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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 875 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 392)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Psychotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 164)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 203)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
At-Tajdid : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access  
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 116)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 126)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access  
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access  
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
E-Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Behavioural Processes
  [SJR: 0.654]   [H-I: 57]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0376-6357
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Vocal similarity in long-distance and short-distance vocalizations in
           raven pairs (Corvus corax) in captivity
    • Authors: Eva Maria Luef; Andries Ter Maat; Simone Pika
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Eva Maria Luef, Andries Ter Maat, Simone Pika
      Vocal interactions in many birds are characterized by imitation or the matching of vocalizations whereby one individual makes its vocalizations more similar to those of a conspecific. This behaviour is aided by vocal learning, which allows birds to change the vocalizations already in their repertoires, or to add new ones. The majority of studies on vocal similarity have been focussing on the songs of birds rather than their calls, with evidence for vocal similarity in calls being rather scarce. Here, we investigated whether ravens make their calls acoustically similar to one another by analysing the extent to which short- and long-distance calls of their vocal repertoires exhibited vocal similarity. Our results showed that long-distance calls, but not short-distance calls, are highly similar between pair partners. This effect may be explained by the different functions underlying short- and long-distance communication in ravens, with vocal similarity possibly being scaffolded by specific social matrices such as pair-bonds and/or strong social relationships.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T13:47:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.013
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
  • Vertical string-pulling in green jays (Cyanocorax yncas)
    • Authors: Héctor Marín Manrique; Adriano-Bruno Chaves Molina; Sandra Posada; Montserrat Colell
      Pages: 74 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Héctor Marín Manrique, Adriano-Bruno Chaves Molina, Sandra Posada, Montserrat Colell
      The cognition of green jays (Cyanocorax yncas), a non Corvus corvid species, was investigated by using the string-pulling paradigm. Five adult green jays performed a vertical string-pulling task in which they had to retrieve a worm attached to the end of a vertical hanging string while sitting on their perch. In the first experiment, three of the subjects managed to retrieve the worm by pulling on the string with their beaks and stepping on the resulting loop, and thereafter repeating this sequence until the worm was accessible. When subjects were given a choice between two strings in subsequent experiments 2 to 4, they chose at random between the string connected to the worm and the one connected to a slice of a wooden dowel. In experiment 5, subjects that had failed the previous discrimination series were able, nevertheless, to solve a more stringent vertical string array in which they had to pull up the whole length of the string without any visual access to the worm at the end. We discuss green jays’ performance in comparison with other corvid species in which cognition has been more extensively investigated.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:28:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Woodland features determining home range size of roe deer
    • Authors: Sandro Lovari; Giulia Serrao; Emiliano Mori
      Pages: 115 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 140
      Author(s): Sandro Lovari, Giulia Serrao, Emiliano Mori
      Use of ecotones by ungulates may be mediated by their movements between main feeding areas and woodland, where they locate their shelter. The roe deer Capreolus capreolus has been termed as a woodland species, although we suggest that it did not evolve as a forest ungulate, but depending on forest glades. Roe deer feed on a wide range of vegetal species, although their diet is mainly dominated by woody plants. Our study was carried out in a fragmented area covered with small forest patches of Mediterranean “macchia” scrubwood, interspersed in an agricultural matrix. Aim of our study has been to test how ranging movements of roe deer are influenced by landscape heterogeneity and to evaluate which features of woodland affect home range size. Radio-locations of 22 female and 12 male adult roe deer, monitored for three years, were used to assess home range size. A linear mixed model was fitted to investigate variation in home range size according to eleven spatial parameters estimated to describe home range size and composition. Throughout the year, no significant difference was found between home range sizes of males (median: 16.70ha, Q 1–Q 3: 13.20–31.60ha) and females (median: 23.52ha, Q 1–Q 3: 13.30–44.00ha: lme: F =0.9; P =0.35). Habitat density, edge density, percentage of woodland within home range and woodland structure determined home range size. Home ranges with few habitat types and a small amount of wood were large, while roe deer occupied small home ranges when habitat density was high and when a high proportion of wood was concentrated in a single large patch. Woodland covered a mean±SE of 36.2±17.9% in each home range. In conclusion, roe deer seem to be particularly well adapted to live in human transformed, peripheral habitats, e.g. farmlands, as long as a minimum quantity of woodland is included within their HR.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T13:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.04.012
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • Niche separation in flycatcher-like species in the lowland rainforests of
    • Authors: Mohammad Saiful Mansor; Rosli Ramli
      Pages: 121 - 126
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 140
      Author(s): Mohammad Saiful Mansor, Rosli Ramli
      Niche theory suggests that sympatric species reduce interspecific competition through segregation of shared resources by adopting different attack manoeuvres. However, the fact that flycatcher-like bird species exclusively use the sally manoeuvre may thus challenge this view. We studied the foraging ecology of three flycatcher-like species (i.e. Paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone sp., Black-naped Monarch Hypothymis azurea, and Rufous-winged Philentoma Philentoma pyrhoptera) in the Krau Wildlife Reserve in central Peninsular Malaysia. We investigated foraging preferences of each bird species and the potential niche partitioning via spatial or behavioural segregation. Foraging substrate was important parameter that effectively divided paradise-flycatcher from Black-naped Monarch and Rufous-winged Philentoma, where monarch and philentoma foraged mainly on live green leaves, while paradise-flycatcher foraged on the air. They also exhibited different foraging height preferences. Paradise-flycatcher, for instance, preferred the highest studied strata, while Black-naped Monarch foraged mostly in lower strata, and Rufous-winged Philentoma made use of the lowest strata. This study indicates that niche segregation occurs among sympatric species through foraging substrate and attack manoeuvres selection.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T13:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • To be so bold: boldness is repeatable and related to within individual
           behavioural variability in North Island robins
    • Authors: Ruchuan He; Emilio Pagani-Núñez; Clément Chevallier; Craig R.A. Barnett
      Pages: 144 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 140
      Author(s): Ruchuan He, Emilio Pagani-Núñez, Clément Chevallier, Craig R.A. Barnett
      Behavioural research traditionally focusses on the mean responses of a group of individuals rather than variation in behaviour around the mean or among individuals. However, examining the variation in behaviour among and within individuals may also yield important insights into the evolution and maintenance of behaviour. Repeatability is the most commonly used measure of variability among individuals in behavioural research. However, there are other forms of variation within populations that have received less attention. One such measure is intraindividual variation in behaviour (IIV), which is a short-term fluctuation of within-individual behaviour. Such variation in behaviour might be important during interactions because it could decrease the ability of conspecific and heterospecific individuals to predict the behaviour of the subject, thus increasing the cost of the interaction. In this experiment, we made repeated measures of the latency of North Island robins to attack a prey in a novel situation (a form of boldness) and examined (i) repeatability of boldness (the propensity to take a risk), (ii) IIV of boldness, and (iii) whether there was a significant relationship between these two traits (a behavioural syndrome). We found that boldness was highly repeatable, that there were high levels of IIV in boldness, and that there was a negative relationship between boldness and IIV in boldness. This suggests that despite high levels of repeatability for this behaviour, there were also still significant differences in IIV among different individuals within the population. Moreover, bolder individuals had significantly less IIV in their boldness, which suggests that they were forming routines (which reduces behavioural variability) compared to shyer individuals. Our results definitively demonstrate that IIV itself varies across individuals and is linked with key behavioural traits, and we argue for the importance of future studies aimed at understanding its causes and consequences for behavioural interactions.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T13:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • The predatory behavior of the Neotropical social wasp Polybia rejecta
    • Authors: Alain Dejean; Héctor Rodríguez-Pérez; James M. Carpenter; Frédéric Azémar; Bruno Corbara
      Pages: 161 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Alain Dejean, Héctor Rodríguez-Pérez, James M. Carpenter, Frédéric Azémar, Bruno Corbara
      We experimentally studied the predatory behavior of Polybia rejecta (Vespidae, Polistinae, Epiponini) towards 2-88 mm-long insects attracted to a UV light trap. Foragers, which began to hunt at 6:30, selected 4-14 mm-long prey insects. Prey detection by sight by hovering wasps was confirmed using decoys. After the wasps landed and walked along a sinuous path, prey were detected by contact or from a distance (1–3cm). This was followed by seizure, stinging (contrarily to most other known cases), prey manipulation and retrieval. Prey that flew off might be caught in flight. The prey load, representing 30.7% of a forager’s weight, was optimized by capturing up to six small prey or two medium-sized prey successively (both of which might be consumed in situ). The foragers cut off the wings of larger prey or cut them into two pieces and returned to gather the second piece. The handling time increased exponentially with the weight of the prey. Partial loading (i.e., retrieving a load much inferior to the maximum possible) was likely related to social facilitation, a form of nest-based recruitment that was demonstrated through the experimental elimination of local enhancement by removing foragers (both mechanisms favor the exploitation of favorable patches).

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T13:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.011
      Issue No: Vol. 140 (2017)
  • A functional approach to conditioning: A tribute to the contributions of
           Karen L. Hollis
    • Authors: Lauren M. Guillette
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 139
      Author(s): Lauren M. Guillette

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:28:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Ants and antlions: The impact of ecology, coevolution and learning on an
           insect predator-prey relationship
    • Authors: Karen L. Hollis
      Pages: 4 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 139
      Author(s): Karen L. Hollis
      A behavioural ecological approach to the relationship between pit-digging larval antlions and their common prey, ants, provides yet another example of how the specific ecological niche that species inhabit imposes selection pressures leading to unique behavioural adaptations. Antlions rely on multiple strategies to capture prey with a minimal expenditure of energy and extraordinary efficiency while ants employ several different strategies for avoiding capture, including rescue of trapped nestmates. Importantly, both ants and antlions rely heavily on their capacity for learning, a tool that sometimes is overlooked in predator-prey relationships, leading to the implicit assumption that behavioural adaptations are the result of fixed, hard-wired responses. Nonetheless, like hard-wired responses, learned behaviour, too, is uniquely adapted to the ecological niche, a reminder that the expression of associative learning is species-specific. Beyond the study of ants and antlions, per se, this particular predator-prey relationship reveals the important role that the capacity to learn plays in coevolutionary arms races.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:28:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2016.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Organization of rescue behaviour sequences in ants, Cataglyphis cursor,
           reflects goal-directedness, plasticity and memory
    • Authors: Thierry Duhoo; Jean-Luc Durand; Karen L. Hollis; Elise Nowbahari
      Pages: 12 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 139
      Author(s): Thierry Duhoo, Jean-Luc Durand, Karen L. Hollis, Elise Nowbahari
      The experimental study of rescue behaviour in ants, behaviour in which individuals help entrapped nestmates in distress, has revealed that rescuers respond to victims with very precisely targeted behaviour. In Cataglyphis cursor, several different components of rescue behaviour have been observed, demonstrating the complexity of this behaviour, including sand digging and sand transport to excavate the victim, followed by pulling on the victim’s limbs as well as the object holding the victim in place, behaviour that serves to free the victim. Although previous work suggested that rescue was optimally organized, first to expose and then to extricate the victim under a variety of differing circumstances, experimental analysis of that organization has been lacking. Here, using experimental data, we characterize the pattern of individual rescue behaviour in C. cursor by analysing the probabilities of transitions from one behavioural component to another. The results show that the execution of each behavioural component is determined by the interplay of previous acts. In particular, we show not only that ants move sand away from the victim in an especially efficient sequence of behaviour that greatly minimizes energy expenditure, but also that ants appear to form some kind of memory of what they did in the past, a memory that directs their future behaviour.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:28:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Natural aversive learning in Tetramorium ants reveals ability to form a
           generalizable memory of predators’ pit traps
    • Authors: Karen L. Hollis; Kelsey McNew; Talisa Sosa; Felicia A. Harrsch; Elise Nowbahari
      Pages: 19 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 139
      Author(s): Karen L. Hollis, Kelsey McNew, Talisa Sosa, Felicia A. Harrsch, Elise Nowbahari
      Many species of ants fall prey to pit-digging larval antlions (Myrmeleon spp.), extremely sedentary predators that wait, nearly motionless at the bottom of their pit traps, for prey to stumble inside. Previous research, both in the field and laboratory, has demonstrated a remarkable ability of these ants to rescue trapped nestmates, thus sabotaging antlions’ attempts to capture them. Here we show that pavement ants, Tetramorium sp. E, an invasive species and a major threat to biodiversity, possess yet another, more effective, antipredator strategy, namely the ability to learn to avoid antlion traps following a single successful escape from a pit. More importantly, we show that this learned antipredator behavior, an example of natural aversive learning in insects, is more complicated than a single cue-to-consequence form of associative learning. That is, pavement ants were able to generalize, after one experience, from the learned characteristics of the pit and its specific location, to other pits and other contexts that differed in many features. Such generalization, often described as a lack of precise stimulus control, nonetheless would be especially adaptive in nature, enabling ants to negotiate antlions’ pit fields, which contain a hundred or more pits within a few centimetres of one another. Indeed, the ability to generalize in exactly this way almost certainly is responsible for the sudden, and heretofore inexplicable, behavioural modifications of ants in response to an invasion of antlions in the vicinity of an ant colony.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:28:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Coordinating associative and ecological accounts of learning in the garden
           snail Cornu aspersum
    • Authors: I. Loy; B. Álvarez; E.C. Strempler-Rubio; M. Rodríguez
      Pages: 26 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 139
      Author(s): I. Loy, B. Álvarez, E.C. Strempler-Rubio, M. Rodríguez
      Pavlovian conditioning of tentacle lowering in the snail, Cornu aspersum, as an instance of associative learning, has proven effective to show evidence of paradigmatic associative phenomena (e.g., blocking) explained by current models of conditioning. Nevertheless, the available literature questions the biological function of the conditioned response (i.e., tentacle lowering) in snails since no advantages in terms of food finding had been observed. Ecological accounts of learning claim that learning abilities contribute to the adaptation to the environmental demands, and there is experimental evidence supporting this in several species (e.g., grasshoppers, fish, or antlions). However, there is a lack of evidence in snails, which is surprising given that the conditioned response of tentacle lowering is a robust finding that fits in with several predictions of associative learning theory (e.g., blocking or conditioned inhibition). The goal of this manuscript was to test whether food detection is affected by prior experience with the food, distance, and conditioning. We found that prior experience with a food source is necessary for snails to locate the same food item; that the optimal distance to test for food detection is between 5 and 7cm and that snails seem to use different food searching strategies after conditioning depending on the stimuli that are present. The data provided constitute a small contribution to the vindication of a greater coordination between the fruitful research tool provided by the associative account of learning and the evolutionary vocation of the ecological approach of learning.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:28:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Wild hummingbirds can use the geometry of a flower array
    • Authors: Mark A.W. Hornsby; Susan D. Healy; T. Andrew Hurly
      Pages: 33 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 139
      Author(s): Mark A.W. Hornsby, Susan D. Healy, T. Andrew Hurly
      Animals use cues from their environment to orient in space and to navigate their surroundings. Geometry is a cue whose informational content may originate from the metric properties of a given environment, and its use has been demonstrated in the laboratory in nearly every species of animal tested. However, it is not clear whether geometric information, used by animals typically tested in small, rectangular boxes, is directly relevant to animals in their natural environment. Here we present the first data that confirm the use of geometric cues by a free-living animal in the wild. We trained rufous hummingbirds to visit a rectangular array of four artificial flowers, one of which was rewarded. In some trials a conspicuous landmark cued the reward. Following array translocation and rotation, we presented hummingbirds with three tests. When trained and tested with the landmark, or when trained and tested without it, hummingbirds failed to show geometric learning. However, when trained with a landmark but tested without it, hummingbirds produced the classic geometric response, showing that they had learned the geometric relationships (distance and direction) of several non-reward visual elements of the environment. While it remains that the use of geometry to relocate a reward may be an experimental artefact, its use is not confined to the laboratory.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:28:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.01.019
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Sex and pairing status impact how zebra finches use social information in
    • Authors: Christopher N. Templeton; Katharine Philp; Lauren M. Guillette; Kevin N. Laland; Sarah Benson-Amram
      Pages: 38 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 139
      Author(s): Christopher N. Templeton, Katharine Philp, Lauren M. Guillette, Kevin N. Laland, Sarah Benson-Amram
      Many factors, including the demonstrator’s sex, status, and familiarity, shape the nature and magnitude of social learning. Given the important role of pair bonds in socially-monogamous animals, we predicted that these intimate relationships would promote the use of social information, and tested this hypothesis in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Observer birds witnessed either their mate or another familiar, opposite-sex bird eat from one, but not a second novel food source, before being allowed to feed from both food sources themselves. Birds used social information to make foraging decisions, but not all individuals used this information in the same way. While most individuals copied the foraging choice of the demonstrator as predicted, paired males did not, instead avoiding the feeder demonstrated by their mate. Our findings reveal that sex and pairing status interact to influence the use of social information and suggest that paired males might use social information to avoid competing with their mate.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:28:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2016.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • The roles of vocal and visual interactions in social learning zebra
           finches: A video playback experiment
    • Authors: Lauren M. Guillette; Susan D. Healy
      Pages: 43 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 139
      Author(s): Lauren M. Guillette, Susan D. Healy
      The transmission of information from an experienced demonstrator to a naïve observer often depends on characteristics of the demonstrator, such as familiarity, success or dominance status. Whether or not the demonstrator pays attention to and/or interacts with the observer may also affect social information acquisition or use by the observer. Here we used a video-demonstrator paradigm first to test whether video demonstrators have the same effect as using live demonstrators in zebra finches, and second, to test the importance of visual and vocal interactions between the demonstrator and observer on social information use by the observer. We found that female zebra finches copied novel food choices of male demonstrators they saw via live-streaming video while they did not consistently copy from the demonstrators when they were seen in playbacks of the same videos. Although naive observers copied in the absence of vocalizations by the demonstrator, as they copied from playback of videos with the sound off, females did not copy where there was a mis-match between the visual information provided by the video and vocal information from a live male that was out of sight. Taken together these results suggest that video demonstration is a useful methodology for testing social information transfer, at least in a foraging context, but more importantly, that social information use varies according to the vocal interactions, or lack thereof, between the observer and the demonstrator.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:28:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2016.12.009
      Issue No: Vol. 139 (2017)
  • Seasonal resource value and male size influence male aggressive
           interactions in the leaf footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata
    • Authors: Zachary J. Nolen; Pablo E. Allen; Christine W. Miller
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 138
      Author(s): Zachary J. Nolen, Pablo E. Allen, Christine W. Miller
      In animal contests, resource value (the quality of a given resource) and resource holding potential (a male’s absolute fighting ability) are two important factors determining the level of engagement and outcome of contests. Few studies have tested these factors simultaneously. Here, we investigated whether natural, seasonal differences in cactus phenology (fruit quality) influence interactions between males in the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae). We also considered whether males were more likely to interact when they were similar in size, as predicted by theory. Finally, we examined if male size relative to the size of an opponent predicted competitive success. We found that males have more interactions on cactus with high value ripe fruit, as we predicted. Further, we found that males that were closer in size were more likely to interact, and larger males were more likely to become dominant.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T16:44:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.01.020
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
  • Does size really matter? Investigating cognitive differences in spatial
           memory ability based on size in domestic dogs
    • Authors: Megan S. Broadway; Mystera M. Samuelson; Jennie L. Christopher; Stephanie E. Jett; Heidi Lyn
      Pages: 7 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 138
      Author(s): Megan S. Broadway, Mystera M. Samuelson, Jennie L. Christopher, Stephanie E. Jett, Heidi Lyn
      The study of canine cognition can be useful in understanding the selective pressures affecting cognitive abilities. Dogs have undergone intensive artificial selection yielding distinctive breeds, which differ both phenotypically and behaviorally and no other species has a wider range in brain size. As brain size has long been hypothesized to relate to cognitive capacity, this species offers a useful model to further explore this relationship. The influence of physical size on canine cognition has not been thoroughly addressed, despite the fact that large dogs are often perceived to be ‘smarter’ than small dogs. To date, this preconception has only recently been addressed and supported in one study comparing large and small dogs in a social cognition task, where large dogs outperformed small dogs in a pointing choice task. We assessed large and small dogs using a series of spatial cognition tasks and detected no differences between the two groups. Further research is needed to clarify why our results failed to compliment previous findings. It is possible that differences found in social cognition tasks may not be due to differences in size, rather they may be based on other factors such as methodology, prior training experience, or past experience with humans in general.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T01:19:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 138 (2017)
  • The short-term behavioural response of sows, but not gilts, to a social
           stimulus is related to sow aggressiveness in groups
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 140
      Author(s): M. Verdon, R.S. Morrison, M. Rice, K.L. Butler, P.H. Hemsworth
      This study examined relationships between the behavioural response of pregnant gilts (n=200, gestation 1) and sows (n=200, gestation 2) to a live, similarly-aged female pig (unfamiliar pig test, UPT) and to a fibre-glass model pig (model pig test, MPT), and aggressive behaviour on the day after mixing (day 2). Sows with a short latency to make contact with an unfamiliar sow in the UPT were more likely to deliver high levels of aggression at day 2 of gestation 2 (P=0.005), but this relationship was stronger when a model pig was used (P<0.001). Similarly, sows with a long duration of tactile contact with the model pig in the MPT were more likely to deliver high levels of aggression at day 2 of gestation 2 (P=0.015), but this relationship was weaker than that between aggression and the latency to contact the model pig. When the terms the latency to contact the unfamiliar pig in the UPT and the model pig in the MPT, as well as the duration of contact with the model pig in the MPT, were included in an overall model of aggression at day 2 of gestation 2, behaviour towards the unfamiliar pig became not statistically significant (P>0.05). A strong relationship was not apparent with gilts (P>0.05). Thus, the socially inexperienced pig may not be an ideal model for sow behaviour. This study indicates that sows with a short latency to contact a model pig are more likely to be aggressive when mixed into groups.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T14:01:25Z
  • Tuberculosis Detection by Pouched Rats: Opportunities for Reinforcement
           under Low-Prevalence Conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Timothy L. Edwards, Haylee Ellis, Erin E. Watkins, Christiaan Mulder, Georgies Mgode, Christophe Cox, Alan Poling
      Giant African pouched rats (Cricetomys ansorgei) have been employed successfully in two operational tuberculosis-detection projects in which they sniff sputum samples from symptomatic individuals who have visited tuberculosis clinics. The prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in this population is high, approximately 20% in the regions where the rats have been used. If the rats are to be used to screen individuals from lower-prevalence populations, their performance under such conditions must first be evaluated. In this study, the prevalence of tuberculosis-positive samples presented to eight pouched rats was reduced to approximately 5%, and the percentage of known-positive samples included as opportunities for reinforcement was varied in sequence from 10 to 8, 6, 4, 2, 4, and 2. Liquid food reinforcers were delivered for identification responses to known-positive samples and at no other time. The rats’ accuracy was clinically and statistically significantly lower at 2% than at the other values. These results indicate that the rats can perform well in low-prevalence scenarios but, if they are used under the conditions of the present study, at least 4% of the samples presented to them must be opportunities for reinforcement.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T14:01:25Z
  • Flexibility in the social behavior of captive female capybaras (Mammalia,
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Sérgio L.G. Nogueira-Filho, Pauliene C. Lopes, Djalma N. Ferreira, Selene S.C. Nogueira
      Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) lives in stable groups composed of adult males and females with their young. The species shows flexibility in social organization in response to short-term environmental changes, but apparently does not show flexibility in social behavior. To gain insights into mechanisms underlying changes in social relationships, we analyzed the social dominance hierarchy of five captive capybara groups, composed of four to 13 adult females kept in outdoor paddocks ranging from 400 to 4,500m2. In addition, we evaluated the effects of group size and space allowance on two complementary properties of social structure: linearity and steepness. Captive female capybaras exhibit a linear social dominance hierarchy. There was also more predictability in the dominance success– hierarchical steepness − in the dominance hierarchy with a decrease in the space per individual. This variability in response to changing circumstances shows flexibility in capybara’s social behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T14:01:25Z
  • Phenotype of a leaf beetle larva depends on host plant quality and
           previous test experience
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Thorben Müller, Caroline Müller
      Phenotypic expressions of insects are strongly dependent on various external and internal factors, like diet or density and age or sex. However, environmental effects on the behavioural phenotype and repeatability are rather unexplored for holometabolous insects in their larval stage. We examined the effects of the food environment (young versus old cabbage leaves) and previous test experience on growth and behaviour of Phaedon cochleariae larvae. A more nutritious diet, i.e., young leaves, had beneficial consequences on larval growth. Contrary to findings on adults, the behaviour of larvae was neither consistent over time nor across contexts, thus larvae did not show personality. Furthermore, larval behaviour was shaped independent of the diet, pointing to a stage-dependent receptivity towards diet conditions in this species. Besides, larval activity was significantly influenced by former test experience, with naïve larvae being more active than previously tested larvae. In general, in insects memories in an olfactory or sexual behaviour context can lead to behavioural responses later in life. Mechanisms of memory-learning should be further explored in different contexts in insects. Overall, the present study reveals that growth-related traits are diet-dependent and that the activity of a holometabolous larva is shaped in dependence of its previous test experience.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T14:01:25Z
  • Mother-young Recognition In Goitered Gazelle During Hiding Period
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): D.A. Blank, W. Yang
      The mother-young recognition process is crucial for the growth and survival of progeny. In “follower” ungulate species, vocal and visual cues have been found to play a leading role in the mother-young identification process from the first days postpartum, with olfactory cues also important in establishing the initial selective mother-young bond immediately after birth. In “hider” species, however, much less has been documented of mother-young recognition behaviors, especially in their natural habitat. In this paper, we investigated this process in goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa), a typical hider species, in its native environment in Kazakhstan. Over the course of our study period, we investigated the behaviors of 257 females with twins and 158 females with singles through visual observations. We found that within the first month after birth, when females spend only a short time with their young, mothers recognized their fawns using mostly olfactory cues, while vision was used to locate their hiding offspring. Fawns vocalized very rarely, producing only distress calls that did not seem intended for individual identification. Licking of young by their mothers was observed frequently, not only during the first week after birth, when this action was very important for fawn stimulation for a number of physiological functions, but for several weeks after (until one month of age), when licking lost its physiological importance and likely became more of a recognition procedure. Fawns did not recognize their mothers at all, either through vision or vocalizations, since during their first weeks after birth, they responded to any gazelle that approached their hiding area. By a month after birth, when mothers and fawns began to stay together for longer periods of time, their recognition process became more enhanced, and in addition to olfactory cues, the mother and her young began to use more and more visual cues for longer distance identification, as well as vocalizations for shorter distances. Similar dynamics are likely typical for most hiding species, although information for wild ungulates is still very limited, especially for those with strong hider behaviors.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T14:01:25Z
  • How stallions influence the dynamic of collective movements in two groups
           of domestic horses, from departure to arrival
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Léa Briard, Jean-Louis Deneubourg, Odile Petit
      The role of leader in polygynous species has been solely attributed to the male for some time, but recent studies shown decision making to be distributed within the group. However, the specific reproductive strategy and behavioural repertoire of males in polygynous species such as horses may mean that these individuals still have the potential to play a specific role during decision-making. To investigate this subject, we thoroughly studied the behaviour of two domestic stallions during collective movements of their group. We found that they initiated rarely and sometimes failed to recruit the entire group. When departing as followers, they did not accelerate the joining process. Both stallions preferentially occupied the rear position and exhibited numerous monitoring behaviours. Herding behaviours were performed by only one stallion and mostly occurred outside movement context. Finally, we removed this herding stallion from its group to evaluate how the group dynamic changed. As a result, half of the collective movements were five times slower and mares were more dispersed in comparison when the stallion was in the group. Overall, our results suggest that, the two stallions maintained their role of group monitors from departure to arrival. Their influence on the movement dynamic was indirect and did not play a specific role in the process of decision making.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T14:01:25Z
  • Evaluation of the Behavioral Characteristics of the mdx Mouse Model of
           Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Through Operant Conditioning Procedures
    • Authors: Matthew Lewon; Christina M. Peters; Pam M. Van Ry; Dean J. Burkin; Kenneth W. Hunter; Linda J. Hayes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Matthew Lewon, Christina M. Peters, Pam M. Van Ry, Dean J. Burkin, Kenneth W. Hunter, Linda J. Hayes
      The mdx mouse is an important nonhuman model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) research. Characterizing the behavioral traits of the strain relative to congenic wild-type (WT) mice may enhance our understanding of the cognitive deficits observed in some humans with DMD and contribute to treatment development and evaluation. In this paper we report the results of a number of experiments comparing the behavior of mdx to WT mice in operant conditioning procedures designed to assess learning and memory. We found that mdx outperformed WT in all learning and memory tasks involving food reinforcement, and this appeared to be related to the differential effects of the food deprivation motivating operation on mdx mice. Conversely, WT outperformed mdx in an escape/avoidance learning task. These results suggest motivational differences between the strains and demonstrate the potential utility of operant conditioning procedures in the assessment of the behavioral characteristics of the mdx mouse.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T13:47:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.012
  • Female Brazilian whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus ocellifer) prefer males
           with high ultraviolet ornament reflectance
    • Authors: Carolina M.C.A. Lisboa; Katalin Bajer; Daniel M.A. Pessoa; Marc Huber; Gabriel C. Costa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Carolina M.C.A. Lisboa, Katalin Bajer, Daniel M.A. Pessoa, Marc Huber, Gabriel C. Costa
      Conspicuous colouration is an important way of social communication in many taxa. The role of ultraviolet (UV) signals in intraspecific communication has only recently been studied in lizards, and there is not a general understanding of the adaptive role of UV colouration. Colour ornaments can signal male quality in mate choice and are therefore suitable for reliably predicting the outcome of female preference. Here, we tested the potential role of UV colouration in female spatial preference in a non-territorial teiid lizard, Cnemidophorus ocellifer. We experimentally manipulated the UV reflectance of size-matched male pairs and tested the effects of our treatment on females’ spatial distribution. We found that females associated with males of higher UV reflectance, suggesting that UV colour can be an important clue during mate preference decisions. Our results provide the first empirical evidence for the importance of UV colouration in female preference in a mutually ornamented lizard species.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T13:47:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.009
  • Vocal responses of austral forest frogs to amplitude and degradation
           patterns of advertisement calls
    • Authors: Mario Penna; Felipe N. Moreno-Gómez; Matías I. Muñoz; Javiera Cisternas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Mario Penna, Felipe N. Moreno-Gómez, Matías I. Muñoz, Javiera Cisternas
      Degradation phenomena affecting animal acoustic signals may provide cues to assess the distance of emitters. Recognition of degraded signals has been extensively demonstrated in birds, and recently studies have also reported detection of degraded patterns in anurans that call at or above ground level. In the current study we explore the vocal responses of the syntopic burrowing male frogs Eupsophus emiliopugini and E. calcaratus from the South American temperate forest to synthetic conspecific calls differing in amplitude and emulating degraded and non-degraded signal patterns. The results show a strong dependence of vocal responses on signal amplitude, and a general lack of differential responses to signals with different pulse amplitude modulation depths in E. emiliopugini and no effect of relative amplitude of harmonics in E. calcaratus. Such limited discrimination of signal degradation patterns from non-degraded signals is likely related to the burrowing habits of these species. Shelters amplify outgoing and incoming conspecific vocalizations, but do not counteract signal degradation to an extent comparable to calling strategies used by other frogs. The limited detection abilities and resultant response permissiveness to degraded calls in these syntopic burrowing species would be advantageous for animals communicating in circumstances in which signal alteration prevails.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T13:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.008
  • Understanding behavior under nonverbal transitive-inference procedures:
           Stimulus-control-topography analyses
    • Authors: Ann Galizio; Adam H. Doughty; Dean C. Williams; Kathryn J. Saunders
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Ann Galizio, Adam H. Doughty, Dean C. Williams, Kathryn J. Saunders
      Following training with verbal stimulus relations involving A is greater than B and B is greater than C, verbally-competent individuals reliably select A > C when asked “which is greater, A or C?” (i.e., verbal transitive inference). This result is easy to interpret. Nonhuman animals and humans with and without intellectual disabilities have been exposed to nonverbal transitive-inference procedures involving trained arbitrary stimulus relations. Following the training of A+B-, B+C-, C+D-, and D+E-, B reliably is selected over D (i.e., nonverbal transitive inference). Such findings are more challenging to interpret. The present research explored accounts of nonverbal transitive inference based in transitive inference per se, reinforcement, such as value-transfer theory, and operant stimulus control. In Experiment 1, college students selected B > G following the training of A+B-, B+C-, C+D-///E+F-, F+G-, and G+H- (where///signifies the omission of D+E-). In Experiment 2, college students selected B > G following the training of A+B-, B+C-, C+D-///E+F-, F+G-, and G+X- (where X refers to 10 stimuli that alternated across trials). In Experiment 3, college students selected G > B following the training of Y+B-, B+C-, C+D-///E+F-, F+G-, and G+X- (where Y and X refer to 10 stimuli, respectively, that alternated across trials). These findings are discussed in the context of operant stimulus control by offering an approach based in stimulus B typically acquiring only a select stimulus control topography.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T13:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.010
  • No pain, no gain: male plasticity in burrow digging according to female
           rejection in a sand-dwelling wolf spider
    • Authors: Matilde Carballo; Fabiana Baldenegro; Fedra Bollatti; Alfredo V. Peretti; Anita Aisenberg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Matilde Carballo, Fabiana Baldenegro, Fedra Bollatti, Alfredo V. Peretti, Anita Aisenberg
      Behavioral plasticity allows individuals to reversibly respond to short-term variations in their ecological and social environment in order to maximize their fitness. Allocosa senex is a burrow-digging spider that inhabits the sandy coasts of South America. This species shows a reversal in typical sex roles expected in spiders: females are wanderers that visit males at their burrows and initiate courtship. They prefer males with long burrows for mating, and males prefer virgin over mated females. We tested whether female sexual rejection induced males to enlarge their burrows and if female reproductive status affected males’ responses. We exposed males who had constructed burrows to: a) virgin females or b) mated females, (n=16 for each category). If female rejection occurred, we repeated the trial 48hours later with the same female. As control, we maintained a group of males without female exposure (unexposed group, n=32). Rejected males enlarged their burrows more frequently and burrows were longer compared to unexposed males. However, frequency and length of enlargement did not differ according to female reproductive status. Males of A. senex showed plasticity in digging behavior in response to the availability of females, as a way to maximize the possibilities of future mating.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T13:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.007
  • The Effect of Lever Height on the Microstructure of Operant Behavior
    • Authors: Ángel Andrés Jiménez; Federico Sanabria; Felipe Cabrera
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Ángel Andrés Jiménez, Federico Sanabria, Felipe Cabrera
      The effect of lever height on the temporal organization of reinforced lever pressing was examined. Lever pressing was reinforced on a variable-interval 30-s schedule in rats, with lever height manipulated across six successive conditions. Parameters of the organization of responses in bouts (bout length distribution, bout-initiation rate, within-bout rate, and sequential dependency) were estimated. These estimates revealed (1) a qualitative change in the distribution of IRTs and their sequential dependency when the lever was too high, (2) a mixture of geometrically-distributed bout lengths at all lever heights, and (3) longer bouts at lower and intermediate lever heights. In accordance with previous data, these findings suggest that lower and intermediate lever heights favored lever pressing with longer bout lengths, faster bout initiation, faster within-bout responding, and more sequentially dependent timing. These results underscore the disociability of motoric capacity in operant performance, and may reflect the influence of the body size on the temporal organization of the operant.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T13:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.002
  • Evaluating Resurgence Procedures in a Human Operant Laboratory
    • Authors: Hypatia A. Bolívar; David J. Cox; Molly A. Barlow; Jesse Dallery
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Hypatia A. Bolívar, David J. Cox, Molly A. Barlow, Jesse Dallery
      Resurgence of previously extinguished behavior may occur when a recently reinforced alternative response is placed on extinction. Understanding the conditions that produce and reduce resurgence is important for both basic and applied researchers. Research on resurgence of human behavior may benefit from methods that facilitate comparison and replication of nonhuman animal studies. These studies often include an inactive control response to differentiate resurgence from extinction-induced variability. In contrast, human research typically does not. Sweeney and Shahan (2016) tested a brief, trial-based procedure that included an inactive control response with human participants, but they did not observe resurgence. The current study extended their methods by examining four different conditions in a free-operant task lasting <1hr. Modifications across conditions included changing the number of response options available in each phase and how signals associated with each response were presented. Only one condition resulted in responding resembling resurgence. Our results suggest the utility of the inactive control response and the influence of contextual cues in human research should be investigated further.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T13:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.004
  • On Defining Resurgence
    • Authors: Kennon A. Lattal; Carlos R.X. Cançado; James E. Cook; Stephanie L. Kincaid; Tyler D. Nighbor; Anthony C. Oliver
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Kennon A. Lattal, Carlos R.X. Cançado, James E. Cook, Stephanie L. Kincaid, Tyler D. Nighbor, Anthony C. Oliver
      A review of several different investigators’ definitions of resurgence revealed several common features: First, characteristics of the resurgent, or target, response, such as its transience; magnitude; time course within and across sessions; and relativity to a baseline response rate are not mentioned. Second, the target response is described as being established through its reinforcement in the first, or Training, phase of a resurgence procedure. Third, the target response must be eliminated as an alternative response is reinforced in the second, Alternative Reinforcement, phase of a resurgence procedure. Fourth, the alternative response must be extinguished during the Resurgence Test phase. Fifth, none of the definitions allude to any contribution of stimulus variables to resurgence. When reconsidered in light of contemporary research germane to these features, none of the reviewed definitions sufficiently reflect important variables in the generation and assessment of resurgence. The review concludes with a proposed working definition that takes into account contemporary research involving all of the aforementioned factors.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T13:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.04.018
  • Melanism is related to behavioural lateralization in nestling barn owls
    • Authors: Maryline Gaillard; Madeleine F. Scriba; Alexandre Roulin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Maryline Gaillard, Madeleine F. Scriba, Alexandre Roulin
      Behavioural laterality is a commonly observed phenomenon in many species suggesting there might be an advantage of using dominantly one side over the other for certain tasks. Indeed, lateralized individuals were often shown to be more successful in cognitive tasks compared to non-lateralized conspecifics. However, stressed individuals are also often, but not always, more strongly lateralized. Because barn owl (Tyto alba) females displaying larger black spots on the tip of their ventral feathers produce offspring that are more resistant to variety of environmental stressful factors, we examined whether laterality is associated with melanin-based coloration. We recorded whether nestlings use more often the right or left foot to scratch their body and whether they preen more often one side of the body or the other using their bills. We found that the strength of lateralization of preening and scratching was less pronounced in individuals born from heavily spotted mothers. This result might be explained by plumage-related variation in the ability to resist stressful rearing conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T13:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.006
  • Sex composition modulates the effects of familiarity in new environment
    • Authors: Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato; Carlotta Mazzoldi; Matteo Griggio
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato, Carlotta Mazzoldi, Matteo Griggio
      In many social species, when an individual is associated with familiar conspecifics, it displays an array of behaviours that may confer benefits (e.g., increased boldness and faster habituation to novel environments). In fish, these effects of familiarity have been studied using individuals of only one sex or juveniles. Since shoals often vary regarding sex composition and males and females show different social behaviours, we hypothesised that social familiarity’s effects vary with group sex composition. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the exploratory behaviour of groups of two females, two males, and one male and one female Mediterranean killifish, Aphanius fasciatus, which were either familiar or unfamiliar. Pairs of familiar females were bolder than pairs of unfamiliar females, whereas males showed the opposite trend. Pairs of familiar females also showed faster habituation to the novel environment and, at the beginning of the test, were more cohesive compared to pairs of unfamiliar females. Pairs of familiar mixed-sex fish habituated faster to the novel environment than unfamiliar pairs. Pairs of familiar males did not show any beneficial effect of familiarity relative to pairs of unfamiliar males. Hence, the effects of social familiarity on exploratory behaviour, and likely the associated benefits, appear to depend on the sex composition of the pair in the Mediterranean killifish.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T13:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.003
  • SQAB 2017: Persistence and Relapse
    • Authors: Christopher A. Podlesnik; Federico Sanabria
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Christopher A. Podlesnik, Federico Sanabria

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T13:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.001
  • The bachelorette: Female Siamese fighting fish avoid males exposed to an
           estrogen mimic
    • Authors: Teresa L. Dzieweczynski; Jessica L. Kane
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Teresa L. Dzieweczynski, Jessica L. Kane
      Due to improper disposal and a lack of removal during the wastewater treatment process, endocrine disrupting chemicals enter aquatic ecosystems where they exert detrimental effects on fish behavior and physiology. Perhaps the most well-studied and prevalent EDC is 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), an active ingredient in oral contraceptives, which is known to cause dramatic reductions in male-typical behaviors. While it is likely that alterations in male courtship behavior decrease reproductive fitness, this is rarely explicitly examined. To this end, whether EE2 exposure reduces male attractiveness to female Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, was investigated by showing females video images of exposed and unexposed males. Females were randomly assigned to one of two exposure conditions (exposed to EE2, control) and each subject then viewed four different video combinations of male conspecifics (courting exposed+exposed; courting unexposed+unexposed; courting unexposed+exposed; swimming unexposed+exposed). Females, regardless of whether or not they were exposed to EE2, directed markedly less behavior towards exposed males, especially when they viewed an exposed male and an unexposed male simultaneously. These findings demonstrate that EE2 can have significant individual- and population-level consequences on fitness by disrupting sexual selection and, ultimately, the success of exposed males.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T13:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.005
  • Four eyes match better than two: sharing of precise patch-use time among
           socially foraging domestic chicks
    • Authors: Qiuhong Xin; Yukiko Ogura; Toshiya Matsushima
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Qiuhong Xin, Yukiko Ogura, Toshiya Matsushima
      To examine how resource competition contributes to patch-use behaviour, we examined domestic chicks foraging in an I-shaped maze equipped with two terminal feeders. In a variable interval schedule, one feeder supplied grains three times more frequently than the other, and the sides were reversed midway through the experiment. The maze was partitioned into two lanes by a transparent wall, so that chicks fictitiously competed without actual interference. Stay time at feeders was compared among three groups. The “single” group contained control chicks; the “pair” group comprised the pairs of chicks tested in the fictitious competition; “mirror” included single chicks accompanied by their respective mirror images. Both “pair” and “mirror” chicks showed facilitated running. In terms of the patch-use ratio, “pair” chicks showed precise matching at approximately 3:1 with significant mutual dependence, whereas “single” and “mirror” chicks showed a comparable under-matching. The facilitated running increased visits to feeders, but failed to predict the patch-use ratio of the subject. At the reversal, quick switching occurred similarly in all groups, but the “pair” chicks revealed a stronger memory-based matching. Perceived competition therefore contributes to precise matching and lasting memory of the better feeder, in a manner dissociated from socially facilitated food search.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T13:19:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.04.020
  • Behavioral laterality in Yangtze finless porpoises (Neophocaena
           asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis).
    • Authors: S. Platto; C. Zhang; M.K. Pine; W.K. Feng; L.G. Yang; A. Irwin; D. Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): S. Platto, C. Zhang, M.K. Pine, W.K. Feng, L.G. Yang, A. Irwin, D. Wang
      The Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) is a critically endangered species with less than 1000 individuals expected to be left in the wild. While many studies have been conducted on laterality among several cetacean species, no studies investigating the Yangtze finless porpoise have been conducted. Using event sampling methods, several behaviors such as flipper-body touching, object touching, barrel-rolls, side swimming, and swimming direction were recorded from six captive porpoises (three males and three females). Analyses of 360 observations recorded over two months revealed that, at group level, porpoises showed laterality in swimming behaviors. Porpoises swam preferentially with their right pectoral fin upward and their left pectoral fin downward with a clockwise swimming direction and also displayed a consistent bias for a counterclockwise barrel-roll direction. No significant differences were reported for flipper use either during the interaction with conspecifics or with objects. The results from the current study provide novel insight into the cerebral asymmetry in a species previously ignored within the literature, thus improving our understanding on the extent of laterality in cetaceans and on the evolutionary history of hemispheric laterality for vertebrates in general.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T01:33:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.04.015
  • Temporal variation in the operational sex ratio and male mating behaviours
           in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)
    • Authors: Robert B. Weladji; Guillaume Body; Øystein Holand; Xiuxiang Meng; Mauri Nieminen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Robert B. Weladji, Guillaume Body, Øystein Holand, Xiuxiang Meng, Mauri Nieminen
      In polygynous species, sexual selection is mostly driven by male ability to monopolize access to females in oestrous. In ungulates, the operational sex ratio (OSR), i.e. the proportion of males to individuals ready to mate, varies throughout the peak rut, resulting from the temporal variation in the number of females in oestrous. But the way males adjust their mating tactics to maximise their access to females in oestrous (i.e. as OSR varies) is yet to be investigated. Using 15 years of behavioural observations in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), we compared the relative importance of time within the rutting season (days to the peak-rut) and the OSR to explain the variation in the propensity (i.e. the frequency after controlling for the potential number of encounters) of young and adult dominant males to engage in four mating tactics: herding females, chasing other males, investigating female reproductive status, and courting females. Male-male agonistic behaviour was the most frequent mating behaviour, followed by herding. As predicted, dominant male mating tactics changed over the rutting season: first herding, then chasing other males, and finally investigating and courting females. In contrast to our prediction, we did not find support for the OSR theory. We noted some discrepancies in how young and adult dominant males adjusted their tactics during the mating season, adults being more efficient in timing and in performing their behaviour to maximise access to females in oestrous. The reported sequence of mating tactics may be more efficient than a static mating tactic to monopolize females in oestrous, regardless of the population composition.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T01:33:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.04.011
  • Sexual selection, sexual isolation and pheromones in Drosophila
           melanogaster strains after long-term maintaining on different diets
    • Authors: Jelena Trajković; Dragana Miličić; Tatjana Savić; Sofija Pavković-Lučić
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Jelena Trajković, Dragana Miličić, Tatjana Savić, Sofija Pavković-Lučić
      Evolution of reproductive isolation may be a consequence of a variety of signals used in courtship and mate preferences. Pheromones play an important role in both sexual selection and sexual isolation. The abundance of pheromones in Drosophila melanogaster may depend on different environmental factors, including diet. The aim of this study was to ascertain to which degree principal pheromones affect sexual selection in D. melanogaster. We used D. melanogaster strains reared for 14 years on four substrates: standard cornmeal substrate and those containing tomato, banana and carrot. We have previously determined that long-term maintaining of these dietary strains resulted in differences in their cuticular hydrocarbons profile (CHs). In this work, we have tested the level of sexual selection and sexual isolation between aforementioned strains. We found that the high levels of cis-vaccenyl acetate, 7-pentacosene and 7,11-nonacosadiene in the strain reared on a substrate containing carrot affected the individual attractiveness and influenced sexual isolation between flies of this strain and flies reared on a substrate containing banana. Based on these results, long-term different diets, may contribute, to sexual behaviour of D. melanogaster via the effects of principal pheromones.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:28:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.04.006
  • Rats Behave Optimally in a Sunk Cost Task
    • Authors: Nataly Yáñez; Arturo Bouzas; Vladimir Orduña
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Nataly Yáñez, Arturo Bouzas, Vladimir Orduña
      The sunk cost effect has been defined as the tendency to persist in an alternative once an investment of effort, time or money has been made, even if better options are available. The goal of this study was to investigate in rats the relationship between sunk cost and the information about when it is optimal to leave the situation, which was studied by Navarro and Fantino (2005) with pigeons. They developed a procedure in which different fixed-ratio schedules were randomly presented, with the richest one being more likely; subjects could persist in the trial until they obtained the reinforcer, or start a new trial in which the most favorable option would be available with a high probability. The information about the expected number of responses needed to obtain the reinforcer was manipulated through the presence or absence of discriminative stimuli; also, they used different combinations of schedule values and their probabilities of presentation to generate escape-optimal and persistence- optimal conditions. They found optimal behavior in the conditions with presence of discriminative stimuli, but non-optimal behavior when they were absent. Unlike their results, we found optimal behavior in both conditions regardless of the absence of discriminative stimuli; rats seemed to use the number of responses already emitted in the trial as a criterion to escape. In contrast to pigeons, rats behaved optimally and the sunk cost effect was not observed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T01:19:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.04.003
  • Do you see what I see? The difference between dog and human visual
           perception may affect the outcome of experiments
    • Authors: Vera
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Péter Pongrácz, Vera Ujvári, Tamás Faragó, Ádám Miklósi, András Péter
      The visual sense of dogs is in many aspects different than that of humans. Unfortunately, authors do not explicitly take into consideration dog-human differences in visual perception when designing their experiments. With an image manipulation program we altered stationary images, according to the present knowledge about dog-vision. Besides the effect of dogs’ dichromatic vision, the software shows the effect of the lower visual acuity and brightness discrimination, too. Fifty adult humans were tested with pictures showing a female experimenter pointing, gazing or glancing to the left or right side. Half of the pictures were shown after they were altered to a setting that approximated dog vision. Participants had difficulty to find out the direction of glancing when the pictures were in dog-vision mode. Glances in dog-vision setting were followed less correctly and with a slower response time than other cues. Our results are the first that show the visual performance of humans under circumstances that model how dogs’ weaker vision would affect their responses in an ethological experiment. We urge researchers to take into consideration the differences between perceptual abilities of dogs and humans, by developing visual stimuli that fit more appropriately to dogs’ visual capabilities.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T01:19:52Z
  • Application of stable isotope analysis for detecting filial cannibalism
    • Authors: Atsushi Sogabe; Hideki Hamaoka; Atsushi Fukuta; Jun-ya Shibata; Jun Shoji; Koji Omori
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Atsushi Sogabe, Hideki Hamaoka, Atsushi Fukuta, Jun-ya Shibata, Jun Shoji, Koji Omori
      A novel type of filial cannibalism has been reported in pipefishes, in which the eggs are absorbed through the male’s brood-pouch epithelium. The present study explored the applicability of stable isotope analysis for the detection of paternal brood cannibalism in the seaweed pipefish Syngnathus schlegeli. As expected, the δ15N values for liver, which conveys short-term dietary information about the recent reproductive season, were higher in males than in females. In contrast, the δ15N values for muscle, which reflects longer-term feeding habits that span both the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons, did not significantly differ between the sexes. This finding indicates that males occupy a higher trophic position than females only during the reproductive season, and it is probable that this difference is a result of paternal uptake of nutrients from embryos in the brood pouch.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T01:15:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.03.019
  • Some properties of an adjusting-magnitude schedule of reinforcement:
           implications for models of choice
    • Authors: C.M. Bradshaw
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): C.M. Bradshaw
      Rats were trained under a discrete-trials adjusting-magnitude schedule in which a response on lever A delivered either a larger or a smaller reinforcer (q A1 and q A2) with equal probability, while a response on B delivered a reinforcer whose size q B was adjusted according to the rats’ choices. When A was preferred in a given block of trials, q B was increased in the following block; when B was preferred, q B was reduced in the following block. The oscillating changes in q B, analysed by the Fourier transform, could be described by a power spectrum with a dominant period of about 50 trial blocks. With q A1 held constant, the equilibrium value of q B (q B(50)) was monotonically related to q A2, and exceeded the arithmetic mean of q A1 and q A2 when q A1 was substantially greater than q A2. A model derived from the multiplicative model of intertemporal choice provided a post hoc description of the data. Simulation of block-by-block changes in q B derived from the model were generally consistent with the experimental data. Implications of the results for models of risky choice and for future use of the schedule in neurobehavioural experiments are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T01:15:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.03.021
  • Falsification of Matching Theory and Confirmation of an Evolutionary
           Theory of Behavior Dynamics in a Critical Experiment
    • Authors: J.J. McDowell; Olivia L. Calvin; Ryan Hackett; Bryan Klapes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): J.J. McDowell, Olivia L. Calvin, Ryan Hackett, Bryan Klapes
      Two competing predictions of matching theory and an evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics, and one additional prediction of the evolutionary theory, were tested in a critical experiment in which human participants worked on concurrent schedules for money (Dallery, Soto, and McDowell, 2005). The three predictions concerned the descriptive adequacy of matching theory equations, and of equations describing emergent equilibria of the evolutionary theory. Tests of the predictions falsified matching theory and supported the evolutionary theory.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T01:15:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.03.025
  • Sustained attention to the owner is enhanced in dogs trained for Animal
           Assisted Interventions
    • Authors: Paolo Mongillo; Elisa Pitteri; Lieta Marinelli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Paolo Mongillo, Elisa Pitteri, Lieta Marinelli
      Adaptation in human societies requires dogs to pay attention to socially relevant human beings, in contexts that may greatly vary in social complexity. In turn, such selective attention may depend on the dog’s training and involvement in specific activities. Therefore, we recruited untrained pet dogs (N=32), dogs trained for agility (N=32) and for animal assisted interventions (N=32) to investigate differences in attention the owner in relation to the dogs’ training/working experience. Average gaze length and frequency of gaze shifting towards the owner were measured in a ‘baseline attention test’, where dogs were exposed to the owner walking in and out of the experimental room and in a ‘selective attention test’, where the owner’s movements were mirrored by an unfamiliar figurant. In baseline, gazes to the owner by assistance dogs were longer than gazes by untrained dogs, which were longer than gazes by agility dogs. The latter shifted gaze to the owner more frequently than assistance and untrained dogs. In the selective attention test, assistance dogs showed longer and less frequent gazes towards the owner than untrained dogs, with intermediate values for agility dogs. Correlations were found for gaze length between the baseline and selective attention test for untrained and assistance dogs, but not for agility dogs. Therefore, dogs trained for Animal Assisted Interventions express enhanced sustained attention to their owners, and the lack of similar effects in agility dogs suggests that involvement in specific activities is associated with large differences in the patterns of attention paid by dogs to their handler/owner.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T01:15:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.03.024
  • Aversive responses by shore crabs to acetic acid but not to capsaicin
    • Authors: Robert W. Elwood; Natasha Dalton; Gillian Riddell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Robert W. Elwood, Natasha Dalton, Gillian Riddell
      Nociception is the ability to encode and perceive harmful stimuli and allows for a rapid reflexive withdrawal. In some species, nociception might be accompanied by a pain experience, which is a negative feeling that allows for longer-term changes in behaviour. Different types of stimuli may affect nociceptors, but in crustaceans there is conflicting evidence about the ability to respond to chemical stimuli. This study attempts to resolve this situation by testing behavioural responses of the common shore crab, Carcinus maenas, to two chemical irritants frequently used in vertebrate pain studies (acetic acid and capsaicin). In our first experiment acetic acid, water, capsaicin or mineral oil were applied by brush to the mouth, and in a second experiment treatments were applied to the eyes. Application of acetic acid had a marked effect on behaviour that included vigorous movement of mouth parts, scratching at the mouth with the claws and attempts to escape from the enclosure. Acetic acid also caused holding down of the acid-treated eye in the socket. By contrast, capsaicin had no effect and was no different to the control treatment of mineral oil and water. These results demonstrate responsiveness to acetic acid and thus nociceptive capacity for at least some chemicals. Further, the responses that persist after application were consistent with the idea of pain, however, proof of pain is not possible in any animal.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T01:15:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.03.022
  • Unique Prediction of Cannabis Use Severity and Behaviors by Delay
           Discounting and Behavioral Economic Demand
    • Authors: Justin C. Strickland; Joshua A. Lile; William W. Stoops
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Justin C. Strickland, Joshua A. Lile, William W. Stoops
      Few studies have simultaneously evaluated delay discounting and behavioral economic demand to determine their unique contribution to drug use. A recent study in cannabis users found that monetary delay discounting uniquely predicted cannabis dependence symptoms, whereas cannabis demand uniquely predicted use frequency. This study sought to replicate and extend this research by evaluating delay discounting and behavioral economic demand measures for multiple commodities and including a use quantity measure.’s Mechanical Turk was used to sample individuals reporting recent cannabis use (n=64) and controls (n=72). Participants completed measures of monetary delay discounting as well as alcohol and cannabis delay discounting and demand. Cannabis users and controls did not differ on monetary delay discounting or alcohol delay discounting and demand. Among cannabis users, regression analyses indicated that cannabis delay discounting uniquely predicted use severity, whereas cannabis demand uniquely predicted use frequency and quantity. These effects remained significant after controlling for other delay discounting and demand measures. This research replicates previous outcomes relating delay discounting and demand with cannabis use and extends them by accounting for the contribution of multiple commodities. This research also demonstrates the ability of online crowdsourcing methods to complement traditional human laboratory techniques.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T23:22:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.03.017
  • Sampling maternal care behaviour in domestic dogs: what’s the best
    • Authors: Veronika H Czerwinski; Bradley P Smith; Philip I Hynd; Susan J Hazel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Veronika H Czerwinski, Bradley P Smith, Philip I Hynd, Susan J Hazel
      Our understanding of the frequency and duration of maternal care behaviours in the domestic dog during the first two postnatal weeks is limited, largely due to the inconsistencies in the sampling methodologies that have been employed. In order to develop a more concise picture of maternal care behaviour during this period, and to help establish the sampling method that represents these behaviours best, we compared a variety of time sampling methods Six litters were continuously observed for a total of 96hours over postnatal days 3, 6, 9 and 12 (24hours per day). Frequent (dam presence, nursing duration, contact duration) and infrequent maternal behaviours (anogenital licking duration and frequency) were coded using five different time sampling methods that included: 12-hour night (1800–0600h), 12-hour day (0600–1800h), one hour period during the night (1800–0600h), one hour period during the day (0600–1800h) and a one hour period anytime. Each of the one hour time sampling method consisted of four randomly chosen 15-minute periods. Two random sets of four 15-minute period were also analysed to ensure reliability. We then determined which of the time sampling methods averaged over the three 24-hour periods best represented the frequency and duration of behaviours. As might be expected, frequently occurring behaviours were adequately represented by short (onehour) sampling periods, however this was not the case with the infrequent behaviour. Thus, we argue that that the time sampling methodology employed must match the behaviour of interest. This caution applies to maternal behaviour in altricial species, such as canids, as well as all systematic behavioural observations utilising time sampling methodology.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T23:22:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.03.018
  • Concurrent Learning of Multiple Oddity Discrimination in Rats
    • Authors: Tohru Taniuchi; Ryohei Miyazaki; Md. Abu Bokor Siddik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Tohru Taniuchi, Ryohei Miyazaki, Md. Abu Bokor Siddik
      This experimental series examines rats’ concurrent learning of multiple oddity discrimination and its transfer to novel stimuli. Three rats were trained to discriminate an odd object from five identical objects in a row. After acquisition of the AAAAAB problem, the BBBBBA set was added to training. At the start of concurrent training with both sets, performance on BBBBBA was significantly below chance, suggesting that rats had acquired a tendency to respond to and/or avoid specific features of objects during the initial AAAAAB training. Although all rats learned the two problems reliably, no transfer effect was observed during tests with novel sets CCCCCD and DDDDDC. After the first transfer test, rats performed reliably for stimulus sets AAAAAB, BBBBBA, CCCCCD, and DDDDDC concurrently. Although one rat showed reliable transfer for novel test problems EEEEEF and FFFFFE, the possibility of biased test performance between stimulus sets, by choosing one of two test objects, could not be excluded. However, following the transfer tests, all rats responded significantly to 20 novel problems immediately after they were introduced into training. These findings offer evidence of rats’ capacity for concurrent oddity discrimination using multiple stimulus sets, as well as preliminary evidence of relational oddity learning in rats.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T22:09:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.03.008
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