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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 881 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 411)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 231)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 222)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
At-Tajdid : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 134)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Behavioural Processes
  [SJR: 0.654]   [H-I: 57]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0376-6357
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • Disruptive effects of light pollution on sleep in free-living birds:
           Season and/or light intensity-dependent'
    • Authors: Thomas Raap; Jiachen Sun; Rianne Pinxten; Marcel Eens
      Pages: 13 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 144
      Author(s): Thomas Raap, Jiachen Sun, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
      Light pollution or artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasing anthropogenic environmental pollutant posing an important potential threat for wildlife. Evidence of its effects on animal physiology and behaviour is accumulating. However, in order to effectively mitigate light pollution it is important to determine which factors contribute to the severity of effects of ALAN. In this experimental study we explored whether there are seasonal-dependent effects of ALAN on sleep in free-living great tits (Parus major), an important model species. Additionally, we looked at whether light intensity determined the severity of effects of ALAN on sleep. We therefore exposed animals to artificial light inside the nest box (3lx) in December (winter) and February (pre-breeding season). Results from February were compared with the results from a previous study in February, using a lower light intensity (1.6lx). We found little evidence for a season-dependent response. Effects of ALAN hardly differed between high and low light intensity. ALAN disrupted sleep with as main effect a decrease in sleep duration (≈–40min) as animals woke up earlier (≈–24min). However, compared to a natural dark situation sleep onset was delayed by high but not by low light intensity of ALAN. Our study underlines earlier found disruptive effects of ALAN on sleep of free-living animals. While we found no conclusive evidence for seasonal or light intensity-dependent effects of ALAN, additional experimental work using lower light intensities might show such differences. Examining potential management options is crucial in mitigating disruptive effects of light pollution, which will be an important focus for future studies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:46:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 144 (2017)
       
  • Effects of orientation and differential reinforcement on transitive
           stimulus control
    • Authors: Micah Amd; João H. de Almeida; Júlio C. de Rose; Carolina C. Silveira; Henrique M. Pompermaier
      Pages: 58 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 144
      Author(s): Micah Amd, João H. de Almeida, Júlio C. de Rose, Carolina C. Silveira, Henrique M. Pompermaier
      The emergence of transitive relations between stimuli that had never appeared together is a key process underlying concept formation. An unresolved theoretical issue with respect to transitive relations has been to determine whether differential reinforcement of stimulus-stimulus (S-S) relations though matching-to-sample, or contiguous S-S correlations/pairings, is more critical for producing transitivity. The current study inquired whether simple environmental S-S pairings, versus differential reinforcement of S-S relations, versus environmental S-S pairings with an orientation requirement, produced the greatest instances of transitivity. 12 groups of participants were parsed into one of four procedures (matching-to-sample, stimulus-paring, stimulus-pairing-w/response, stimulus-pairing-w/orientation) along one of three training structures (linear, many-to-one, one-to-many). All participants underwent a fixed number of training trials for establishing three, three-member stimulus sets (A1B1C1, A2B2C2, A3B3C3), followed by a single sorting test for AC transitivity. Our results demonstrate orienting towards environmental S-S pairings yield the greatest degree of transitivity. The effectivity of pairing procedures for establishing transitive relations, particularly when compared to matching-to-sample, can inform the development of educational interventions for individuals for whom the latter procedure (involving differential reinforcement) is ineffective.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.014
      Issue No: Vol. 144 (2017)
       
  • Avoiding escalation from play to aggression in adult male rats: The role
           of ultrasonic calls
    • Authors: Candace J. Burke; Theresa M. Kisko; Sergio M. Pellis; David R. Euston
      Pages: 72 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 144
      Author(s): Candace J. Burke, Theresa M. Kisko, Sergio M. Pellis, David R. Euston
      Play fighting is most commonly associated with juvenile animals, but in some species, including rats, it can continue into adulthood. Post-pubertal engagement in play fighting is often rougher and has an increased chance of escalation to aggression, making the use of play signals to regulate the encounter more critical. During play, both juvenile and adult rats emit many 50-kHz calls and some of these may function as play facilitating signals. In the present study, unfamiliar adult male rats were introduced in a neutral enclosure and their social interactions were recorded. While all pairs escalated their playful encounters to become rougher, only the pairs in which one member was devocalized escalated to serious biting. A Monte Carlo shuffling technique was used for the analysis of the correlations between the overt playful and aggressive actions performed and the types and frequencies of various 50-kHz calls that were emitted. The analysis revealed that lower frequency (20–30kHz) calls with a flat component maybe particularly critical for de-escalating encounters and so allowing play to continue. Moreover, coordinating calls reciprocally, with either the same call mimicked in close, temporal association or with complementary calls emitted by participants as they engage in complementary actions (e.g., attacking the nape, being attacked on the nape), appeared to be ways with which calls could be potentially used to avoid escalation to aggression and so sustain playful interactions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.014
      Issue No: Vol. 144 (2017)
       
  • Development of juvenile goitered gazelle social behavior during the hiding
           period
    • Authors: D.A. Blank; K. Ruckstuhl; W. Yang
      Pages: 82 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 144
      Author(s): D.A. Blank, K. Ruckstuhl, W. Yang
      In many ungulate species, social organization of adults is based on a linear dominance hierarchy, which in turn often positively correlates with age, body mass, and horn/antler size. In contrast to the social behavior of adults and specific mother-offspring interactions, the process of ungulate socialization in juveniles through contacts with other conspecifics is poorly understood, especially for hider species during their initial hiding period. Therefore, we investigated this process in goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa), which is a typical hiding species, and analyzed all contacts between fawns and other conspecifics, omitting mother-young interactions, which are different by nature from other contacts and demands separate consideration. We found that apart from mothers, fawns interacted most often with nonmaternal adult females, less with other fawns and least with adult males and sub-adults. The frequency of the fawns’ contacts with conspecifics other than their mother increased during May and early-June, reaching a maximum in late-June, when fawns had the most mobility and independence from their mothers. This frequency decreased in July, when fawns spent more time with their mothers and when they mostly followed the mother’s behavior. The interactions of adult males and sub-adults of both sexes with fawns were the most aggressive in character, involving frequent displays of butting and chasing. Aggressive interactions were fewer between adult females and fawns, while fawn-fawn interactions had least aggressive displays. The main cause of interactions between fawns and other conspecifics were attempts of these young gazelles to suckle from other adults and sub-adults, especially frequently from nonmaternal females. Only fawn-fawn contacts were not linked to suckling and seemed to relate mostly to the development of social behavior and dominance hierarchies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.013
      Issue No: Vol. 144 (2017)
       
  • Adduction of untested derived stimulus relations depends on environmental
           complexity
    • Authors: Sterling M. Rippy; Adam H. Doughty
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 143
      Author(s): Sterling M. Rippy, Adam H. Doughty
      The present research assessed adduction involving derived stimulus relations as a function of environmental complexity. In Group CA, four college students were trained with arbitrary-matching-to-sample discriminations that could have established four, 3-member stimulus classes. In Group EA, four other students were trained with discriminations that could have established four, 5-member classes. Neither group received derived-relations testing; instead, adduction was assessed immediately after the baseline discriminations were learned. The adduction assessment required participants to derive the untested CA (Group CA) or EA (Group EA) equivalence relations and combine them with their already learned math skills. All participants in Group CA showed above 90% accuracy during the adduction assessment, whereas only one of four Group EA participants responded in that manner. These results extend adduction to untested equivalence relations and clarify the environmental conditions under which such adduction is less likely to occur (i.e., with larger relational networks).

      PubDate: 2017-08-07T03:52:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.07.008
      Issue No: Vol. 143 (2017)
       
  • Transfer of function and prior derived-relations testing
    • Authors: Adam H. Doughty; Lauren Best
      Pages: 4 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 143
      Author(s): Adam H. Doughty, Lauren Best
      This experiment assessed transfer of function through equivalence relations with and without prior derived-stimulus-relations (DSR) testing. In a DSR-Testing Group, eight college students learned A-B and A–C discriminations in baseline. They then derived the B-C and C-B equivalence relations before being exposed to a transfer-of-function manipulation and test. Eight participants in a No-DSR Testing Group were exposed to the transfer-of-function manipulation and test immediately after learning the baseline discriminations (i.e., B-C and C-B testing were omitted). In the transfer-of-function manipulation, participants learned to respond differently in the presence of B1 and B2 to avoid money loss. In the transfer-of-function test, responding in the presence of C1 and C2 was measured in the absence of differential consequences. Transfer of function occurred reliably only in the DSR-Testing Group (i.e., participants responding to C1 and C2 in the manner they learned to respond to B1 and B2, respectively). These findings support the notion that prior DSR testing can be critical to observing transfer of function.

      PubDate: 2017-08-17T16:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.07.010
      Issue No: Vol. 143 (2017)
       
  • Object categorization by wild ranging birds—Winter feeder
           experiments
    • Authors: Nela Nováková; Petr Veselý; Roman Fuchs
      Pages: 7 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 143
      Author(s): Nela Nováková, Petr Veselý, Roman Fuchs
      The object categorization is only scarcely studied using untrained wild ranging animals and relevant stimuli. We tested the importance of the spatial position of features salient for categorization of a predator using wild ranging birds (titmice) visiting a winter feeder. As a relevant stimulus we used a dummy of a raptor, the European sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), placed at the feeding location. This dummy was designed to be dismantled into three parts and rearranged with the head in the correct position, in the middle or at the bottom of the dummy. When the birds had the option of visiting an alternative feeder with a dummy pigeon, they preferred this option to visiting the feeder with the dummy sparrowhawk with the head in any of the three positions. When the birds had the option of visiting an alternative feeder with an un-rearranged dummy sparrowhawk, they visited both feeders equally often, and very scarcely. This suggests that the titmice considered all of the sparrowhawk modifications as being dangerous, and equally dangerous as the un-rearranged sparrowhawk. The position of the head was not the most important cue for categorization. The presence of the key features was probably sufficient for categorization, and their mutual spatial position was of lower importance.

      PubDate: 2017-08-17T16:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 143 (2017)
       
  • Seasonal changes in activity patterns of Japanese flying squirrel Pteromys
           momonga
    • Authors: Kei K. Suzuki; Motokazu Ando
      Pages: 13 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Kei K. Suzuki, Motokazu Ando
      Seasonal changes of activity patterns are an important survival strategy for several species. Seasonal changes in the activity patterns of Japanese flying squirrels (Pteromys momonga) were studied at Daibosatsu Mountain on Honshu Island, Japan from 2 June to 20 November 2007 and 11 April to 14 November 2008, to discuss their survival strategy based on the change. Activity patterns were assessed using long-term sensor camera traps at 214 sites for 14 months of a 2-year period. The cameras were placed for a total of 7,317 camera trap nights over which total of 90 photographs of this species were collected from 22 of the 214 sites. Although distinct nocturnal activity was detected throughout the study period, activity patterns differed between temperate (June–September) and cold (April, May, October, and November) seasons. So, activity peaks were found to be bimodal during the temperate seasons and trimodal during the cold seasons. It is possible that the squirrels reduce their activity times per bout during the cold seasons to reduce energy loss arising from prolonged exposure to cold temperatures, as a survival strategy.

      PubDate: 2017-08-17T16:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 143 (2017)
       
  • Olfactory discrimination and memory deficits in the Flinders Sensitive
           Line rodent model of depression
    • Authors: A. Cook; L.-M. Pfeiffer; S. Thiele; V.A. Coenen; M.D. Döbrössy
      Pages: 25 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): A. Cook, L.-M. Pfeiffer, S. Thiele, V.A. Coenen, M.D. Döbrössy
      Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with broad symptomatic manifestations. The current study examined, for the first time, olfactory memory and discrimination in the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rodent model of depression. Male FSL rats and controls were trained on an Olfactory Discrimination (OD) and a Social Interaction (SI) test. On the OD test, the FSL and controls performed similarly at the shortest inter-trial interval (5min), however, with extended delay of 30min, the FSLs had a recall and odor discrimination deficit. At the longest delay (60min) both groups performed poorly. The FSL rats i.) had a deficit in olfactory discrimination suggesting impairment in olfactory memory and recall; ii.) were less likely to socialize with unfamiliar rats. The data suggests that FSL animals have an impaired olfactory information processing capacity.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 143 (2017)
       
  • Vocal similarity in long-distance and short-distance vocalizations in
           raven pairs (Corvus corax) in captivity
    • Authors: Eva Maria Luef; Andries Ter Maat; Simone Pika
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Eva Maria Luef, Andries Ter Maat, Simone Pika
      Vocal interactions in many birds are characterized by imitation or the matching of vocalizations whereby one individual makes its vocalizations more similar to those of a conspecific. This behaviour is aided by vocal learning, which allows birds to change the vocalizations already in their repertoires, or to add new ones. The majority of studies on vocal similarity have been focussing on the songs of birds rather than their calls, with evidence for vocal similarity in calls being rather scarce. Here, we investigated whether ravens make their calls acoustically similar to one another by analysing the extent to which short- and long-distance calls of their vocal repertoires exhibited vocal similarity. Our results showed that long-distance calls, but not short-distance calls, are highly similar between pair partners. This effect may be explained by the different functions underlying short- and long-distance communication in ravens, with vocal similarity possibly being scaffolded by specific social matrices such as pair-bonds and/or strong social relationships.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T13:47:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.013
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of the behavioral characteristics of the mdx mouse model of
           duchenne muscular dystrophy through operant conditioning procedures
    • Authors: Matthew Lewon; Christina M. Peters; Pam M. Van Ry; Dean J. Burkin; Kenneth W. Hunter; Linda J. Hayes
      Pages: 8 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 142
      Author(s): Matthew Lewon, Christina M. Peters, Pam M. Van Ry, Dean J. Burkin, Kenneth W. Hunter, Linda J. Hayes
      The mdx mouse is an important nonhuman model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) research. Characterizing the behavioral traits of the strain relative to congenic wild-type (WT) mice may enhance our understanding of the cognitive deficits observed in some humans with DMD and contribute to treatment development and evaluation. In this paper we report the results of a number of experiments comparing the behavior of mdx to WT mice in operant conditioning procedures designed to assess learning and memory. We found that mdx outperformed WT in all learning and memory tasks involving food reinforcement, and this appeared to be related to the differential effects of the food deprivation motivating operation on mdx mice. Conversely, WT outperformed mdx in an escape/avoidance learning task. These results suggest motivational differences between the strains and demonstrate the potential utility of operant conditioning procedures in the assessment of the behavioral characteristics of the mdx mouse.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T02:42:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.012
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
       
  • Reversal learning and resurgence of operant behavior in zebrafish (Danio
           rerio)
    • Authors: Toshikazu Kuroda; Yuto Mizutani; Carlos R.X. Cançado; Christopher A. Podlesnik
      Pages: 79 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 142
      Author(s): Toshikazu Kuroda, Yuto Mizutani, Carlos R.X. Cançado, Christopher A. Podlesnik
      Zebrafish are used extensively as vertebrate animal models in biomedical research for having such features as a fully sequenced genome and transparent embryo. Yet, operant-conditioning studies with this species are scarce. The present study investigated reversal learning and resurgence of operant behavior in zebrafish. A target response (approaching a sensor) was reinforced in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the target response was extinguished while reinforcing an alternative response (approaching a different sensor). In Phase 3, extinction was in effect for the target and alternative responses. Reversal learning was demonstrated when responding tracked contingency changes between Phases 1 and 2. Moreover, resurgence occurred in 10 of 13 fish in Phase 3: Target response rates increased transiently and exceeded rates of an unreinforced control response. The present study provides the first evidence with zebrafish supporting reversal learning between discrete operant responses and a laboratory model of relapse. These findings open the possibility to assessing genetic influences of operant behavior generally and in models of relapse (e.g., resurgence, renewal, reinstatement).

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
       
  • Identifying individual male reproductive consistency in Drosophila
           melanogaster: The importance of controlling female behaviour
    • Authors: Jesse Balaban-Feld; Thomas J. Valone
      Pages: 84 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 142
      Author(s): Jesse Balaban-Feld, Thomas J. Valone
      Work on the repeatability of reproductive behaviour has mainly focused on the consistency of female preferences. We characterised the consistency of individual male Drosophila melanogaster reproductive behaviour in two experiments. In the first experiment, we allowed males to interact with a pair of live females that differed in body size. We then controlled female behaviour in a second experiment by examining the courtship behaviour of individual males interacting with a pair of decapitated females that varied in body size. In both experiments, we examined the consistency of individual male reproductive behaviour across two repeated trials on the same day. Males did not exhibit a courtship preference for the larger female in either experiment, but, in experiment 1, males did exhibit post-copulatory choice by copulating for longer durations with the large female, and males that mated with the same type of female in both trials exhibited repeatable behaviour. In general, we found weak evidence of consistent male courtship behaviour in the presence of behaving females. However, when female behaviour was controlled in experiment 2, we found that male courtship behaviour was highly repeatable. These results indicate that individual male D. melanogaster exhibit consistent reproductive behaviour and demonstrate the importance of controlling female behaviour when attempting to characterise the repeatability of male reproductive behaviour.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
       
  • Can the way pigs are handled alter behavioural and physiological measures
           of affective state'
    • Authors: Ricard Carreras; Laura Arroyo; Eva Mainau; Daniel Valent; Anna Bassols; Antoni Dalmau; Luigi Faucitano; Xavier Manteca; Antonio Velarde
      Pages: 91 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 142
      Author(s): Ricard Carreras, Laura Arroyo, Eva Mainau, Daniel Valent, Anna Bassols, Antoni Dalmau, Luigi Faucitano, Xavier Manteca, Antonio Velarde
      Research on human-animal relationship in animal production has been mainly focused on its effect on stress, productivity and meat quality. Only few studies have assessed its effects on the animals’ affective state. In the present study, the influence of positive and negative handling (pH and NH, respectively) on affective state and fear as assessed by the cognitive bias test, the novel object test and the defence cascade test was studied in 56 pigs. Serum, saliva and hair were sampled during the study for the analysis of cortisol concentration. Results showed no differences between pH and NH pigs in the behavioural tests, which may be either due to the lack of previous handling effect on the test results, the lack of validity or the low sensitivity of these tests or a combination of them. Moreover, no differences were found in cortisol concentrations between handling groups. However, correlations between tests were found (p< 0.05) suggesting that there are individual factors such as the fear level, the motivation or the coping style, that have a similar effect on the response to these tests. Moreover, pigs who were more fearful had higher (r =0.37; p =0.014) levels of serum cortisol at slaughter.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T06:52:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.06.005
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
       
  • Incentive salience attribution is not the sole determinant of suboptimal
           choice in rats: Conditioned inhibition matters
    • Authors: Montserrat Martínez; Rodrigo Alba; William Rodríguez; Vladimir Orduña
      Pages: 99 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 142
      Author(s): Montserrat Martínez, Rodrigo Alba, William Rodríguez, Vladimir Orduña
      Previous research has identified clear differences between pigeons and rats in the suboptimal choice procedure. Pigeons behave suboptimally, preferring an alternative with discriminative stimuli and a smaller probability of reinforcement, over another with a higher probability of reinforcement, but without discriminative stimuli. In contrast, rats behave optimally showing the opposite preference. It has been proposed that these dissimilarities are consequence of a higher sensitivity to conditioned inhibition in rats than in pigeons. Alternatively, recent research suggests that differences in optimality can be accounted for by a differential incentive salience of the stimuli employed as discriminative stimuli, and that both species are suboptimal when such stimuli have high incentive salience; specifically, rats were found to be suboptimal when levers were used as discriminative stimuli. However, in the evaluation of this hypothesis, a conditioned inhibitor was not employed. In the present report, eight rats were exposed to a choice procedure that integrated both variables discussed above: a conditioned inhibitor was associated with the discriminative alternative and the stimuli had high incentive salience. A clear preference for the optimal alternative was found, suggesting that the conditioned inhibitor had a considerable impact on rats’ preference, and that species-differences remain even in procedures in which the discriminative stimuli have incentive salience.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T03:28:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.06.012
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
       
  • Resurgence of response duration in human participants
    • Authors: Rodrigo Benavides; Rogelio Escobar
      Pages: 106 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 142
      Author(s): Rodrigo Benavides, Rogelio Escobar
      Previously reinforced responses can reappear when reinforcement is withdrawn from current responding. This is known as resurgence. Although resurgence of response topography, spacing, and patterns over time has been demonstrated, there is no evidence of resurgence of response duration. This experiment explored resurgence of response duration in humans. In Phase 1 a multiple schedule of reinforcement with two components was used. In each component a chained variable-interval 30s, variable-ratio 3 schedule was implemented. In the terminal link of the chained schedule, response durations between 0.1 and 0.5s were reinforced during one component, and between 2 and 8s in the other component. In Phase 2, response requirement during the terminal link of the chained schedule was inverted between components relative to Phase 1. In Phase 3 the chained schedule was changed to a variable-interval 30-s, extinction 30s. Resurgence of the durations trained during Phase 1 was observed. It was concluded that duration is a response dimension that reappears during extinction.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T03:28:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.06.010
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
       
  • Active and passive responses to catnip (Nepeta cataria) are affected by
           age, sex and early gonadectomy in male and female cats
    • Authors: Luz Teresa Espín-Iturbe; Bernardo A. López Yañez; Apolo Carrasco García; Rodolfo Canseco-Sedano; Maribel Vázquez-Hernández; Genaro A. Coria-Avila
      Pages: 110 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 142
      Author(s): Luz Teresa Espín-Iturbe, Bernardo A. López Yañez, Apolo Carrasco García, Rodolfo Canseco-Sedano, Maribel Vázquez-Hernández, Genaro A. Coria-Avila
      Catnip (Nepeta cataria) is a popular plant among cat owners because in about 60% of felids elicits active behaviors such as rolling over, grooming, motor activity and vocalizations. Herein, we assessed the display of active but also passive responses, such as time in sphinx-like position, and consequently hypothesized that 100% of cats respond to catnip. Accordingly, sixty domestic cats of different age (infant, juvenile, adults), sex (males, females) and gonadal status (early gonadectomized, gonadally intact) were placed in a cylindrical chamber (1.20×1.40m) during 5min and then exposed to 500mg of dehydrated catnip for another 5min. Behaviors were videorecorded and scored. Results indicated that about 20% of the cats (adults and juvenile only) displayed active behaviors (i.e. rolling over), whereas 80% displayed passive responses at any age (sphinx-like position, decreased frequency in vocalizations, and decreased motor activity). These results suggest that all cats respond to catnip but they express it actively, passively or with a combination of both types of responses, which mainly depends on age and sex, and early gonadectomy to a much less extent. We discuss the possible implications of brain maturation on this dichotomy and speculate on the role of opioidergic system on the catnip responses.

      PubDate: 2017-07-22T03:42:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.06.008
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
       
  • Fish adjust aggressive behavior to audience size with limited information
           on bystanders’ fighting ability
    • Authors: Ludmilla do Nascimento Falsarella; Manuela Lombardi Brandão; Eliane Gonçalves-de-Freitas
      Pages: 116 - 118
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 142
      Author(s): Ludmilla do Nascimento Falsarella, Manuela Lombardi Brandão, Eliane Gonçalves-de-Freitas
      In a social environment, individual behavior is modulated by surrounding observers (a phenomenon known as the audience effect). Here, we used mirrors to test the effect of two audience sizes (one virtual bystander vs. three virtual bystanders) on the aggressive behavior of a focal fish when bystander’s fighting ability was not clear (i.e., information about the ability of virtual conspecifics limited by their mirror images). We found that the Nile tilapia, a cichlid fish, responds to its image as an audience by reducing overt aggression in the presence of larger audience.

      PubDate: 2017-07-22T03:42:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
       
  • A comparison of resetting and nonresetting contingencies in
           progressive-duration schedules
    • Authors: Morgan Valois; Sara Peck; Tom Byrne
      Pages: 119 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 142
      Author(s): Morgan Valois, Sara Peck, Tom Byrne
      We compared two progressive schedules of reinforcement in which rats received access to sweetened condensed milk for depressing and holding down a response lever. Duration requirements increased after each reinforcer delivery in a manner similar to progressive-ratio schedules. Under one schedule, any response duration less than that required for reinforcement had no programmed consequences. Under the second schedule, the cumulative duration of all responses could meet the reinforcement criteria. Breaking points were consistently higher when all lever presses, regardless of duration, contributed to meeting the reinforcer requirements. Breaking points under both schedules increased when food deprivation was long enough to result in body-weight reductions, but the sensitivity of the schedules to brief periods of food deprivation was inconsistent. Under both schedules, food deprivation produced an increase in shorter durations, thus reducing the efficiency of responding.

      PubDate: 2017-07-22T03:42:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
       
  • Paintings discrimination by mice: Different strategies for different
           paintings
    • Authors: Shigeru Watanabe
      Pages: 126 - 130
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 142
      Author(s): Shigeru Watanabe
      C57BL/6 mice were trained on simultaneous discrimination of paintings with multiple exemplars, using an operant chamber with a touch screen. The number of exemplars was successively increased up to six. Those mice trained in Kandinsky/Mondrian discrimination showed improved learning and generalization, whereas those trained in Picasso/Renoir discrimination showed no improvements in learning or generalization. These results suggest category-like discrimination in the Kandinsky/Mondrian task, but item-to-item discrimination in the Picasso/Renoir task. Mice maintained their discriminative behavior in a pixelization test with various paintings; however, mice in the Picasso/Renoir task showed poor performance in a test that employed scrambling processing. These results do not indicate that discrimination strategy for any Kandinsky/Mondrian combinations differed from that for any Picasso/Monet combinations but suggest the mice employed different strategies of discrimination tasks depending upon stimuli.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-22T03:42:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
       
  • How bonobo communities deal with tannin rich fruits: Re-ingestion and
           other feeding processes
    • Authors: David Beaune; Gottfried Hohmann; Adeline Serckx; Tetsuya Sakamaki; Victor Narat; Barbara Fruth
      Pages: 131 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 142
      Author(s): David Beaune, Gottfried Hohmann, Adeline Serckx, Tetsuya Sakamaki, Victor Narat, Barbara Fruth
      This report describes bonobo (Pan paniscus, Hominidae) behavioral flexibility and inter-community differences with high tannin level fruit processing. In fruiting plants, tannin should discourage certain seed dispersers (direct deterrence hypothesis) such as primates. Based on data deriving from five study sites; LuiKotale, Lomako, Wamba, Malebo and Manzano, we compare consumption and dispersal of fruit species rich in tannins: Parinari and Musanga pulp was chewed across all communities probably for saliva tannin neutralisation. However, consumption of the fruits of Canarium schweinfurthii was observed in few communities only with differences in the food process: While bonobos of Wamba, Lomako and Manzano crunched and swallowed the pulp, bonobos of LuiKotale ingested entire fruits, extracted intact fruits from feces, and re-ingested their pulp, spitting the seed after a retention time of 24h in the digestive tract (i.e. endozoochory). We discuss potential functions of this peculiar feeding technique, likely to be a cultural behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-07-22T03:42:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.06.007
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
       
  • Length of time domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) spend smelling urine of
           gonadectomised and intact conspecifics
    • Authors: Anna C. Riach; Rachel Asquith; Melissa L.D. Fallon
      Pages: 138 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes, Volume 142
      Author(s): Anna C. Riach, Rachel Asquith, Melissa L.D. Fallon
      Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) use urine to communicate among themselves, however, it is unknown whether the gonadectomy (neutering or spaying) of a dog affects this communication in anyway. Urine samples from 10 intact and 10 gonadectomised, unfamiliar dogs were presented to 12 tester dogs to sniff under controlled conditions in a pilot study. The amount of time the tester dogs spent sniffing each sample was recorded. Overall, tester dogs were recorded smelling the urine of gonadectomised individuals for a longer time. In addition to the type of urine sample, the result is likely to have been influenced by the sex and status (gonadectomised or intact) of the tester dogs. The observed increase in the length of time spent sniffing urine from gonadectomised individuals could be explained by the tester dogs experiencing more difficulty in gaining information from the urine or facing more confusion while analysing the urine compared to the intact urine they have evolved to smell.

      PubDate: 2017-07-22T03:42:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.06.009
      Issue No: Vol. 142 (2017)
       
  • Sexual behavior in ladybird beetles: sex with lights on and a twist for
           Tenuisvalvae notata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
    • Authors: Elisabete A. dos Santos; Christian S.A. Silva-Torres; Paulo R.R. Barbosa; Jorge B. Torres; Maria C.B. Moraes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Elisabete A. dos Santos, Christian S.A. Silva-Torres, Paulo R.R. Barbosa, Jorge B. Torres, Maria C.B. Moraes
      The ladybird beetle Tenuisvalvae notata is an important predator of mealybugs (Pseudococcidae); however, little is known about its reproductive behavior. Thus, in order to improve methods of its rearing, this work studied several aspects regarding the sexual behavior of T. notata. We investigated its sexual activity period, age of the first copulation, mating frequency over 24hours, and oviposition during a 30-day interval. Sexual activity of T. notata is diurnal with peak between 1100h and 1500h. Males need about 4days to first copulation, whereas females can mate at emergence. Adults mate 1.17±0.16–1.91±0.29 times over 24hours with an average duration of 84±19.70seconds (ranging from 27 to 130seconds) per mating. Females produced an average of 54±6.42–64±7.08 offspring over 30 days. An ethogram was also constructed to organize the events that occurred during copulation as follows: the male mounts the female, inserts the aedeagus, touches its back with palps and mandibles, and attempts to hold it simultaneously. The female can walk while copulating or remains motionless; the male retracts its aedeagus and twist on the females’ back before moving apart.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.006
       
  • Prior Commitment: Its Effect on Suboptimal Choice in a Gambling-Like Task
    • Authors: Thomas R. Zentall; Danielle M. Andrews; Jacob P. Case
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Thomas R. Zentall, Danielle M. Andrews, Jacob P. Case
      Animals choose suboptimally when provided with cues that signal whether reinforcement is coming or not. For example, pigeons do not prefer an alternative that always provides them with a signal for reinforcement over an alternative that provides them with a signal for reinforcement only half of the time and a signal for the absence of reinforcement the rest of the time. In the present research, we tested the hypothesis that if the results of the choice are delayed, pigeons will choose less suboptimally. We tested this hypothesis by forcing pigeons to wait following their choice, requiring them to complete a fixed-interval 20-s schedule prior to receiving the signals for reinforcement. In Experiment 1, we gave the pigeons a choice between (a) a 50% chance of receiving a signal for reinforcement or a 50% chance of receiving a signal for the absence of reinforcement (b) and a 100% chance of receiving a signal for reinforcement. When the signal for reinforcement was delayed, most of the pigeons chose optimally. When it was not delayed, most of the pigeons chose suboptimally. In Experiment 2, we gave the pigeons a choice between (a) a 25% chance of receiving a signal for reinforcement or a 75% chance of receiving a signal for nonreinforcement and (b) a 100% chance of receiving an unreliable signal for reinforcement (predicting reinforcement 75% of the time). When the signal was not delayed, the pigeons showed a strong tendency to choose suboptimally but they chose suboptimally much less when the signal was delayed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.008
       
  • Behavioral responses of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) to
           environmental variation in an Arctic estuary
    • Authors: Paul A. Anderson; Russell B. Poe; Laura A. Thompson; Nansen Weber; Tracy A. Romano
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Paul A. Anderson, Russell B. Poe, Laura A. Thompson, Nansen Weber, Tracy A. Romano
      Some Arctic estuaries serve as substrate rubbing sites for beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the summer, representing a specialized resource for the species. Understanding how environmental variation affects the species’ behavior is essential to management of these habitats in coming years as the climate changes. Spatiotemporal and environmental variables were recorded for behavioral observations, during which focal groups of whales in an estuary were video-recorded for enumeration and behavioral analysis. Multiple polynomial linear regression models were optimized to identify the effects of spatiotemporal and environmental conditions on group size, composition, and the frequency of behaviors being performed. Results suggest that belugas take advantage of environmental variation to express behaviors that 1) protect young, e.g., bringing calves close to shore during cloudier days, obscuring visualization from terrestrial predators; 2) avoid predation, e.g., rubbing against substrates at higher Beaufort sea states to obscure visualization, and resting during low tides while swimming on outgoing tides to avoid stranding; and 3) optimize bioenergetic resources, e.g., swimming during lower Beaufort sea states and clearer days. Predictive models like the ones presented in this study can inform conservation management strategies as environmental conditions change in future years.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.007
       
  • Optimal marine mammal welfare under human care: Current efforts and future
           directions
    • Authors: Sabrina Brando; Donald M. Broom; Cristina Acasuso-Rivero; Fay Clark
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Sabrina Brando, Donald M. Broom, Cristina Acasuso-Rivero, Fay Clark
      Marine mammals include cetaceans, pinnipeds, sirenians, sea otters and polar bears, many of which are charismatic and popular species commonly kept under human care in zoos and aquaria. However, in comparison with their fully terrestrial counterparts their welfare has been less intensively studied, and their partial or full reliance on the aquatic environment leads to unique welfare challenges. In this paper we attempt to collate and review the research undertaken thus far on marine mammal welfare, and identify the most important gaps in knowledge. We use ‘best practice case studies’ to highlight examples of research promoting optimal welfare, include suggestions for future directions of research efforts, and make recommendations to strive for optimal welfare, where it is currently lacking, above and beyond minimum legislation and guidelines. Our review of the current literature shows that recently there have been positive forward strides in marine mammal welfare assessment, but fundamental research is still required to validate positive and negative indicators of welfare in marine mammals. Across all marine mammals, more research is required on the dimensions and complexity of pools and land areas necessary for optimal welfare, and the impact of staff absence for most of the 24-hour day, as standard working hours are usually between 0900-1700.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.011
       
  • Introduction: The science and practice of optimal animal welfare
    • Authors: Terry L. Maple; Mollie A. Bloomsmith
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Terry L. Maple, Mollie A. Bloomsmith


      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.012
       
  • Environmental enrichment in the absence of wheel running produces
           beneficial behavioural and anti-oxidative effects in rats
    • Authors: F. Mármol; J. Sánchez; M.N. Torres; V.D. Chamizo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): F. Mármol, J. Sánchez, M.N. Torres, V.D. Chamizo
      The effects of early environmental enrichment (EE) when solving a simple spatial task in adult male rats were assessed. After weaning, rats were housed in pairs in enriched or standard cages (EE and control groups) for two and a half months. Then the rats were trained in a triangular-shaped pool to find a hidden platform whose location was defined in terms of two sources of information, a landmark outside the pool and a particular corner of the pool. As expected, enriched rats reached the platform faster than control animals. Enriched rats also performed better on a subsequent test trial without the platform with the geometry cue individually presented (in the absence of the landmark). Most importantly, the beneficial effects of the present protocol were obtained in the absence of wheel running. Additionally, the antioxidative effects in the hippocampus produced by the previous protocol are also shown.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T01:35:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.009
       
  • Quantity discrimination in canids: Dogs (Canis familiaris) and wolves
           (Canis lupus) compared
    • Authors: Miletto Petrazzini Maria Elena; Clive D.L. Wynne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Miletto Petrazzini Maria Elena, Clive D.L. Wynne
      Accumulating evidence indicates that animals are able to discriminate between quantities. Recent studies have shown that dogs’ and coyotes’ ability to discriminate between quantities of food items decreases with increasing numerical ratio. Conversely, wolves’ performance is not affected by numerical ratio. Cross-species comparisons are difficult because of differences in the methodologies employed, and hence it is still unclear whether domestication altered quantitative abilities in canids. Here we used the same procedure to compare pet dogs and wolves in a spontaneous food choice task. Subjects were presented with two quantities of food items and allowed to choose only one option. Four numerical contrasts of increasing difficulty (range 1-4) were used to assess the influence of numerical ratio on the performance of the two species. Dogs’ accuracy was affected by numerical ratio, while no ratio effect was observed in wolves. These results align with previous findings and reinforce the idea of different quantitative competences in dogs and wolves. Although we cannot exclude that other variables might have played a role in shaping quantitative abilities in these two species, our results might suggest that the interspecific differences here reported may have arisen as a result of domestication.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T02:42:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.003
       
  • GROUP SELECTION IN BEHAVIORAL EVOLUTION
    • Authors: Howard Rachlin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Howard Rachlin
      How may patterns of behavior change over an organism’s lifetime' The answer is that they evolve (behavioral evolution) as species evolve over generations (biological evolution). In biological evolution, under certain conditions, groups of cooperative organisms would be selected over groups of non-cooperative organisms, even when cooperation imposes a cost to individuals. Analogously, in behavioral evolution, patterns of acts may be selected even when each individual act in the pattern is costly. Although there is considerable debate among biologists whether the conditions for group selection are met in biological evolution, it is argued here that they are met in behavioral evolution (as well as in cultural evolution). The article shows how selection of patterns can explain the learning of self-control and altruism.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T02:42:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.005
       
  • Social learning in a maze' Contrasting individual performance among
           wild zebrafish when associated with trained and naïve conspecifics
    • Authors: Tamal Roy; Anuradha Bhat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Tamal Roy, Anuradha Bhat
      Social learning facilitates informed decision making about foraging, mating and anti-predatory tactics among animals. We investigated the occurrence of social learning through performance in a spatial task among wild-caught zebrafish. Individual fish (demonstrators) were trained through a novel food finding task in a maze for 8days. Demonstrators were paired with naïve individuals (observers) and subjected to trials through maze for 4days followed by removal of the demonstrators and further training of observers for 4 more days. Paired naïve individuals were subjected to trials through the maze in similar fashion separately and the performance of observers were compared with theirs. Our results showed that observers associated with knowledgeable conspecifics did not perform the task better than naïve-paired individuals. Performances across trials improved for both sets while number of mistakes committed increased indicating no learning. The presence of a demonstrator could have increased the observer’s activity, increasing the chances for the observer to come in contact with the stimulus. Performance of observers and naïve-paired fish were probably affected by social distraction. Sex and body-size of the dyads (demonstrator-observer pairs and naïve pairs) could also have interfered with information transfer among individuals.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T02:42:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.004
       
  • Behavioural responses of two-spotted spider mites induced by
           predator-borne and prey-borne cues
    • Authors: Enikő Gyuris; Erna Szép; Jenő Kontschán; Attila Hettyey; Zoltán Tóth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Enikő Gyuris, Erna Szép, Jenő Kontschán, Attila Hettyey, Zoltán Tóth
      Applying predatory mites as biological control agents is a well established method against spider mites which are major pests worldwide. Although antipredator responses can influence the outcome of predator-prey interactions, we have limited information about what cues spider mites use to adjust their behavioural antipredator responses. We experimentally exposed two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) to different predator-borne cues (using a specialist predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis, or a generalist predator, Amblyseius swirskii), conspecific prey-borne cues, or both, and measured locomotion and egg-laying activity. The reactions to predator species compared to each other manifested in reversed tendencies: spider mites increased their locomotion activity in the presence of P. persimilis, whereas they decreased it when exposed to A. swirskii. The strongest response was triggered by the presence of a killed conspecific: focal spider mites decreased their locomotion activity compared to the control group. Oviposition activity was not affected by either treatment. Our results point out that spider mites may change their behaviour in response to predators, and also to the presence of killed conspecifics, but these effects were not enhanced when both types of cues were present. The effect of social contacts among prey conspecifics on predator-induced behavioural defences is discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:46:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.002
       
  • Larviculture of a carnivorous freshwater catfish, Lophiosilurus alexandri,
           screened by personality type
    • Authors: Isabela F.Araújo Torres; Gustavo S. da C. Júlio; Luis Gustavo Figueiredo; Natália L.C. de Lima; Ana Paula N. Soares; Ronald K. Luz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Isabela F.Araújo Torres, Gustavo S. da C. Júlio, Luis Gustavo Figueiredo, Natália L.C. de Lima, Ana Paula N. Soares, Ronald K. Luz
      Considering that each personality type in animals presents distinct physiological and behavioural responses, this study evaluated the efficiency of the Novel Environment test to classify larvae of Lophiosilurus alexandri into bold and shy individuals, which were then investigated for growth, cannibalism and mortality in larviculture of pure and mixed groups. Larvae with an average weight of 24.0±1.7mg and length of 14.1±0.4mm, were subjected to a Novel Environment test to classify their personality type (bold and shy larvae). After the larvae were classified according to personality type, they were subjected to larviculture for 15 days. Three treatments were tested: only bold larvae, only shy larvae, and a mixed treatment (bold larvae+shy larvae) at a density for 16 larvae/L, which were fed 3 times a day with Artemia nauplii. After larviculture, there were no differences in the final lengths of larvae of the bold, shy, and mixed treatments (26.9±0.76mm, 26.7±1.00mm, and 26.8±1.24mm, respectively); however, shy larvae possessed weighed less (0.22±0.01g) than the bold and mixed treatments, which did not differ significantly (0.25±0.02g and 0.27±0.02g, respectively). The bold and mixed treatments had the highest cannibalism rate (11.2±5.1% and 23.1±12.3%, respectively). Overall survival was lowest in the mixed treatment (62.5±13.0%), while that of the bold and shy treatments were similar (82.5±9.2% and 86.2±9.2%, respectively). The separation of L. alexandri larvae by traits can ensure a decrease in cannibalism and hence, more productive larviculture.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:46:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.09.001
       
  • Measuring Olfactory Processes in Mus musculus
    • Authors: Heather Schellinck
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Heather Schellinck
      This paper briefly reviews the literature that describes olfactory acuity and odor discrimination learning. The results of current studies that examined the role of neurotransmitters in odor discrimination learning are discussed as are those that investigated pattern recognition and models of human disease. The methodology associated with such work is also described and its role in creating disparate results assessed. Recommendations for increasing the reliability and validity of experiments so as to further our understanding of olfactory processes in both healthy mice and those modelling human disease are made throughout the paper.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:46:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.009
       
  • How unpredictable access to food increases the body fat of small
           passerines: A mechanistic approach
    • Authors: Patrick Anselme; Tobias Otto; Onur Güntürkün
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Patrick Anselme, Tobias Otto, Onur Güntürkün
      Unpredictable rewards increase the vigor of responses in autoshaping (a Pavlovian conditioning procedure) and are preferred to predictable rewards in free-choice tasks involving fixed- versus variable-delay schedules. The significance those behavioral properties may have in field conditions is currently unknown. However, it is noticeable that when exposed to unpredictable food, small passerines − such as robins, titmice, and starlings − get fatter than when food is abundant. In functional terms, fattening is viewed as an evolutionary strategy acting against the risk of starvation when food is in short supply. But this functional view does not explain the causal mechanisms by which small passerines come to be fatter under food uncertainty. Here, it is suggested that one of these causal mechanisms is that involved in behavioral invigoration and preference for food uncertainty in the laboratory. Based on a psychological theory of motivational changes under food uncertainty, we developed an integrative computational model to test this idea. We show that, for functional (adaptive) reasons, the excitatory property of reward unpredictability can underlie the propensity of wild birds to forage longer and/or more intensively in an unpredictable environment, with the consequence that they can put on more fat reserves.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:46:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.013
       
  • The effect of dietary antioxidants and exercise training on the escape
           performance of Southern Corroboree frogs
    • Authors: Emma P. McInerney; Phillip G. Byrne; Aimee J. Silla
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Emma P. McInerney, Phillip G. Byrne, Aimee J. Silla
      Escape-response behaviour is essential to ensure an individual’s survival during a predator attack, however, these behaviours are energetically costly and may cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can be reduced by supplementing an individual’s diet with exogenous antioxidants or through regular moderate exercise training, which stimulates the upregulation of endogenous antioxidants. Only two studies have tested the simultaneous effects of dietary antioxidant supplementation and exercise training on animal escape-response behaviour. The present study investigated the effects of dietary carotenoids and exercise training on the escape-response behaviour of Southern Corroboree frogs. Frogs were fed either a carotenoid-supplemented or unsupplemented diet and were exposed to repeated escape-response trials (training) for five consecutive weeks. Carotenoid-supplemented individuals outperformed unsupplemented individuals in initial hopping speed, length of the first hop and hopping distance, however, the performance of frogs in each treatment group became statistically similar after training. Within treatment groups, exercise training significantly improved the hopping speed of unsupplemented frogs, with speeds almost doubling between training weeks one and five. By contrast, exercise training did not significantly improve the hopping speed of carotenoid-supplemented frogs. Our results provide some of the first evidence that exercise training improves escape performance, and that dietary antioxidants may inhibit training-induced benefits.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T11:46:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.012
       
  • Pro-social behaviour of ants depends on their ecological niche − rescue
           actions in species from tropical and temperate regions
    • Authors: Krzysztof Miler; Bakhtiar Effendi Yahya; Marcin Czarnoleski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Krzysztof Miler, Bakhtiar Effendi Yahya, Marcin Czarnoleski
      Some ants display rescue behaviour, which is performed by nearby nestmates and directed at individuals in danger. Here, using several ant species, we demonstrate that rescue behaviour expression matches predicted occurrences based on certain aspects of species' ecological niches. Rescue occurred in sand-dwelling ants exposed both to co-occurring antlion larvae, representing the threat of being captured by a predator, and to nest cave-ins, representing the threat of being trapped in a collapsed nest chamber. Rescue also occurred in forest groundcover ants exposed to certain entrapment situations. However, rescue never occurred in species associated with open plains, which nest in hardened soils and forage largely on herbaceous plants, or in ants living in close mutualistic relationships with their host plants. In addition, because we tested each species in two types of tests, antlion larva capture tests and artificial entrapment tests, we highlight the importance of accounting for test context in studying rescue behaviour expression.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.010
       
  • Methods of Comparing Associative Models and an Application to
           Retrospective Revaluation
    • Authors: James E. Witnauer; Ryan Hutchings; Ralph R. Miller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): James E. Witnauer, Ryan Hutchings, Ralph R. Miller
      Contemporary theories of associative learning are increasingly complex, which necessitates the use of computational methods to reveal predictions of these models. We argue that comparisons across multiple models in terms of goodness of fit to empirical data from experiments often reveal more about the actual mechanisms of learning and behavior than do simulations of only a single model. Such comparisons are best made when the values of free parameters are discovered through some optimization procedure based on the specific data being fit (e.g., hill climbing), so that the comparisons hinge on the psychological mechanisms assumed by each model rather than being biased by using parameters that differ in quality across models with respect to the data being fit. Statistics like the Bayesian information criterion facilitate comparisons among models that have different numbers of free parameters. These issues are examined using retrospective revaluation data.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.004
       
  • The European wool-carder bee (Anthidium manicatum) eavesdrops on plant
           volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during trichome collection
    • Authors: Kelsey K. Graham; Steve Brown; Stephanie Clarke; Ursula S.R. Röse; Philip T. Starks
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Kelsey K. Graham, Steve Brown, Stephanie Clarke, Ursula S.R. Röse, Philip T. Starks
      The plant-pollinator relationship is generally considered mutualistic. This relationship is less clear, however, when pollinators also cause tissue damage. Some Megachilidae bees collect plant material for nests from the plants they pollinate. In this study, we examined the relationship between Anthidium manicatum, the European wool-carder bee, and the source of its preferred nesting material − Stachys byzantina, lamb’s ear. Female A. manicatum use their mandibles to trim trichomes from plants for nesting material (a behaviour dubbed “carding”). Using volatile organic compound (VOC) headspace analysis and behavioural observations, we explored (a) how carding effects S. byzantina and (b) how A. manicatum may choose specific S. byzantina plants. We found that removal of trichomes leads to a dissimilar VOC bouquet compared to intact leaves, with a significant increase in VOC detection following damage. A. manicatum also visit S. byzantina plants with trichomes removed at a greater frequency compared to plants with trichomes intact. Our data suggest that A. manicatum eavesdrop on VOCs produced by damaged plants, leading to more carding damage for individual plants due to increased detectability by A. manicatum. Accordingly, visitation by A. manicatum to S. byzantina may incur both a benefit (pollination) and cost (tissue damage) to the plant.

      PubDate: 2017-08-29T10:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.005
       
  • Smelling themselves: Dogs investigate their own odours longer when
           modified in an “olfactory mirror” test
    • Authors: Alexandra Horowitz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Alexandra Horowitz
      While domestic dogs, Canis familiaris, have been found to be skillful at social cognitive tasks and even some meta-cognitive tasks, they have not passed the test of mirror self-recognition (MSR). Acknowledging the motivational and sensory challenges that might hinder performance, even before the question of self-recognition is broached, this study creates and enacts a novel design extrapolated from the species' natural behaviour. Given dogs' use of olfactory signals in communication, this experiment presents dogs with various canisters for approach and investigation. Each holds an odorous stimulus: in the critical test, either an “olfactory mirror” of the subject − the dog's own urine − or one in which the odour stimulus is modified. By looking at subjects' investigation times of each canister, it is shown that dogs distinguish between the olfactory “image” of themselves when modified: investigating their own odour for longer when it had an additional odour accompanying it than when it did not. Such behaviour implies a recognition of the odour as being of or from “themselves." The ecological validity of this odour presentation is examined by presenting to the subjects odours of other known or unknown dogs: dogs spend longer investigating the odour of other dogs than their own odour. Finally, in a second experiment, subjects spent longer with the modified stimulus than with the modified odour by itself, indicating that novelty alone does not explain the dogs' behavior. This study translates the MSR study for a species whose primary sensory modality is olfaction, and finds both that natural sniffing behaviour can be replicated in the lab and that dogs show more investigative interest in their own odours when modified.

      PubDate: 2017-08-17T16:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.001
       
  • Effects of Extinction in Multiple Contexts on Renewal of Instrumental
           Responses
    • Authors: Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa; Javier Nieto; Metin Uengoer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa, Javier Nieto, Metin Uengoer
      In two experiments with rats, we investigated the effects of using multiple contexts during extinction on renewal of lever-pressing behavior. During the first phase of both experiments, rats were reinforced to press a lever for food in Context A. Then, responses underwent extinction. For half of the animals, extinction sessions were conducted in a single context, whereas the other half received extinction in three different contexts. In Experiment 1, we observed that extinction in multiple contexts eliminated ABC renewal, but had no detectable impact on ABA renewal. Experiment 2 revealed that conducting extended extinction training in multiple contexts attenuated ABA renewal. Theoretical and clinical implications of the present findings are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T21:34:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.06.003
       
  • EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE AND SOCIAL ISOLATION ON ANXIETY-RELATED
           BEHAVIORS IN TWO INBRED RAT STRAINS
    • Authors: F.G. Mazur; L.F.G. Oliveira; M.P. Cunha; A.L.S. Rodrigues; R.A.N. Pértile; L.F. Vendruscolo; G.S. Izídio
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): F.G. Mazur, L.F.G. Oliveira, M.P. Cunha, A.L.S. Rodrigues, R.A.N. Pértile, L.F. Vendruscolo, G.S. Izídio
      We investigated the effects of physical exercise (PE) on locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior in Lewis (LEW) and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) male rats. Rats received either four weeks of forced training, 5 days/week, on a treadmill (experiment 1) or were given 21days of free access to running wheels (experiment 2). We also tested the effects of social isolation (SI) (seven days of isolation − experiment 3) on behavior. In experiment 1, 20% of LEW rats and 63% of SHR rats completed the training protocol. PE significantly increased central and peripheral locomotion in the open field (OF) and entries into the open arms in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) in both strains. In experiment 2, the distance traveled by SHR rats on running wheels was significantly higher compared with LEW rats. PE on running wheels also increased the time spent in the center of the OF in SHR rats only. In experiment 3, SI decreased central and peripheral locomotion in the OF in both strains. In summary, forced PE on a treadmill reduced anxiety-like behavior and increased locomotion in male rats of both strains, whereas voluntary PE on running wheels decreased anxiety-like behavior in SHR rats only. SI decreased locomotion in both strains in the OF. This study suggests that spontaneous activity levels are genotype-dependent and the effects of PE depend on the type of exercise performed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T21:34:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.06.001
       
  • Female choice, male dominance and condition-related traits in the
           polygynous subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum
    • Authors: M.S. Fanjul; R.R. Zenuto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): M.S. Fanjul, R.R. Zenuto
      Ctenomys talarum is a solitary and highly territorial species in which dominant males aggressively deter other males and monopolize reproductive activity. Female preference for dominant males is not easy to assess due to coercive mating by males. Hence, we aimed to answer if behavioural dominance and several condition-related traits like testosterone and cortisol levels, endoparasite load, and hematocrit volume may affect female preference when they have the opportunity to exert it. We designed a laboratory experiment using wild-caught C. talarum and employed a combined approach involving behavioural observations and the measurements of parameters of physical condition. We staged dyadic encounters between males to determine dominance index and then analyzed female preference towards tethered males (n=15) or their odours (n=18). Male dominance did not affect female preferences when odours were presented. When two tethered males were offered, females preferred those with higher dominance index. Preference of females for dominant males would mainly represent indirect benefits. Females did not show preference for males in relation to any physiological trait evaluated. Dominance was found negatively related to cortisol levels, probably avoiding the glucocorticoids-related costs, and positively related to parasite diversity, since they could tolerate it without impairing their health.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T21:30:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.019
       
  • Flexibility in the social behavior of captive female capybaras (Mammalia,
           Rodentia)
    • Authors: Sérgio L.G. Nogueira-Filho; Pauliene C. Lopes; Djalma N. Ferreira; Selene S.C. Nogueira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Sérgio L.G. Nogueira-Filho, Pauliene C. Lopes, Djalma N. Ferreira, Selene S.C. Nogueira
      Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) lives in stable groups composed of adult males and females with their young. The species shows flexibility in social organization in response to short-term environmental changes, but apparently does not show flexibility in social behavior. To gain insights into mechanisms underlying changes in social relationships, we analyzed the social dominance hierarchy of five captive capybara groups, composed of four to 13 adult females kept in outdoor paddocks ranging from 400 to 4,500m2. In addition, we evaluated the effects of group size and space allowance on two complementary properties of social structure: linearity and steepness. Captive female capybaras exhibit a linear social dominance hierarchy. There was also more predictability in the dominance success– hierarchical steepness − in the dominance hierarchy with a decrease in the space per individual. This variability in response to changing circumstances shows flexibility in capybara’s social behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T14:01:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.018
       
  • Phenotype of a leaf beetle larva depends on host plant quality and
           previous test experience
    • Authors: Thorben Müller; Caroline Müller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Thorben Müller, Caroline Müller
      Phenotypic expressions of insects are strongly dependent on various external and internal factors, like diet or density and age or sex. However, environmental effects on the behavioural phenotype and repeatability are rather unexplored for holometabolous insects in their larval stage. We examined the effects of the food environment (young versus old cabbage leaves) and previous test experience on growth and behaviour of Phaedon cochleariae larvae. A more nutritious diet, i.e., young leaves, had beneficial consequences on larval growth. Contrary to findings on adults, the behaviour of larvae was neither consistent over time nor across contexts, thus larvae did not show personality. Furthermore, larval behaviour was shaped independent of the diet, pointing to a stage-dependent receptivity towards diet conditions in this species. Besides, larval activity was significantly influenced by former test experience, with naïve larvae being more active than previously tested larvae. In general, in insects memories in an olfactory or sexual behaviour context can lead to behavioural responses later in life. Mechanisms of memory-learning should be further explored in different contexts in insects. Overall, the present study reveals that growth-related traits are diet-dependent and that the activity of a holometabolous larva is shaped in dependence of its previous test experience.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T14:01:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.017
       
  • Mother-young Recognition In Goitered Gazelle During Hiding Period
    • Authors: D.A. Blank; W. Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): D.A. Blank, W. Yang
      The mother-young recognition process is crucial for the growth and survival of progeny. In “follower” ungulate species, vocal and visual cues have been found to play a leading role in the mother-young identification process from the first days postpartum, with olfactory cues also important in establishing the initial selective mother-young bond immediately after birth. In “hider” species, however, much less has been documented of mother-young recognition behaviors, especially in their natural habitat. In this paper, we investigated this process in goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa), a typical hider species, in its native environment in Kazakhstan. Over the course of our study period, we investigated the behaviors of 257 females with twins and 158 females with singles through visual observations. We found that within the first month after birth, when females spend only a short time with their young, mothers recognized their fawns using mostly olfactory cues, while vision was used to locate their hiding offspring. Fawns vocalized very rarely, producing only distress calls that did not seem intended for individual identification. Licking of young by their mothers was observed frequently, not only during the first week after birth, when this action was very important for fawn stimulation for a number of physiological functions, but for several weeks after (until one month of age), when licking lost its physiological importance and likely became more of a recognition procedure. Fawns did not recognize their mothers at all, either through vision or vocalizations, since during their first weeks after birth, they responded to any gazelle that approached their hiding area. By a month after birth, when mothers and fawns began to stay together for longer periods of time, their recognition process became more enhanced, and in addition to olfactory cues, the mother and her young began to use more and more visual cues for longer distance identification, as well as vocalizations for shorter distances. Similar dynamics are likely typical for most hiding species, although information for wild ungulates is still very limited, especially for those with strong hider behaviors.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T14:01:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.016
       
  • How stallions influence the dynamic of collective movements in two groups
           of domestic horses, from departure to arrival
    • Authors: Léa Briard; Jean-Louis Deneubourg; Odile Petit
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Léa Briard, Jean-Louis Deneubourg, Odile Petit
      The role of leader in polygynous species has been solely attributed to the male for some time, but recent studies shown decision making to be distributed within the group. However, the specific reproductive strategy and behavioural repertoire of males in polygynous species such as horses may mean that these individuals still have the potential to play a specific role during decision-making. To investigate this subject, we thoroughly studied the behaviour of two domestic stallions during collective movements of their group. We found that they initiated rarely and sometimes failed to recruit the entire group. When departing as followers, they did not accelerate the joining process. Both stallions preferentially occupied the rear position and exhibited numerous monitoring behaviours. Herding behaviours were performed by only one stallion and mostly occurred outside movement context. Finally, we removed this herding stallion from its group to evaluate how the group dynamic changed. As a result, half of the collective movements were five times slower and mares were more dispersed in comparison when the stallion was in the group. Overall, our results suggest that, the two stallions maintained their role of group monitors from departure to arrival. Their influence on the movement dynamic was indirect and did not play a specific role in the process of decision making.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T14:01:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.014
       
  • Female Brazilian whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus ocellifer) prefer males
           with high ultraviolet ornament reflectance
    • Authors: Carolina M.C.A. Lisboa; Katalin Bajer; Daniel M.A. Pessoa; Marc Huber; Gabriel C. Costa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017
      Source:Behavioural Processes
      Author(s): Carolina M.C.A. Lisboa, Katalin Bajer, Daniel M.A. Pessoa, Marc Huber, Gabriel C. Costa
      Conspicuous colouration is an important way of social communication in many taxa. The role of ultraviolet (UV) signals in intraspecific communication has only recently been studied in lizards, and there is not a general understanding of the adaptive role of UV colouration. Colour ornaments can signal male quality in mate choice and are therefore suitable for reliably predicting the outcome of female preference. Here, we tested the potential role of UV colouration in female spatial preference in a non-territorial teiid lizard, Cnemidophorus ocellifer. We experimentally manipulated the UV reflectance of size-matched male pairs and tested the effects of our treatment on females’ spatial distribution. We found that females associated with males of higher UV reflectance, suggesting that UV colour can be an important clue during mate preference decisions. Our results provide the first empirical evidence for the importance of UV colouration in female preference in a mutually ornamented lizard species.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T13:47:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2017.05.009
       
 
 
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