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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 942 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 437)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 193)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 241)
Anuario de investigaciones (Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Buenos Aires)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy Online     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 150)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Buletin Psikologi     Open Access  
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling et spiritualité / Counselling and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Diversitas : Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Behaviour Research and Therapy
  Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.306
  Citation Impact (citeScore): 138
  Number of Followers: 20  
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0005-7967
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Who needs more than standard care' Treatment moderators in a
           randomized clinical trial comparing addiction treatment alone to addiction
           treatment plus anxiety disorder treatment for comorbid anxiety and
           substance use disorders
    • Authors: Kate Wolitzky-Taylor; Andrea N. Niles; Richard Ries; Jennifer L. Krull; Richard Rawson; Peter Roy-Byrne; Michelle Craske
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 107
      Author(s): Kate Wolitzky-Taylor, Andrea N. Niles, Richard Ries, Jennifer L. Krull, Richard Rawson, Peter Roy-Byrne, Michelle Craske
      Introduction Understanding for whom treatments exert their greatest effects is crucial for prescriptive recommendations that can improve overall treatment efficacy. Anxiety and substance use disorder comorbidity is prevalent and a significant public health concern. Little is known about who should receive specialized, integrated treatments to address both problems. This study aimed to examine baseline patient characteristics that predict differential outcome between typical treatment for substance use disorders (UC) compared to that treatment combined with cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders (UC + CALM ARC). Methods We examined several putative treatment moderators in a dataset of community-based participants (N = 75) from a randomized clinical trial at an outpatient community substance use disorder (SUD) specialty clinic. Participants who met criteria for any anxiety disorder and any SUD were randomized to UC (the Intensive Outpatient Program at the clinic) or UC + CALM ARC. Outcome measures included anxiety symptoms, drug use, and alcohol use, and were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and a 6-month follow-up assessment. Results Older age and female gender were associated with greater improvement on anxiety outcomes in UC + CALM ARC compared to UC. The presence of an alcohol use disorder was associated with greater improvement in alcohol use in UC + CALM ARC compared to UC. Higher opiate-related withdrawal symptoms and the presence of more SUDs were associated with greater improvement in drug use outcomes in UC + CALM ARC compared to UC. Conclusions Several pre-treatment characteristics are associated with a return of symptoms for those who receive only UC, whereas the addition of CALM ARC prevented the return of symptoms. Implications for future research and preliminary clinical recommendations are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T22:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2018)
  • Treatment processes and demographic variables as predictors of dropout
           from trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) for youth
    • Authors: Carly Yasinski; Adele M. Hayes; Elizabeth Alpert; Thomas McCauley; C. Beth Ready; Charles Webb; Esther Deblinger
      Pages: 10 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 107
      Author(s): Carly Yasinski, Adele M. Hayes, Elizabeth Alpert, Thomas McCauley, C. Beth Ready, Charles Webb, Esther Deblinger
      Objective Premature dropout is a significant concern in trauma-focused psychotherapy for youth. Previous studies have primarily examined pre-treatment demographic and symptom-related predictors of dropout, but few consistent findings have been reported. The current study examined demographic, symptom, and in-session process variables as predictors of dropout from Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for youth. Method Participants were a diverse sample of Medicaid-eligible youth (ages 7–17; n = 108) and their nonoffending caregivers (n = 86), who received TF-CBT through an effectiveness study in a community setting. In-session process variables were coded from audio-recorded sessions, and these and pre-treatment demographic variables and symptom levels were examined as predictors of dropout prior to receiving an adequate dose of TF-CBT (<7 sessions). Twenty-nine children were classified as dropouts and 79 as completers. Results Binary logistic regression analyses revealed that higher levels of child and caregiver avoidance expressed during early sessions, as well as greater relationship difficulties between the child and therapist, predicted dropout. Those children who were in foster care during treatment were less likely to drop out than children living with parents or relatives. No other demographic or symptom-related factors predicted dropout. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of addressing avoidance and therapeutic relationship difficulties in early sessions of TF-CBT to help reduce dropout, and they have implications for improving efforts to disseminate evidence-based trauma-focused treatments.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T22:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.05.008
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2018)
  • Turning gold into lead: Dampening appraisals reduce happiness and
           pleasantness and increase sadness during anticipation and recall of
           pleasant activities in the laboratory
    • Authors: Barnaby D. Dunn; Leigh Anne Burr; Harriet Bunker Smith; Anna Hunt; Daniel Dadgostar; Lucy Dalglish; Sophie Smith; Ellie Attree; Grace Jell; James Martyn; Nikita Bos; Aliza Werner-Seidler
      Pages: 19 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 107
      Author(s): Barnaby D. Dunn, Leigh Anne Burr, Harriet Bunker Smith, Anna Hunt, Daniel Dadgostar, Lucy Dalglish, Sophie Smith, Ellie Attree, Grace Jell, James Martyn, Nikita Bos, Aliza Werner-Seidler
      Two studies examined whether use of dampening appraisals (e.g., thinking “this is too good to last”) or amplifying appraisals (e.g., thinking “I deserve this”) modulated affective experience when remembering (Study One) and anticipating (Study Two) positive events. Both studies used a mixed within-between participants design, with participants completing an uninstructed positive recall/anticipation task before being randomized to either control, dampening, or amplifying instructions during a second positive recall/anticipation task. During memory recall (Study One), instructed dampening increased dampening appraisals and led to a reduction in happiness and pleasantness and an increase in sadness, significantly differing from the control and amplifying conditions. While the amplifying condition significantly increased amplifying appraisals, it did not alter affective experience (relative to the control condition). During anticipation (Study Two), identical findings emerged for the dampening manipulation. The amplifying manipulation did not significantly increase amplifying appraisals, precluding conclusions being drawn about the impact of amplifying in this study. These results suggest that dampening appraisals contribute to altered affective experience when imagining and recalling positive activities and may account for why attempts to do so can have paradoxically negative effects in clinical populations. Moreover, the studies preliminarily validate a novel scale measuring state appraisal of positive experiences.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T22:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2018)
  • Change in anxiety sensitivity and substance use coping motives as putative
           mediators of treatment efficacy among substance users
    • Authors: Kate Wolitzky-Taylor; Tess K. Drazdowski; Andrea Niles; Peter Roy-Byrne; Richard Ries; Richard Rawson; Michelle G. Craske
      Pages: 34 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 107
      Author(s): Kate Wolitzky-Taylor, Tess K. Drazdowski, Andrea Niles, Peter Roy-Byrne, Richard Ries, Richard Rawson, Michelle G. Craske
      Objective Anxiety sensitivity and coping motives for substance use are processes implicated in anxiety and substance use disorder (SUD) comorbidity, and are malleable treatment targets. Little is known about whether changes in anxiety sensitivity or coping motives during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders (with or without CBT for SUD) mediate substance use outcomes among patients with comorbid anxiety disorders and SUD. We examined whether changes in anxiety sensitivity and coping motives during treatment for comorbid SUD and anxiety disorders (either CBT for SUD only or CBT for SUD and anxiety disorders) were associated with substance use outcomes. Methods Repeated measurements of anxiety sensitivity and coping motives throughout treatment were examined from a randomized clinical trial comparing usual, CBT-based treatment at a substance use disorder specialty clinic (UC) to that usual care plus a brief CBT for anxiety program for patients with comorbid anxiety and substance use disorders (CALM ARC). Results Anxiety sensitivity decline during treatment was significantly steeper among those who received CALM ARC than those in UC. Decreases in anxiety sensitivity mediated the effect of treatment group on alcohol use following treatment such that the greater reduction in anxiety sensitivity in CALM ARC explained the superior outcomes for alcohol use in CALM ARC compared to UC. Declines in substance use coping motives were not observed in either condition, and did not differ between CALM ARC and UC. Thus, declines in coping motives did not mediate substance use after treatment. Conclusions These findings provide preliminary evidence suggesting alcohol use outcomes were related to decreasing anxiety sensitivity rather than decreasing coping motives. Implications and future directions are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T22:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.05.010
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2018)
  • Momentary experiential avoidance: Within-person correlates, antecedents,
           and consequences and between-person moderators
    • Authors: Susan J. Wenze; Trent L. Gaugler; Erin S. Sheets; Jennifer M. DeCicco
      Pages: 42 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 107
      Author(s): Susan J. Wenze, Trent L. Gaugler, Erin S. Sheets, Jennifer M. DeCicco
      We used ecological momentary assessment to investigate momentary correlates, antecedents, and consequences of experiential avoidance (EA), and to explore whether depression and anxiety moderate these within-person relationships. Participants recorded their mood, thoughts, stress, and EA four times daily for one week. Baseline depression and anxiety were associated with EA. EA was lower when participants reported more positive mood and thoughts, and higher when participants reported more negative mood, negative thoughts, and stress. The EA-stress relationship was stronger for participants with higher depression. Lag analyses showed that negative mood, negative thoughts, and stress predicted subsequent EA. In turn, EA predicted subsequent negative mood, negative thoughts, and stress. The relationship between EA and subsequent negative thoughts was stronger for participants with higher anxiety. Participants with higher depression and anxiety had a less negative association between positive thoughts and subsequent EA. This study adds to a growing body of literature on the process of EA as it unfolds in vivo, in real-time. Findings highlight links between momentary negative internal experiences and EA (which may be especially strong for people with depression or anxiety) and suggest that certain positive subjective experiences may buffer against EA. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T22:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.05.011
      Issue No: Vol. 107 (2018)
  • Multiple fear-related stimuli enhance physiological arousal during
           extinction and reduce physiological arousal to novel stimuli and the
           threat conditioned stimulus
    • Authors: Allison M. Waters; Rachel Kershaw; Ottmar V. Lipp
      Pages: 28 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 106
      Author(s): Allison M. Waters, Rachel Kershaw, Ottmar V. Lipp

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T22:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2018)
  • The impact bias in self and others: Affective and empathic forecasting in
           individuals with social anxiety
    • Authors: Kimberly A. Arditte Hall; Jutta Joormann; Matthias Siemer; Kiara R. Timpano
      Pages: 37 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 106
      Author(s): Kimberly A. Arditte Hall, Jutta Joormann, Matthias Siemer, Kiara R. Timpano
      People tend to overestimate the intensity and duration of affect (i.e., impact bias) when making predictions about their own and others' responding, termed affective and empathic forecasting, respectively. Research links impact biases to clinical symptoms of affective disorders, but little work has been done to examine how social anxiety is related to affective and empathic forecasting biases. The current investigation included two studies examining these associations in independent samples of young adults with dimensionally distributed social anxiety symptoms. Study 1 (N = 100) examined the associations between social anxiety and affective and empathic forecasts in response to a series of novel hypothetical vignettes in which a second-person narrator (i.e., the self) elicited anger, disgust, or happiness from another person (i.e., the other). Study 2 utilized an innovative experimental paradigm involving N = 68 participant dyads. Overall, results supported the existence of affective and empathic forecasting biases. Further, symptoms of social anxiety were associated with the tendency to overestimate one's own and others' negative affect and underestimate others' positive affect. Such forecasting biases may help to explain the avoidance that is characteristic of individuals with social anxiety and could represent a fruitful target of cognitive behavioral intervention.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T22:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2018)
  • Effects of mindfulness and psychoeducation on working memory in adult
           ADHD: A randomised, controlled fMRI study
    • Authors: Katharina Bachmann; Alexandra P. Lam; Peter Sörös; Manuela Kanat; Eliza Hoxhaj; Swantje Matthies; Bernd Feige; Helge Müller; Jale Özyurt; Christiane M. Thiel; Alexandra Philipsen
      Pages: 47 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 106
      Author(s): Katharina Bachmann, Alexandra P. Lam, Peter Sörös, Manuela Kanat, Eliza Hoxhaj, Swantje Matthies, Bernd Feige, Helge Müller, Jale Özyurt, Christiane M. Thiel, Alexandra Philipsen
      Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious mental disorder associated with impaired neurocognitive performance related to working memory function. Recent clinical trials have suggested that mindfulness is a promising intervention in adults with ADHD. We performed a randomised controlled clinical trial to investigate working memory (WM) with an n-back task in adults with ADHD during fMRI before and after an 8-week mindfulness intervention (MAP) compared with psychoeducation (PE). ADHD symptoms were assessed using the self- and observer-rated Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). The complete pre–post data of 21 MAP and 19 PE participants were analysed. We found no group difference in ADHD symptoms or task performance at the pre-measurement, but there was a significant decrease in ADHD symptoms and significant improvement in task performance in both groups at the post-measurement. Furthermore, we found a significant increase in task-related activation in the right parietal lobe, with no difference between groups. Exploratory two-sample paired t-tests revealed significant increased brain activation after MAP in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, right posterior insula and right precuneus. A decrease in self-rated ‘Inattention/Memory Problems’ after MAP compared to baseline was associated with stronger activation in parts of the left putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T22:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2018)
  • To deliver or not to deliver cognitive behavioral therapy for eating
           disorders: Replication and extension of our understanding of why
           therapists fail to do what they should do
    • Authors: Sandra Mulkens; Chloé de Vos; Anastacia de Graaff; Glenn Waller
      Pages: 57 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 106
      Author(s): Sandra Mulkens, Chloé de Vos, Anastacia de Graaff, Glenn Waller
      Objective This study investigated the extent to which therapists fail to apply empirically supported treatments in a sample of clinicians in The Netherlands, delivering cognitive behavioral therapy for eating disorders (CBT-ED). It aimed to replicate previous findings, and to extend them by examining other potential intra-individual factors associated with the level of (non-)use of core CBT-ED techniques. Method Participants were 139 clinicians (127 women; mean age 41.4 years, range = 24–64) who completed an online survey about the level of use of specific techniques, their beliefs (e.g., about the importance of the alliance and use of pretreatment motivational techniques), anxiety (Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale), and personality (Ten Item Personality Inventory). Results Despite some differences with Waller’s (2012) findings, the present results continue to indicate that therapists are not reliably delivering the CBT-ED techniques that would be expected to provide the best treatment to their patients. This ‘non-delivery’ appears to be related to clinician anxiety, temporal factors, and clinicians' beliefs about the power of the therapeutic alliance in driving therapy outcomes. Discussion Improving treatment delivery will involve working with clinicians’ levels of anxiety, clarifying the lack of benefit of pre-therapy motivational enhancement work, and reminding clinicians that the therapeutic alliance is enhanced by behavioral change in CBT-ED, rather than the other way around.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T22:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2018)
  • Does interparental conflict decrease following changes in observed
           parenting from a preventive intervention program'
    • Authors: Alexandra D.W. Sullivan; Justin Parent; Rex Forehand; Bruce E. Compas
      Pages: 64 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 106
      Author(s): Alexandra D.W. Sullivan, Justin Parent, Rex Forehand, Bruce E. Compas
      Interparental conflict, which is common among families where a parent has a history of Major Depressive Disorder, is associated with deficits in parenting. Models of family functioning propose that interparental conflict and parenting behaviors are transactional in nature. Given the interdependent nature of family systems, increases in positive parenting practices may lead to subsequent decreases in interparental conflict. The current study was a secondary analysis of data from a preventive intervention to improve parenting, child coping skills, and child behavior in families with a history of parental depression. We hypothesized that increases in positive parenting strategies would be associated with decreases in interparental conflict 12 months later. Results supported the study hypothesis. Findings underscored the interdependent nature of parent-child and parent-parent subsystems.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T22:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2018)
  • Transportability of imagery-enhanced CBT for social anxiety disorder
    • Authors: Peter M. McEvoy; David M. Erceg-Hurn; Kevin C. Barber; Jessica R. Dupasquier; David A. Moscovitch
      Pages: 86 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 106
      Author(s): Peter M. McEvoy, David M. Erceg-Hurn, Kevin C. Barber, Jessica R. Dupasquier, David A. Moscovitch
      Pilot and open trials suggest that imagery-enhanced group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is highly effective for social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, before being considered reliable and generalisable, the effects of the intervention need to be replicated by clinicians in a setting that is independent of the protocol developers. The current study compared outcomes from clients with a principal diagnosis of SAD at the Australian clinic where the protocol was developed (n = 123) to those from an independent Canadian clinic (n = 46) to investigate whether the large effects would generalise. Trainee clinicians from the independent clinic ran the groups using the treatment protocol without any input from its developers. The treatment involved 12 2-h group sessions plus a one-month follow-up. Treatment retention was comparable across both clinics (74% vs. 78%, ≥9/12 sessions) and the between-site effect size was very small and non-significant on the primary outcome (social interaction anxiety, d = 0.09, p = .752). Within-group effect sizes were very large in both settings (ds = 2.05 vs. 2.19), and a substantial minority (41%–44%) achieved clinically significant improvement at follow-up. Replication of treatment effects within an independent clinic and with trainee clinicians increases confidence that outcomes are generalisable.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T22:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2018)
  • A cluster randomized controlled platform trial comparing group MEmory
           specificity training (MEST) to group psychoeducation and supportive
           counselling (PSC) in the treatment of recurrent depression
    • Authors: Aliza Werner-Seidler; Caitlin Hitchcock; Anna Bevan; Anna McKinnon; Julia Gillard; Theresa Dahm; Isobel Chadwick; Inderpal Panesar; Lauren Breakwell; Viola Mueller; Evangeline Rodrigues; Catrin Rees; Siobhan Gormley; Susanne Schweizer; Peter Watson; Filip Raes; Laura Jobson; Tim Dalgleish
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 105
      Author(s): Aliza Werner-Seidler, Caitlin Hitchcock, Anna Bevan, Anna McKinnon, Julia Gillard, Theresa Dahm, Isobel Chadwick, Inderpal Panesar, Lauren Breakwell, Viola Mueller, Evangeline Rodrigues, Catrin Rees, Siobhan Gormley, Susanne Schweizer, Peter Watson, Filip Raes, Laura Jobson, Tim Dalgleish
      Impaired ability to recall specific autobiographical memories is characteristic of depression, which when reversed, may have therapeutic benefits. This cluster-randomized controlled pilot trial investigated efficacy and aspects of acceptability, and feasibility of MEmory Specificity Training (MEST) relative to Psychoeducation and Supportive Counselling (PSC) for Major Depressive Disorder (N = 62). A key aim of this study was to determine a range of effect size estimates to inform a later phase trial. Assessments were completed at baseline, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. The cognitive process outcome was memory specificity. The primary clinical outcome was symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory-II at 3-month follow-up. The MEST group demonstrated greater improvement in memory specificity relative to PSC at post-intervention (d = 0.88) and follow-up (d = 0.74), relative to PSC. Both groups experienced a reduction in depressive symptoms at 3-month follow-up (d = 0.67). However, there was no support for a greater improvement in depressive symptoms at 3 months following MEST relative to PSC (d = −0.04). Although MEST generated changes on memory specificity and improved depressive symptoms, results provide no indication that MEST is superior to PSC in the resolution of self-reported depressive symptoms. Implications for later-phase definitive trials of MEST are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
  • The relationship between executive functioning and weight loss and
           maintenance in children and parents participating in family-based
           treatment for childhood obesity
    • Authors: Dawn M. Eichen; Brittany E. Matheson; June Liang; David R. Strong; Kyung Rhee; Kerri N. Boutelle
      Pages: 10 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 105
      Author(s): Dawn M. Eichen, Brittany E. Matheson, June Liang, David R. Strong, Kyung Rhee, Kerri N. Boutelle
      We examined the relationship between executive function and weight loss among children (8–12 years) and parents enrolled in a behavioral weight-loss program. 150 overweight/obese children and their parents participated in a 6-month family-based weight-loss intervention and completed baseline (month 0), post-treatment (month 6) and 18-month follow-up assessments (month 24), which included Digit Span (DS), Stop Signal Task (SST), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Anthropometrics were additionally measured at mid-treatment (month 3) and 6-month follow-up (month 12). Children with more baseline WCST perseverative errors regained more weight (p = .002) at 18-month follow-up. Change in child BMIz was not associated with change in child executive function (p > .05) or parent executive function (p > .05). Among parents, baseline measure of DS-backward (p < .001) and post-treatment changes in WCST perseverative errors (p < .001) were associated with post-treatment changes in parent BMI. SST was not related to parent or child weight loss. Thus, children's baseline set-shifting was associated with weight regain during follow-up whereas changes in parent set-shifting was associated with changes in parent weight. Future research is needed to examine the relationship between executive function and weight loss and how this translates to intervention success for both overweight/obese children and participating parents.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
  • Cognitive control training for emotion-related impulsivity
    • Authors: Andrew D. Peckham; Sheri L. Johnson
      Pages: 17 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 105
      Author(s): Andrew D. Peckham, Sheri L. Johnson
      Many forms of psychopathology are tied to a heightened tendency to respond impulsively to strong emotions, and this tendency, in turn, is closely tied to problems with cognitive control. The goal of the present study was to test whether a two-week, six-session cognitive control training program is efficacious in reducing emotion-related impulsivity. Participants (N = 52) reporting elevated scores on an emotion-related impulsivity measure completed cognitive control training targeting working memory and response inhibition. A subset of participants were randomized to a waitlist control group. Impulsivity, emotion regulation, and performance on near and far-transfer cognitive tasks were assessed at baseline and after completion of training. Emotion-related impulsivity declined significantly from pre-training to post-training and at two-week follow-up; improvements were not observed in the waitlist control group. A decrease in brooding rumination and an increase in reappraisal were also observed. Participants showed significant improvements on trained versions of the working memory and inhibition tasks as well as improvements on an inhibition transfer task. In sum, these preliminary findings show that cognitive training appears to be well-tolerated for people with significant emotion-driven impulsivity. Results provide preliminary support for the efficacy of cognitive training interventions as a way to reduce emotion-related impulsivity.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
  • The role of avoidance behavior in the treatment of adolescents with
           irritable bowel syndrome: A mediation analysis
    • Authors: Marianne Bonnert; Ola Olén; Johan Bjureberg; Maria Lalouni; Erik Hedman-Lagerlöf; Eva Serlachius; Brjánn Ljótsson
      Pages: 27 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 105
      Author(s): Marianne Bonnert, Ola Olén, Johan Bjureberg, Maria Lalouni, Erik Hedman-Lagerlöf, Eva Serlachius, Brjánn Ljótsson
      Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common in adolescents with a pronounced negative impact on quality of life. A pattern of avoidance behavior is commonly seen in the IBS population, which is associated with more gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) targets the avoidance behavior to reduce symptoms, but it is unknown whether reduced avoidance is a mediator of symptom improvement in adolescent IBS. Stress has been suggested to play a key role in worsening GI symptoms and is also a potential mediator of the treatment effect in IBS. This study was based on data from a randomized controlled trial (N = 101) that evaluated exposure-based internet-delivered CBT (Internet-CBT) compared with a wait-list for adolescents with IBS. We investigated whether avoidance behavior and perceived stress mediated the improvement in global GI symptoms due to treatment. We found that a change in avoidance behavior, but not perceived stress, mediated the effect of exposure-based Internet-CBT on GI symptoms. The decrease in avoidance behavior explained a large portion (67%) of the total treatment effect. Moreover, a unidirectional relationship over time was observed between avoidance behavior and GI symptoms. Our conclusion is that exposure-based CBT in adolescent IBS reduces avoidance and, consequently, reduces GI symptoms.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
  • Meal and snack-time eating disorder cognitions predict eating disorder
           behaviors and vice versa in a treatment seeking sample: A mobile
           technology based ecological momentary assessment study
    • Authors: Cheri A. Levinson; Margarita Sala; Laura Fewell; Leigh C. Brosof; Lauren Fournier; Eric J. Lenze
      Pages: 36 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 105
      Author(s): Cheri A. Levinson, Margarita Sala, Laura Fewell, Leigh C. Brosof, Lauren Fournier, Eric J. Lenze
      Individuals with eating disorders experience high anxiety when eating, which may contribute to the high relapse rates seen in the eating disorders. However, it is unknown if specific cognitions associated with such anxiety (e.g., fears of gaining weight) may lead to engagement in eating disorder behaviors (e.g., weighing oneself). Participants (N = 66) recently treated at a residential eating disorder facility and diagnosed with an eating disorder (primarily anorexia nervosa; n = 40; 60.6%) utilized a mobile application to answer questions about mealtime cognitions, anxiety, and eating disorder behaviors four times a day for one week. Hierarchical linear models using cross-lag analyses identified that there were quasi-causal (and sometimes reciprocal) within-person relationships between specific eating disorder cognitions and subsequent eating disorder behaviors. These cognitions predicted higher anxiety during the next meal and eating disorder pathology at one-month follow-up. Interventions personalized to target these specific cognitions in real time might reduce eating disorder relapse.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
  • What matters more' Common or specific factors in cognitive behavioral
           therapy for OCD: Therapeutic alliance and expectations as predictors of
           treatment outcome
    • Authors: Asher Y. Strauss; Jonathan D. Huppert; H. Blair Simpson; Edna B. Foa
      Pages: 43 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 105
      Author(s): Asher Y. Strauss, Jonathan D. Huppert, H. Blair Simpson, Edna B. Foa
      CBT for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a strong challenge to the contention that common factors explain most of the variance in outcomes in all therapies and all disorders, given that the treatment is focused and placebo response is low. In this study, the relative contributions of expectancy and therapeutic alliance as predictors of outcome in the treatment of OCD are examined and compared to the contribution of specific treatment effects. One hundred and eight patients with OCD were randomly assigned to two forms of CBT: exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) or stress management training (SMT). Measures of OCD symptoms, quality of life, therapist and patient expectancy and alliance were collected at several timepoints. Treatment type was a substantially stronger predictor of symptom reduction compared to alliance and expectancy. However, neither specific nor common factors predicted improvement in quality of life very well. Only in EX/RP, symptom change was associated with subsequent changes in alliance. Finally, therapist effects were estimated using Bayesian methods and were negligible. In the context of CBT for OCD, the data support the specific factor model, and suggest that the relative contribution of common vs. specific factors likely varies by disorder and by treatment type.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
  • Interactions between risk factors in the prediction of onset of eating
           disorders: Exploratory hypothesis generating analyses
    • Authors: Eric Stice; Christopher D. Desjardins
      Pages: 52 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 105
      Author(s): Eric Stice, Christopher D. Desjardins
      Objective Because no study has tested for interactions between risk factors in the prediction of future onset of each eating disorder, this exploratory study addressed this lacuna to generate hypotheses to be tested in future confirmatory studies. Method Data from three prevention trials that targeted young women at high risk for eating disorders due to body dissatisfaction (N = 1271; M age 18.5, SD 4.2) and collected diagnostic interview data over 3-year follow-up were combined to permit sufficient power to predict onset of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and purging disorder (PD) using classification tree analyses, an analytic technique uniquely suited to detecting interactions. Results Low BMI was the most potent predictor of AN onset, and body dissatisfaction amplified this relation. Overeating was the most potent predictor of BN onset, and positive expectancies for thinness and body dissatisfaction amplified this relation. Body dissatisfaction was the most potent predictor of BED onset, and overeating, low dieting, and thin-ideal internalization amplified this relation. Dieting was the most potent predictor of PD onset, and negative affect and positive expectancies for thinness amplified this relation. Conclusions: Results provided evidence of amplifying interactions between risk factors suggestive of cumulative risk processes that were distinct for each disorder; future confirmatory studies should test the interactive hypotheses generated by these analyses. If hypotheses are confirmed, results may allow interventionists to target ultra high-risk subpopulations with more intensive prevention programs that are uniquely tailored for each eating disorder, potentially improving the yield of prevention efforts.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
  • Preoccupation with shape or weight, fear of weight gain, feeling fat and
           treatment outcomes in patients with anorexia nervosa: A longitudinal study
    • Authors: Simona Calugi; Marwan El Ghoch; Maddalena Conti; Riccardo Dalle Grave
      Pages: 63 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 105
      Author(s): Simona Calugi, Marwan El Ghoch, Maddalena Conti, Riccardo Dalle Grave
      Objective The study aimed to evaluate the trajectories of change over time in body-image concern components in patients with anorexia nervosa treated by means of intensive enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy. Moreover, it aimed to study the role of body-image concern components in changes in eating and general psychopathology as well as work and social functioning. Method Sixty-six adult patients with anorexia nervosa were recruited. Body mass index (BMI); Eating Disorder Examination ‘Dietary Restraint’ and ‘Eating Concern’ subscales; Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI); and Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) scores were recorded at admission, end of treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. The trajectories of change of three components of body image concern, namely ‘preoccupation with shape or weight’, ‘fear of weight gain’ and ‘feeling fat’, were assessed. Results The treatment was associated with a significant improvement in outcome variables and body-image concern components. Baseline ‘preoccupation with shape or weight’ predicted improvement in Eating Concern, BSI and WSAS scores, while the change in ‘fear of weight gain’ was associated with improvement in dietary restraint. Baseline and end-of-therapy scores for all three measured body-image concern components predicted achievement of BMI ≥18.5 kg/m2 at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Discussion These findings highlight the importance of assessing and addressing body-image concern in the management of patients with anorexia nervosa.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
  • The Attention Training Technique improves Children's ability to delay
           gratification: A controlled comparison with progressive relaxation
    • Authors: Joanne Murray; Helen Scott; Claire Connolly; Adrian Wells
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 104
      Author(s): Joanne Murray, Helen Scott, Claire Connolly, Adrian Wells
      The ability to delay gratification at a young age is a predictor of psychological, cognitive, health, and academic later-life outcomes. This study aimed to extend earlier research and explore whether a metacognitive intervention, Wells' (1990) Attention Training Technique (ATT), could improve young children's ability to delay gratification compared to an active-control (Progressive Muscle Relaxation: PMR), and no-intervention group. One hundred and one children aged 5–6 years old were recruited from schools. Classes of children were randomly allocated to receive the ATT, PMR or no-intervention and tested at pre- and post-intervention on measures of delay of gratification (the Marshmallow Test) and verbal inhibition (Day/Night Task). Results showed that, even when covariates were controlled for, following ATT, children delayed gratification significantly longer than after PMR or no-intervention. ATT also improved verbal inhibition compared with the no-intervention group, whilst PMR did not. The results add to earlier findings; ATT appears to provide a simple and effective way of improving young children's ability to delay gratification which has previously been shown to predict positive outcomes in later-life.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:46:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2018)
  • Impaired detection and differentiation of briefly presented facial
           emotions in adults with high-functioning autism and asperger syndrome
    • Authors: R. Frank; L. Schulze; R. Hellweg; S. Koehne; S. Roepke
      Pages: 7 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 104
      Author(s): R. Frank, L. Schulze, R. Hellweg, S. Koehne, S. Roepke
      Although deficits in the recognition of emotional facial expressions are considered a hallmark of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characterization of abnormalities in the differentiation of emotional expressions (e.g., sad vs. angry) has been rather inconsistent, especially in adults without intellectual impairments who may compensate for their deficits. In addition, previous research neglected the ability to detect emotional expressions (e.g., angry vs. neutral). The present study used a backward masking paradigm to investigate, a) the detection of emotional expressions, and b) the differentiation of emotional expressions in adults diagnosed with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome (n = 23) compared to neurotypical controls (n = 25). Compensatory strategies were prevented by shortening the stimulus presentation time (33, 67, and 100 ms). In general, participants with ASD were significantly less accurate in detecting and differentiating emotional expressions compared to the control group. In the emotion differentiation task, individuals with ASD profited significantly less from an increase in presentation time. These results reinforce theoretical models that individuals with ASD have deficits in emotion recognition under time constraints. Furthermore, first evidence was provided that emotion detection and emotion differentiation are impaired in ASD.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:46:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2018)
  • A meta-analysis of dropout rates in acceptance and commitment therapy
    • Authors: Clarissa W. Ong; Eric B. Lee; Michael P. Twohig
      Pages: 14 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 104
      Author(s): Clarissa W. Ong, Eric B. Lee, Michael P. Twohig
      Many psychotherapies, including cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), have been found to be effective interventions for a range of psychological and behavioral health concerns. Another aspect of treatment utility to consider is dropout, as interventions only work if clients are engaged in them. To date, no research has used meta-analytic methods to examine dropout in ACT. Thus, the objectives of the present meta-analysis were to (1) determine the aggregate dropout rate for ACT in randomized controlled trials, (2) compare dropout rates in ACT to those in other psychotherapies, and (3) identify potential moderators of dropout in ACT. Our literature search yielded 68 studies, representing 4,729 participants. The weighted mean dropout rates in ACT exclusive conditions and ACT inclusive conditions (i.e., those that included an ACT intervention) were 15.8% (95% CI: 11.9%, 20.1%) and 16.0% (95% CI: 12.5%, 19.8%), respectively. ACT dropout rates were not significantly different from those of established psychological treatments. In addition, dropout rates did not vary by client characteristics or study methodological quality. However, master's-level clinicians/therapists (weighted mean = 29.9%, CI: 17.6%, 43.8%) were associated with higher dropout than psychologists (weighted mean = 12.4%, 95% CI: 6.7%, 19.4%). More research on manipulable, process variables that influence dropout is needed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:46:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2018)
  • Intolerance of uncertainty as a vulnerability factor for excessive and
           inflexible avoidance behavior
    • Authors: Amanda Flores; Francisco J. López; Bram Vervliet; Pedro L. Cobos
      Pages: 34 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 104
      Author(s): Amanda Flores, Francisco J. López, Bram Vervliet, Pedro L. Cobos
      Recent studies have shown that avoidance behavior may become excessive and inflexible (i.e., detached from its incentive value and resistant to extinction). On the other hand, prospective intolerance of uncertainty (P-IU) has been defined as a factor leading to excessive responding in uncertain situations. Thus, uncertain avoidance situations may be taken as a relevant scenario to examine the role of intolerance of uncertainty as a factor that facilitates excessive and inflexible avoidance behavior. In our experiment, we tested the hypothesis that P-IU is associated with excessive and inflexible avoidance in an outcome devaluation paradigm. Specifically, healthy participants learned in a free-operant discriminative task to avoid an aversive sound, and were tested in extinction to measure the sensitivity of avoidance responses to the devaluation of the sound aversiveness. The results showed that an increase in P-IU was positively associated to an increase in insensitivity to the devaluation. Moreover, P-IU was also related to an increase in the frequency of avoidance responses during the instrumental learning phase, and to resistance to extinction. Interestingly, these associations involving P-IU were still significant when trait anxiety was controlled for. The pattern of results suggests that P-IU may be a vulnerability factor for excessive and inflexible avoidance, which, in turn, has been found to be associated with several mental disorders.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2018)
  • The unique contribution of acceptance without judgment in predicting
           nonsuicidal self-injury after 20-weeks of dialectical behaviour therapy
           group skills training
    • Authors: Lillian H. Krantz; Shelley McMain; Janice R. Kuo
      Pages: 44 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 104
      Author(s): Lillian H. Krantz, Shelley McMain, Janice R. Kuo
      The current research tested whether four dimensions of mindfulness – acceptance without judgment, observing, describing and acting with awareness – predicted frequency of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and mediate the relationship with NSSI outcomes during 20-weeks of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) skills training for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Eighty-four self-harming individuals with BPD were randomized to either DBT skills training or to a waitlist control group. A series of regressions revealed no relationship between dimensions of mindfulness and NSSI at baseline. There was a significant effect of DBT skills training on NSSI. As well, mediation analysis indicated that acceptance without judgment, specifically, mediated the relation between DBT skills training and change in frequency of NSSI.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2018)
  • Attention avoidance of the threat conditioned stimulus during extinction
           increases physiological arousal generalisation and retention
    • Authors: Karina R. O'Malley; Allison M. Waters
      Pages: 51 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 104
      Author(s): Karina R. O'Malley, Allison M. Waters
      Exposure therapy is a key component of efficacious treatment for anxiety. Biases in the allocation of attention towards versus away from threat assessed prior to exposure-based treatments such as cognitive-behavioural therapy differentially predict treatment outcomes. However, it is unclear whether monitoring versus avoiding threat stimuli influences learning during exposure. Extinction paradigms are the experimental analogue of exposure therapy. Therefore, manipulating attention towards versus away from threat during extinction trials may shed light on the role of attention during exposure therapy. This study utilised a Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction paradigm to examine whether directing attention towards versus away from the threat conditioned stimulus (CS+) related to differences in extinction, as indexed by skin conductance responses (SCR), CS evaluations and subjective measures of anxiety. Following a fear conditioning phase in which a dog image (CS+) was paired with an aversive tone unconditioned stimulus (US) and another dog image (CS-) was presented alone, 57 participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions during extinction in which both CSs were presented alone: monitor the CS+ (N = 19), avoid the CS+ and attend to another stimulus (N = 18), no attention manipulation control (N = 20). Eye movements were monitored for visual adherence to assigned location using horizontal electro-oculogram. In the context of the acquisition of differential conditioning and visual adherence during extinction, both active groups exhibited larger SCRs to the CS + relative to the CS- during the first extinction block compared to the control group, and the avoid group exhibited significantly larger SCRs on CS+ and CS- trials throughout the extinction phase compared to the other groups. The avoid group also exhibited less decline in SCRs to the CS+ during the extinction retest phase relative to the control group. No significant group differences were observed in between-phase CS evaluations and subjective anxiety ratings. Avoidance of threat conditioned stimuli may impair extinction learning and increase physiological arousal generalisation to safe stimuli.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2018)
  • Avoidance and escape: Defensive reactivity and trait anxiety
    • Authors: Christopher T. Sege; Margaret M. Bradley; Peter J. Lang
      Pages: 62 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 104
      Author(s): Christopher T. Sege, Margaret M. Bradley, Peter J. Lang
      Although avoidance and escape behaviors each contribute to maintaining anxiety disorders, only avoidance completely eliminates exposure to the aversive context. Current research compared anticipatory defensive engagement when aversion could either be completely avoided or escaped after initial exposure; in addition, this research examined the impact of trait anxiety on coping-related defensive engagement. Cues signaled that upcoming rapid action would avoid (block), escape (terminate), or not affect subsequent aversive exposure; the acoustic startle reflex was measured during each anticipatory interval to index defensive engagement, and blink magnitudes were compared across low-, moderate-, and high-anxious individuals. For all participants, startle was potentiated when aversive exposure was uncontrollable and attenuated when aversion was avoidable. On escape trials, on the other hand, startle potentiation increased with rising participant anxiety. Results suggest 1) defensive engagement is generally reduced in avoidance contexts relative to contexts in which exposure is certain, and; 2) trait anxiety increases defensive engagement specifically when aversive exposure can be controlled but remains certain.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2018)
  • Body image related negative interpretation bias in anorexia nervosa
    • Authors: Timo Brockmeyer; Alisa Anderle; Hagen Schmidt; Stephanie Febry; Wally Wünsch-Leiteritz; Andreas Leiteritz; Hans-Christoph Friederich
      Pages: 69 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 104
      Author(s): Timo Brockmeyer, Alisa Anderle, Hagen Schmidt, Stephanie Febry, Wally Wünsch-Leiteritz, Andreas Leiteritz, Hans-Christoph Friederich
      A distorted body image and pronounced body dissatisfaction are hallmarks of anorexia nervosa (AN) that typically result in dietary restraint and compensatory behaviours. Cognitive biases such as negative interpretation bias are considered key maintaining factors of these maladaptive cognitions and behaviours. However, little attention has been paid to empirical tests whether negative interpretation bias exists in AN and to what degree it is associated with symptom severity. Participants in the present study were 40 women with AN and 40 healthy women with no history of an eating disorder. Body-related negative interpretation bias (i.e., a tendency to interpret ambiguous information about the own body in a negative way) was measured by a Scrambled Sentences Task. Patients with AN showed a stronger body-related negative interpretation bias than healthy controls. Within both groups, negative interpretation bias correlated strongly and positively with AN symptom severity and these effects were not moderated by levels of depressive symptoms. The findings support the idea that biased interpretation of body-related information is associated with the specific psychopathology of AN. Targeted, computerised interventions (e.g. interpretation bias modification) may help to alter these dysfunctional cognitive schemas that lie at the heart of AN.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2018)
  • We cannot change the past, but we can change its meaning. A randomized
           controlled trial on the effects of self-help imagery rescripting on
    • Authors: Steffen Moritz; Jana Ahlf-Schumacher; Birgit Hottenrott; Ulrike Peter; Stephanie Franck; Thomas Schnell; Helmut Peter; Brooke C. Schneider; Lena Jelinek
      Pages: 74 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 104
      Author(s): Steffen Moritz, Jana Ahlf-Schumacher, Birgit Hottenrott, Ulrike Peter, Stephanie Franck, Thomas Schnell, Helmut Peter, Brooke C. Schneider, Lena Jelinek
      Background Imagery rescripting is a psychotherapeutic technique that aims to ameliorate negative emotions by altering (i.e., rescripting) inner representations of negative memories and images. Although the treatment was initially developed for traumatized individuals, face-to-face interventions have yielded promising results for patients with other diagnoses as well. The present study explored the feasibility and efficacy of the approach when used as a self-help intervention for depression. Method A total of 127 individuals with diagnosed depression were randomly allocated to either a wait-list control condition or received a brief or long version of a manual teaching imagery rescripting. Six weeks after inclusion, patients were invited to participate in the post assessment. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) served as the primary outcome (registered at (NCT03299127). Results The long version was superior to the wait-list control condition on the BDI-II, self-esteem, and quality of life at a medium effect size. No effects emerged for anxiety. No significant between-group differences were found for the brief version. Moderation analyses indicated that the self-help approach seems particularly beneficial for those scoring high on symptoms, willingness to change, and expectancy (baseline). Most patients indicated they would use the technique in the future. Discussion The efficacy of imagery rescripting was confirmed when applied via self-help. Use of the long form of the manual is recommended. Future studies are needed to ascertain whether treatment effects are sustained over time.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2018)
  • The worrying mind in control: An investigation of adaptive working memory
           training and cognitive bias modification in worry-prone individuals
    • Authors: Maud Grol; Anne K. Schwenzfeier; Johannes Stricker; Charlotte Booth; Alexander Temple-McCune; Nazanin Derakshan; Colette Hirsch; Eni Becker; Elaine Fox
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 103
      Author(s): Maud Grol, Anne K. Schwenzfeier, Johannes Stricker, Charlotte Booth, Alexander Temple-McCune, Nazanin Derakshan, Colette Hirsch, Eni Becker, Elaine Fox
      Worry refers to the experience of uncontrollable negative thoughts. Cognitive models suggest that the combination of negative information processing biases along with diminished attentional control contribute to worry. In the current study we investigate whether promoting a) adaptive interpretation bias and b) efficient deployment of attentional control would influence the tendency to worry. Worry-prone individuals (n = 60) received either active cognitive bias modification for interpretation bias (CBM-I) combined with sham working memory training (WMT), adaptive WMT combined with sham CBM-I, or sham WMT combined with sham CBM-I. Neither of the active training conditions reduced worry during a breathing focus task relative to the control condition. However, when considering inter-individual differences in training-related improvements, we observed a relation between increases in positive interpretation bias and a decrease in negative intrusions. Moreover, increases in working memory performance were related to a reduction in reactivity of negative intrusions to a worry period. Our findings show that facilitating a more benign interpretation bias and improving working memory capacity can have beneficial effects in terms of worry, but also highlight that transfer related gains from existing training procedures can be dependent upon improvement levels on the training task.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:22:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2018)
  • You make me tired: An experimental test of the role of interpersonal
           operant conditioning in fatigue
    • Authors: Bert Lenaert; Rebecca Jansen; Caroline M. van Heugten
      Pages: 12 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 103
      Author(s): Bert Lenaert, Rebecca Jansen, Caroline M. van Heugten
      Chronic fatigue is highly prevalent in the general population as well as in multiple chronic diseases and psychiatric disorders. Its etiology however remains poorly understood and cannot be explained by biological factors alone. Occurring in a psychosocial context, the experience and communication of fatigue may be shaped by social interactions. In particular, interpersonal operant conditioning may strengthen and perpetuate fatigue complaints. In this experiment, individuals (N = 44) repeatedly rated their currently experienced fatigue while engaging in cognitive effort (working memory task). Subtle social reward was given when fatigue increased relative to the previous rating; or disapproval when fatigue decreased. In the control condition, only neutral feedback was given. Although all participants became more fatigued during cognitive effort, interpersonal operant conditioning led to increased fatigue reporting relative to neutral feedback. This effect occurred independently of conscious awareness. Interestingly, the experimental condition also performed worse on the working memory task. Results suggest that fatigue complaints (and cognitive performance) may become controlled by their consequences such as social reward, and not exclusively by their antecedents such as effort. Results have implications for treatment development and suggest that interpersonal operant conditioning may contribute to fatigue becoming a chronic symptom.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:22:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2018)
  • Sleep-related attentional bias for tired faces in insomnia: Evidence from
           a dot-probe paradigm
    • Authors: Umair Akram; Louise Beattie; Antonia Ypsilanti; John Reidy; Anna Robson; Ashley J. Chapman; Nicola L. Barclay
      Pages: 18 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 103
      Author(s): Umair Akram, Louise Beattie, Antonia Ypsilanti, John Reidy, Anna Robson, Ashley J. Chapman, Nicola L. Barclay
      People with insomnia often display an attentional bias for sleep-specific stimuli. However, prior studies have mostly utilized sleep-related words and images, and research is yet to examine whether people with insomnia display an attentional bias for sleep-specific (i.e. tired appearing) facial stimuli. This study aimed to examine whether individuals with insomnia present an attentional bias for sleep-specific faces depicting tiredness compared to normal-sleepers. Additionally, we aimed to determine whether the presence of an attentional bias was characterized by vigilance or disengagement. Forty-one individuals who meet the DSM-5 criteria for Insomnia Disorder and 41 normal-sleepers completed a dot-probe task comprising of neutral and sleep-specific tired faces. The results demonstrated that vigilance and disengagement scores differed significantly between the insomnia and normal-sleeper groups. Specifically, individuals with insomnia displayed difficulty in both orienting to and disengaging attention from tired faces compared to normal-sleepers. Using tired facial stimuli, the current study provides novel evidence that insomnia is characterized by a sleep-related attentional bias. These outcomes support cognitive models of insomnia by suggesting that individuals with insomnia monitor tiredness in their social environment.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:22:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2018)
  • Processes and pathways mediating the experience of social anxiety and
           negative rumination
    • Authors: Matthew Modini; Ronald M. Rapee; Maree J. Abbott
      Pages: 24 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 103
      Author(s): Matthew Modini, Ronald M. Rapee, Maree J. Abbott
      Negative rumination in social anxiety disorder (SAD) occurs in anticipation of a social event (pre-event rumination) and in its aftermath (post-event rumination). Both are proposed to be key maintaining factors of the vicious cycle of social anxiety. Despite this, there is a dearth of research investigating the processes that mediate the relationship between social anxiety and pre-event rumination and uncertainty regarding the cognitive and attentional processes that mediate the relationship between social anxiety and post-event rumination. To investigate this further, the current study utilised a clinical sample of participants with SAD to determine the hypothesised mediators of a social anxiety and pre-event model (N = 239) and a social anxiety and post-event rumination model (N = 216). Results from path analyses were broadly consistent with cognitive models of SAD that posit several interrelated processes mediate the relationship between social anxiety and pre- and post-event rumination. Results also indicated slightly different processes showed stronger prediction of pre-event rumination (i.e., biased performance appraisals) and post-event rumination (i.e., negative attentional focus). Treatment recommendations that aim to address the maladaptive role of negative rumination in social anxiety are made in keeping with the inter-connected and dynamic role played by cognitive and attentional processes in heightening social anxiety.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2018)
  • Modifying mental health help-seeking stigma among undergraduates with
           untreated psychiatric disorders: A pilot randomized trial of a novel
           cognitive bias modification intervention
    • Authors: Ian H. Stanley; Melanie A. Hom; Thomas E. Joiner
      Pages: 33 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Ian H. Stanley, Melanie A. Hom, Thomas E. Joiner
      Help-seeking stigma is a potent barrier to the utilization of mental health services. This study aimed to determine if, compared to a psychoeducation condition, individuals randomized to a novel cognitive bias modification intervention for help-seeking stigma (CBM-HS) demonstrate greater reductions in help-seeking stigma, as well as increases in readiness to change and help-seeking behaviors. Participants included 32 undergraduates with a DSM-5 psychiatric disorder who denied past-year mental health treatment. Post-randomization, three intervention sessions were delivered in one-week intervals (45 min total). Participants were assessed at baseline, mid-intervention, one-week post-intervention, and two-month follow-up. RM-ANOVAs were utilized among the intent-to-treat sample. There were no significant differences across time points between the intervention groups for help-seeking stigma and readiness to change. At two-month follow-up, 25% of participants initiated mental health treatment (29.4% CBM-HS, 20.0% psychoeducation). Strikingly, across groups, there was a statistically significant reduction in help-seeking self-stigma (F[2.214,66.418] = 5.057, p = 0.007, ηp 2 = 0.144) and perceived public stigma (F[3,90] = 6.614, p < 0.001, ηp 2 = 0.181) from baseline to two-month follow-up, indicating large effects; 18.8% achieved clinically significant change, among whom two-thirds were in the CBM-HS condition. Two brief, scalable interventions appear to reduce help-seeking stigma among undergraduates with untreated psychiatric disorders. Studies are needed to evaluate these interventions against an inactive control.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:22:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2018)
  • The effect of adding Coping Power Program-Sweden to Parent Management
           Training-effects and moderators in a randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Maria Helander; John Lochman; Jens Högström; Brjánn Ljótsson; Clara Hellner; Pia Enebrink
      Pages: 43 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 103
      Author(s): Maria Helander, John Lochman, Jens Högström, Brjánn Ljótsson, Clara Hellner, Pia Enebrink
      For children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), Parent Management Training (PMT) is a recommended treatment in addition to child Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (child-CBT). There is however a lack of studies investigating the additive effect of group-based child-CBT to PMT for children between 8 and 12 years. The current study investigated the incremental effect of group-based child-CBT, based on the Coping Power Program, when added to the Swedish group-based PMT program KOMET. Outcomes were child behavior problems, child prosocial behavior, parenting skills and the moderating effect of child characteristics. One hundred and twenty children 8–12 years with ODD or Disruptive Behavioral Disorder NOS and their parents were randomized either to combined child-CBT and PMT (n = 63) or to PMT only (n = 57) in Swedish Child- and Adolescent Psychiatric settings. Participants were assessed pre- and post-treatment using semi-structured interviews and child- and parent ratings. After treatment, behavior problems were reduced in both groups. Prosocial behavior were significantly more improved in the combined treatment. Parenting skills were improved in both groups. In moderator analyses, behavior problems and prosocial behavior improved significantly more in the combined treatment compared to PMT only in the group of children with high levels of ODD symptoms.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:46:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2018)
  • Improving functional outcomes in women with borderline personality
    • Authors: Melanie S. Harned; Chelsey R. Wilks; Sara C. Schmidt; Trevor N. Coyle
      Pages: 53 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 103
      Author(s): Melanie S. Harned, Chelsey R. Wilks, Sara C. Schmidt, Trevor N. Coyle
      Although functional impairment typically improves during evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) for borderline personality disorder (BPD), functional levels often remain suboptimal after treatment. The present pilot study evaluated whether and how integrating PTSD treatment into an EBP for BPD would improve functional outcomes. Participants were 26 women with BPD, PTSD, and recent suicidal and/or self-injurious behavior who were randomized to receive one year of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) or DBT with the DBT Prolonged Exposure (DBT PE) protocol for PTSD. Five domains of functioning were assessed at 4-month intervals during treatment and at 3-months post-treatment. DBT + DBT PE was superior to DBT in improving global social adjustment, health-related quality of life, and achieving good global functioning, but not interpersonal problems or quality of life. Results of time-lagged mixed effects models indicated that, across both treatments, reductions in PTSD severity significantly predicted subsequent improvement in global social adjustment, global functioning, and health-related quality of life, whereas reductions in post-traumatic cognitions significantly predicted later improvement in all functional outcomes except global social adjustment. These findings provide preliminary evidence supporting the role of change in PTSD severity and trauma-related cognitions as active mechanisms in improving functional outcomes among individuals with BPD and PTSD.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:46:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2018)
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitive processing deficits
           associated with body dysmorphic disorder
    • Authors: Shevaugn Johnson; Paul Williamson; Tracey D. Wade
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Shevaugn Johnson, Paul Williamson, Tracey D. Wade
      This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the evidence supporting the association between body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) symptomology and four types of cognitive processing abnormalities: local processing, selective attention, interpretive biases, and memory deficits. Twenty-three studies met inclusion requirements that examined differences in performance on cognitive tasks between BDD and control groups across the four categories. Multilevel modelling was used to calculate an overall effect size for each cognitive category. BDD and control groups differed significantly on measures of selective attention (g = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.26: 0.93), interpretive biases (g = 0.30, 95% CI = . 07: 0.54), and memory deficits (g=.56, 95% CI = 0.26: 0.87). Differences between the BDD and control groups on measures of local processing did not reach significance. These findings support the hypothesis that people with BDD may selectively attend to perceived threats or to disorder-related stimuli, misinterpret ambiguous stimuli as threatening, overvalue the importance of attractiveness, and have inaccurate coding and recall for facial or bodily stimuli. Recommendations for future research of these specific cognitive deficits in BDD include introducing the use of Modified Dot Probe Paradigms and new treatment targets that can be used as adjuncts to current treatment modalities.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T22:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.05.013
  • Excessive generalisation of conditioned fear in trait anxious individuals
           under ambiguity
    • Authors: Alex H.K. Wong; Peter F. Lovibond
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Alex H.K. Wong, Peter F. Lovibond
      Trait anxiety has been widely accepted as a vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety disorders. However, few studies have examined how trait anxiety may affect fear generalisation, which is believed to be a core feature of anxiety disorders. Using a single-cue conditioning paradigm, the current study found a range of discrete generalisation gradients in both expectancy ratings and skin conductance, which were highly consistent with participants’ reported abstract rules. Trait anxious participants showed the same level of threat expectancy to the conditioned cue as low anxious participants. However they showed over-generalisation to novel test stimuli, but only when they failed to identify a clear rule. This result suggests that over-generalisation of fear may be a special case of the more general principle that trait anxiety is associated with excessive threat appraisal under conditions of ambiguity.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T22:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.05.012
  • Pavlovian extinction of fear with the original Conditional Stimulus, a
           generalization stimulus, or multiple generalization stimuli
    • Authors: Tomislav D. Zbozinek; Michelle G. Craske
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Tomislav D. Zbozinek, Michelle G. Craske
      Exposure therapy for anxiety disorders is derived from Pavlovian extinction learning. With the aim of optimizing exposure therapy, the present study evaluated the effects of multiple extinction stimuli on inhibitory learning. In a differential fear conditioning procedure, participants were randomized to one of three extinction conditions: Extinction_CS + received nine presentations of the CS+; Extinction_Singular received nine presentations of a generalization stimulus (GS; stimulus similar to the CS+); and Extinction_Variety received one presentation each of nine GSs. One week later, participants returned for extinction test to the CS+, CS-, a GS from Extinction_Variety (Variable_GS), the GS from Extinction_Singular (Single_GS), and a novel GS (Novel_GS). Results showed that Extinction_CS + exhibited less fear of the CS + than Extinction_Singular (two dependent measures) and Extinction_Variety (three dependent measures). Additionally, Extinction_Singular had more fear of the Variable_GS than Extinction_Variety (two dependent measures) and Extinction_CS+ (one dependent measure). The results suggest that conducting extinction to the CS + lessens conditional fear of the CS + more than extinction with GSs. Additionally, extinction with a variety of GSs lessens fear of those GSs more than repeated extinction with one GS. Results are discussed with relevance to exposure therapy for anxiety disorders.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T22:48:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.05.009
  • Mediators of two selective prevention interventions targeting both obesity
           and eating disorders
    • Authors: Paul Rohde; Christopher Desjardins; Danielle Arigo; Heather Shaw; Eric Stice
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Paul Rohde, Christopher Desjardins, Danielle Arigo, Heather Shaw, Eric Stice
      The present study tested hypothesized mechanisms underlying the effects of two selective prevention interventions targeting both obesity and eating disorders (Healthy Weight and the newly developed Project Health), relative to video control. Tests examined mediation for the significant weight gain prevention and eating disorder symptom prevention effects previously reported. College students (N = 364; 72% women) with weight concerns were randomized to condition and assessed for 2-years post-intervention. Project Health participants had significant improvements in 2 of the 7 proposed mediators relative to comparisons (i.e., cognitive dissonance, the unhealthy Western dietary pattern) but change in these variables did not mediate its effect on long-term BMI change. Two variables emerged as full mediators of the eating disorder prevention effects for both experimental interventions: body dissatisfaction and negative affect. Analyses failed to support the exploratory hypothesis that change in eating disorder symptoms mediated the effects of condition on BMI gain. This report is the among the first to examine mediation for programs aimed at preventing both weight gain and eating disorders, particularly in mixed-gender groups. Mediational analyses are essential in identifying the mechanism of intervention action, which can inform improvements to prevention programs.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.04.004
  • The presence of your absence: A conditioning theory of grief
    • Authors: Yannick Boddez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Yannick Boddez
      I present a conditioning theory of grief. From conditioning research on appetitive disorders (e.g., addiction and binge eating), I borrow the concept cue-elicited craving. More precisely, the theory postulates that, throughout a life together, a variety of cues become associated with the presence of the loved one and that because of this these cues can trigger craving and (an action tendency for) searching for the deceased. Starting from this perspective, I additionally invoke extinction phenomena to explain the possible persistence of grief. Arguably, the theory has good heuristic value, because it allows to explain a variety of grief symptoms and to bring together existing knowledge in a unifying learning framework. In addition, the theory has good predictive value, because it opens the door to considering new research and treatment directions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.04.006
  • When gushing leads to blushing: Inflated praise leads socially anxious
           children to blush
    • Authors: Milica Nikolić; Eddie Brummelman; Cristina Colonnesi; Wieke de Vente; Susan M. Bögels
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Milica Nikolić, Eddie Brummelman, Cristina Colonnesi, Wieke de Vente, Susan M. Bögels
      Blushing is an involuntary reddening of the face that typically occurs when people are concerned about making negative impressions on others. Although people typically blush for their mishaps or misdeeds, Darwin observed that some people, and especially children, also blush when they are lavished with praise. We theorize that socially anxious children blush when praised in inflated ways because they believe they do not match the inflated image others hold of them. Such praise-induced blushing might be particularly common in late childhood, when children's worries about their social image escalate. In this randomized experiment, 105 children (ages 8–12, 85% Caucasian) sang in front of an audience. Afterwards, children received inflated praise (“You sang incredibly well!”), noninflated praise (“You sang well!”), or no praise. Children's physiological blushing was assessed through photoplethysmography and a temperature sensor. As predicted, inflated praise—but not non-inflated praise—increased blushing in socially anxious children. This emerged for blood pulse amplitude changes (AC reactivity) and self-reported blushing, not for blood volume (DC reactivity) and temperature changes. Socially anxious children may blush to “apologize” in advance for not being as incredible as others think they are. Thus, blushing may be elicited in situations that seem benign but actually evoke the fear of being evaluated negatively.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.04.003
  • The effects of cognitive-behavior therapy for depression on repetitive
           negative thinking: A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Philip Spinhoven; Nicola Klein; Mitzy Kennis; Angélique O.J. Cramer; Greg Siegle; Pim Cuijpers; Johan Ormel; Steve D. Hollon; Claudi L. Bockting
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Philip Spinhoven, Nicola Klein, Mitzy Kennis, Angélique O.J. Cramer, Greg Siegle, Pim Cuijpers, Johan Ormel, Steve D. Hollon, Claudi L. Bockting
      It is not clear if treatments for depression targeting repetitive negative thinking (RNT: rumination, worry and content-independent perseverative thinking) have a specific effect on RNT resulting in better outcomes than treatments that do not specifically target rumination. We conducted a systematic search of PsycINFO, PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane library for randomized trials in adolescents, adults and older adults comparing CBT treatments for (previous) depression with control groups or with other treatments and reporting outcomes on RNT. Inclusion criteria were met by 36 studies with a total of 3307 participants. At post-test we found a medium-sized effect of any treatment compared to control groups on RNT (g = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.37–0.59). Rumination-focused CBT: g = 0.76, <0.01; Cognitive Control Training: g = 0.62, p < .01; CBT: g = 0.57, p < .01; Concreteness training: g = 0.53, p < .05; and Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy: g = 0.42, p < .05 had medium sized and significantly larger effect sizes than other types of treatment (i.e., anti-depressant medication, light therapy, engagement counseling, life review, expressive writing, yoga) (g = 0.14) compared to control groups. Effects on RNT at post-test were strongly associated with the effects on depression severity and this association was only significant in RNT-focused CBT. Our results suggest that in particular RNT-focused CBT may have a more pronounced effect on RNT than other types of interventions. Further mediation and mechanistic studies to test the predictive value of reductions in RNT following RNT-focused CBT for subsequent depression outcomes are called for.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T12:11:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.04.002
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