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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 995 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 468)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 231)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 282)
Anuario de investigaciones (Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Buenos Aires)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Psicología     Open Access  
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario Pilquen : Sección Divulgación Científica     Open Access  
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 197)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy Online     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 176)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Buletin Psikologi     Open Access  
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Cahiers d’Études sur la Représentation     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health     Open Access  
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Community Psychology in Global Perspective     Open Access  
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling et spiritualité / Counselling and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Creativity. Theories ? Research ? Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cuadernos de Marte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Behaviour Research and Therapy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.619
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 20  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0005-7967
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3185 journals]
  • Positive cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of depression: A
           randomized order within-subject comparison with traditional cognitive
           behavior therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 116Author(s): Nicole Geschwind, Arnoud Arntz, Fredrike Bannink, Frenk Peeters Previous research suggests that a stronger focus on positive emotions and positive mental health may improve efficacy of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). Objectives were to compare differential improvement of depressive symptoms (primary outcome), positive affect, and positive mental health indices during positive CBT (P-CBT; CBT in a solution-focused framework, amplified with optional positive psychology exercises) versus traditional, problem-focused CBT (T-CBT). Forty-nine patients with major depressive disorder (recruited in an outpatient mental health care facility specialized in mood disorders) received two treatment blocks of eight sessions each (cross-over design, order randomized). Intention-To-Treat mixed regression modelling indicated that depressive symptoms improved similarly during the first, but significantly more in P-CBT compared to T-CBT during the second treatment block. Rate of improvement on the less-frequently measured secondary outcomes was not significantly different. However, P-CBT was associated with significantly higher rates of clinically significant or reliable change for depression, negative affect, and happiness. Effect sizes for the combined treatment were large (pre-post Cohen's d = 2.71 for participants ending with P-CBT, and 1.85 for participants ending with T-CBT). Positive affect, optimism, subjective happiness and mental health reached normative population averages after treatment. Overall, findings suggest that explicitly focusing on positive emotions efficiently counters depressive symptoms.
  • Autobiographical memory coherence and specificity: Examining their
           reciprocal relation and their associations with internalizing symptoms and
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 116Author(s): Elien Vanderveren, Patricia Bijttebier, Dirk Hermans Autobiographical memories consist of different features that have been shown to relate to psychological well-being and psychopathology. Two such characteristics show quite some overlap, namely memory coherence and memory specificity, although their association has never been investigated before. In this study, we examined the association between memory coherence and memory specificity in a sample of first-year psychology students. Additionally, to gain more insight into the relation between memory coherence and psychopathology, we investigated the association with known correlates of memory specificity, namely internalizing symptoms and rumination. We found that narrating about personal experiences in a coherent manner is related to retrieving more specific memories. However, the association between memory coherence and memory specificity was rather weak. Furthermore, we found that memory coherence was negatively associated with the level of depressive symptoms and could predict these symptoms even after controlling for memory specificity and rumination. Given the potential clinical importance of these findings, future research should focus on examining the specific circumstances in which memory coherence is related to psychopathology, and on mechanisms that could explain this association.
  • I feel safe when i know: Contingency instruction promotes threat
           extinction in high intolerance of uncertainty individuals
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 116Author(s): Jayne Morriss, Carien M. van Reekum Extinction-resistant threat is considered to be a central feature of pathological anxiety. Reduced threat extinction is observed in individuals with high intolerance of uncertainty (IU). Here we sought to determine whether contingency instructions could alter the course of threat extinction for individuals high in IU. We tested this hypothesis in two identical experiments (Exp 1 n = 60, Exp 2 n = 82) where we recorded electrodermal activity during threat acquisition with partial reinforcement, and extinction. Participants were split into groups based on extinction instructions (instructed, uninstructed) and IU score (low, high). All groups displayed larger skin conductance responses to learned threat versus safety cues during threat acquisition, indicative of threat conditioning. In both experiments, only the uninstructed high IU groups displayed larger skin conductance responses to the learned threat versus safety cue during threat extinction. These findings suggest that uncertain threat during extinction maintains conditioned responding in individuals high in IU.
  • A randomised controlled trial of ‘MUMentum postnatal’:
           Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety and
           depression in postpartum women
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 116Author(s): Siobhan A. Loughnan, Christine Butler, Amanda A. Sie, Ashlee B. Grierson, Aileen Z. Chen, Megan J. Hobbs, Amy E. Joubert, Hila Haskelberg, Alison Mahoney, Christopher Holt, Alan W. Gemmill, Jeannette Milgrom, Marie-Paule Austin, Gavin Andrews, Jill M. Newby
  • Patient constructive learning behavior in cognitive therapy: A pathway for
           improving patient memory for treatment'
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 116Author(s): Garret G. Zieve, Lu Dong, Claire Weaver, Stacie L. Ong, Allison G. Harvey Patient memory for treatment is poor and associated with worse outcome. The Memory Support Intervention was designed to improve outcome by enhancing patient memory for treatment. Half of the strategies comprising the Memory Support Intervention (termed constructive memory support strategies) involve therapists inviting patients to construct new ideas, inferences, or connections related to treatment material that go beyond information already presented by therapists. This study investigated the relationship between patient responses to therapist use of constructive memory support strategies and patient recall of treatment contents. Therapist uses of constructive memory support strategies were coded from sessions recorded during a pilot trial of the Memory Support Intervention in the context of cognitive therapy for depression (n = 44 patients). Patients who successfully constructed new ideas, inferences, or connections (termed patient constructive learning behavior) in response to therapist use of constructive memory support strategies showed greater recall of treatment contents. Mediation analyses provided some evidence that patient constructive learning behavior may be a mechanism through which the Memory Support Intervention results in enhanced patient memory. Results highlight patient constructive learning behavior as a potential pathway for improving patient memory for treatment.
  • Between vulnerability and resilience: A network analysis of fluctuations
           in cognitive risk and protective factors following remission from
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 116Author(s): Kristof Hoorelbeke, Nathan Van den Bergh, Marieke Wichers, Ernst H.W. Koster Research exploring how cognitive risk- and protective factors relate following remission from internalizing disorders suggests a central role for resilience. However, it remains unclear what constitutes resilience in this context. Furthermore, previous studies have typically relied on cross-sectional data which do not allow to map the temporal dynamics of such relations. Using a seven-day experience sampling period in 85 remitted depressed patients, we examined the interplay between five transdiagnostic vulnerability- and protective factors in daily life. We present a temporal, contemporaneous, and a between-subjects network, providing an in-depth analysis of how these factors relate to daily life fluctuations in residual symptomatology. Furthermore, we test the role of positive affect as a main resilience factor. Resilience uniquely predicted all other factors over time (temporal network). Higher levels of resilience were related to less momentary use of rumination, more deployment of positive appraisal, and lower occurrence of residual symptoms (contemporaneous network). Participants scoring high on resilience mostly engaged in positive appraisal (between-subjects network). Similar structures were obtained when substituting self-reported resilience by positive affect. This highlights the importance of resilience, and in particular, positive affectivity, to cope with stressors following remission. This may be fostered by facilitating the use of positive appraisal.
  • Predictors of outcome in cognitive behavioural therapy for eating
           disorders: An exploratory study
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 116Author(s): Mia L. Pellizzer, Glenn Waller, Tracey D. Wade ObjectiveEarly decrease in symptoms is a consistent predictor of good treatment outcome across all eating disorders. The current study explored the predictive value of novel early change variables in a transdiagnostic, non-underweight sample receiving 10-session cognitive behavioural therapy.MethodParticipants who reported bingeing and/or purging in the week preceding baseline assessment (N = 62) were included in analyses. Early change variables were calculated for novel (body image flexibility, body image avoidance, body checking, and fear of compassion) and established predictors (behavioural symptoms and therapeutic alliance). Outcomes were global eating disorder psychopathology and clinical impairment at posttreatment and three-month follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses were conducted using linear regression, adjusting for baseline values of the relevant outcome and early change in behavioural symptoms.ResultsEarly improvement in body image flexibility was the most consistent predictor of good outcome. Early change in body image avoidance and the fear of expressing and receiving compassion to/from others were significant predictors in some analyses.DiscussionNovel early change variables were significant predictors of eating disorder outcomes in this exploratory study. Model testing is required to understand the exact mechanisms by which these variables impact on outcomes, and whether there is potential benefit of modifying existing protocols.ANZCTR Trial NumberACTRN12615001098527.
  • Web-based Approach Bias Modification in smokers: A randomized-controlled
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 116Author(s): Charlotte E. Wittekind, Daniel Lüdecke, Barbara Cludius Smoking is associated with automatic approach tendencies towards smoking-related stimuli. Therefore, it has been investigated whether training smoking individuals to consistently avoid smoking-related stimuli exerts positive effects on smoking behavior (Approach-Bias Modification [AppBM]). A web-based pilot study provided preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of AppBM in smokers; however, interpretability was constrained by several limitations. The aim of the present study was to replicate and extend previous findings. A web-based three group parallel (1:1:1) randomized-controlled study with adult smokers (N = 149) was conducted (DRKS00011901). Upon completion of a baseline assessment, participants were randomized to either six sessions of AppBM or Sham training or a waitlist control group. In both trainings, participants were presented smoking-related and neutral pictures. While all smoking-related pictures were associated with pushing and all neutral pictures with pulling in AppBM training, the contingency was 50:50 in Sham training. Participants were re-assessed directly and six months after training. Primary outcome was daily cigarette consumption at follow-up. At follow-up, no significant group differences emerged, although AppBM training significantly reduced daily cigarette consumption directly after training. No consistent change of bias through AppBM training emerged. This study does not provide support for the long-term effectiveness of AppBM training as a stand-alone training in smoking.Pre-registrationGerman Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00011901).
  • A meta-analysis and systematic review of Memory Specificity Training
           (MeST) in the treatment of emotional disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 116Author(s): Tom J. Barry, Wing Yan Sze, Filip Raes The tendency to recall events from one's past in a non-specific and overgeneral way has been found to predict the onset and severity of a range of emotional disorders. Memory Specificity Training (MeST) was devised a decade ago in order to target and modify this tendency so as to reduce the symptoms of emotional disorder or to reduce the risk that such disorders might emerge over time. We present a meta-analytical review of research into the effects of MeST on autobiographical memory specificity in the context of emotional disorders (k = 13). MeST was associated with substantial improvement in memory specificity (d = −1.21) and depressive symptoms (d = 0.47) and MeST groups outperformed control groups at post-intervention in terms of specificity (d = 1.08) and depressive symptoms (d = −0.29). However, these effects were transitory and the benefit of MeST over control groups was mostly lost by follow-up assessment. There was mixed evidence in terms of MeST's effects on other processes associated with reduced specificity but MeST showed evidence of improving problem solving abilities and hopelessness. MeST holds promise as a novel intervention targeting reduced specificity but future studies are warranted with control groups that enable the investigation of MeST's mechanism of action and in studies with larger and more varied samples.
  • Peritraumatic unconditioned and conditioned responding explains sex
           differences in intrusions after analogue trauma
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 116Author(s): Julina A. Rattel, Melanie Wegerer, Stephan F. Miedl, Jens Blechert, Lisa M. Grünberger, Michelle G. Craske, Frank H. Wilhelm Higher prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women than men may be explained by sex differences in fear learning processes. Initial evidence points to elevated unconditioned and conditioned fear responding as well as to elevated state anxiety in women as potential peritraumatic mechanisms. Using the “conditioned-intrusion-paradigm”, which combines differential fear conditioning with the trauma-film paradigm, neutral sounds were presented as predictors of the occurrence (CS+) or non-occurrence (CS-) of highly aversive films. Intrusions were elicited by these sounds in the laboratory after conditioning and naturalistic intrusions were assessed in daily-life on subsequent days. Compared to men (n = 62), women (n = 60) reported more intrusions and associated distress following analogue trauma. Sex differences in intrusive symptoms were mediated by a) higher unconditioned trauma responding, b) slowed extinction of differential CS valence ratings, and c) elevated state anxiety increase across conditioning in women. Secondary analyses revealed that state anxiety was the strongest mediator, followed by slowed extinction learning. Mediation models were unrelated to sex differences in trait anxiety or depressive symptoms. Thus, associative (extinction learning) and non-associative (state anxiety, trauma responding) mechanisms contribute to sex differences in intrusive symptoms after analogue trauma and might add to the heightened vulnerability to PTSD in women.
  • Intraindividual change in anxiety sensitivity and alcohol use severity
           12-months following smoking cessation treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 116Author(s): Daniel J. Paulus, Matthew W. Gallagher, Amanda M. Raines, Norman B. Schmidt, Michael J. Zvolensky Although past work has documented reduction in alcohol use severity among smokers following smoking cessation treatment, little is known regarding factors associated with this reduction. The current study sought to examine relations between trajectories of change in anxiety sensitivity and non-targeted alcohol use severity from baseline to one year following smoking cessation treatment. Individuals (n = 386) were adult daily smokers engaged in a smoking cessation treatment study. Measures of alcohol use severity and anxiety sensitivity were collected at baseline as well as 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-months post-treatment. Latent growth curve modelling was used to estimate intercepts and slopes. Anxiety sensitivity (M = −0.87 95% CI [-1.19, −0.54], p 
  • Refining our research practices in clinical science: Challenges and steps
           towards solutions
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 116Author(s): Michelle G. Craske
  • Body image and condomless anal sex among Young Latino sexual minority men
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 115Author(s): John P. Brady, Kelsey A. Nogg, Kaitlin N. Rozzell, Carlos E. Rodriguez-Diaz, Keith J. Horvath, Steven A. Safren, Aaron J. Blashill ObjectiveTo investigate body image and condomless anal sex (CAS) among young Latino sexual minority men (SMM)—a population with health disparities in HIV and body image concerns.MethodsParticipants were 151 young Latino SMM from the San Diego area who were HIV-negative or unknown. Participants completed a questionnaire online in either English or Spanish, which included body image and sexual behavior items. A binary CAS variable was created based on the number of CAS partners reported (0 vs 1 + over past 3 months). A logistic regression was conducted with body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, and their interaction term entered as predictor variables and CAS as the outcome.ResultsOf 151 participants, 54 (35.8%) reported no CAS in the past 3 months. Appearance investment, but not body dissatisfaction, was associated with higher odds of CAS. However, a significant interaction indicated that body dissatisfaction was associated with higher odds of CAS when appearance investment was high.ConclusionsYoung Latino SMM who are highly invested in, and dissatisfied with, their appearance may be at significantly increased risk for acquiring HIV through elevated odds of CAS. Reducing appearance concerns in this population may lead to reductions in HIV risk behaviors.
  • The buffering effect of social support on the relationship between
           discrimination and psychological distress among church-going
           African-American adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 115Author(s): Mai-Ly N. Steers, Tzu-An Chen, Julie Neisler, Ezemenari M. Obasi, Lorna H. McNeill, Lorraine R. Reitzel Discrimination is a pervasive stressor among African-American adults. Social support is an important protective factor for psychological distress, especially among minority populations. Although a number of studies have examined social support in relation to discrimination, little research has examined how social support may serve as an important protective factor against both physical and psychological symptoms related to overall psychological distress within this group. The current study examined social support as a moderator of the relationship between discrimination and overall psychological distress as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory among a community sample of 122 African-American church-going adults. Results indicated that social support buffered the associations of discrimination and overall psychological distress (p 
  • Examining links between cannabis potency and mental and physical health
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 115Author(s): Mark A. Prince, Bradley T. Conner Cannabis use is associated with unwanted health outcomes, including anxiety, depression, poor sleep hygiene, and disrupted cognitive functioning. However, research to date has not been able to disentangle the complexities of these relations, leaving behavioral health service providers lacking clear direction for treatment. A limiting factor may be the common practices for cannabis use assessment. Cannabis use is typically assessed by frequency, even though to estimate the amount of psychoactive compounds ingested potency, quantity, and route of administration should also be assessed. This study, one of the first of its kind, takes an important step in assessing cannabis use by studying the link between cannabis potency and behavioral health (i.e., physical and mental health) outcomes. Self-reported data were analyzed using the New Statistics, which focuses on effect sizes and confidence intervals, rather than null hypothesis significance testing. Findings were inconsistent, with some positive, some negative, and some trivial associations across four domains (i.e., demographic variables, cannabis use variables, mental health, and physical health). The most valuable discovery was the importance of method of administration in understanding the link between potency and health. We observed a “potency valley” (i.e., a range of potencies for which products were not available) between flower potencies and concentrate potencies. Further, collapsing potency data across flower and concentrated cannabis obscured important relations between cannabis potency and behavioral health outcomes. Findings suggest that to more fully understand the relation between cannabis potency and behavioral health outcomes, researchers should examine potency separately across routes of administration.
  • Poly-product drug use disparities in adolescents of lower socioeconomic
           status: Emerging trends in nicotine products, marijuana products, and
           prescription drugs
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 115Author(s): Mariel S. Bello, Rubin Khoddam, Matthew D. Stone, Junhan Cho, Yoewon Yoon, Jungeun Olivia Lee, Adam M. Leventhal Greater diversification of nicotine products, marijuana products, and prescription drugs have contributed to increasing trends in adolescent poly-product use—concurrent use of 2 or more drugs—within these drug classes (e.g., nicotine use via e-cigarettes, hookah, cigars). Extant work suggests that poly-product drug use disparities may be disproportionately heightened among youth from lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds, however, it is unknown whether indicators of objective SES or subjective SES differentially increase risk of poly-product use including these newly emerging drugs. This study examined associations of parental education and subjective social status (SSS: perceptions of social standing compared to society [societal SSS] or school [school SSS]) with poly-product use of nicotine products, marijuana products, and prescription drugs among adolescents (N = 2218). Lower parental education and school SSS were associated with increased odds of past or current single, dual, or multiple product use of nicotine, marijuana, and prescription drugs. Findings suggest that risk for poly-product use of emerging drugs are higher for adolescents who endorse lower perceived social standing relative to peers at school and who were from a lower parental SES background.
  • Heart rate variability biofeedback increases sexual arousal among women
           with female sexual arousal disorder: Results from a randomized-controlled
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 115Author(s): Amelia M. Stanton, Ryan L. Boyd, Justin J. Fogarty, Cindy M. Meston Low resting heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with poor sexual arousal function in women. In a recent study, a single session of autogenic training increased HRV and facilitated improvements in both sexual arousal and perceived genital sensations among women experiencing decreased arousal. The current study expands upon these findings by examining the efficacy of HRV biofeedback, with and without autogenic training, as a treatment for sexual arousal dysfunction in an at-home setting. Participants (N = 78) were randomized into one of three conditions: HRV biofeedback, HRV biofeedback + autogenic training, or waitlist control. Each condition included three laboratory sessions; participants in the two active conditions completed 4–6 biofeedback sessions at home, and participants in the HRVB + A condition listened to a 14-min autogenic training recording before completing the biofeedback. Across the three laboratory visits, participants in the three conditions singficnatly differed in their genital arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and their perceived genital sensations. Compared to women in the control group, women who engaged in HRV biofeedback at home, with and without additional autogenic training, experienced increases in genital arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations. These results provide preliminary support for the contribution of heart rate variability level to female sexual arousal function and for the use of either of these interventions in the treatment of sexual arousal concerns.
  • Computer-based personalized feedback intervention for cigarette smoking
           and prescription analgesic misuse among persons living with HIV (PLWH)
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 115Author(s): Joseph W. Ditre, Lisa R. LaRowe, Peter A. Vanable, Martin J. De Vita, Michael J. Zvolensky Pain, tobacco cigarette smoking, and prescription opioid misuse are all highly prevalent among persons living with HIV (PLWH). Smoking and pain medication misuse can lead to deleterious outcomes, including more severe pain and physical impairment. However, we are not aware of any interventions that have attempted to address these issues in an integrated manner. Participants (N = 68) were recruited from an outpatient infectious disease clinic and randomized to either a computer-based personalized feedback intervention (Integrated PFI) that aimed to increase motivation, confidence, and intention to quit smoking, and decrease intentions to misuse prescription analgesic medications, or a Control PFI. Results indicated that PLWH who received the Integrated PFI (vs. Control PFI) evinced greater post-treatment knowledge of interrelations between pain and tobacco smoking. Moreover, participants who received the Integrated PFI and smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day (but not 
  • Personalized normative feedback for heavy drinking: An application of
           deviance regulation theory
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 115Author(s): Clayton Neighbors, Angelo M. DiBello, Chelsie M. Young, Mai-Ly N. Steers, Dipali V. Rinker, Lindsey M. Rodriguez, C. Ryamond Knee, Hart Blanton, Melissa A. Lewis Deviance Regulation Theory (DRT) proposes that individuals regulate their behavior to be in line with the behaviors of others. Specifically, individuals desire to stand out in positive way and not stand out in a negative way. DRT has been successfully applied to encourage other health behaviors and offers a unique method to utilize both injunctive norms in combination with descriptive norms in brief alcohol interventions. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a computer-delivered, norms-based personalized feedback intervention which systematically varied the focus on whether specific drinking behaviors were described as common or uncommon (a descriptive norm), whether the drinking behaviors were healthy versus unhealthy, and whether the drinking behaviors were positively or negatively framed (an injunctive norm). Nine-hundred and fifty-nine college drinkers completed baseline, three-month, and six-month follow-up assessments. Results indicated messages focusing on unhealthy drinking behaviors, particularly when described as uncommon, were most effective in reducing drinking and alcohol-related problems over time. This research utilizes deviance regulation theory as a way of improving personalized normative feedback by elucidating how to construct messages for brief interventions based on descriptive characteristics associated with specific target drinking behaviors in combination with perceptions of prevalence and acceptability of such drinking behaviors (an injunctive norm).
  • The role of modifiable health-related behaviors in the association between
           PTSD and respiratory illness
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 115Author(s): Monika A. Waszczuk, Camilo Ruggero, Kaiqiao Li, Benjamin J. Luft, Roman Kotov BackgroundPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increases risk of future respiratory illness. However, mechanisms that underpin the association between these common and debilitating conditions remain unknown. The aim of this study was to identify modifiable, health-related behaviors they may explain the link between PTSD and respiratory problems.MethodsWorld Trade Center responders (N = 452, 89% male, mean age = 55 years) completed baseline PTSD and sleep questionnaires, followed by 2-weeks of daily diaries, actigraphy and ambulatory spirometry to monitor lower respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, activity levels, stressors, and sleep. Lipid levels were obtained from electronic medical records.ResultsCross-sectional mediation analyses revealed that the association between PTSD and self-reported respiratory symptoms was explained by poor sleep, low activity, and daily stressors. The association between PTSD symptoms and pulmonary function was explained by insomnia and low activity.ConclusionsA range of health-related daily behaviors and experiences, especially sleep disturbances and inactivity, may explain excess respiratory illness morbidity in PTSD. The findings were generally consistent across daily self-report and spirometry measures of respiratory problems. Targeting these behaviors might enhance prevention of and intervention in respiratory problems in traumatized populations.
  • Sexual orientation and sex-related substance use: The unexplored role of
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 115Author(s): Tenille C. Taggart, Craig Rodriguez-Seijas, Christina Dyar, Jennifer C. Elliott, Ronald G. Thompson, Deborah S. Hasin, Nicholas R. Eaton Using alcohol and drugs in sexual contexts is associated with negative health consequences, including increased risk for HIV/STIs, sexual victimization, unplanned pregnancies, and overdose. Evidence suggests millions of adults regularly use alcohol in sexual contexts, thus increasing their risk for these consequences. However, no nationally representative estimates exist for rates of regular alcohol and/or drug use in sexual contexts. Additionally, previous studies suggest sexual minority individuals are more likely to use substances in sexual contexts than heterosexuals; however, none of these studies examined for multiple dimensions or subgroups of sexual orientation. Thus, using two distinct datasets—one large, nationally representative sample (N = 17,491) and an Internet-collected convenience sample (N = 1001)—we explored the associations between sexual orientation (dimensions and subgroups) and rates of regular sex-related alcohol and/or drug use in American adults. Results showed that sexual minority individuals were significantly more likely to report regularly using substances in sexual contexts compared to heterosexuals; however, results varied based on dimension of sexual orientation and by sex. Across both samples, bisexual individuals exhibited the highest rates of regular sex-related substance use. Findings suggest that sexual minorities, and bisexual individuals in particular, may be at increased risk for regular sex-related substance use and its associated negative health consequences. Future research should include nuanced and multidimensional assessments of sexual orientation to investigate sex-related alcohol and/or drug use and its associated risks, as well as examine the potential direct and indirect pathways by which these disparities may be conferred.
  • An analysis of within-treatment change trajectories in valued activity in
           relation to treatment outcomes following interdisciplinary Acceptance and
           Commitment Therapy for adults with chronic pain
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 115Author(s): Kevin E. Vowles, Gail Sowden, Jayne Hickman, Julie Ashworth A key issue in chronic pain treatment concerns changes necessary for reduced pain-related distress and disability. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), a behavior change approach, theorizes several important treatment processes. Increased engagement in valued activities appears highly relevant as previous work has indicated it is related to current and future functioning and to treatment outcomes. This study sought to examine change trajectory in valued activity over the course of an interdisciplinary program of ACT and its relation to outcomes at treatment conclusion and three-month follow-up (N = 242). Latent change trajectories of valued activity were assessed weekly over four weeks of treatment and analyzed via latent growth curve and growth mixture modeling. A single latent trajectory with an increasing linear slope was indicated. Overall, slope of change in valued activity was predictive of improvement in psychosocial outcomes at post-treatment, including psychosocial disability, depression, pain anxiety, and discrepancy between values importance and success. Slope was not related to change in pain intensity or physical disability at post-treatment, nor was it related to change in any variable at follow-up. Findings are discussed in relation to the ACT model, in that support was provided in relation to post-treatment improvements for psychosocial variables.
  • Integrated cognitive behavioral therapy for comorbid cannabis use and
           anxiety disorders: A pilot randomized controlled trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 115Author(s): Julia D. Buckner, Michael J. Zvolensky, Anthony H. Ecker, Norman B. Schmidt, Elizabeth M. Lewis, Daniel J. Paulus, Paula Lopez-Gamundi, Kathleen A. Crapanzano, Jafar Bakhshaie Cannabis use disorder (CUD) is the most common illicit substance use disorder and individuals with CUD have high rates of comorbid anxiety disorders. Comorbidity between CUD and anxiety disorders is of public health relevance given that although motivation enhancement therapy (MET) combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an efficacious intervention for CUD, outcomes are worse for patients with elevated anxiety. The current study tested the acceptability and efficacy of the integration of a transdiagnostic anxiety CBT (i.e., treatment of patients with any anxiety disorder) with MET-CBT (integrated cannabis and anxiety reduction treatment, or ICART) for CUD compared to MET-CBT alone. Treatment-seeking cannabis users (56.4% male, Mage = 23.2, 63.3% non-Hispanic White) with CUD and at least one comorbid anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to ICART (n = 27) or MET-CBT (n = 28). Patients in the ICART condition attended significantly more treatment sessions than those in the MET-CBT condition. Patients in the ICART condition were more likely to be abstinent post-treatment than those in MET-CBT. Further, treatment produced decreases in cannabis use and related problems. Notably, therapy type did not moderate the impact of treatment on frequency of use and related problems. Together, these data suggest that ICART may be at least as efficacious as a gold-standard psychosocial CUD treatment, MET-CBT, for a difficult-to-treat subpopulation of cannabis users.
  • The effects of exercise on transdiagnostic treatment targets: A
           meta-analytic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 115Author(s): Jolene Jacquart, Christina D. Dutcher, Slaton Z. Freeman, Aliza T. Stein, Mike Dinh, Emily Carl, Jasper A.J. Smits BackgroundThe present study meta-analytically reviewed the effects of exercise on four transdiagnostic treatment targets: anxiety sensitivity (AS), distress tolerance (DT), stress reactivity (SR), and general self-efficacy (GSE).MethodsWe conducted systematic searches of peer-reviewed studies in bibliographical databases (Cochrane Library, psychINFO, PubMed) before April 1, 2018. Only randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating the effect of exercise on AS, DT, SR, or GSE using at least one validated outcome instrument in a sample of adolescents (≥13 years old) or adults were selected. We employed a meta-analysis of effects using random-effects pooling modeling for each treatment target.ResultsThe systematic search yielded 28 RCTs meeting eligibility criteria. Exercise interventions had a large effect on reducing AS (six studies, Hedges's g = 0.72, p = .001), a medium effect on increasing GSE (eight studies, Hedges's g = 0.59, p 
  • Individual differences in emotion dysregulation and trajectory of
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 115Author(s): Andrew H. Rogers, Jafar Bakhshaie, Lorra Garey, Thomas M. Piasecki, Matthew W. Gallagher, Norman B. Schmidt, Michael J. Zvolensky ObjectiveCigarette smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, and withdrawal symptoms are central to the maintenance of tobacco use. Previous research suggests that individual differences in the propensity to experience negative affect may be related to more severe withdrawal symptoms. However, little research has examined how individual differences in the ability to regulate affect (emotion dysregulation) may impact withdrawal symptoms over time.MethodTherefore, the current study examined the effects of emotion dysregulation on change in tobacco withdrawal symptoms over 12 weeks following a cigarette quit attempt among 188 (Mage = 38.52, SD = 14.00, 46.8% male) treatment seeking smokers.ResultsResults from the study indicated greater emotion dysregulation was associated with greater quit day withdrawal symptoms as well as with as slower decline in withdrawal symptoms over the 12-week period (B = −0.001, SE = 0.001, p = .046).ConclusionThe current study offers novel evidence into the role of emotion dysregulation in relation to withdrawal symptoms during a quit attempt. Assessing and reducing heightened emotion dysregulation prior to a quit attempt may be a potentially important therapeutic tactic for helping smokers achieve greater success in managing tobacco withdrawal.Public health significance statementThis study emphasizes the ways in which emotional dysregulation may affect tobacco withdrawal symptoms. This study can be utilized to further target smoking cessation programs for those attempting to quit smoking.
  • Behavioral medicine and behavioral health research and practice: An
           introduction to the Special Issue
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 115Author(s): Michael J. Zvolensky, Jasper A.J. Smits, Lorra Garey The field of behavioral medicine continues to have a major impact on psychological science and public health. Presently, the field of behavioral medicine is undergoing rapid development and continues to evolve as a sub-discipline in allied disciplines. This Special Issue highlights emerging work that contributes to the evolution of behavioral medicine as pertaining to behavioral, psychosocial, and biomedical science integration to prevent, diagnose, and treat illness and disease. The present introductory article calls attention to research in behavioral medicine in the larger context of behavioral health research and practice and encourages continued research in this area. Research presented in this Special Issue covers a variety of topics, ranging from the role of cognition and emotion in behavioral disorders, development and refinement of novel technological and integrated interventions, substance use comorbidity, sexual health across special populations, and social determinants of health. This Special Issue is organized into three parts classified as transdiagnostic processes in health behavior and physical illness; personalization of health-specific therapeutic tactics in modern day healthcare in behavioral medicine; and social determinants of health and health disparities in behavioral medicine among special populations. It is hoped that this issue will alert readers to the significance of this work, illustrate the many domains currently being explored via innovative approaches, and identify promising and impactful areas for research.
  • Intolerance of uncertainty is associated with reduced attentional
           inhibition in the absence of direct threat
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: Behaviour Research and TherapyAuthor(s): Jayne Morriss, Eugene McSorley Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a dispositional tendency to find uncertain situations aversive and anxiety-provoking. There is limited understanding as to how IU may bias attention to uncertainty in the absence of direct threat. Here we examined the extent to which uncertain distractors and individual differences in IU impacted eye-movements during an attentional capture task. Participants were asked to move their eyes towards a target, whilst ignoring an array of distractors. An additional distractor could appear before or after the target in a near or far location from the target. We observed high IU individuals to display fewer first saccades to the target in all conditions. The results were specific to IU, over trait anxiety. Overall, these results suggest that IU modulates attention to uncertainty in the absence of direct threat. Such findings inform the conceptualisation of IU and its relation to psychopathology.
  • An experimental study on spontaneous recovery of conditioned reward
           expectancies and instrumental responding in humans
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: Behaviour Research and TherapyAuthor(s): Sabine Steins-Loeber, Radka Madjarova, Frank Lörsch, Sabine C. Herpertz, Herta Flor, Theodora Duka The aim of the present study was to investigate spontaneous recovery of reward-expectancies and a reward-associated response in humans and to assess individual factors affecting spontaneous recovery. We therefore implemented an experimental procedure comprising three separate test-sessions. In the first test-session, participants underwent instrumental discrimination training to acquire a conditioned reward-associated response, in the second test-session, memory of this response was tested followed by extinction training. In the third test-session, extinction memory was assessed. Our results demonstrate spontaneous recovery of extinguished conditioned reward-associated expectancies and indicate that differential expectancies after training and extinction and impulsivity significantly predicted the magnitude of spontaneous recovery. In contrast, limited evidence for spontaneous recovery of instrumental responding was found. Given that reward-expectancies might trigger instrumental responding these findings underline the importance of developing extinction procedures that lead to more complete and less fragile long-term extinction of reward-associated responses.
  • Reducing fear overgeneralization in children using a novel perceptual
           discrimination task
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: Behaviour Research and TherapyAuthor(s): Rivkah Ginat-Frolich, Tamar Gendler, Dan Marzan, Yuval Tsuk, Tomer Shechner Fear generalization, while adaptive, can be detrimental when occurring in excess. To this end a perceptual discrimination training task was created with a goal of decreasing fear overgeneralization. The current study tested the effectiveness of the training task among typically-developing children.Participants (n = 73) were randomly assigned into a training, placebo or no task group. Following a differential fear-conditioning task, participants in the first two groups underwent the discrimination training or placebo task. An assessment task was then administered. Finally, all participants completed a generalization test, consisting of 11 morphs ranging in perceptual similarity from the threat cue to the safety cue. Physiological and self-report measures were collected.Fear-conditioning was achieved in both physiological and self-report measures. Further, in the assessment task, the training group showed better perceptual discrimination than did the placebo group. Last, the training group exhibited less overgeneralization of affective stimuli as indicated by a physiological measure than did the two control conditions.Findings suggest that the perceptual discrimination training task effectively moderated fear overgeneralization in children. This adds to previous evidence of the task's effectiveness among adults.
  • Fear of negative and positive evaluation and reactivity to
           social-evaluative videos in social anxiety disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: Behaviour Research and TherapyAuthor(s): Julia Reichenberger, Nicole Wiggert, Frank H. Wilhelm, Michael Liedlgruber, Ulrich Voderholzer, Andreas Hillert, Barbara Timmer, Jens Blechert Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is marked by persistent fear of being scrutinized by others. This and most diagnostic symptoms relate to some form of fear of negative evaluation (FNE). More recent accounts of SAD, such as the Bivalent Fear of Evaluation Model, however, complement FNE with fear of positive evaluation (FPE), described as distress and avoidance of positive feedback. An explicit test of the incremental validity of FPE in discriminating SAD patients from controls – over and on top of the explanatory power of FPE – is currently missing and generally, well controlled laboratory experiments with positive and negative social stimuli in this patient group are rare.To fill this gap, we exposed 35 patients with SAD and healthy controls (HCs) to short social-evaluative video clips with actors expressing negative and positive as well as neutral statements while recording reactivity on experiential measures (valence, arousal, and approval ratings) as well as on facial electromyography and electrocardiography. In addition, participants completed questionnaire measures of FNE and FPE.Results revealed that FPE questionnaire scores as well as experiential (valence and appreciation) and electromyographical reactivity measures to positive videos improved prediction of group membership beyond the predictive power of FNE questionnaires scores and reactivity to negative videos.Results document the importance of FPE to more fully characterize and understand social anxiety and SAD. Implications include amendments to future diagnostic criteria, theoretical models, and treatment approaches for SAD.
  • Predictors of attendance and dropout in three randomized controlled trials
           of PTSD treatment for active duty service members
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019Source: Behaviour Research and TherapyAuthor(s): Danielle S. Berke, Nora K. Kline, Jennifer Schuster Wachen, Carmen P. McLean, Jeffrey S. Yarvis, Jim Mintz, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Alan L. Peterson, Edna Foa, Patricia A. Resick, Brett T. Litz, STRONG STAR Consortium Dropout from first-line posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatments is a significant problem. We reported rates and predictors of attendance and dropout in three clinical trials of evidence-based PTSD treatments in military service members (N = 557). Service members attended 81.0% of treatment sessions and 30.7% dropped out. Individually delivered treatment was associated with greater attendance rates (β = 0.23, p 
  • Single case and idiographic research: Introduction to the special issue
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Behaviour Research and TherapyAuthor(s): Jacqueline B. Persons, James F. Boswell
  • ‘How does change unfold'’ an evaluation of the process of change
           in four people with chronic low back pain and high pain-related fear
           managed with Cognitive Functional Therapy: A replicated single-case
           experimental design study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2019Source: Behaviour Research and TherapyAuthor(s): J.P. Caneiro, Anne Smith, Steven J. Linton, G. Lorimer Moseley, Peter O'Sullivan PurposeTo understand the process of change at an individual level, this study used a single-case experimental design to evaluate how change in potential mediators related to change in disability over time, during an exposure-based behavioural intervention in four people with chronic low back pain and high pain-related fear. A second aim was to evaluate whether the change (sequential or simultaneous) in mediators and disability occurred at the same timepoint for all individuals.ResultsFor all participants, visual and statistical analyses indicated that changes in disability and proposed mediators were clearly related to the commencement of Cognitive Functional Therapy. This was supported by standard outcome assessments at pre-post timepoints. Cross-lag correlation analysis determined that, for all participants, most of the proposed mediators (pain intensity, pain controllability, and fear) were most strongly associated with disability at lag zero, suggesting that mediators changed concomitantly and not before disability. Importantly, these changes occurred at different rates and patterns for different individuals, highlighting the individual temporal variability of change.ConclusionThis study demonstrated the interplay of factors associated with treatment response, highlighting ‘how change unfolded’ uniquely for each individual. The findings that factors underpinning treatment response and the outcome changed simultaneously, challenge the traditional understanding of therapeutic change.
  • A preliminary naturalistic clinical case series study of the feasibility
           and impact of interoceptive exposure for eating disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2019Source: Behaviour Research and TherapyAuthor(s): James F. Boswell, Lisa M. Anderson, Jennifer M. Oswald, Erin E. Reilly, Sasha Gorrell, Drew A. Anderson Recent literature suggests that individuals with eating disorders demonstrate altered interoceptive processing, which may relate to the maintenance of symptoms and thus represent a salient treatment target. Adopting treatment techniques effective for other conditions characterized by disturbed interoceptive processes (e.g., anxiety disorders) could aid in improving the outcomes of psychological interventions for eating disorders. The current investigation was a naturalistic case series (N = 4) that examined adjunctive interoceptive exposure (IE) for eating disorders, with an emphasis on evaluating the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of this intervention on anxiety sensitivity, interoceptive deficits, and eating disorder symptoms. Results suggested that all individuals who received 4 consecutive sessions of traditional and eating-disorder-specific IE exercises demonstrated decreases in interoceptive deficits and subjective distress. Results for anxiety sensitivity and eating disorder symptoms were encouraging yet more mixed. Findings also generally suggested that the intervention was feasible and acceptable, yet between-session practice compliance varied considerably among participants. Overall, we describe how IE may be used to target interoceptive deficits in eating disorders and provide preliminary evidence of how this may be accomplished within naturalistic intensive outpatient settings.
  • Randomization tests for changing criterion designs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2019Source: Behaviour Research and TherapyAuthor(s): Patrick Onghena, René Tanious, Tamal Kumar De, Bart Michiels Randomization tests for alternating treatments designs, multiple baseline designs, and withdrawal/reversal designs are well-established. Recent classifications, however, also mention the “changing criterion design” as a fourth important type of single-case experimental design. In this paper, we examine the potential of randomization tests for changing criterion designs. We focus on the rationale of the randomization test, the random assignment procedure, the choice of the test statistic, and the calculation of randomization test p-values. Two examples using empirical data and an R computer program to perform the calculations are provided. We discuss the problems associated with conceptualizing the changing criterion design as a variant of the multiple baseline design, the potential of the range-bound changing criterion design, experimental control as an all-or-none phenomenon, the necessity of random assignment for the statistical-conclusion validity of the randomization test, and the use of randomization tests in nonrandomized designs.
  • Virtual reality suicide: Development of a translational approach for
           studying suicide causes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2018Source: Behaviour Research and TherapyAuthor(s): Joseph C. Franklin, Xieyining Huang, Diana Bastidas Causal knowledge is crucial for understanding and preventing suicide. Unfortunately, we have little direct knowledge about suicide causes because we cannot conduct experiments that seek to make suicide more likely. In such situations, translational approaches can provide valuable, though tentative, information. We sought to establish a new translational approach by developing a laboratory approximation of suicide with new virtual reality (VR) technologies. Such an approach would allow researchers to tentatively investigate the causes of suicide by conducting experiments that introduce purported causes of suicide and observe their effects on VR suicide rates. Across three studies (total N = 498), results indicated that our two VR suicide scenarios (jumping from heights; shooting oneself) were safe; rated as unpleasant, realistic, and suicide-relevant; associated with several relevant predictors of VR suicide completion, including male sex, suicidal desire, suicidal capability, agitation, and prior suicidality; associated with reasons for not engaging in VR suicide that are similar to the reasons people give for not engaging in actual suicide; and produced 5% completion rates under neutral conditions and 25% completion rates after reward/avoid manipulations. We hope that future work further improves this approach and applies it to more directly test ideas about suicide causes and suicide prevention.
  • The dynamics of social support among suicide attempters: A
           smartphone-based daily diary study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2018Source: Behaviour Research and TherapyAuthor(s): Daniel D.L. Coppersmith, Evan M. Kleiman, Catherine R. Glenn, Alexander J. Millner, Matthew K. Nock Decades of research suggest that social support is an important factor in predicting suicide risk and resilience. However, no studies have examined dynamic fluctuations in day-by-day levels of perceived social support. We examined such fluctuations over 28 days among a sample of 53 adults who attempted suicide in the past year (992 total observations). Variability in social support was analyzed with between-person intraclass correlations and root mean square of successive differences. Multi-level models were conducted to determine the association between social support and suicidal ideation. Results revealed that social support varies considerably from day to day with 45% of social support ratings differing by at least one standard deviation from the prior assessment. Social support is inversely associated with same-day and next-day suicidal ideation, but not with next-day suicidal ideation after adjusting for same-day suicidal ideation (i.e., not with daily changes in suicidal ideation). These results suggest that social support is a time-varying protective factor for suicidal ideation.
  • Real-time monitoring technology in single-case experimental design
           research: Opportunities and challenges
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2018Source: Behaviour Research and TherapyAuthor(s): Kate H. Bentley, Evan M. Kleiman, Grace Elliott, Jeffery C. Huffman, Matthew K. Nock Single-case experimental design (SCED) is a rigorous method of studying behavior and behavior change. A key characteristic of SCED is repeated, systematic assessment of outcome variables, which is critical to achieving high internal validity, collecting a sufficient number of observations to conduct adequately powered statistical analyses, capturing dynamic and fine-grained changes in outcomes, and tailoring interventions at the individual level. Recent advances in real-time monitoring technology, such as digital ecological momentary assessment, passive smartphone-based behavioral tracking, and physiological assessment with wearable biosensors, are extremely well-suited to conducting these repeated, systematic measurements. Here, we discuss the rationale for incorporating real-time data collection technologies within SCED and highlight how recent studies have paired SCED with real-time monitoring. We also present original data illustrating how real-time digital monitoring can provide an idiographic and granular view of behavior (in this case, suicidal ideation). Last, we discuss the challenges of, and offer our recommendations for, using real-time monitoring technologies in SCED research.
  • Predicting suicide attempts among soldiers who deny suicidal ideation in
           the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2018Source: Behaviour Research and TherapyAuthor(s): Samantha L. Bernecker, Kelly L. Zuromski, Peter M. Gutierrez, Thomas E. Joiner, Andrew J. King, Howard Liu, Matthew K. Nock, Nancy A. Sampson, Alan M. Zaslavsky, Murray B. Stein, Robert J. Ursano, Ronald C. Kessler Most nonfatal suicide attempts and suicide deaths occur among patients who deny suicidal ideation (SI) during suicide risk screenings. Little is known about risk factors for suicidal behaviors among such patients. We investigated this in a representative sample of U.S. Army soldiers who denied lifetime SI in a survey and were then followed through administrative records for up to 45 months to learn of administratively-recorded suicide attempts (SA). A novel two-stage risk assessment approach was used that combined first-stage prediction from administrative records to find the subsample of SI deniers with highest subsequent SA risk and then used survey reports to estimate a second-stage model identifying the subset of individuals in the high-risk subsample at highest SA risk. 70% of survey respondents denied lifetime SI. Administrative data identified 30% of this 70% who accounted for 81.2% of subsequent administratively-recorded SAs. A relatively small number of self-report survey variables were then used to create a prediction model that identified 10% of the first-stage high-risk sample (i.e., 3% of all soldiers) at highest SA risk (accounting for 45% of SAs in the total sample). We close by discussing potential applications of this approach for identifying future SI deniers at highest SA risk.
  • The unique and conditional effects of interoceptive exposure in the
           treatment of anxiety: A functional analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2018Source: Behaviour Research and TherapyAuthor(s): Hannah Boettcher, David H. Barlow Interoceptive exposure (IE; exposure focused on anxiety about somatic sensations) is a well-established component of treatments for panic disorder (PD), but little is known about the specificity of its effects or individual response patterns resulting from this intervention. This study investigated the utility of IE in the treatment of PD with claustrophobia, examining its mechanisms in isolation and in combination with situational exposure. Ten adults with PD and claustrophobia were treated with a flexible single-case approach. Participants received up to 6 sessions of IE; nonresponders received up to 6 additional sessions of IE combined with situational exposure. Hypotheses were: 1) Reductions in anxiety sensitivity (AS) and fearful expectancies would coincide with the introduction of IE and reach clinical significance by the end of the IE phase; 2) Reductions in claustrophobic avoidance would coincide with the introduction of situational exposure; 3) Fear extinction and distress habituation would occur in both intervention phases. Hypothesis 1 was not supported: Five participants experienced a reduction in AS and six participants experienced reduced expectancies of feared outcomes, but this did not reliably coincide with introduction of IE. Hypothesis 2 was supported: Claustrophobic avoidance improved more after the addition of situational exposure. Hypothesis 3 was supported: Habituation and fear extinction, whereby distress and expectancies of feared outcomes decreased and fear tolerance increased, were observed in response to IE delivered alone and in combination with situational exposure. IE appeared more helpful to participants who were fearful of the physical consequences of somatic sensations (e.g., heart attack) vs. other consequences (e.g., embarrassment). The observed variability in response to IE suggests a need for individualized implementation of this intervention.
  • Single-case experimental designs. Evaluating interventions in research and
           clinical practice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2018Source: Behaviour Research and TherapyAuthor(s): Alan E. Kazdin Single-case designs refer to a methodological approach that can be used to investigate the effectiveness of treatment with the individual client. The designs permit scientifically valid inferences to be drawn about the effects of treatment and hence offer advantages over alternative strategies such as the uncontrolled case study or open study that are used with the individual case. The present article discusses the key features of the methodology, illustrates specific designs and how inferences are drawn, and discusses critical issues (feasibility, generality of results, ethical issues) in the use of the designs. Essential features of the design, including ongoing assessment and drawing on the underlying thinking and logic of the designs can improve the clinical care for individual clients, even when the rigors of experimentation are not feasible or desirable. Lamentably, single-case methods are rarely trained among researchers or practitioners in psychology or related mental health professions. The designs could play a special role by improving individual care and therapeutic change, apart from the strength of the methodology as a purely research tool.
  • Brief measures of physical and psychological distance to suicide methods
           as correlates and predictors of suicide risk: A multi-study prospective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2018Source: Behaviour Research and TherapyAuthor(s): Megan L. Rogers, Melanie A. Hom, Ian H. Stanley, Thomas E. Joiner A core component of suicide risk assessment and management is determining one's physical proximity to specific suicide means and counseling individuals to minimize their physical access to these means. However, this approach ignores other potentially relevant parameters, such as perceptions of how psychologically close/distant one feels to a particular suicide method. The present study examined the degree to which novel, brief measures of physical and psychological distance to suicide methods were associated with and prospectively predicted suicide-related outcomes at (1) two-month follow-up among 121 students with current/recent suicidality; and (2) one-week follow-up among 91 community-dwelling adults at high suicide risk. Results indicated that both physical and psychological distance to means were related to suicidal intent at baseline. Additionally, in Study 2, lower psychological distance, but not physical distance, predicted suicidal intent and increased likelihood of having made suicide plans and suicide preparations at one-week follow-up. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of considering not only physical proximity to suicide means, but also psychological distance, pointing to the potential import of assessing and intervening upon psychological distance during lethal means counseling. Our findings also highlight the potential clinical utility of two brief measures of physical and psychological closeness to suicide means.
  • Mindfulness and associations with symptoms of insomnia, anxiety and
           depression in early adulthood: A twin and sibling study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2018Source: Behaviour Research and TherapyAuthor(s): Melanie N. Schneider, Helena M.S. Zavos, Tom A. McAdams, Yulia Kovas, Samaneh Sadeghi, Alice M. Gregory This study investigated associations between mindfulness and symptoms of insomnia, depression and anxiety. Mindfulness was disaggregated into 5 subscales: ‘nonreactivity to inner experience’, ‘observing’, ‘acting with awareness’, ‘describing’ and ‘nonjudging of inner experience’. Twin models were used to examine genetic and environmental influences on mindfulness, symptoms of insomnia, depression and anxiety and on their associations. Data came from a longitudinal twin/sibling study (G1219) comprising 862 individuals (age range 22–32 years, 66% females). Less mindfulness was associated with greater symptoms of insomnia, depression and anxiety (r = 0.22-0.46). Of the mindfulness subscales, ‘nonjudging of inner experience’ was most strongly associated with the other traits. Overall mindfulness was largely influenced by non-shared environmental factors (E = 0.72) although familial influences played a role for overall mindfulness, as well as for the ‘acting with awareness’ and ‘describing’ subscales. The genetic correlations between overall mindfulness and symptoms of insomnia, depression and anxiety ranged from 0.32 to 0.75 (but were non-significant), while the shared environmental correlations ranged from −0.78 to 0.79 (also non-significant). The non-shared environmental influences between these three variables were moderately, significantly correlated (rE = 0.21-0.55).
  • Behavioral empathy failures and suicidal behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2018Source: Behaviour Research and TherapyAuthor(s): Ke Zhang, Katalin Szanto, Luke Clark, Alexandre Y. Dombrovski Impaired decision-making has recently gained recognition as a component of the suicidal diathesis. Yet, although precipitants and particularly deterrents to suicidal behavior are often interpersonal, little is known about social decision-making in suicidal individuals. This study employed a novel version of the Ultimatum Game to investigate how empathy moderates responses to social conflict in 149 older adults, comprising groups of suicide attempters (n = 49), suicide ideators (n = 32), non-suicidal depressed controls (n = 33), and a non-psychiatric control group (n = 35). Participants acted as responder to a series of single-shot financial offers that varied in fairness. Some offers were paired with social context information on the proposer, designed to evoke either empathy or punishment. Offer acceptance was sensitive to Fairness and Social Context, such that participants accepted more offers in the empathy condition and fewer offers in the punishment condition. A Group * Context interaction was observed, wherein the suicide attempters adjusted their acceptance rates less in the empathy condition than the non-psychiatric controls. Thus, older adults with a history of suicide attempt were less influenced by empathy scenarios, indicating that a failure to integrate others’ emotions into decisions may undermine social deterrents to suicide.
  • Isolating the effect of opposite action in borderline personality
           disorder: A laboratory-based alternating treatment design
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2018Source: Behaviour Research and TherapyAuthor(s): Shannon Sauer-Zavala, Julianne G. Wilner, Clair Cassiello-Robbins, Pooja Saraff, Danyelle Pagan Evaluating the unique effects of each component included in treatment protocols for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a necessary step in refining these interventions so that they only include skills that drive therapeutic change. One strategy, included in several prominent treatments for BPD, is acting opposite to emotion-driven behavioral urges; engaging in behaviors that are inconsistent with an experienced emotion is thought to lead to reductions in its intensity, though this has not been empirically-tested. The present study was a single-case experiment, specifically an alternating treatment design, that explored the effects of a laboratory-based adaptation of opposite action (versus acting consistent) on emotional intensity. Sixteen individuals with BPD attended six laboratory sessions in which they were instructed to act consistent with an induced emotion in half the sessions and opposite in the other half. Participants were randomly assigned to the specific emotion (i.e., anxiety, sadness, anger, and shame/guilt) that was induced across all study sessions. Findings from visual inspection and percentage of non-overlapping data suggest that acting opposite (versus consistent) leads to significantly greater decreases in emotional intensity for those in the sadness and guilt/shame conditions, but not those in the anxiety or anger conditions. Possible interpretations of these findings are presented. Replication outside of the laboratory context is necessary to draw further conclusions of the clinical implications of these findings.
  • The role of the individual in the coming era of process-based therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2018Source: Behaviour Research and TherapyAuthor(s): Steven C. Hayes, Stefan G. Hofmann, Cory E. Stanton, Joseph K. Carpenter, Brandon T. Sanford, Joshua E. Curtiss, Joseph Ciarrochi For decades the development of evidence-based therapy has been based on experimental tests of protocols designed to impact psychiatric syndromes. As this paradigm weakens, a more process-based therapy approach is rising in its place, focused on how to best target and change core biopsychosocial processes in specific situations for given goals with given clients. This is an inherently more idiographic question than has normally been at issue in evidence-based therapy over the last few decades. In this article we explore methods of assessment and analysis that can integrate idiographic and nomothetic approaches in a process-based era.
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