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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 875 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 400)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 172)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 215)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
At-Tajdid : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access  
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 127)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access  
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access  
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Behavioural Processes
  [SJR: 0.654]   [H-I: 57]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0376-6357
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Vocal similarity in long-distance and short-distance vocalizations in
           raven pairs (Corvus corax) in captivity
    • Authors: Eva Maria Luef; Andries Ter Maat; Simone Pika
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Eva Maria Luef, Andries Ter Maat, Simone Pika
      Vocal interactions in many birds are characterized by imitation or the matching of vocalizations whereby one individual makes its vocalizations more similar to those of a conspecific. This behaviour is aided by vocal learning, which allows birds to change the vocalizations already in their repertoires, or to add new ones. The majority of studies on vocal similarity have been focussing on the songs of birds rather than their calls, with evidence for vocal similarity in calls being rather scarce. Here, we investigated whether ravens make their calls acoustically similar to one another by analysing the extent to which short- and long-distance calls of their vocal repertoires exhibited vocal similarity. Our results showed that long-distance calls, but not short-distance calls, are highly similar between pair partners. This effect may be explained by the different functions underlying short- and long-distance communication in ravens, with vocal similarity possibly being scaffolded by specific social matrices such as pair-bonds and/or strong social relationships.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T13:47:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.013
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
  • Reversal learning and resurgence of operant behavior in zebrafish (Danio
    • Authors: Toshikazu Kuroda; Yuto Mizutani; Carlos R.X. Cançado; Christopher A. Podlesnik
      Pages: 79 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 142
      Author(s): Toshikazu Kuroda, Yuto Mizutani, Carlos R.X. Cançado, Christopher A. Podlesnik
      Zebrafish are used extensively as vertebrate animal models in biomedical research for having such features as a fully sequenced genome and transparent embryo. Yet, operant-conditioning studies with this species are scarce. The present study investigated reversal learning and resurgence of operant behavior in zebrafish. A target response (approaching a sensor) was reinforced in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the target response was extinguished while reinforcing an alternative response (approaching a different sensor). In Phase 3, extinction was in effect for the target and alternative responses. Reversal learning was demonstrated when responding tracked contingency changes between Phases 1 and 2. Moreover, resurgence occurred in 10 of 13 fish in Phase 3: Target response rates increased transiently and exceeded rates of an unreinforced control response. The present study provides the first evidence with zebrafish supporting reversal learning between discrete operant responses and a laboratory model of relapse. These findings open the possibility to assessing genetic influences of operant behavior generally and in models of relapse (e.g., resurgence, renewal, reinstatement).

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
  • Identifying individual male reproductive consistency in Drosophila
           melanogaster: The importance of controlling female behaviour
    • Authors: Jesse Balaban-Feld; Thomas J. Valone
      Pages: 84 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 142
      Author(s): Jesse Balaban-Feld, Thomas J. Valone
      Work on the repeatability of reproductive behaviour has mainly focused on the consistency of female preferences. We characterised the consistency of individual male Drosophila melanogaster reproductive behaviour in two experiments. In the first experiment, we allowed males to interact with a pair of live females that differed in body size. We then controlled female behaviour in a second experiment by examining the courtship behaviour of individual males interacting with a pair of decapitated females that varied in body size. In both experiments, we examined the consistency of individual male reproductive behaviour across two repeated trials on the same day. Males did not exhibit a courtship preference for the larger female in either experiment, but, in experiment 1, males did exhibit post-copulatory choice by copulating for longer durations with the large female, and males that mated with the same type of female in both trials exhibited repeatable behaviour. In general, we found weak evidence of consistent male courtship behaviour in the presence of behaving females. However, when female behaviour was controlled in experiment 2, we found that male courtship behaviour was highly repeatable. These results indicate that individual male D. melanogaster exhibit consistent reproductive behaviour and demonstrate the importance of controlling female behaviour when attempting to characterise the repeatability of male reproductive behaviour.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
  • Can the way pigs are handled alter behavioural and physiological measures
           of affective state'
    • Authors: Ricard Carreras; Laura Arroyo; Eva Mainau; Daniel Valent; Anna Bassols; Antoni Dalmau; Luigi Faucitano; Xavier Manteca; Antonio Velarde
      Pages: 91 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 142
      Author(s): Ricard Carreras, Laura Arroyo, Eva Mainau, Daniel Valent, Anna Bassols, Antoni Dalmau, Luigi Faucitano, Xavier Manteca, Antonio Velarde
      Research on human-animal relationship in animal production has been mainly focused on its effect on stress, productivity and meat quality. Only few studies have assessed its effects on the animals’ affective state. In the present study, the influence of positive and negative handling (pH and NH, respectively) on affective state and fear as assessed by the cognitive bias test, the novel object test and the defence cascade test was studied in 56 pigs. Serum, saliva and hair were sampled during the study for the analysis of cortisol concentration. Results showed no differences between pH and NH pigs in the behavioural tests, which may be either due to the lack of previous handling effect on the test results, the lack of validity or the low sensitivity of these tests or a combination of them. Moreover, no differences were found in cortisol concentrations between handling groups. However, correlations between tests were found (p< 0.05) suggesting that there are individual factors such as the fear level, the motivation or the coping style, that have a similar effect on the response to these tests. Moreover, pigs who were more fearful had higher (r =0.37; p =0.014) levels of serum cortisol at slaughter.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.06.005
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
  • Incentive salience attribution is not the sole determinant of suboptimal
           choice in rats: Conditioned inhibition matters
    • Authors: Montserrat Martínez; Rodrigo Alba; William Rodríguez; Vladimir Orduña
      Pages: 99 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 142
      Author(s): Montserrat Martínez, Rodrigo Alba, William Rodríguez, Vladimir Orduña
      Previous research has identified clear differences between pigeons and rats in the suboptimal choice procedure. Pigeons behave suboptimally, preferring an alternative with discriminative stimuli and a smaller probability of reinforcement, over another with a higher probability of reinforcement, but without discriminative stimuli. In contrast, rats behave optimally showing the opposite preference. It has been proposed that these dissimilarities are consequence of a higher sensitivity to conditioned inhibition in rats than in pigeons. Alternatively, recent research suggests that differences in optimality can be accounted for by a differential incentive salience of the stimuli employed as discriminative stimuli, and that both species are suboptimal when such stimuli have high incentive salience; specifically, rats were found to be suboptimal when levers were used as discriminative stimuli. However, in the evaluation of this hypothesis, a conditioned inhibitor was not employed. In the present report, eight rats were exposed to a choice procedure that integrated both variables discussed above: a conditioned inhibitor was associated with the discriminative alternative and the stimuli had high incentive salience. A clear preference for the optimal alternative was found, suggesting that the conditioned inhibitor had a considerable impact on rats’ preference, and that species-differences remain even in procedures in which the discriminative stimuli have incentive salience.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T03:28:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.06.012
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
  • Resurgence of response duration in human participants
    • Authors: Rodrigo Benavides; Rogelio Escobar
      Pages: 106 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 142
      Author(s): Rodrigo Benavides, Rogelio Escobar
      Previously reinforced responses can reappear when reinforcement is withdrawn from current responding. This is known as resurgence. Although resurgence of response topography, spacing, and patterns over time has been demonstrated, there is no evidence of resurgence of response duration. This experiment explored resurgence of response duration in humans. In Phase 1 a multiple schedule of reinforcement with two components was used. In each component a chained variable-interval 30s, variable-ratio 3 schedule was implemented. In the terminal link of the chained schedule, response durations between 0.1 and 0.5s were reinforced during one component, and between 2 and 8s in the other component. In Phase 2, response requirement during the terminal link of the chained schedule was inverted between components relative to Phase 1. In Phase 3 the chained schedule was changed to a variable-interval 30-s, extinction 30s. Resurgence of the durations trained during Phase 1 was observed. It was concluded that duration is a response dimension that reappears during extinction.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T03:28:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.06.010
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
  • SQAB 2016: Persistence and relapse
    • Authors: Christopher A. Podlesnik; Federico Sanabria
      Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 1
      Author(s): Christopher A. Podlesnik, Federico Sanabria

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T21:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Factors that influence the persistence and relapse of discriminated
           behavior chains
    • Authors: Eric A. Thrailkill; Mark E. Bouton
      Pages: 3 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 1
      Author(s): Eric A. Thrailkill, Mark E. Bouton
      Behavior chains are composed of sequences of behaviors that minimally include procurement and then consumption. This review surveys recent research from this laboratory that has examined the properties of discriminated heterogeneous behavior chains. In contrast to another review (Thrailkill and Bouton, 2016a), it discusses work examining what makes chained behavior persistent, and what makes it relapse. Results suggest that responses in a discriminated heterogeneous behavior chain may become associated, so that extinction of either one reduces the strength of the other. Evidence also suggests that the goal of the first (procurement) response may be the next (consumption) response (rather than the upcoming discriminative stimulus, a putative conditioned reinforcer, or the primary reinforcer at the end of the chain). Further studies suggest that methods that promote generalization across acquisition and extinction (partial reinforcement and delivery of noncontingent reinforcers during extinction) lead to greater persistence of the procurement response. A third set of studies analyzed the contextual control and relapse of chained behaviors. The context controls both the acquisition and extinction of chained behaviors. In addition, a separately-extinguished consumption response is renewed when returned to the context of the chain. The research expands our general understanding of the learning processes that govern instrumental behavior as well as our understanding of chains.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.04.009
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Preventing relapse after incentivized choice treatment: A laboratory model
    • Authors: Mark E. Bouton; Eric A. Thrailkill; Cecilia L. Bergeria; Danielle R. Davis
      Pages: 11 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 1
      Author(s): Mark E. Bouton, Eric A. Thrailkill, Cecilia L. Bergeria, Danielle R. Davis
      Two experiments with rats examined relapse of an operant behavior that occurred after the behavior was suppressed by reinforcing (incentivizing) an alternative behavior. In the first phase, a target response (R1) was reinforced. In a treatment phase, R1 was still reinforced, but a new response (R2) was introduced and associated with a larger reinforcer. As in human contingency management treatments, incentivizing R2 this way was effective at suppressing R1. However, when R2’s reinforcement was discontinued, there was a robust and immediate relapse to R1. Experiment 1 found that the strength of R1 during relapse testing was not different from that seen in a no treatment control. Experiment 2 found that relapse could nevertheless be reduced by presenting reinforcers not contingent on responding during the test. Either the reinforcer for R1 or the reinforcer for R2 (which were qualitatively different types of food pellets) were effective. The experiments introduce a laboratory method for studying relapse and how to prevent it after contingency management treatments, and suggest at least one treatment that discourages relapse. The incentivized choice paradigm differs from other models of relapse of operant behavior (e.g., resurgence, renewal, reinstatement) in that it does not focus on the return of behaviors that are inhibited by extinction.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T21:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Extinction of Pavlovian conditioning: The influence of trial number and
           reinforcement history
    • Authors: C.K.J. Chan; Justin A. Harris
      Pages: 19 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 1
      Author(s): C.K.J. Chan, Justin A. Harris
      Pavlovian conditioning is sensitive to the temporal relationship between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US). This has motivated models that describe learning as a process that continuously updates associative strength during the trial or specifically encodes the CS–US interval. These models predict that extinction of responding is also continuous, such that response loss is proportional to the cumulative duration of exposure to the CS without the US. We review evidence showing that this prediction is incorrect, and that extinction is trial-based rather than time-based. We also present two experiments that test the importance of trials versus time on the Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect (PREE), in which responding extinguishes more slowly for a CS that was inconsistently reinforced with the US than for a consistently reinforced one. We show that increasing the number of extinction trials of the partially reinforced CS, relative to the consistently reinforced CS, overcomes the PREE. However, increasing the duration of extinction trials by the same amount does not overcome the PREE. We conclude that animals learn about the likelihood of the US per trial during conditioning, and learn trial-by-trial about the absence of the US during extinction. Moreover, what they learn about the likelihood of the US during conditioning affects how sensitive they are to the absence of the US during extinction.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T21:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.04.017
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Alcohol-seeking and relapse: A focus on incentive salience and contextual
    • Authors: Milan D. Valyear; Franz R. Villaruel; Nadia Chaudhri
      Pages: 26 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 1
      Author(s): Milan D. Valyear, Franz R. Villaruel, Nadia Chaudhri
      Environmental stimuli that reliably accompany alcohol intake can become associated with the pharmacological effects of alcohol through classical (Pavlovian) conditioning. Of growing interest to addiction researchers is whether or not this process results in the attribution of incentive salience to alcohol-predictive cues, which could motivate alcohol-seeking behavior and relapse. To evaluate this question, we present a review of rodent behavioral studies that examined the capacity of alcohol-predictive cues to (i) support sign-tracking behavior, (ii) serve as conditioned reinforcers, and (iii) produce Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer. A second, emerging area of research is focused on delineating the role of context in alcohol-seeking behavior and relapse. Here, we review studies showing that alcohol-associated contexts (i) support conditioned place preference, (ii) renew extinguished alcohol-seeking behavior, and (iii) modulate alcohol-seeking responses elicited by discrete alcohol-predictive cues. These behavioral effects may be mediated by unique psychological processes, and have important implications for cue-reactivity studies and neurobiological research.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T21:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.04.019
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Further examination of the temporal stability of alcohol demand
    • Authors: Samuel F. Acuff; James G. Murphy
      Pages: 33 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 1
      Author(s): Samuel F. Acuff, James G. Murphy
      Demand, or the amount of a substance consumed as a function of price, is a central dependent measure in behavioral economic research and represents the relative valuation of a substance. Although demand is often utilized as an index of substance use severity and is assumed to be relatively stable, recent experimental and clinical research has identified conditions in which demand can be manipulated, such as through craving and stress inductions, and treatment. Our study examines the 1-month reliability of the alcohol purchase task in a sample of heavy drinking college students. We also analyzed reliability in subgroup of individuals whose consumption decreased, increased, or stayed the same over the 1-month period, and in individuals with moderate/severe Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) vs. those with no/mild AUD. Reliability was moderate in the full sample, high in the group with stable consumption, and did not differ appreciably between AUD groups. Observed indices and indices derived from an exponentiated equation (Koffarnus et al., 2015) were generally comparable, although Pmax observed had very low reliability. Area under the curve, Omax derived, and essential value showed the greatest reliability in the full sample (rs=0.75–0.77). These results provide evidence for the relative stability over time of demand and across AUD groups, particularly in those whose consumption remains stable.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.03.020
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • A bout analysis of operant response disruption
    • Authors: Ryan J. Brackney; Timothy H.C. Cheung; Federico Sanabria
      Pages: 42 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 1
      Author(s): Ryan J. Brackney, Timothy H.C. Cheung, Federico Sanabria
      Operant behavior appears to be organized in bouts of responses, whose parameters are differentially sensitive to various manipulations. This study investigated potential differential effects of three forms of operant response disruption—extinction (EXT), non-contingent reinforcement (NCR), and prefeeding (PRE)—on response bouts. In Experiment 1, Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were trained on a tandem variable-time (VT) 120s fixed-ratio (FR) 5 schedule of reinforcement; after stability was established, their responding was disrupted for three sessions with one of the three disrupters (EXT, NCR, or PRE). In Experiment 2, Long Evans (LE) rats were trained on a tandem VT 240s FR 5 to stability, and their responding disrupted with EXT or NCR. In EXT and NCR, response rates declined significantly and progressively over the course of the session, primarily due to a declining bout-initiation rate in EXT, and to fewer responses per bout in NCR. In contrast, a session-wide drop in response rate was observed in PRE, primarily due to a reduction in bout-initiation rate at the start of the session. These findings suggest that each form of disruption differentially impacts dissociable aspects of behavior. Theories of behavioral persistence should account for these functional relations, which appear to be obscured in response rate measures.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T21:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.04.008
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Toward a general theory of momentum-like effects
    • Authors: Timothy L. Hubbard
      Pages: 50 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 1
      Author(s): Timothy L. Hubbard
      The future actions, behaviors, and outcomes of objects, individuals, and processes can often be anticipated, and some of these anticipations have been hypothesized to result from momentum-like effects. Five types of momentum-like effects (representational momentum, operational momentum, attentional momentum, behavioral momentum, psychological momentum) are briefly described. Potential similarities involving properties of momentum-like effects (continuation, coherence, role of chance or guessing, role of sensory processing, imperviousness to practice or error feedback, shifts in memory for position, effects of changes in velocity, rapid occurrence, effects of retention interval, attachment to an object rather than an abstract frame of reference, nonrigid transformation) are described, and potential constraints on a future theory of momentum-like effects (dynamic representation, nature of extrapolation, sensitivity to environmental contingencies, bridging gaps between stimulus and response, increasing adaptiveness to the environment, serving as a heuristic for perception and action, insensitivity to stimulus format, importance of subjective consequences, role of knowledge and belief, automaticity of occurrence, properties of functional architecture) are discussed. The similarity and ubiquity of momentum-like effects suggests such effects might result from a single or small number of mechanisms that operate over different dimensions, modalities, and time-scales and provide a fundamental adaptation for perception and action.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T21:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.02.019
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Persistence and resistance to extinction in the domestic dog: Basic
           research and applications to canine training
    • Authors: Nathaniel J. Hall
      Pages: 67 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 1
      Author(s): Nathaniel J. Hall
      This review summarizes the research investigating behavioral persistence and resistance to extinction in the dog. The first part of this paper reviews Behavioral Momentum Theory and its applications to Applied Behavior Analysis and training of pet dogs with persistent behavioral problems. I also highlight how research on Behavioral Momentum Theory can be applied to the training of detection dogs in an attempt to enhance detection performance in the presence of behavioral disruptors common in operational settings. In the second part of this review, I highlight more basic research on behavioral persistence with dogs, and how breed differences and experiences with humans as alternative sources of reinforcement can influence dogs’ resistance to extinction of a target behavior. Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Momentum Theory have important applications for behavioral treatments to reduce the persistence of problem behavior in dogs and for the development of enhanced training methods that enhance the persistence of working dogs. Dogs can also be leveraged as natural models of stereotypic behavior and for exploring individual differences in behavioral persistence by evaluating breed and environmental variables associated with differences in canine persistance.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T21:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Basing assessment and treatment of problem behavior on behavioral momentum
           theory: Analyses of behavioral persistence
    • Authors: Kelly M. Schieltz; David P. Wacker; Joel E. Ringdahl; Wendy K. Berg
      Pages: 75 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 1
      Author(s): Kelly M. Schieltz, David P. Wacker, Joel E. Ringdahl, Wendy K. Berg
      The connection, or bridge, between applied and basic behavior analysis has been long-established (Hake, 1982; Mace & Critchfield, 2010). In this article, we describe how clinical decisions can be based more directly on behavioral processes and how basing clinical procedures on behavioral processes can lead to improved clinical outcomes. As a case in point, we describe how applied behavior analyses of maintenance, and specifically the long-term maintenance of treatment effects related to problem behavior, can be adjusted and potentially enhanced by basing treatment on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We provide a brief review of the literature including descriptions of two translational studies that proposed changes in how differential reinforcement of alternative behavior treatments are conducted based on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We then describe current clinical examples of how these translations are continuing to impact the definitions, designs, analyses, and treatment procedures used in our clinical practice.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T21:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.02.013
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • On defining resurgence
    • Authors: Kennon A. Lattal; Carlos R.X. Cançado; James E. Cook; Stephanie L. Kincaid; Tyler D. Nighbor; Anthony C. Oliver
      Pages: 85 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 1
      Author(s): Kennon A. Lattal, Carlos R.X. Cançado, James E. Cook, Stephanie L. Kincaid, Tyler D. Nighbor, Anthony C. Oliver
      A review of different investigators’ definitions of resurgence revealed several common features: First, characteristics of the resurgent, or target, response, such as its transience; magnitude; time course within and across sessions; and relativity to a baseline response rate are not mentioned. Second, the target response is described as being established through its reinforcement in the first, or Training, phase of a resurgence procedure. Third, the target response must be eliminated as an alternative response is reinforced in the second, Alternative Reinforcement, phase of a resurgence procedure. Fourth, the alternative response must be extinguished during the Resurgence Test phase. Fifth, none of the definitions allude to any contribution of stimulus variables to resurgence. When reconsidered in light of contemporary research germane to these features, none of the reviewed definitions sufficiently reflect important variables in the generation and assessment of resurgence. The review concludes with a proposed working definition that takes into account contemporary research involving all of the aforementioned factors.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T21:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.04.018
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Cognition in fishes
    • Authors: Noam Miller
      Pages: 137 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 2
      Author(s): Noam Miller

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Swarm intelligence in fish' The difficulty in demonstrating
           distributed and self-organised collective intelligence in (some) animal
    • Authors: Christos C. Ioannou
      Pages: 141 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 2
      Author(s): Christos C. Ioannou
      Larger groups often have a greater ability to solve cognitive tasks compared to smaller ones or lone individuals. This is well established in social insects, navigating flocks of birds, and in groups of prey collectively vigilant for predators. Research in social insects has convincingly shown that improved cognitive performance can arise from self-organised local interactions between individuals that integrates their contributions, often referred to as swarm intelligence. This emergent collective intelligence has gained in popularity and been directly applied to groups of other animals, including fish. Despite being a likely mechanism at least partially explaining group performance in vertebrates, I argue here that other possible explanations are rarely ruled out in empirical studies. Hence, evidence for self-organised collective (or ‘swarm’) intelligence in fish is not as strong as it would first appear. These other explanations, the ‘pool-of-competence’ and the greater cognitive ability of individuals when in larger groups, are also reviewed. Also discussed is why improved group performance in general may be less often observed in animals such as shoaling fish compared to social insects. This review intends to highlight the difficulties in exploring collective intelligence in animal groups, ideally leading to further empirical work to illuminate these issues.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2016.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Social motivation and conflict resolution tactics as potential building
           blocks of sociality in cichlid fishes
    • Authors: Sigal Balshine; Marian Y.L. Wong; Adam R. Reddon
      Pages: 152 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 2
      Author(s): Sigal Balshine, Marian Y.L. Wong, Adam R. Reddon
      Even closely related and ecologically similar cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika exhibit an impressive diversity of social systems, and therefore these fishes offer an excellent opportunity to examine the evolution of social behaviour. Sophisticated social relationships are thought to have evolved via a building block design where more fundamental social behaviours and cognitive processes have been combined, incrementally modified, and elaborated over time. Here, we studied two of these putative social building blocks in two closely related species of cichlids: Neolamprologus pulcher, a group-living species, and Telmatochromis temporalis, a non-grouping species. Otherwise well matched in ecology, this pair of species provide an excellent comparison point to understand how behavioural processes may have been modified in relation to the evolution of sociality. Using social assays in both the laboratory and in the field, we explored each species’ motivation to interact with conspecifics, and each species’ conflict resolution tactics. We found that individuals of the group living species, N. pulcher, displayed higher social motivation and were more likely to produce submission displays than were individuals of the non-grouping species, T. temporalis. We argue that the motivation to interact with conspecifics is a necessary prerequisite for the emergence of group living, and that the use of submission reduces the costs of conflict and facilitates the maintenance of close social proximity. These results suggest that social motivation and conflict resolution tactics are associated with social complexity, and that these behavioural traits may be functionally significant in the evolution and maintenance of sociality.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Numerical abilities in fish: A methodological review
    • Authors: Christian Agrillo; Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini; Angelo Bisazza
      Pages: 161 - 171
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 2
      Author(s): Christian Agrillo, Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini, Angelo Bisazza
      The ability to utilize numerical information can be adaptive in a number of ecological contexts including foraging, mating, parental care, and anti-predator strategies. Numerical abilities of mammals and birds have been studied both in natural conditions and in controlled laboratory conditions using a variety of approaches. During the last decade this ability was also investigated in some fish species. Here we reviewed the main methods used to study this group, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods used. Fish have only been studied under laboratory conditions and among the methods used with other species, only two have been systematically used in fish—spontaneous choice tests and discrimination learning procedures. In the former case, the choice between two options is observed in a biologically relevant situation and the degree of preference for the larger/smaller group is taken as a measure of the capacity to discriminate the two quantities (e.g., two shoals differing in number). In discrimination learning tasks, fish are trained to select the larger or the smaller of two sets of abstract objects, typically two-dimensional geometric figures, using food or social companions as reward. Beyond methodological differences, what emerges from the literature is a substantial similarity of the numerical abilities of fish with those of other vertebrates studied.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Small and large number discrimination in goldfish (Carassius auratus) with
           extensive training
    • Authors: Caroline M. DeLong; Stephanie Barbato; Taylor O’Leary; K. Tyler Wilcox
      Pages: 172 - 183
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 2
      Author(s): Caroline M. DeLong, Stephanie Barbato, Taylor O’Leary, K. Tyler Wilcox
      Previous studies on relative quantity discrimination in birds and mammals with training procedures have employed hundreds or thousands of trials whereas studies with fish typically use dozens of trials. The goal of this study was to examine whether more extensive training improves the performance of fish tested on stimuli in the small (<4) and large (>4) number range. Goldfish were trained with dot array stimuli using the ratio 0.5 (2 vs. 4, 6 vs. 12) across two blocks of training sessions with a total of approximately 1200 trials. They were tested after each block of training sessions with the ratios 0.33 (1 vs. 3, 5 vs. 15), 0.5 (2 vs. 4, 6 vs. 12), and 0.67 (2 vs. 3, 10 vs. 15). Performance exceeded 90% correct on both test blocks. Accuracy was not affected by manipulating the surface area, density, or space of stimuli. Performance was best on the ratio 0.5 in test block 1, but ratio-independent in test block 2. There was no difference in performance in the small vs. large number range across the study. These results suggest that fish given extensive training can achieve accuracy on a numerical task comparable to well-trained birds, humans, or non-human primates.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2016.11.011
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Individual differences in cognition among teleost fishes
    • Authors: Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato; Angelo Bisazza
      Pages: 184 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 2
      Author(s): Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato, Angelo Bisazza
      Individual differences in cognitive abilities have been thoroughly investigated in humans and to a lesser extent in other mammals. Despite the growing interest in studying cognition in other taxonomic groups, data on individual differences are scarce for non-mammalian species. Here, we review the literature on individual differences in cognitive abilities in teleost fishes. Relatively few studies have directly addressed this topic and have provided evidence of consistent and heritable individual variation in cognitive abilities in fish. We found much more evidence of individual cognitive differences in other research areas, namely sex differences, personality differences, cerebral lateralisation and comparison between populations. Altogether, these studies suggest that individual differences in cognition are as common in fish as in warm–blooded vertebrates. Based on the example of research on mammals, we suggest directions for future investigation in fish.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.01.015
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Behavioural plasticity across social contexts is regulated by the
           directionality of inter-individual differences
    • Authors: Olivia L. Guayasamin; Iain D. Couzin; Noam Y. Miller
      Pages: 196 - 204
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 2
      Author(s): Olivia L. Guayasamin, Iain D. Couzin, Noam Y. Miller
      An individual’s behavioural phenotype is a combination of its unique behavioural propensities and its responsiveness to environmental variation, also known as behavioural plasticity. In social species, we must not only explore how individuals respond to variations in the physical environment but also how they react to changes in their social environment. A growing body of work has demonstrated that the behavioural heterogeneity of a group can alter its responsiveness, decision making, and fitness. Whether an individual is more or less extreme than a partner – what we term its ‘relative personality’ – may also alter individual behavioural responses. We determined exploratory tendencies of individual zebrafish (Danio rerio) and then constructed pairs with varying differences in ‘relative personality’ to determine the effect of differences between partners on behavioural plasticity. We find that relative personality, but not the magnitude of the difference between partners, is the most important determinant of behavioural plasticity across social treatments. Despite this overall effect, pairs of fish exhibited no predictable leader-follower interactions, suggesting that details of the experimental paradigm may be important in shaping social dynamics.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2016.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Parasitism, personality and cognition in fish
    • Authors: I. Barber; A.B. Mora; E.M. Payne; K.L. Weinersmith; A. Sih
      Pages: 205 - 219
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 2
      Author(s): I. Barber, A.B. Mora, E.M. Payne, K.L. Weinersmith, A. Sih
      It is well established that parasites can have profound effects on the behaviour of host organisms, and that individual differences in behaviour can influence susceptibility to parasite infections. Recently, two major themes of research have developed. First, there has been a growing interest in the proximate, mechanistic processes underpinning parasite-associated behaviour change, and the interactive roles of the neuro-, immune, and other physiological systems in determining relationships between behaviour and infection susceptibility. Secondly, as the study of behaviour has shifted away from one-off measurements of single behaviours and towards a behavioural syndromes/personality framework, research is starting to focus on the consequences of parasite infection for temporal and contextual consistency of behaviour, and on the implications of different personality types for infection susceptibility. In addition, there is increasing interest in the potential for relationships between cognition and personality to also have implications for host-parasite interactions. As models well-suited to both the laboratory study of behaviour and experimental parasitology, teleost fish have been used as hosts in many of these studies. In this review we provide a broad overview of the range of mechanisms that potentially generate links between fish behaviour, personality, and parasitism, and illustrate these using examples drawn from the recent literature. In addition, we examine the potential interactions between cognition, personality and parasitism, and identify questions that may be usefully investigated with fish models.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2016.11.012
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Can personality predict individual differences in brook trout spatial
           learning ability'
    • Authors: S.L. White; T. Wagner; C. Gowan; V.A. Braithwaite
      Pages: 220 - 228
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 2
      Author(s): S.L. White, T. Wagner, C. Gowan, V.A. Braithwaite
      While differences in individual personality are common in animal populations, understanding the ecological significance of variation has not yet been resolved. Evidence suggests that personality may influence learning and memory; a finding that could improve our understanding of the evolutionary processes that produce and maintain intraspecific behavioural heterogeneity. Here, we tested whether boldness, the most studied personality trait in fish, could predict learning ability in brook trout. After quantifying boldness, fish were trained to find a hidden food patch in a maze environment. Stable landmark cues were provided to indicate the location of food and, at the conclusion of training, cues were rearranged to test for learning. There was a negative relationship between boldness and learning as shy fish were increasingly more successful at navigating the maze and locating food during training trials compared to bold fish. In the altered testing environment, only shy fish continued using cues to search for food. Overall, the learning rate of bold fish was found to be lower than that of shy fish for several metrics suggesting that personality could have widespread effects on behaviour. Because learning can increase plasticity to environmental change, these results have significant implications for fish conservation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2016.08.009
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Understanding zebrafish cognition
    • Authors: Darya A. Meshalkina; Marina N. Kizlyk; Elana V. Kysil; Adam D. Collier; David J. Echevarria; Murilo S. Abreu; Leonardo J.G. Barcellos; Cai Song; Allan V. Kalueff
      Pages: 229 - 241
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 2
      Author(s): Darya A. Meshalkina, Marina N. Kizlyk, Elana V. Kysil, Adam D. Collier, David J. Echevarria, Murilo S. Abreu, Leonardo J.G. Barcellos, Cai Song, Allan V. Kalueff
      Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly becoming a popular model organism in translational and cognitive neuroscience research. Both larval and adult zebrafish continue to increase our understanding of cognitive mechanisms and their genetic and pharmacological modulation. Here, we discuss the developing utility of zebrafish in understanding cognitive phenotypes and their deficits, relevant to a wide range human brain disorders. We also discuss the potential of zebrafish models for high-throughput genetic mutant and small molecule screening (e.g., amnestics, cognitive enhancers, neurodevelopmental/neurodegenerative drugs), which becomes critical for identifying novel candidate genes and molecular drug targets to treat cognitive deficits. In addition to discussing the existing challenges and future strategic directions in this field, we emphasize how zebrafish models of cognitive phenotypes continue to form an interesting and rapidly emerging new field in neuroscience.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2016.11.020
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Zebrafish and relational memory: Could a simple fish be useful for the
           analysis of biological mechanisms of complex vertebrate learning'
    • Authors: Robert Gerlai
      Pages: 242 - 250
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 2
      Author(s): Robert Gerlai
      Analysis of the zebrafish allows one to combine two distinct scientific approaches, comparative ethology and neurobehavioral genetics. Furthermore, this species arguably represents an optimal compromise between system complexity and practical simplicity. This mini-review focuses on a complex form of learning, relational learning and memory, in zebrafish. It argues that zebrafish are capable of this type of learning, and it attempts to show how this species may be useful in the analysis of the mechanisms and the evolution of this complex brain function. The review is not intended to be comprehensive. It is a short opinion piece that reflects the author’s own biases, and it draws some of its examples from the work coming from his own laboratory. Nevertheless, it is written in the hope that it will persuade those who have not utilized zebrafish and who may be interested in opening their research horizon to this relatively novel but powerful vertebrate research tool.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Editorial: Feline behavior and cognition
    • Authors: Monique A.R. Udell; Kristyn R. Vitale Shreve
      Pages: 259 - 260
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 3
      Author(s): Monique A.R. Udell, Kristyn R. Vitale Shreve

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Big cats as a model system for the study of the evolution of intelligence
    • Authors: Natalia Borrego
      Pages: 261 - 266
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 3
      Author(s): Natalia Borrego
      Currently, carnivores, and felids in particular, are vastly underrepresented in cognitive literature, despite being an ideal model system for tests of social and ecological intelligence hypotheses. Within Felidae, big cats (Panthera) are uniquely suited to studies investigating the evolutionary links between social, ecological, and cognitive complexity. Intelligence likely did not evolve in a unitary way but instead evolved as the result of mutually reinforcing feedback loops within the physical and social environments. The domain-specific social intelligence hypothesis proposes that social complexity drives only the evolution of cognitive abilities adapted only to social domains. The domain-general hypothesis proposes that the unique demands of social life serve as a bootstrap for the evolution of superior general cognition. Big cats are one of the few systems in which we can directly address conflicting predictions of the domain-general and domain-specific hypothesis by comparing cognition among closely related species that face roughly equivalent ecological complexity but vary considerably in social complexity

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Use of incidentally encoded memory from a single experience in cats
    • Authors: Saho Takagi; Mana Tsuzuki; Hitomi Chijiiwa; Minori Arahori; Arii Watanabe; Atsuko Saito; Kazuo Fujita
      Pages: 267 - 272
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 3
      Author(s): Saho Takagi, Mana Tsuzuki, Hitomi Chijiiwa, Minori Arahori, Arii Watanabe, Atsuko Saito, Kazuo Fujita
      We examined whether cats could retrieve and utilize incidentally encoded information from a single past event in a simple food-exploration task previously used for dogs (Fujita et al., 2012). In Experiment 1, cats were led to four open, baited containers and allowed to eat from two of them (Exposure phase). After a 15-min delay during which the cats were absent and all containers were replaced with empty ones, the cats were unexpectedly returned to the room and allowed to explore the containers (Test phase). Although the cats’ first choice of container to visit was random, they explored containers from which they had not previously eaten for longer than those from which they did previously eat. In the Exposure phase of Experiment 2, two containers held food, one held a nonedible object, and the fourth was empty. Cats were allowed to eat from one of them. In the post-delay Test phase, the cats first visited the remaining baited-uneaten container significantly more often than chance and they spent more time exploring this container. Because the cats’ behavior in the Test phase cannot be explained by association of the container with a pleasant experience (eating), the results suggest that cats retrieved and utilized “what” and “where” information from an incidentally encoded memory from a single experience.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2016.12.014
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Assessment of domestic cat personality, as perceived by 416 owners,
           suggests six dimensions
    • Authors: Pauleen C. Bennett; Nicholas J. Rutter; Jessica K. Woodhead; Tiffani J. Howell
      Pages: 273 - 283
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 3
      Author(s): Pauleen C. Bennett, Nicholas J. Rutter, Jessica K. Woodhead, Tiffani J. Howell
      Understanding individual behavioral differences in domestic cats could lead to improved selection when potential cat owners choose a pet with whom to share their lives, along with consequent improvements in cat welfare. Yet very few attempts have been made to elicit cat personality dimensions using the trait-based exploratory approaches applied previously, with some success, to humans and dogs. In this study, a list of over 200 adjectives used to describe cat personality was assembled. This list was refined by two focus groups. A sample of 416 adult cat owners then rated a cat they knew well on each of 118 retained words. An iterative analytical approach was used to identify 29 words which formed six personality dimensions: Playfulness, Nervousness, Amiability, Dominance, Demandingness, and Gullibility. Chronbach's alpha scores for these dimensions ranged from 0.63 to 0.8 and, together, they explained 56.08% of the total variance. Very few significant correlations were found between participant scores on the personality dimensions and descriptive variables such as owner age, cat age and owner cat-owning experience, and these were all weak to barely moderate in strength (r ≤0.30). There was also only one significant group difference based on cat sex. Importantly, however, several cat personality scores were moderately (r =0.3–0.49) or strongly (r ≥0.5) correlated with simple measures of satisfaction with the cat, attachment, bond quality, and the extent to which the cat was perceived to be troublesome. The results suggest that, with further validation, this scale could be used to provide a simple, tick-box, assessment of an owner’s perceptions regarding a cat's personality. This may be of value in both applied and research settings.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.02.020
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Does previous use affect litter box appeal in multi-cat households'
    • Authors: J.J. Ellis; R.T.S. McGowan; F. Martin
      Pages: 284 - 290
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 3
      Author(s): J.J. Ellis, R.T.S. McGowan, F. Martin
      It is commonly assumed that cats actively avoid eliminated materials (especially in multi-cat homes), suggesting regular litter box cleaning as the best defense against out-of-box elimination. The relationship between previous use and litter box appeal to familiar subsequent users is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between previous litter box use and the identity of the previous user, type of elimination, odor, and presence of physical/visual obstructions in a multi-cat household scenario. Cats preferred a clean litter box to a dirty one, but the identity of the previous user had no impact on preferences. While the presence of odor from urine and/or feces did not impact litter box preferences, the presence of odorless faux-urine and/or feces did – with the presence of faux-feces being preferred over faux-urine. Results suggest neither malodor nor chemical communication play a role in litter box preferences, and instead emphasize the importance of regular removal of physical/visual obstructions as the key factor in promoting proper litter box use.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Environmental enrichment choices of shelter cats
    • Authors: J.J. Ellis; H. Stryhn; J. Spears; M.S. Cockram
      Pages: 291 - 296
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 3
      Author(s): J.J. Ellis, H. Stryhn, J. Spears, M.S. Cockram
      Choices made by cats between different types of environmental enrichment may help shelters to prioritize how to most effectively enrich cat housing, especially when limited by space or funds. This study investigates the environmental enrichment use of cats in a choice test. Twenty-six shelter cats were kept singularly in choice chambers for 10days. Each chamber had a central area and four centrally-linked compartments containing different types of environmental enrichment: 1) an empty control, 2) a prey-simulating toy, 3) a perching opportunity, and 4) a hiding opportunity. Cat movement between compartments was quantitatively recorded using a data-logger. Enriched compartments were visited significantly more frequently during the light period than during the dark period. Cats spent a significantly greater percentage of time in the hiding compartment (median=55%, IQR=46) than in the toy compartment (median=2%, IQR=9), or in the empty control compartment (median=4%, IQR=4). These results provide additional evidence to support the value of a hiding box to cats housed in a novel environment, in that they choose hiding relative to other types of environmental enrichment.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.03.023
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat
           interactions and relationships
    • Authors: Dennis C. Turner
      Pages: 297 - 304
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 3
      Author(s): Dennis C. Turner
      This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Development of the cat-owner relationship scale (CORS)
    • Authors: Tiffani J. Howell; Jonathan Bowen; Jaume Fatjó; Paula Calvo; Anna Holloway; Pauleen C. Bennett
      Pages: 305 - 315
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 3
      Author(s): Tiffani J. Howell, Jonathan Bowen, Jaume Fatjó, Paula Calvo, Anna Holloway, Pauleen C. Bennett
      Characteristics of the human-animal bond can be influenced by both owner-related and pet-related factors, which likely differ between species. Three studies adapted the Monash Dog-Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) to permit assessment of human-cat interactions as perceived by the cat’s owner. In Study 1293 female cat owners completed a modified version of the MDORS, where ‘dog’ was replaced with ‘cat’ for all items. Responses were compared with a matched sample of female dog owners. A partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed systematic differences between cat and dog owners in the Dog (Cat)-Owner Interaction subscale (MDORS subscale 1), but not for Perceived Emotional Closeness or Perceived Costs (Subscales 2 and 3). Study 2 involved analysis of free-text descriptions of cat-owner interactions provided by 61 female cat owners. Text mining identified key words which were used to create additional questions for a new Cat-Owner Interaction subscale. In Study 3, the resulting cat-owner relationship scale (CORS) was tested in a group of 570 cat owners. The main psychometric properties of the scale, including internal consistency and factor structure, were evaluated. We propose that this scale can be used to accurately assess owner perceptions of their relationship with their cat. A modified scale, combining items from the CORS and MDORS (a C/DORS), is also provided for when researchers would find it desirable to compare human-cat and human-dog interactions.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.02.024
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Owners’ view of their pets’ emotions, intellect, and mutual
           relationship: Cats and dogs compared
    • Authors: Minori Arahori; Hika Kuroshima; Yusuke Hori; Saho Takagi; Hitomi Chijiiwa; Kazuo Fujita
      Pages: 316 - 321
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 3
      Author(s): Minori Arahori, Hika Kuroshima, Yusuke Hori, Saho Takagi, Hitomi Chijiiwa, Kazuo Fujita
      Companion animals have established special relationships with humans, as demonstrated by many studies describing their abilities and bonds to communicate with humans. In this questionnaire-based study, we explored owners’ views of pets in terms of their emotional and intellectual functions and their relationship with owners, and compared the results between cat owners and dog owners. We found that although both types of owners most often regarded their pets as “family members,” this tendency was weaker in cat owners. Cat owners also scored significantly lower than dog owners for some emotions and intellect they thought their pets might have. Additionally, cat owners who regard their cats as family members tend to attribute “compassion” to their cats more strongly than cat owners who regard their pets as non-family. This study revealed that some aspects of cat owners’ views of their pets differ from those of dog owners. These finding may help us to better understand our heterospecific companions and establish good relationships with them.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Social interaction, food, scent or toys' A formal assessment of
           domestic pet and shelter cat (Felis silvestris catus) preferences
    • Authors: Kristyn R. Vitale Shreve; Lindsay R. Mehrkam; Monique A.R. Udell
      Pages: 322 - 328
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 3
      Author(s): Kristyn R. Vitale Shreve, Lindsay R. Mehrkam, Monique A.R. Udell
      Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) engage in a variety of relationships with humans and can be conditioned to engage in numerous behaviors using Pavlovian and operant methods Increasingly cat cognition research is providing evidence of their complex socio-cognitive and problem solving abilities. Nonetheless, it is still common belief that cats are not especially sociable or trainable. This disconnect may be due, in part, to a lack of knowledge of what stimuli cats prefer, and thus may be most motivated to work for. The current study investigated domestic cat preferences at the individual and population level using a free operant preference assessment. Adult cats from two populations (pet and shelter) were presented with three stimuli within each of the following four categories: human social interaction, food, toy, and scent. Proportion of time interacting with each stimulus was recorded. The single most-preferred stimulus from each of the four categories were simultaneously presented in a final session to determine each cat’s most-preferred stimulus overall. Although there was clear individual variability in cat preference, social interaction with humans was the most-preferred stimulus category for the majority of cats, followed by food. This was true for cats in both the pet and shelter population. Future research can examine the use of preferred stimuli as enrichment in applied settings and assess individual cats’ motivation to work for their most-preferred stimulus as a measure of reinforcer efficacy.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Development and evaluation of the Fe-BARQ: A new survey instrument for
           measuring behavior in domestic cats (Felis s. catus)
    • Authors: Deborah L. Duffy; Roseana T. Diniz de Moura; James A. Serpell
      Pages: 329 - 341
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 141, Part 3
      Author(s): Deborah L. Duffy, Roseana T. Diniz de Moura, James A. Serpell
      A questionnaire instrument for obtaining quantitative behavioral evaluations of pet cats from cat owners was developed and validated. Exploratory Factor Analysis of 2608 questionnaire responses to 149 behavioral questions/items extracted a total of 23 distinct factors that measured most of the more common dimensions of cat behavior. Seventeen of the 23 factors demonstrated adequate–high internal reliability (Cronbach’s alpha=0.712–0.923). Questionnaire validation was accomplished by determining: (a) whether owners’ subjective ratings of the severity of their cat’s behavior problems were associated with cats’ actual scores on expected questionnaire factors, (b) whether expected associations between specific demographic and/or lifestyle characteristics and behavior were confirmed by cats’ factor or item scores on the questionnaire, and (c) whether breed rankings based on owner-reported factor scores matched those previously derived from the opinions of experts (veterinarians). The results of these various tests confirmed the overall construct validity of the questionnaire.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 141 (2017)
  • Effects of Extinction in Multiple Contexts on Renewal of Instrumental
    • Authors: Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa; Javier Nieto; Metin Uengoer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa, Javier Nieto, Metin Uengoer
      In two experiments with rats, we investigated the effects of using multiple contexts during extinction on renewal of lever-pressing behavior. During the first phase of both experiments, rats were reinforced to press a lever for food in Context A. Then, responses underwent extinction. For half of the animals, extinction sessions were conducted in a single context, whereas the other half received extinction in three different contexts. In Experiment 1, we observed that extinction in multiple contexts eliminated ABC renewal, but had no detectable impact on ABA renewal. Experiment 2 revealed that conducting extended extinction training in multiple contexts attenuated ABA renewal. Theoretical and clinical implications of the present findings are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T21:34:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.06.003
    • Authors: F.G. Mazur; L.F.G. Oliveira; M.P. Cunha; A.L.S. Rodrigues; R.A.N. Pértile; L.F. Vendruscolo; G.S. Izídio
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): F.G. Mazur, L.F.G. Oliveira, M.P. Cunha, A.L.S. Rodrigues, R.A.N. Pértile, L.F. Vendruscolo, G.S. Izídio
      We investigated the effects of physical exercise (PE) on locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior in Lewis (LEW) and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) male rats. Rats received either four weeks of forced training, 5 days/week, on a treadmill (experiment 1) or were given 21days of free access to running wheels (experiment 2). We also tested the effects of social isolation (SI) (seven days of isolation − experiment 3) on behavior. In experiment 1, 20% of LEW rats and 63% of SHR rats completed the training protocol. PE significantly increased central and peripheral locomotion in the open field (OF) and entries into the open arms in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) in both strains. In experiment 2, the distance traveled by SHR rats on running wheels was significantly higher compared with LEW rats. PE on running wheels also increased the time spent in the center of the OF in SHR rats only. In experiment 3, SI decreased central and peripheral locomotion in the OF in both strains. In summary, forced PE on a treadmill reduced anxiety-like behavior and increased locomotion in male rats of both strains, whereas voluntary PE on running wheels decreased anxiety-like behavior in SHR rats only. SI decreased locomotion in both strains in the OF. This study suggests that spontaneous activity levels are genotype-dependent and the effects of PE depend on the type of exercise performed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T21:34:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.06.001
  • Female choice, male dominance and condition-related traits in the
           polygynous subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum
    • Authors: M.S. Fanjul; R.R. Zenuto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): M.S. Fanjul, R.R. Zenuto
      Ctenomys talarum is a solitary and highly territorial species in which dominant males aggressively deter other males and monopolize reproductive activity. Female preference for dominant males is not easy to assess due to coercive mating by males. Hence, we aimed to answer if behavioural dominance and several condition-related traits like testosterone and cortisol levels, endoparasite load, and hematocrit volume may affect female preference when they have the opportunity to exert it. We designed a laboratory experiment using wild-caught C. talarum and employed a combined approach involving behavioural observations and the measurements of parameters of physical condition. We staged dyadic encounters between males to determine dominance index and then analyzed female preference towards tethered males (n=15) or their odours (n=18). Male dominance did not affect female preferences when odours were presented. When two tethered males were offered, females preferred those with higher dominance index. Preference of females for dominant males would mainly represent indirect benefits. Females did not show preference for males in relation to any physiological trait evaluated. Dominance was found negatively related to cortisol levels, probably avoiding the glucocorticoids-related costs, and positively related to parasite diversity, since they could tolerate it without impairing their health.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T21:30:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.019
  • Flexibility in the social behavior of captive female capybaras (Mammalia,
    • Authors: Sérgio L.G. Nogueira-Filho; Pauliene C. Lopes; Djalma N. Ferreira; Selene S.C. Nogueira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Sérgio L.G. Nogueira-Filho, Pauliene C. Lopes, Djalma N. Ferreira, Selene S.C. Nogueira
      Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) lives in stable groups composed of adult males and females with their young. The species shows flexibility in social organization in response to short-term environmental changes, but apparently does not show flexibility in social behavior. To gain insights into mechanisms underlying changes in social relationships, we analyzed the social dominance hierarchy of five captive capybara groups, composed of four to 13 adult females kept in outdoor paddocks ranging from 400 to 4,500m2. In addition, we evaluated the effects of group size and space allowance on two complementary properties of social structure: linearity and steepness. Captive female capybaras exhibit a linear social dominance hierarchy. There was also more predictability in the dominance success– hierarchical steepness − in the dominance hierarchy with a decrease in the space per individual. This variability in response to changing circumstances shows flexibility in capybara’s social behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T14:01:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.018
  • Phenotype of a leaf beetle larva depends on host plant quality and
           previous test experience
    • Authors: Thorben Müller; Caroline Müller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Thorben Müller, Caroline Müller
      Phenotypic expressions of insects are strongly dependent on various external and internal factors, like diet or density and age or sex. However, environmental effects on the behavioural phenotype and repeatability are rather unexplored for holometabolous insects in their larval stage. We examined the effects of the food environment (young versus old cabbage leaves) and previous test experience on growth and behaviour of Phaedon cochleariae larvae. A more nutritious diet, i.e., young leaves, had beneficial consequences on larval growth. Contrary to findings on adults, the behaviour of larvae was neither consistent over time nor across contexts, thus larvae did not show personality. Furthermore, larval behaviour was shaped independent of the diet, pointing to a stage-dependent receptivity towards diet conditions in this species. Besides, larval activity was significantly influenced by former test experience, with naïve larvae being more active than previously tested larvae. In general, in insects memories in an olfactory or sexual behaviour context can lead to behavioural responses later in life. Mechanisms of memory-learning should be further explored in different contexts in insects. Overall, the present study reveals that growth-related traits are diet-dependent and that the activity of a holometabolous larva is shaped in dependence of its previous test experience.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T14:01:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.017
  • Mother-young Recognition In Goitered Gazelle During Hiding Period
    • Authors: D.A. Blank; W. Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): D.A. Blank, W. Yang
      The mother-young recognition process is crucial for the growth and survival of progeny. In “follower” ungulate species, vocal and visual cues have been found to play a leading role in the mother-young identification process from the first days postpartum, with olfactory cues also important in establishing the initial selective mother-young bond immediately after birth. In “hider” species, however, much less has been documented of mother-young recognition behaviors, especially in their natural habitat. In this paper, we investigated this process in goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa), a typical hider species, in its native environment in Kazakhstan. Over the course of our study period, we investigated the behaviors of 257 females with twins and 158 females with singles through visual observations. We found that within the first month after birth, when females spend only a short time with their young, mothers recognized their fawns using mostly olfactory cues, while vision was used to locate their hiding offspring. Fawns vocalized very rarely, producing only distress calls that did not seem intended for individual identification. Licking of young by their mothers was observed frequently, not only during the first week after birth, when this action was very important for fawn stimulation for a number of physiological functions, but for several weeks after (until one month of age), when licking lost its physiological importance and likely became more of a recognition procedure. Fawns did not recognize their mothers at all, either through vision or vocalizations, since during their first weeks after birth, they responded to any gazelle that approached their hiding area. By a month after birth, when mothers and fawns began to stay together for longer periods of time, their recognition process became more enhanced, and in addition to olfactory cues, the mother and her young began to use more and more visual cues for longer distance identification, as well as vocalizations for shorter distances. Similar dynamics are likely typical for most hiding species, although information for wild ungulates is still very limited, especially for those with strong hider behaviors.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T14:01:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.016
  • How stallions influence the dynamic of collective movements in two groups
           of domestic horses, from departure to arrival
    • Authors: Léa Briard; Jean-Louis Deneubourg; Odile Petit
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Léa Briard, Jean-Louis Deneubourg, Odile Petit
      The role of leader in polygynous species has been solely attributed to the male for some time, but recent studies shown decision making to be distributed within the group. However, the specific reproductive strategy and behavioural repertoire of males in polygynous species such as horses may mean that these individuals still have the potential to play a specific role during decision-making. To investigate this subject, we thoroughly studied the behaviour of two domestic stallions during collective movements of their group. We found that they initiated rarely and sometimes failed to recruit the entire group. When departing as followers, they did not accelerate the joining process. Both stallions preferentially occupied the rear position and exhibited numerous monitoring behaviours. Herding behaviours were performed by only one stallion and mostly occurred outside movement context. Finally, we removed this herding stallion from its group to evaluate how the group dynamic changed. As a result, half of the collective movements were five times slower and mares were more dispersed in comparison when the stallion was in the group. Overall, our results suggest that, the two stallions maintained their role of group monitors from departure to arrival. Their influence on the movement dynamic was indirect and did not play a specific role in the process of decision making.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T14:01:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.014
  • Female Brazilian whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus ocellifer) prefer males
           with high ultraviolet ornament reflectance
    • Authors: Carolina M.C.A. Lisboa; Katalin Bajer; Daniel M.A. Pessoa; Marc Huber; Gabriel C. Costa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Carolina M.C.A. Lisboa, Katalin Bajer, Daniel M.A. Pessoa, Marc Huber, Gabriel C. Costa
      Conspicuous colouration is an important way of social communication in many taxa. The role of ultraviolet (UV) signals in intraspecific communication has only recently been studied in lizards, and there is not a general understanding of the adaptive role of UV colouration. Colour ornaments can signal male quality in mate choice and are therefore suitable for reliably predicting the outcome of female preference. Here, we tested the potential role of UV colouration in female spatial preference in a non-territorial teiid lizard, Cnemidophorus ocellifer. We experimentally manipulated the UV reflectance of size-matched male pairs and tested the effects of our treatment on females’ spatial distribution. We found that females associated with males of higher UV reflectance, suggesting that UV colour can be an important clue during mate preference decisions. Our results provide the first empirical evidence for the importance of UV colouration in female preference in a mutually ornamented lizard species.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T13:47:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.009
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