growth, cannibalism and mortality in larviculture of pure and mixed groups. Larvae with an average weight of 24.0±1.7mg and length of 14.1±0.4mm, were subjected to a Novel Environment test to classify their personality type (bold and shy larvae). After the larvae were classified according to personality type, they were subjected to larviculture for 15 days. Three treatments were tested: only bold larvae, only shy larvae, and a mixed treatment (bold larvae+shy larvae) at a density for 16 larvae/L, which were fed 3 times a day with Artemia nauplii. After larviculture, there were no differences in the final lengths of larvae of the bold, shy, and mixed treatments (26.9±0.76mm, 26.7±1.00mm, and 26.8±1.24mm, respectively); however, shy larvae possessed weighed less (0.22±0.01g) than the bold and mixed treatments, which did not differ significantly (0.25±0.02g and 0.27±0.02g, respectively). The bold and mixed treatments had the highest cannibalism rate (11.2±5.1% and 23.1±12.3%, respectively). Overall survival was lowest in the mixed treatment (62.5±13.0%), while that of the bold and shy treatments were similar (82.5±9.2% and 86.2±9.2%, respectively). The separation of L. alexandri larvae by traits can ensure a decrease in cannibalism and hence, more productive larviculture.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:46:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.001
  • How unpredictable access to food increases the body fat of small
           passerines: A mechanistic approach
    • Authors: Patrick Anselme; Tobias Otto; Onur Güntürkün
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Patrick Anselme, Tobias Otto, Onur Güntürkün
      Unpredictable rewards increase the vigor of responses in autoshaping (a Pavlovian conditioning procedure) and are preferred to predictable rewards in free-choice tasks involving fixed- versus variable-delay schedules. The significance those behavioral properties may have in field conditions is currently unknown. However, it is noticeable that when exposed to unpredictable food, small passerines − such as robins, titmice, and starlings − get fatter than when food is abundant. In functional terms, fattening is viewed as an evolutionary strategy acting against the risk of starvation when food is in short supply. But this functional view does not explain the causal mechanisms by which small passerines come to be fatter under food uncertainty. Here, it is suggested that one of these causal mechanisms is that involved in behavioral invigoration and preference for food uncertainty in the laboratory. Based on a psychological theory of motivational changes under food uncertainty, we developed an integrative computational model to test this idea. We show that, for functional (adaptive) reasons, the excitatory property of reward unpredictability can underlie the propensity of wild birds to forage longer and/or more intensively in an unpredictable environment, with the consequence that they can put on more fat reserves.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:46:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.013
  • The effect of dietary antioxidants and exercise training on the escape
           performance of Southern Corroboree frogs
    • Authors: Emma P. McInerney; Phillip G. Byrne; Aimee J. Silla
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Emma P. McInerney, Phillip G. Byrne, Aimee J. Silla
      Escape-response behaviour is essential to ensure an individual’s survival during a predator attack, however, these behaviours are energetically costly and may cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can be reduced by supplementing an individual’s diet with exogenous antioxidants or through regular moderate exercise training, which stimulates the upregulation of endogenous antioxidants. Only two studies have tested the simultaneous effects of dietary antioxidant supplementation and exercise training on animal escape-response behaviour. The present study investigated the effects of dietary carotenoids and exercise training on the escape-response behaviour of Southern Corroboree frogs. Frogs were fed either a carotenoid-supplemented or unsupplemented diet and were exposed to repeated escape-response trials (training) for five consecutive weeks. Carotenoid-supplemented individuals outperformed unsupplemented individuals in initial hopping speed, length of the first hop and hopping distance, however, the performance of frogs in each treatment group became statistically similar after training. Within treatment groups, exercise training significantly improved the hopping speed of unsupplemented frogs, with speeds almost doubling between training weeks one and five. By contrast, exercise training did not significantly improve the hopping speed of carotenoid-supplemented frogs. Our results provide some of the first evidence that exercise training improves escape performance, and that dietary antioxidants may inhibit training-induced benefits.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:46:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.012
  • Pro-social behaviour of ants depends on their ecological niche − rescue
           actions in species from tropical and temperate regions
    • Authors: Krzysztof Miler; Bakhtiar Effendi Yahya; Marcin Czarnoleski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Krzysztof Miler, Bakhtiar Effendi Yahya, Marcin Czarnoleski
      Some ants display rescue behaviour, which is performed by nearby nestmates and directed at individuals in danger. Here, using several ant species, we demonstrate that rescue behaviour expression matches predicted occurrences based on certain aspects of species' ecological niches. Rescue occurred in sand-dwelling ants exposed both to co-occurring antlion larvae, representing the threat of being captured by a predator, and to nest cave-ins, representing the threat of being trapped in a collapsed nest chamber. Rescue also occurred in forest groundcover ants exposed to certain entrapment situations. However, rescue never occurred in species associated with open plains, which nest in hardened soils and forage largely on herbaceous plants, or in ants living in close mutualistic relationships with their host plants. In addition, because we tested each species in two types of tests, antlion larva capture tests and artificial entrapment tests, we highlight the importance of accounting for test context in studying rescue behaviour expression.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.010
  • Methods of Comparing Associative Models and an Application to
           Retrospective Revaluation
    • Authors: James E. Witnauer; Ryan Hutchings; Ralph R. Miller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): James E. Witnauer, Ryan Hutchings, Ralph R. Miller
      Contemporary theories of associative learning are increasingly complex, which necessitates the use of computational methods to reveal predictions of these models. We argue that comparisons across multiple models in terms of goodness of fit to empirical data from experiments often reveal more about the actual mechanisms of learning and behavior than do simulations of only a single model. Such comparisons are best made when the values of free parameters are discovered through some optimization procedure based on the specific data being fit (e.g., hill climbing), so that the comparisons hinge on the psychological mechanisms assumed by each model rather than being biased by using parameters that differ in quality across models with respect to the data being fit. Statistics like the Bayesian information criterion facilitate comparisons among models that have different numbers of free parameters. These issues are examined using retrospective revaluation data.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.004
  • The European wool-carder bee (Anthidium manicatum) eavesdrops on plant
           volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during trichome collection
    • Authors: Kelsey K. Graham; Steve Brown; Stephanie Clarke; Ursula S.R. Röse; Philip T. Starks
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Kelsey K. Graham, Steve Brown, Stephanie Clarke, Ursula S.R. Röse, Philip T. Starks
      The plant-pollinator relationship is generally considered mutualistic. This relationship is less clear, however, when pollinators also cause tissue damage. Some Megachilidae bees collect plant material for nests from the plants they pollinate. In this study, we examined the relationship between Anthidium manicatum, the European wool-carder bee, and the source of its preferred nesting material − Stachys byzantina, lamb’s ear. Female A. manicatum use their mandibles to trim trichomes from plants for nesting material (a behaviour dubbed “carding”). Using volatile organic compound (VOC) headspace analysis and behavioural observations, we explored (a) how carding effects S. byzantina and (b) how A. manicatum may choose specific S. byzantina plants. We found that removal of trichomes leads to a dissimilar VOC bouquet compared to intact leaves, with a significant increase in VOC detection following damage. A. manicatum also visit S. byzantina plants with trichomes removed at a greater frequency compared to plants with trichomes intact. Our data suggest that A. manicatum eavesdrop on VOCs produced by damaged plants, leading to more carding damage for individual plants due to increased detectability by A. manicatum. Accordingly, visitation by A. manicatum to S. byzantina may incur both a benefit (pollination) and cost (tissue damage) to the plant.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.005
  • Smelling themselves: Dogs investigate their own odours longer when
           modified in an “olfactory mirror” test
    • Authors: Alexandra Horowitz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Alexandra Horowitz
      While domestic dogs, Canis familiaris, have been found to be skillful at social cognitive tasks and even some meta-cognitive tasks, they have not passed the test of mirror self-recognition (MSR). Acknowledging the motivational and sensory challenges that might hinder performance, even before the question of self-recognition is broached, this study creates and enacts a novel design extrapolated from the species' natural behaviour. Given dogs' use of olfactory signals in communication, this experiment presents dogs with various canisters for approach and investigation. Each holds an odorous stimulus: in the critical test, either an “olfactory mirror” of the subject − the dog's own urine − or one in which the odour stimulus is modified. By looking at subjects' investigation times of each canister, it is shown that dogs distinguish between the olfactory “image” of themselves when modified: investigating their own odour for longer when it had an additional odour accompanying it than when it did not. Such behaviour implies a recognition of the odour as being of or from “themselves." The ecological validity of this odour presentation is examined by presenting to the subjects odours of other known or unknown dogs: dogs spend longer investigating the odour of other dogs than their own odour. Finally, in a second experiment, subjects spent longer with the modified stimulus than with the modified odour by itself, indicating that novelty alone does not explain the dogs' behavior. This study translates the MSR study for a species whose primary sensory modality is olfaction, and finds both that natural sniffing behaviour can be replicated in the lab and that dogs show more investigative interest in their own odours when modified.

      PubDate: 2017-08-17T16:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.001
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