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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 873 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 394)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 171)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 210)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
At-Tajdid : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access  
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 121)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 127)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access  
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access  
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Escritos de Psicología : Psychological Writings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover Behaviour Research and Therapy
  [SJR: 2.306]   [H-I: 138]   [17 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0005-7967
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3034 journals]
  • Sudden gains in exposure therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • Authors: Lindsey M. Collins; Meredith E. Coles
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Lindsey M. Collins, Meredith E. Coles
      Prior research in the treatment of depression and anxiety has demonstrated that a sudden reduction in symptoms between two consecutive sessions (sudden gain) is related to lower post-treatment symptom severity (e.g. Hofmann, Schulz, Meuret, Moscovitch, & Suvak, 2006; Tang & DeRubeis, 1999). However, only one study has examined sudden gains in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). In that study, one-third of the patients with OCD experienced a sudden gain (I M Aderka et al., 2012). Further, patients who had a sudden gain had lower clinician-rated OCD symptom severity post-treatment (I M Aderka et al., 2012). In replication, the current study examined the frequency, characteristics, and clinical impact of sudden gains in 27 OCD patients during exposure and response prevention (ERP) therapy. Fifty two percent of patients experienced a sudden gain. The mean magnitude of a sudden gain represented, on average, 61.4% of total symptom reduction. Following treatment, individuals who had experienced a sudden gain were rated as less severe on the clinical global impression scale, but they did not experience a greater reduction in OCD symptoms (pre-to post-treatment) than those without a sudden gain. None of the pre-treatment characteristics tested were found to significantly predict whether a patient would have a sudden gain. Additional research examining predictors of, and patterns of, change in OCD symptoms is warranted.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T20:00:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2017)
  • What good are positive emotions for treatment? Trait positive emotionality
           predicts response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for anxiety
    • Authors: Charles T. Taylor; Sarah E. Knapp; Jessica A. Bomyea; Holly J. Ramsawh; Martin P. Paulus; Murray B. Stein
      Pages: 6 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 93
      Author(s): Charles T. Taylor, Sarah E. Knapp, Jessica A. Bomyea, Holly J. Ramsawh, Martin P. Paulus, Murray B. Stein
      Objective Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is empirically supported for the treatment of anxiety disorders; however, not all individuals achieve recovery following CBT. Positive emotions serve a number of functions that theoretically should facilitate response to CBT – they promote flexible patterns of information processing and assimilation of new information, encourage approach-oriented behavior, and speed physiological recovery from negative emotions. We conducted a secondary analysis of an existing clinical trial dataset to test the a priori hypothesis that individual differences in trait positive emotions would predict CBT response for anxiety. Method Participants meeting diagnostic criteria for panic disorder (n = 28) or generalized anxiety disorder (n = 31) completed 10 weekly individual CBT sessions. Trait positive emotionality was assessed at pre-treatment, and severity of anxiety symptoms and associated impairment was assessed throughout treatment. Results Participants who reported a greater propensity to experience positive emotions at pre-treatment displayed the largest reduction in anxiety symptoms as well as fewer symptoms following treatment. Positive emotions remained a robust predictor of change in symptoms when controlling for baseline depression severity. Conclusions Initial evidence supports the predictive value of trait positive emotions as a prognostic indicator for CBT outcome in a GAD and PD sample.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T20:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2017)
  • Enhanced action tendencies in obsessive-compulsive disorder: An ERP study
    • Authors: Adi Dayan; Andrea Berger; Gideon Emanuel Anholt
      Pages: 13 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 93
      Author(s): Adi Dayan, Andrea Berger, Gideon Emanuel Anholt
      Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by repeated thoughts and behaviors. This study explored the stages of motor response preparation that precede action performance or inhibition: We investigated whether OCD is related to enhanced action tendencies in response to external stimuli. Response preparation processes were assessed using the event-related potential (ERP) component of the readiness potential (RP). ERPs were recorded while 15 participants with OCD and 16 healthy controls performed a variation of the go/no-go task and the stop-signal task using schematic faces (angry and neutral). The OCD group presented with a greater RP slope gradient and amplitude over bilateral frontoparietal areas corresponding to the motor cortex. The amplitude effect was further enhanced under negative valence, compared to the neutral condition. Results support the hypothesis that stronger readiness for action might characterize OCD, especially in the presence of threatening stimuli. These findings – specifically correlated with OCD and not with anxiety and depression symptoms – may underlie habitual behavior and embodiment tendencies in OCD. This study suggests that early stages of motor preparation might be important to the etiology and maintenance of OCD.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T20:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2017)
  • A novel perceptual discrimination training task: Reducing fear
           overgeneralization in the context of fear learning
    • Authors: Rivkah Ginat-Frolich; Zohar Klein; Omer Katz; Tomer Shechner
      Pages: 29 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 93
      Author(s): Rivkah Ginat-Frolich, Zohar Klein, Omer Katz, Tomer Shechner
      Generalization is an adaptive learning mechanism, but it can be maladaptive when it occurs in excess. A novel perceptual discrimination training task was therefore designed to moderate fear overgeneralization. We hypothesized that improvement in basic perceptual discrimination would translate into lower fear overgeneralization in affective cues. Seventy adults completed a fear-conditioning task prior to being allocated into training or placebo groups. Predesignated geometric shape pairs were constructed for the training task. A target shape from each pair was presented. Thereafter, participants in the training group were shown both shapes and asked to identify the image that differed from the target. Placebo task participants only indicated the location of each shape on the screen. All participants then viewed new geometric pairs and indicated whether they were identical or different. Finally, participants completed a fear generalization test consisting of perceptual morphs ranging from the CS + to the CS-. Fear-conditioning was observed through physiological and behavioural measures. Furthermore, the training group performed better than the placebo group on the assessment task and exhibited decreased fear generalization in response to threat/safety cues. The findings offer evidence for the effectiveness of the novel discrimination training task, setting the stage for future research with clinical populations.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T20:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2017)
  • Brain responses to biological motion predict treatment outcome in young
           adults with autism receiving Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training:
           Preliminary findings
    • Authors: Y.J. Daniel Yang; Tandra Allen; Sebiha M. Abdullahi; Kevin A. Pelphrey; Fred R. Volkmar; Sandra B. Chapman
      Pages: 55 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 93
      Author(s): Y.J. Daniel Yang, Tandra Allen, Sebiha M. Abdullahi, Kevin A. Pelphrey, Fred R. Volkmar, Sandra B. Chapman
      Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by remarkable heterogeneity in social, communication, and behavioral deficits, creating a major barrier in identifying effective treatments for a given individual with ASD. To facilitate precision medicine in ASD, we utilized a well-validated biological motion neuroimaging task to identify pretreatment biomarkers that can accurately forecast the response to an evidence-based behavioral treatment, Virtual Reality-Social Cognition Training (VR-SCT). In a preliminary sample of 17 young adults with high-functioning ASD, we identified neural predictors of change in emotion recognition after VR-SCT. The predictors were characterized by the pretreatment brain activations to biological vs. scrambled motion in the neural circuits that support (a) language comprehension and interpretation of incongruent auditory emotions and prosody, and (b) processing socio-emotional experience and interpersonal affective information, as well as emotional regulation. The predictive value of the findings for individual adults with ASD was supported by regression-based multivariate pattern analyses with cross validation. To our knowledge, this is the first pilot study that shows neuroimaging-based predictive biomarkers for treatment effectiveness in adults with ASD. The findings have potentially far-reaching implications for developing more precise and effective treatments for ASD.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T12:16:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2017)
  • Lights … action: Comparison of trauma films for use in the trauma
           film paradigm
    • Authors: Inna Arnaudova; Muriel A. Hagenaars
      Pages: 67 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 93
      Author(s): Inna Arnaudova, Muriel A. Hagenaars
      Affective films are often used in emotion research and negative films are frequently used as an analogue for trauma (trauma film paradigm). However, different films are used with possibly distinct consequences. We aimed to investigate specific effects of four negative films covering distinct themes (physical, sexual, traffic and food), and tested neutral and positive films with matching content. Self-reported emotional responses and heart rate during the films were examined (immediate responses) as well as intrusions of the films in the subsequent week (delayed responses). Within each theme, negative films were rated as more unpleasant than the positive and neutral counterparts. They also evoked more negative emotions and more intrusive memories. Across themes, the four negative films did not differ in terms of valence and arousal, but clearly differed on immediate (e.g., disgust, embarrassment, heart rate) and delayed (intrusions) effects. Thus, we urge researchers to carefully select negative films for their studies, as different films seem to evoke distinct emotional responses. In addition, using positive films within the same themes is recommended in order to control for effects of arousal. In general, the specific film material should be considered when comparing effects across studies.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T12:16:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2017)
  • Corrigendum to “Examining cognitive examining cognitive processes and
    • Authors: Jennifer P. Read; Rachel L. Bachrach; Jeffrey D. Wardell; Scott F. Coffey
      First page: 123
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 93
      Author(s): Jennifer P. Read, Rachel L. Bachrach, Jeffrey D. Wardell, Scott F. Coffey

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T04:14:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2017)
  • Corrigendum to “Patients' in-session experiences and symptom change:
           Session-to-session effects on a within- and between-patient level”
           [Behav. Res. Ther. 90 (2017) 58–66]
    • Authors: Julian A. Rubel; David Rosenbaum; Wolfgang Lutz
      Pages: 58 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 93
      Author(s): Julian A. Rubel, David Rosenbaum, Wolfgang Lutz

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T04:14:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2016.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2017)
  • Efficacy of imagery rescripting and imaginal exposure for nightmares: A
           randomized wait-list controlled trial
    • Authors: Anna E. Kunze; Arnoud Arntz; Nexhmedin Morina; Merel Kindt; Jaap Lancee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Anna E. Kunze, Arnoud Arntz, Nexhmedin Morina, Merel Kindt, Jaap Lancee
      Nightmares can be effectively treated with cognitive-behavioral therapies. Though it remains elusive which therapeutic elements are responsible for the beneficial effects on nightmare symptoms, imagery rescripting (IR) and imaginal exposure (IE) are commonly identified as active treatment components of nightmare therapies. With this randomized controlled trial, we compared IR and IE as individual treatments to a wait-list (WL) condition to determine whether these particular therapeutic elements reduced nightmare symptoms. For this purpose, 104 patients with a primary DSM-5 diagnosis of nightmare disorder were randomly assigned to three weekly individual sessions of either IR or IE, or WL. Results showed that compared to WL, both interventions effectively reduced nightmare frequency (Δd IR-WL = 0.74; Δd IE-WL = 0.70) and distress (Δd IR-WL = 0.98; Δd IE-WL = 1.35) in a sample that predominantly consisted of idiopathic nightmare sufferers. The effects of IR and IE were comparable to those observed for other psychological nightmare treatments. Initial effects at post-treatment were sustained at 3- and 6-month follow-up, indicating that IR and IE both seem to be efficacious treatment components of nightmare therapies. Additional research is needed to directly compare IR and IE among both idiographic and posttraumatic nightmare sufferers with respect to treatment expectancy, acceptability, and effectiveness.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T07:18:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.005
  • Working with parents to treat anxiety-disordered children: A proof of
           concept RCT evaluating Fear-less Triple P
    • Authors: Vanessa E. Cobham; Ania Filus; Matthew R. Sanders
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Vanessa E. Cobham, Ania Filus, Matthew R. Sanders
      Little is known about the efficacy of parent-only interventions and the maintenance of gains over time with anxiety-disordered children and adolescents. The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a 6-session parent-focused intervention (Fear-less Triple P) in reducing children's anxiety symptomatology. The parents of 61 anxiety-disordered children (7–14 years) were randomly assigned to either the 6-session parent-only group CBT intervention or a wait-list control (WL) group. Diagnostic and questionnaire measures were administered at post-treatment; as well as 3-, 6- and 12 months following the completion of treatment. Families in the WL group were re-assessed after 6 weeks (the duration of the active intervention) and were then offered the intervention. The parent-only intervention produced superior outcomes for children on diagnostic and questionnaire measures. The percentages of children free of any anxiety diagnosis following the intervention were 38.7% (post-treatment); 58.6% (3-mth); 69.2% (6-mth); and 84% (12-mth). At the post-treatment assessment point, 3.4% of children in the WL group were free of any anxiety diagnosis. Mother and child questionnaire measures demonstrated gains from pre to post-treatment that were maintained over time. This proof of concept study suggests that the brief, parent-only intervention evaluated is an efficacious treatment approach for child anxiety disorders. A parent-only, group CBT intervention such as the one described here offers a cost-effective, low intensity alternative to traditional child-focused interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T07:16:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.004
  • The behavioral economics of social anxiety disorder reveal a robust effect
           for interpersonal traits
    • Authors: Thomas L. Rodebaugh; Natasha A. Tonge; Jaclyn S. Weisman; Michelle H. Lim; Katya C. Fernandez; Ryan Bogdan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Thomas L. Rodebaugh, Natasha A. Tonge, Jaclyn S. Weisman, Michelle H. Lim, Katya C. Fernandez, Ryan Bogdan
      Recent evidence suggests that reduced generosity among individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) in behavioral economic tasks may result from constraint in changing behavior according to interpersonal contingencies. That is, people with SAD may be slower to be more generous when the situation warrants. Conversely, more global effects on generosity may be related to interpersonal vindictiveness, a dimension only somewhat related to SAD. A total of 133 participants, 73 with the generalized form of SAD, completed self-report instruments and a behavioral economic task with simulated interpersonal (friend, romantic partner, stranger) interactions. In a separate visit, friends (n = 88) also came to the lab and rated participants on vindictiveness. Interpersonal vindictiveness was associated with reduced initial and overall giving to simulated friends. SAD predicted a lack of increased giving to a simulated friend, and attenuated an increase in giving to simulated known versus unknown players compared to participants without SAD. Friend-reported vindictiveness predicted in the same direction as diagnosis. However, the findings for SAD were less robust than those for vindictiveness. SAD is perhaps weakly related to behavioral constraint in economic tasks that simulate interpersonal interactions, whereas vindictiveness is strongly related to lower overall generosity as well as (via friend report) behavioral constraint. Further study is needed to better characterize the construct of vindictiveness. Our findings dovetail with the suggestion that SAD is related to impairment in the proposed affiliation and attachment system, but further suggest that direct study of that system may be more fruitful than focusing on disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T07:16:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.003
  • Emotional dysregulation in borderline personality disorder and its
           influence on communication behavior and feelings in romantic relationships
    • Authors: Annemarie Miano; Luna Grosselli; Stefan Roepke; Isabel Dziobek
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Annemarie Miano, Luna Grosselli, Stefan Roepke, Isabel Dziobek
      Dysfunction in romantic relationships constitutes one of the most burdensome symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The aim of this study was to ascertain how emotional dysregulation affects behavior and relationship related feelings of women with BPD in threatening conversations with their own romantic partner. Thirty couples in which the women were diagnosed with BPD and 34 healthy control (HC) couples were videotaped while discussing personally threatening (i.e., personal failure) and relationship-threatening (i.e., separation) themes. Third party raters evaluated stress and communication behaviors during the conversations. Relationship related feelings, i.e., closeness and relationship insecurity, were assessed by self-report. Overall, women with BPD were rated as more stressed in threatening situations than HC women and their partners, but not more stressed in relationship-threatening than personally threatening situations. A heightened stress response of women with BPD predicted more negative and less positive communication behaviors and a stronger decline in self-rated closeness to the partner compared to HC. Stress-induced increases in relationship insecurity were specific to women with BPD. Our results highlight the central role of emotional dysregulation in interpersonal dysfunctions of persons with BPD and the need to address individual emotion regulation strategies more explicitly in dyadic contexts.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T07:16:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.002
  • Trajectories of social anxiety, cognitive reappraisal, and mindfulness
           during an RCT of CBGT versus MBSR for social anxiety disorder
    • Authors: Philippe R. Goldin; Amanda S. Morrison; Hooria Jazaieri; Richard G. Heimberg; James J. Gross
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Philippe R. Goldin, Amanda S. Morrison, Hooria Jazaieri, Richard G. Heimberg, James J. Gross
      Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) are efficacious in treating social anxiety disorder (SAD). It is not yet clear, however, whether they share similar trajectories of change and underlying mechanisms in the context of SAD. This randomized controlled study of 108 unmedicated adults with generalized SAD investigated the impact of CBGT vs. MBSR on trajectories of social anxiety, cognitive reappraisal, and mindfulness during 12 weeks of treatment. CBGT and MBSR produced similar trajectories showing decreases in social anxiety and increases in reappraisal (changing the way of thinking) and mindfulness (mindful attitude). Compared to MBSR, CBGT produced greater increases in disputing anxious thoughts/feelings and reappraisal success. Compared to CBGT, MBSR produced greater acceptance of anxiety and acceptance success. Granger Causality analyses revealed that increases in weekly reappraisal and reappraisal success predicted subsequent decreases in weekly social anxiety during CBGT (but not MBSR), and that increases in weekly mindful attitude and disputing anxious thoughts/feelings predicted subsequent decreases in weekly social anxiety during MBSR (but not CBGT). This examination of temporal dynamics identified shared and distinct changes during CBGT and MBSR that both support and challenge current conceptualizations of these clinical interventions. identifier NCT02036658.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T17:28:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.001
  • Brief mindfulness training de-couples the anxiogenic effects of distress
           intolerance on reactivity to and recovery from stress among deprived
    • Authors: Rotem Paz; Ariel Zvielli; Pavel Goldstein; Amit Bernstein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Rotem Paz, Ariel Zvielli, Pavel Goldstein, Amit Bernstein
      Objective We tested whether mindfulness de-couples the expected anxiogenic effects of distress intolerance on psychological and physiological reactivity to and recovery from an anxiogenic stressor among participants experimentally sensitized to experience distress. Method N = 104 daily smokers underwent 18-hours of biochemically-verified smoking deprivation. Participants were then randomized to a 7-min analogue mindfulness intervention (present moment attention and awareness training; PMAA) or a cope-as-usual control condition; and subsequently exposed to a 2.5-min paced over breathing (hyperventilation) stressor designed to elicit acute anxious arousal. Psychological and physiological indices of anxious arousal (Skin Conductance Levels; SCL) as well as emotion (dys)regulation (Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia; RSA) were measured before, during and following the stressor. Results We found that PMAA reduced psycho-physiological dysregulation in response to an anxiogenic stressor, as well as moderated the anxiogenic effect of distress intolerance on psychological but not physiological responding to the stressor among smokers pre-disposed to experience distress via deprivation. Conclusions The present study findings have a number of theoretical and clinical implications for work on mindfulness mechanisms, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, and smoking cessation interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T17:28:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.017
  • Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 94

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T18:43:14Z
  • Robust statistical methods: A primer for clinical psychology and
           experimental psychopathology researchers
    • Authors: Andy P. Field; Rand R. Wilcox
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Andy P. Field, Rand R. Wilcox
      This paper reviews and offers tutorials on robust statistical methods relevant to clinical and experimental psychopathology researchers. We review the assumptions of one of the most commonly applied models in this journal (the general linear model, GLM) and the effects of violating them. We then present evidence that psychological data are more likely than not to violate these assumptions. Next, we overview some methods for correcting for violations of model assumptions. The final part of the paper presents 8 tutorials of robust statistical methods using R that cover a range of variants of the GLM (t-tests, ANOVA, multiple regression, multilevel models, latent growth models). We conclude with recommendations that set the expectations for what methods researchers submitting to the journal should apply and what they should report.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T18:33:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.013
  • Is the devil in the detail? A randomized controlled trial of guided
           internet-based CBT for perfectionism
    • Authors: Roz Shafran; Tracey Wade Sarah Egan Radha Kothari Hannah Allcott-Watson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Roz Shafran, Tracey Wade, Sarah Egan, Radha Kothari, Hannah Allcott-Watson, Per Carlbring, Alexander Rozental, Gerhard Andersson
      An internet guided self-help cognitive-behavioural treatment (ICBT) for perfectionism was recently found to be effective (see this issue). Such studies stand in need of replication. The aim of this study was to report the outcomes and predictors of change when the treatment is delivered in a UK setting. A total of 120 people (Mean = 28.9 years; 79% female) were randomised to receive ICBT or wait-list control over 12 weeks (trial registration: NCT02756871). While there were strong similarities between the current study and its Swedish counterpart, there were also important differences in procedural details. There was a significant impact of the intervention on the primary outcome measure (Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Concern over Mistakes subscale) and also on the Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire (between group effect sizes d = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.60–1.36) and d = 1.04 (95% CI: 0.66–1.43) respectively using intent-to-treat analyses). Unlike the Swedish study, there was significant non-engagement and non-completion of modules with 71% of participants completing fewer than half the modules. The number of modules completed moderated the rate of change in clinical perfectionism over time. In conclusion, the study indicates the intervention is effective in a UK setting but highlighted the importance of procedural details to optimise retention.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T18:33:08Z
  • A randomized controlled trial of Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy
           for perfectionism including an investigation of outcome predictors
    • Authors: Alexander Rozental; Roz Shafran Tracey Wade Sarah Egan Lise Bergman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Alexander Rozental, Roz Shafran, Tracey Wade, Sarah Egan, Lise Bergman Nordgren, Per Carlbring, Andreas Landström, Stina Roos, Malin Skoglund, Elisabet Thelander, Linnéa Trosell, Alexander Örtenholm, Gerhard Andersson
      Being highly attentive to details can be a positive feature. However, for some individuals, perfectionism can lead to distress and is associated with many psychiatric disorders. Cognitive behavior therapy has been shown to yield many benefits for those experiencing problems with perfectionism, but the access to evidence-based care is limited. The current study investigated the efficacy of guided Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ICBT) and predictors of treatment outcome. In total, 156 individuals were included and randomized to an eight-week treatment or wait-list control. Self-report measures of perfectionism, depression, anxiety, self-criticism, self-compassion, and quality of life were distributed during screening and at post-treatment. Intention-to-treat were used for all statistical analyses. Moderate to large between-group effect sizes were obtained for the primary outcome measures, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, subscales Concerns over Mistakes and Personal Standards, Cohen's d = 0.68–1.00, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.36–1.33], with 35 (44.9%) of the patients in treatment being improved. Predictors were also explored, but none were related to treatment outcome. In sum, guided ICBT can be helpful for addressing problems with clinical perfectionism, but research of its long-term benefits is warranted.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T18:33:08Z
  • Manualized cognitive therapy versus cognitive-behavioral
           treatment-as-usual for social anxiety disorder in routine practice: A
           cluster-randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Juergen Hoyer; Jasmin Andre Pittig Stephen Crawcour Manuela Moeser Denise
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Juergen Hoyer, Jasmin Čolić, Andre Pittig, Stephen Crawcour, Manuela Moeser, Denise Ginzburg, Jihong Lin, Joerg Wiltink, Eric Leibing, Ulrich Stangier
      Objective This study examined the effectiveness of manualized cognitive therapy (mCT) following the Clark-Wells approach versus non-manualized cognitive-behavioral treatment-as-usual (CBTAU) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) in routine practice. Methods Forty-eight private practitioners were recruited within a multi-center trial and either received training in manualized CT for SAD or no such training. Practitioners treated 162 patients with SAD in routine practice (N = 107 completers, n = 57 for mCT, n = 50 for CBTAU). Social anxiety symptoms (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale; LSAS) and secondary measures were assessed before treatment, at session 8, 15, and 25, at end of treatment, as well as 6 and 12 months after treatment. Results Patients in both groups showed a significant reduction of SAD severity after treatment (d = 1.91 for the mCT, d = 1.80 for CBTAU for within-group effect sizes), which remained stable at follow-up. There were no differences between groups in terms of symptom reduction and treatment duration. Conclusions The present trial confirms the high effectiveness of CBTAU and mCT for SAD when practitioners conduct the treatments in routine practice. Additional training in the CT manual did not result in significant between-group effects on therapy outcome. Explanations for this unexpected result are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T18:33:08Z
  • Avoidance and decision making in anxiety: An introduction to the special
    • Authors: Tom Beckers; Michelle G. Craske
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Tom Beckers, Michelle G. Craske

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T04:42:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.009
  • Shape of change in internet based behavioral activation treatment for
    • Authors: Heather O'Mahen; Esther Wilkinson; Kara Bagnall; David Richards; Amanda Swales
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Heather O'Mahen, Esther Wilkinson, Kara Bagnall, David Richards, Amanda Swales
      Shape of change, sudden gains and depression spikes were examined in an online 12-session Behavioral Activation (BA) treatment for depression. Client and therapist factors related to sudden gains were examined to investigate processes associated with outcome. Methods: Postpartum Women with Major Depressive Disorder (n=42) who received online BA supported in 30-minute telephone sessions by a mental health worker. Depression symptoms were assessed at each session and number of sessions completed were recorded by the online program. Therapist records were rated for client stressful life event and therapist concrete focus. A quadratic pattern provided the best fit with the data; a cubic pattern was a poor fit. Sudden gains, but not depression spikes, predicted lower depression scores at 17-week outcome. Women who had higher baseline social functioning, did not experience a stressful life event during therapy, and completed more online modules, but not more telephone sessions, were more likely to have a sudden gain. A concrete therapist focus was associated with sudden gains. These results extend research on trajectories of change and sudden gains to an online BA treatment and to postpartum depression, and suggest important client and therapist factors associated with sudden gains.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T04:42:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.011
  • Individuals with clinically significant insomnia symptoms are
           characterised by a negative sleep-related expectancy bias: Results from a
           cognitive-experimental assessment
    • Authors: Hannah Courtauld; Lies Notebaert; Bronwyn Milkins; Simon D. Kyle; Patrick J.F. Clarke
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Hannah Courtauld, Lies Notebaert, Bronwyn Milkins, Simon D. Kyle, Patrick J.F. Clarke
      Cognitive models of insomnia consistently suggest that negative expectations regarding the consequences of poor sleep contribute to the maintenance of insomnia. To date, however, no research has sought to determine whether insomnia is indeed characterised by such a negative sleep-related expectancy bias, using objective cognitive assessment tasks which are more immune to response biases than questionnaire assessments. Therefore, the current study employed a reaction-time task assessing biased expectations among a group with clinically significant insomnia symptoms (n = 30) and a low insomnia symptoms group (n = 40). The task involved the presentation of scenarios describing the consequences of poor sleep, and non-sleep related activities, which could be resolved in a benign or a negative manner. The results demonstrated that the high insomnia symptoms group were disproportionately fast to resolve sleep-related scenarios in line with negative outcomes, as compared to benign outcomes, relative to the low insomnia symptoms group. The two groups did not differ in their pattern of resolving non-sleep related scenarios. This pattern of findings is entirely consistent with a sleep-specific expectancy bias operating in individuals with clinically significant insomnia symptoms, and highlights the potential of cognitive-experimental assessment tasks to objectively index patterns of biased cognition in insomnia.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T04:42:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.010
  • Randomized control trial investigating the efficacy of a computer-based
           intolerance of uncertainty intervention
    • Authors: Mary E. Oglesby; Nicholas P. Allan; Norman B. Schmidt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Mary E. Oglesby, Nicholas P. Allan, Norman B. Schmidt
      Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is an important transdiagnostic variable within various anxiety and mood disorders. Theory suggests that individuals high in IU interpret ambiguous information in a more threatening manner. A parallel line of research has shown that interpretive biases can be modified through cognitive training and previous research aimed at modifying negative interpretations through Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM-I) has yielded promising results. Despite these findings, no research to date has examined the efficacy of an IU-focused CBM-I paradigm. The current study investigated the impact of a brief IU-focused CBM-I on reductions in IU. Participants selected for a high IU interpretation bias (IU-IB) were randomly assigned to an active (IU CBM-I) or control CBM-I condition. Results indicated that our active IU CBM-I was associated with significant changes in IU-IB from pre-to-post intervention as well as with significant reductions in IU at post-intervention and month-one follow-up. Findings also found that the IU CBM-I led to reductions in IU self-report via the hypothesized mechanism. This study is the first to provide evidence that a CBM-I focused on IU is effective in reducing IU-IB and IU across time and suggest that IU CBM-I paradigms may be a novel prevention/intervention treatment for anxiety.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:39:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.007
  • The relative effectiveness of extinction and counter-conditioning in
           diminishing Children's fear
    • Authors: Carol Newall; Tiffany Watson; Kerry-Ann Grant; Rick Richardson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Carol Newall, Tiffany Watson, Kerry-Ann Grant, Rick Richardson
      Two behavioural strategies for reducing learned fear are extinction and counter-conditioning, and in this study we compared the relative effectiveness of the two procedures at diminishing fear in children. Seventy-three children aged 7–12 years old (M = 9.30, SD = 1.62) were exposed to pictures of two novel animals on a computer screen during the fear acquisition phase. One of these animals was paired with a picture of a scared human face (CS+) while the other was not (CS-). The children were then randomly assigned to one of three conditions: counter-conditioning (animal paired with a happy face), extinction (animal without scared face), or control (no fear reduction procedure). Changes in fear beliefs and behavioural avoidance of the animal were measured. Counter-conditioning was more effective at reducing fear to the CS + than extinction. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for behavioural treatments of childhood anxiety disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:39:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.006
  • Beneficial effects of training in self-distancing and perspective
           broadening for people with a history of recurrent depression
    • Authors: Emma Travers-Hill; Barnaby D. Dunn; Laura Hoppitt; Caitlin Hitchcock; Tim Dalgleish
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Emma Travers-Hill, Barnaby D. Dunn, Laura Hoppitt, Caitlin Hitchcock, Tim Dalgleish
      Cognitive training designed to recalibrate maladaptive aspects of cognitive-affective processing associated with the presence of emotional disorder can deliver clinical benefits. This study examined the ability of an integrated training in self-distancing and perspective broadening (SD-PB) with respect to distressing experiences to deliver such benefits in individuals with a history of recurrent depression (≥3 prior episodes), currently in remission. Relative to an overcoming avoidance (OA) control condition, SD-PB: a) reduced distress to upsetting memories and to newly encountered events, both during training when explicitly instructed to apply SD-PB techniques, and after-training in the absence of explicit instructions; b) enhanced capacity to self-distance from and broaden perspectives on participants' experiences; c) reduced residual symptoms of depression. These data provide initial support for SD-PB as a low-intensity cognitive training providing a spectrum of cognitive and affective benefits for those with recurrent depression who are at elevated risk of future episodes.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:39:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.008
  • Exploring mechanisms of change in cognitive therapy and interpersonal
           psychotherapy for adult depression
    • Authors: Lotte H.J.M. Lemmens; Francisca Galindo-Garre; Arnoud Arntz; Frenk Peeters; Steven D. Hollon; Robert J. DeRubeis; Marcus J.H. Huibers
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Lotte H.J.M. Lemmens, Francisca Galindo-Garre, Arnoud Arntz, Frenk Peeters, Steven D. Hollon, Robert J. DeRubeis, Marcus J.H. Huibers
      The present study explored the temporal relationships between change in five candidate causal mechanisms and change in depressive symptoms in a randomized comparison of individual Cognitive Therapy (CT) and Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) for adult depression. Furthermore, hypotheses concerning the mediation of change in these treatments were tested. Patients were 151 depressed adult outpatients treated with either CT (n = 76) or IPT (n = 75). Depression severity was assessed with the BDI-II. Candidate mediators included both therapy-specific as well as common factors. Measures were taken multiple times over the course of treatment (baseline, mid-, and post-treatment). Pearson's correlations and Latent-Difference-Score models were used to examine the direct and indirect relationships between (change in) the candidate mediators and (subsequent) (change in) depression. Patients showed improvement on all measures. No differential effects in pre-to post-treatment changes were observed between the two conditions. However, change in interpersonal functioning occurred more rapidly in IPT. Only little empirical support for the respective theoretical models of change in CT and IPT was found. Future studies should pay special attention to the timing of assessments and within-patient variance.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:39:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.005
  • Stimulus fear relevance and the speed, magnitude, and robustness of
           vicariously learned fear
    • Authors: Güler Dunne; Gemma Reynolds; Chris Askew
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Güler Dunne, Gemma Reynolds, Chris Askew
      Superior learning for fear-relevant stimuli is typically indicated in the laboratory by faster acquisition of fear responses, greater learned fear, and enhanced resistance to extinction. Three experiments investigated the speed, magnitude, and robustness of UK children's (6–10 years; N = 290; 122 boys, 168 girls) vicariously learned fear responses for three types of stimuli. In two experiments, children were presented with pictures of novel animals (Australian marsupials) and flowers (fear-irrelevant stimuli) alone (control) or together with faces expressing fear or happiness. To determine learning speed the number of stimulus-face pairings seen by children was varied (1, 10, or 30 trials). Robustness of learning was examined via repeated extinction procedures over 3 weeks. A third experiment compared the magnitude and robustness of vicarious fear learning for snakes and marsupials. Significant increases in fear responses were found for snakes, marsupials and flowers. There was no indication that vicarious learning for marsupials was faster than for flowers. Moreover, vicariously learned fear was neither greater nor more robust for snakes compared to marsupials, or for marsupials compared to flowers. These findings suggest that for this age group stimulus fear relevance may have little influence on vicarious fear learning.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T04:24:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.002
  • A prospective examination of risk factors in the development of intrusions
           following a trauma analog
    • Authors: Adam J. Ripley; Joshua D. Clapp; J. Gayle Beck
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Adam J. Ripley, Joshua D. Clapp, J. Gayle Beck
      Several factors have been linked to the severity of posttraumatic distress, although retrospective designs in much of the literature limit conclusions regarding the temporal relation between risk factors and corresponding symptoms. To address these concerns, the current project employed an analog trauma paradigm to assess the impact of background characteristics, stress response, and post-stressor affect regulation on subjective distress and intrusive memories experienced during the subsequent processing of emotional stimuli. University students (N = 184; 56% female, 42% White/Non-Hispanic) were shown graphic scenes of a televised suicide. Physiological activation was recorded during exposure with emotion ratings collected following the film. Participants then viewed a sadness- or humor-eliciting prime under instructions to inhibit or naturally express emotion. Intrusions experienced during the priming film and residual distress at study's conclusion were rated prior to debriefing. Hierarchical regression identified reductions in emotional valence as a robust predictor of intrusions and distress. Sympathetic activation and exposure to the sadness prime were associated with intrusion frequency, whereas attenuated parasympathetic response predicted intrusion intensity. Expressive inhibition demonstrated a unique association with residual distress. Results suggest peritraumatic processes and post-exposure factors may hold more prominent relations with immediate trauma-related distress as compared to pre-existing survivor characteristics.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T04:24:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.001
  • Corrigendum to “Take a look at the bright side: Effects of positive body
           exposure on selective visual attention in women with high body
           dissatisfaction” [Behav. Res. Therapy 83 (2016) 19-25]
    • Authors: Klaske Glashouwer; Nienke Jonker Karen Thomassen Peter Jong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Klaske A. Glashouwer, Nienke C. Jonker, Karen Thomassen, Peter J. de Jong

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T04:21:35Z
  • Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 93

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T04:14:05Z
  • The use of support people to improve the weight-related and psychological
           outcomes of adults with obesity: A randomised controlled trial
    • Authors: Elizabeth Rieger; Janet Treasure; Kristen Murray; Ian Caterson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Elizabeth Rieger, Janet Treasure, Kristen Murray, Ian Caterson
      Objectives To investigate whether training individuals from the personal networks of adults with obesity in the skills of motivational interviewing enhances the anthropometric and psychological outcomes of a cognitive-behavioural weight loss intervention. Methods Adults with obesity (N = 201) were randomised to participate in 26 sessions of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for weight loss either alone (CBT-A) or with the addition of a support person (CBT-SP). Outcomes were assessed at the end of the 12-month intervention and at a follow-up one year later. Results Analyses indicated negligible additive effect for the CBT-SP versus the CBT-A condition, although the quality of the patient's relationship with their support person predicted the anthropometric outcomes. Across conditions, significant improvements were observed for all anthropometric (weight, body mass index, and waist circumference) and psychological (self efficacy, weight-related quality of life, weight satisfaction, and binge eating) variables between baseline and post-treatment, and baseline and the follow-up. Conclusions The benefits of the cognitive-behavioural weight loss program were found to extend to psychological variables. Yet the lack of evidence for the additive benefits of including support people in treatment suggests a need to develop more effective training programs for support people in weight management. Trial registration Trial ID: ACTRN12611000509965.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T04:14:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.04.012
  • Lost in distractors: Reduced Autobiographical Memory Specificity and
           dispersed activation spreading over distractors in working memory
    • Authors: Keisuke Takano; Jun Moriya; Filip Raes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Keisuke Takano, Jun Moriya, Filip Raes
      Studies on autobiographical memory retrieval highlight the prominence of rapid and direct access to a specific event memory. Because it has been believed that autobiographical memory retrieval mostly relies on an effortful generative process, there is little empirical evidence on the early stage of information processing that contributes to autobiographical memory specificity (AMS). Therefore, we investigated the associations between AMS and automatic activation of information stimulated by rapid presentation of emotional words. Study 1 involved a visual search task to assess activation of various distractors in working memory. Participants with reduced AMS showed a tendency to activate distractors that were not semantically associated with preceding cues. In Study 2, we manipulated the levels of AMS by using a computerized version of Memory Specificity Training (c-MeST) to observe the changes in the activation of distractors. Results showed that increases in AMS were associated with decreases in activation of cue-unassociated distractors. These findings suggest that reduced AMS can be characterized by dispersed activation spreading over semantically unassociated distractors in automatic information selection of working memory. Because we also found an association between depressive symptoms and AMS, the role of automatic information processing in the relation between reduced AMS and depression is discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T03:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.04.005
  • Pilot test of a novel food response and attention training treatment for
           obesity: Brain imaging data suggest actions shape valuation
    • Authors: Eric Stice; Sonja Yokum; Harm Veling; Eva Kemps; Natalia Lawrence
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Eric Stice, Sonja Yokum, Harm Veling, Eva Kemps, Natalia Lawrence
      Elevated brain reward and attention region response, and weaker inhibitory region response to high-calorie food images have been found to predict future weight gain. These findings suggest that an intervention that reduces reward and attention region response and increases inhibitory control region response to such foods might reduce overeating. We conducted a randomized pilot experiment that tested the hypothesis that a multi-faceted food response and attention training with personalized high- and low-calorie food images would produce changes in behavioral and neural responses to food images and body fat compared to a control training with non-food images among community-recruited overweight/obese adults. Compared to changes observed in controls, completing the intervention was associated with significant reductions in reward and attention region response to high-calorie food images (Mean Cohen's d = 1.54), behavioral evidence of learning, reductions in palatability ratings and monetary valuation of high-calorie foods (p = 0.009, d's = 0.92), and greater body fat loss over a 4-week period (p = 0.009, d = 0.90), though body fat effects were not significant by 6-month follow-up. Results suggest that this multifaceted response and attention training intervention was associated with reduced reward and attention region responsivity to food cues, and a reduction in body fat. Because this implicit training treatment is both easy and inexpensive to deliver, and does not require top-down executive control that is necessary for negative energy balance obesity treatment, it may prove useful in treating obesity if future studies can determine how to create more enduring effects.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T03:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.04.007
  • How durable is the effect of low intensity CBT for depression and anxiety?
           Remission and relapse in a longitudinal cohort study
    • Authors: Shehzad Ali; Laura Rhodes; Omar Moreea; Dean McMillan; Simon Gilbody; Chris Leach; Mike Lucock; Wolfgang Lutz; Jaime Delgadillo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Shehzad Ali, Laura Rhodes, Omar Moreea, Dean McMillan, Simon Gilbody, Chris Leach, Mike Lucock, Wolfgang Lutz, Jaime Delgadillo
      Background Depression and anxiety disorders are relapse-prone conditions, even after successful treatment with pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is known to prevent relapse, but there is little evidence of the durability of remission after low intensity forms of CBT (LiCBT). Method This study aimed to examine relapse rates 12 months after completing routinely-delivered LiCBT. A cohort of 439 LiCBT completers with remission of symptoms provided monthly depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7) measures during 12 months after treatment. Survival analysis was conducted to model time-to-relapse while controlling for patient characteristics. Results Overall, 53% of cases relapsed within 1 year. Of these relapse events, the majority (79%) occurred within the first 6 months post-treatment. Cases reporting residual depression symptoms (PHQ-9 = 5 to 9) at the end of treatment had significantly higher risk of relapse (hazard ratio = 1.90, p < 0.001). Conclusions The high rate of relapse after LiCBT highlights the need for relapse prevention, particularly for those with residual depression symptoms.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T03:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.04.006
  • Feeling safe but appearing anxious: Differential effects of alcohol on
           anxiety and social performance in individuals with social anxiety disorder
    • Authors: Stephan Stevens; Ruth Cooper; Trisha Bantin; Christiane Hermann; Alexander L. Gerlach
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Stephan Stevens, Ruth Cooper, Trisha Bantin, Christiane Hermann, Alexander L. Gerlach
      Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) co-occur frequently and there is preliminary evidence that alcohol might reduce social anxiety. It is, however, unclear which mechanisms contribute to the anxiety reducing effect, particularly regarding key aspects of social anxiety such as deficits in social performance. We compared self-rated and physiological measures of anxiety as well as self- and observer-rated social performance in a sample of 62 individuals with SAD and 60 nonanxious control participants during a speech task after receiving either alcohol, an alcohol-free placebo drink or orange juice. SAD patients reported more anxiety during the speech task than did control participants. Furthermore, SAD patients underestimated their performance in comparison to observer ratings. Alcohol reduced self-report anxiety only in SAD patients, while observers rated all participants as less competent when intoxicated. Although individuals with SAD experience a reduction in anxiety when drinking alcohol, simultaneous decreases in social performance might contribute to negative reactions from others and consequently increase the risk of further alcohol use to cope with these negative reactions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T03:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.04.008
  • Reducing intrusive traumatic memories after emergency caesarean section: A
           proof-of-principle randomized controlled study
    • Authors: Antje Horsch; Yvan Vial; Céline Favrod; Mathilde Morisod Harari; Simon E. Blackwell; Peter Watson; Lalitha Iyadurai; Michael B. Bonsall; Emily A. Holmes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Antje Horsch, Yvan Vial, Céline Favrod, Mathilde Morisod Harari, Simon E. Blackwell, Peter Watson, Lalitha Iyadurai, Michael B. Bonsall, Emily A. Holmes
      Preventative psychological interventions to aid women after traumatic childbirth are needed. This proof-of-principle randomised controlled study evaluated whether the number of intrusive traumatic memories mothers experience after emergency caesarean section (ECS) could be reduced by a brief cognitive intervention. 56 women after ECS were randomized to one of two parallel groups in a 1:1 ratio: intervention (usual care plus cognitive task procedure) or control (usual care). The intervention group engaged in a visuospatial task (computer-game ‘Tetris’ via a handheld gaming device) for 15 min within six hours following their ECS. The primary outcome was the number of intrusive traumatic memories related to the ECS recorded in a diary for the week post-ECS. As predicted, compared with controls, the intervention group reported fewer intrusive traumatic memories (M = 4.77, SD = 10.71 vs. M = 9.22, SD = 10.69, d = 0.647 [95% CI: 0.106, 1.182] over 1 week (intention-to-treat analyses, primary outcome). There was a trend towards reduced acute stress re-experiencing symptoms (d = 0.503 [95% CI: −0.032, 1.033]) after 1 week (intention-to-treat analyses). Times series analysis on daily intrusions data confirmed the predicted difference between groups. 72% of women rated the intervention “rather” to “extremely” acceptable. This represents a first step in the development of an early (and potentially universal) intervention to prevent postnatal posttraumatic stress symptoms that may benefit both mother and child. Clinical trial registration,, NCT02502513.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T03:17:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.03.018
  • Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 92

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T12:16:35Z
  • Gradients of fear: How perception influences fear generalization
    • Authors: Dieter Struyf; Jonas Zaman; Dirk Hermans; Bram Vervliet
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Dieter Struyf, Jonas Zaman, Dirk Hermans, Bram Vervliet
      The current experiment investigated whether overgeneralization of fear could be due to an inability to perceptually discriminate the initial fear-evoking stimulus from similar stimuli, as fear learning-induced perceptual impairments have been reported but their influence on generalization gradients remain to be elucidated. Three hundred and sixty-eight healthy volunteers participated in a differential fear conditioning paradigm with circles of different sizes as conditioned stimuli (CS), of which one was paired to an aversive IAPS picture. During generalization, each subject was presented with one of 10 different sized circles including the CSs, and were asked to categorize the stimulus as either a CS or as novel after fear responses were recorded. Linear mixed models were used to investigate differences in fear generalization gradients depending on the participant's perception of the test stimulus. We found that the incorrect perception of a novel stimulus as the initial fear-evoking stimulus strongly boosted fear responses. The current findings demonstrate that a significant number of novel stimuli used to assess generalization are incorrectly identified as the initial fear-evoking stimulus, providing a perceptual account for the observed overgeneralization in panic and anxiety disorders. Accordingly, enhancing perceptual processing may be a promising treatment for targeting excessive fear generalization.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T12:16:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.04.001
  • Improving cognitive control in adolescents with post-traumatic stress
           disorder (PTSD)
    • Authors: Susanne Schweizer; Zobair Samimi; Jafar Hasani; Alireza Moradi; Fatemeh Mirdoraghi; Mohammad Khaleghi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Susanne Schweizer, Zobair Samimi, Jafar Hasani, Alireza Moradi, Fatemeh Mirdoraghi, Mohammad Khaleghi
      The adverse impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the developing mind in adolescence can extend well into adulthood. The developmental malleability of cognitive control capacity in this age group, however, may hold particular promise for cognitive training interventions. The present study investigated the effects of affective working memory (aWMT) compared to placebo-training on cognitive and affective functioning in adolescents with PTSD. 30 treatment-seeking adolescents trained for 20 days on either an affective dual n-back task (aWMT; n = 15) or a feature match task (placebo; n = 15). The aWMT group showed greater pre-to post-training increases in cognitive control as measured by the GoNogo task as well as improvements in symptoms of PTSD and increased use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies. These preliminary findings are promising given the potential for free and easy dissemination of the aWMT in schools and online.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T12:16:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.03.017
  • Clinical characteristics of latent classes of CO2 hypersensitivity in
           adolescents and young adults
    • Authors: Lance M. Rappaport; Christina Sheerin; Jeanne E. Savage; John M. Hettema; Roxann Roberson-Nay
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Lance M. Rappaport, Christina Sheerin, Jeanne E. Savage, John M. Hettema, Roxann Roberson-Nay
      Although breathing CO2-enriched air reliably increases anxiety, there is debate concerning the nature and specificity of CO2 hypersensitivity to panic risk and panic disorder versus anxiety disorders and related traits broadly, particularly among adolescents and emerging adults. The present study sought to clarify the association of CO2 hypersensitivity with internalizing conditions and symptoms among adolescents and young adults. Participants (N = 628) self-reported anxiety levels every 2 min while breathing air enriched to 7.5% CO2 for 8 min. Growth mixture models were used to examine the structure of anxiety trajectories during the task and the association of each trajectory with dimensional and diagnostic assessments of internalizing disorders. Three distinct trajectories emerged: overall low (low), overall high (high), and acutely increased anxiety (acute). Compared to the low class, the acute class reported elevated neuroticism, anxiety sensitivity, stress whereas the high class reported elevated anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, neuroticism, anxiety sensitivity, and increased likelihood of an anxiety disorder diagnosis. Moreover, the acute and high classes reported experiencing a panic-like event at a higher rate than the low class while participants in the high class terminated the task prematurely at a higher rate. The present study clarifies the nature of response to CO2 challenge. Three distinct response profiles emerged, which clarifies the manifestation of CO2 hypersensitivity in anxiety disorders with strong, though not unique, associations with panic-relevant traits.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T12:16:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.03.015
  • Attentional focus during exposure in spider phobia: The effect of valence
           and schematicity of a partial distractor
    • Authors: Vincent Dethier; Pierre Philippot
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Vincent Dethier, Pierre Philippot
      This study examines the impact of partial distractor valence and schematicity (i.e., their relation to fear representation) on exposure efficacy. One hundred forty-one spider phobics were exposed to spider pictures and asked, in a between-subjects experimental design, to form mental images of words that were fear related (to spiders) and negative (schematic negative), fear unrelated and negative (non-schematic negative) or fear unrelated and positive (non-schematic positive). Multilevel measures of anxiety were performed at pre-exposure, post-exposure and 6 days’ follow-up. Results show that both of the negative condition groups displayed similar results on all outcome variables and systematically differed from the positive condition group. While the latter group displayed a stronger decline in distress during exposure itself, the other groups showed greater exposure benefits: a stronger decline in emotional and avoidance responses and skin conductance responses from pre- to post-exposure and more approach behaviours when confronted with a real spider. The critical feature of distraction thus seems not to be the fact of being distracted from the phobic stimulus, but rather the fact of performing emotional avoidance by distracting oneself from negative affect. The results highlight that the acceptance of aversive emotional states is a critical active process in successful exposure.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T20:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.03.013
  • Children's behavioral inhibition and anxiety disorder symptom severity:
           The role of individual differences in respiratory sinus arrhythmia
    • Authors: Andres G. Viana; Cara A. Palmer; Michael J. Zvolensky; Candice A. Alfano; Laura J. Dixon; Elizabeth Raines
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Andres G. Viana, Cara A. Palmer, Michael J. Zvolensky, Candice A. Alfano, Laura J. Dixon, Elizabeth Raines
      Although behavioral inhibition (BI) is clearly identified as a temperamental risk factor for childhood anxiety psychopathology, much less is known about whether the strength of this association may vary as a function of parasympathetic nervous system regulation in children with anxiety disorders. To build upon extant research in this area, the present study examined whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) can explicate the conditions in which BI is linked to increased symptom severity among anxiety-disordered children (N = 44; M = 9.61 years, SD = 1.63; 52% female and African American, respectively). We examined RSA responding both during a basal period and during a stressor (“challenge” RSA): interacting with a “mystery guest” who was wearing a mask. As hypothesized, the interaction between BI and both basal and challenge RSA was significantly related to anxiety disorder symptom severity, even after controlling for depressive symptoms. The form of the interaction indicated that highest levels of anxiety disorder symptoms were found among children with high levels of BI and low basal and challenge RSA, respectively. These data provide novel empirical evidence of a clinically-relevant interplay between RSA and BI in relation to anxiety disorder symptom severity among clinical youth. Future work is needed to expand on the specific mechanisms that may be responsible e for the interplay between temperamental and psychobiological risks for childhood anxiety.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T20:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.03.012
  • Pavlovian disgust conditioning as a model for contamination-based OCD:
           Evidence from an analogue study
    • Authors: Thomas Armstrong; Bunmi O. Olatunji
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Thomas Armstrong, Bunmi O. Olatunji
      Pavlovian fear conditioning provides a model for anxiety-related disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, disgust is the predominant emotional response to contamination, which is a common theme in OCD. The present study sought to identify disgust conditioning abnormalities that may underlie excessive contamination concerns relevant to OCD. Individuals high and low in contamination concern (HCC, n = 32; LCC, n = 30) completed an associative learning task in which one neutral face (conditioned stimulus; CS+) was followed by a disgusting image (unconditioned stimulus; US) and another neutral face (CS–) was unreinforced. Following this acquisition procedure, there was an extinction procedure in which both CSs were presented unreinforced. The groups did not show significant differences in discriminant responding to the CSs following acquisition. However, following extinction, the HCC group reported less reduction in their expectancy of the US following the CS+, and also reported greater disgust to the CS+, compared to the LCC group. Increased disgust to the CS + following both acquisition and extinction was correlated with increased symptoms of contamination-based OCD and increased disgust sensitivity. Additionally, disgust sensitivity mediated group differences in disgust responding to the CS + at acquisition and extinction. Also, failure to adjust US expectancy in response to extinction partially mediated group differences in disgust to the CS + following extinction. Together, these findings suggest that excessive contamination concerns observed in OCD may be related to difficulty inhibiting acquired disgust, possibly due to elevated disgust sensitivity that characterizes the disorder.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T20:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.03.009
  • Impaired memory updating associated with impaired recall of negative words
           in dysphoric rumination—Evidence for a removal deficit
    • Authors: Ee Pin Chang; Ullrich K.H. Ecker; Andrew C. Page
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Ee Pin Chang, Ullrich K.H. Ecker, Andrew C. Page
      We present evidence that dysphoric rumination involves a working memory (WM) updating deficit. Sixty-one undergraduates—pre-screened with rumination and depression scales—completed a novel task providing a specific measure of WM updating. This task involved the substitution of emotionally-valenced words, and provided an online measure of the time taken to remove outdated items from WM. Results showed that dysphoric ruminators spent less time removing outdated words from WM when the new to-be-remembered word was negative. This effect was (1) associated with impaired subsequent recall of negative words, arguably caused by interference from the insufficiently removed outdated words; and (2) correlated with participants’ rumination scores. This is the first study to use the novel removal task to investigate the nature of WM-updating impairments in rumination. The findings are consistent with a negative attentional bias in rumination, and provide preliminary evidence that rumination is associated with a valence-generic removal deficit during WM updating. Reducing the attentional bias could thus be an intervention target in the treatment of dysphoric rumination.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T20:00:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.03.008
  • Referential focus moderates depression-linked attentional avoidance of
           positive information
    • Authors: Julie Ji; Ben Grafton; Colin MacLeod
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Julie Ji, Ben Grafton, Colin MacLeod
      While there is consensus that depression is associated with a memory bias characterized by reduced retrieval of positive information that is restricted to information that had been self-referentially processed, there is less agreement concerning whether depression is characterized by an attention bias involving reduced attention to positive information. However, unlike memory research, previous attention research has not systematically examined the potential role of referential processing focus. The present study tested the hypothesis that evidence of depression-linked attentional avoidance of positive information would be more readily obtained following the self-referential processing of such information. We assessed attentional responding to positive information (and also to negative information) using a dot-probe procedure, after this information had been processed either in a self-referential or other-referential manner. The findings lend support to the hypothesis under scrutiny. Participants scoring high in depression score exhibited reduced attention to positive information compared to those scoring low in depression score, but only when this information had been processed in a self-referential manner. These findings may shed light on the mechanisms that underpin attentional selectivity in depression, while potentially also helping to account for inconsistencies in previous literature.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T20:00:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.03.004
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