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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 877 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 409)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 182)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 218)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
At-Tajdid : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access  
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 138)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access  
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Behaviour Research and Therapy
  [SJR: 2.306]   [H-I: 138]   [17 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0005-7967
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • A longitudinal investigation of perfectionism and repetitive negative
           thinking in perinatal depression
    • Authors: Sarah J. Egan; Robert T. Kane; Karen Winton; Catherine Eliot; Peter M. McEvoy
      Pages: 26 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 97
      Author(s): Sarah J. Egan, Robert T. Kane, Karen Winton, Catherine Eliot, Peter M. McEvoy
      Repetitive negative thinking and perfectionism have both been proposed as processes that are related to depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate concurrent and prospective relationships between antenatal and postnatal depression, perfectionism, and repetitive negative thinking. A longitudinal design was used and 71 women were followed from their third trimester of pregnancy to six weeks post birth. A structural equation model was tested with antenatal perfectionism predicting antenatal repetitive negative thinking, perfectionism predicting postnatal depression, and antenatal repetitive negative thinking predicting antenatal and postnatal depression. The final model provided an adequate fit to the data but the pathway from antenatal repetitive negative thinking to postnatal depression was not significant. The findings provide support for the role of perfectionism and repetitive negative thinking in the onset and maintenance of perinatal symptoms of depression. It is suggested that future research investigates the efficacy of targeting repetitive negative thinking and perfectionism in pregnancy to examine if this can reduce perinatal depression.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T02:16:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2017)
  • Effects of brief mindful breathing and loving-kindness meditation on shame
           and social problem solving abilities among individuals with high
           borderline personality traits
    • Authors: Shian-Ling Keng; Jun Xian Tan
      Pages: 43 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Shian-Ling Keng, Jun Xian Tan
      Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental condition characterized by a range of cognitive and behavioral vulnerabilities, including chronic shame and deficits in social problem solving (SPS) abilities. Little research however, has examined strategies that may alleviate shame and SPS deficits among individuals with BPD traits. Using a laboratory experimental approach, the present study compared the effects of a brief mindfulness versus loving-kindness meditation (LKM) induction on shame and SPS abilities in a sample of adults with high BPD traits. Eighty-eight participants underwent a shame induction procedure involving recall of a negative autobiographical memory. They were then randomly assigned to 10 min of mindful breathing or LKM, or a no-instruction condition. Shame and SPS abilities were assessed via visual analogue scales and the Means-Ends Problem Solving task respectively. Results indicated that there were significant decreases in shame from pre-to post-regulation in the mindfulness group versus the LKM and no-instruction groups. Groups did not differ on changes in SPS abilities from pre-to post-regulation. Overall, the findings support the efficacy of mindfulness as a strategy to regulate shame among individuals with BPD traits, and raises questions with regard to the utility of LKM in modulating shame in the context of high emotional arousal.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T02:17:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2017)
  • Rumination interacts with life stress to predict depressive symptoms: An
           ecological momentary assessment study
    • Authors: Samantha L. Connolly; Lauren B. Alloy
      Pages: 86 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 97
      Author(s): Samantha L. Connolly, Lauren B. Alloy
      Rumination is a well-established vulnerability factor for depression that may exert deleterious effects both independently and in interaction with stress. The current study examined momentary ruminative self-focus (MRS) and stress-reactive rumination (SRR) as predictors of depressive symptoms utilizing a smartphone ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design. 121 undergraduates responded to four text message alerts per day for one week in which they indicated the occurrence of life stress, rumination, and depressed mood. SRR, but not MRS, independently predicted increases in depressive symptoms. MRS interacted with depressive symptoms to predict increases in symptoms at the subsequent timepoint, supporting the deleterious effects of depressive rumination on future mood state. Interactions emerged between stress and both MRS and SRR, such that experiencing higher levels of stressors and rumination at an observation predicted greater increases in depressive symptoms. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that state rumination moderates the effect of stress in predicting depressive symptoms using EMA methodology. Results suggest that rumination levels in response to stress vary within individuals and can have an important effect on depressed mood. Findings may have important clinical implications, as lessening individuals’ tendency to engage in rumination following stress may help to alleviate depressive symptoms.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:47:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2017)
  • Sleep disturbance as a predictor of affective functioning and symptom
           severity among individuals with PTSD: An ecological momentary assessment
    • Authors: Nicole A. Short; Nicholas P. Allan; Norman B. Schmidt
      Pages: 146 - 153
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 97
      Author(s): Nicole A. Short, Nicholas P. Allan, Norman B. Schmidt
      Recent research has highlighted the etiological role of sleep disturbance in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however it is currently unknown how daily changes in sleep are associated with next-day PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, sleep is critical for maintaining appropriate affect, leading some to hypothesize that affective dysfunction may account for the link between sleep disturbances and PTSD symptoms. Thus, the current study tested the relationship between sleep disturbances, affective valence, and PTSD symptoms utilizing an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design among individuals with PTSD (n=30) who participated in 4 EMA-based assessments daily over 8 days. Multilevel modeling indicated that, after accounting for prior evening's PTSD symptoms, poor sleep quality and reduced sleep efficiency were associated with increased PTSD symptoms and negative affect. Furthermore, results supported the indirect effect of poor sleep quality on elevated PTSD symptoms through increased negative affect in the morning. Findings add to the body of research demonstrating the negative impact of poor sleep for individuals with PTSD by indicating that daily variations in sleep can affect next-day PTSD symptoms, and identifying negative affect as a mechanism of this relationship.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T18:21:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.014
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2017)
  • What good are positive emotions for treatment? Trait positive emotionality
           predicts response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for anxiety
    • Authors: Charles T. Taylor; Sarah E. Knapp; Jessica A. Bomyea; Holly J. Ramsawh; Martin P. Paulus; Murray B. Stein
      Pages: 6 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 93
      Author(s): Charles T. Taylor, Sarah E. Knapp, Jessica A. Bomyea, Holly J. Ramsawh, Martin P. Paulus, Murray B. Stein
      Objective Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is empirically supported for the treatment of anxiety disorders; however, not all individuals achieve recovery following CBT. Positive emotions serve a number of functions that theoretically should facilitate response to CBT – they promote flexible patterns of information processing and assimilation of new information, encourage approach-oriented behavior, and speed physiological recovery from negative emotions. We conducted a secondary analysis of an existing clinical trial dataset to test the a priori hypothesis that individual differences in trait positive emotions would predict CBT response for anxiety. Method Participants meeting diagnostic criteria for panic disorder (n = 28) or generalized anxiety disorder (n = 31) completed 10 weekly individual CBT sessions. Trait positive emotionality was assessed at pre-treatment, and severity of anxiety symptoms and associated impairment was assessed throughout treatment. Results Participants who reported a greater propensity to experience positive emotions at pre-treatment displayed the largest reduction in anxiety symptoms as well as fewer symptoms following treatment. Positive emotions remained a robust predictor of change in symptoms when controlling for baseline depression severity. Conclusions Initial evidence supports the predictive value of trait positive emotions as a prognostic indicator for CBT outcome in a GAD and PD sample.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T20:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 93 (2017)
  • Acceptance-based interoceptive exposure for young children with functional
           abdominal pain
    • Authors: Nancy Zucker; Christian Mauro; Michelle Craske; H. Ryan Wagner; Nandini Datta; Hannah Hopkins; Kristen Caldwell; Adam Kiridly; Samuel Marsan; Gary Maslow; Emeran Mayer; Helen Egger
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Nancy Zucker, Christian Mauro, Michelle Craske, H. Ryan Wagner, Nandini Datta, Hannah Hopkins, Kristen Caldwell, Adam Kiridly, Samuel Marsan, Gary Maslow, Emeran Mayer, Helen Egger
      Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is a common childhood somatic complaint that contributes to impairment in daily functioning (e.g., school absences) and increases risk for chronic pain and psychiatric illness. Cognitive behavioral treatments for FAP target primarily older children (9 + years) and employ strategies to reduce a focus on pain. The experience of pain may be an opportunity to teach viscerally hypersensitive children to interpret the function of a variety of bodily signals (including those of hunger, emotions) thereby reducing fear of bodily sensations and facilitating emotion awareness and self-regulation. We designed and tested an interoceptive exposure treatment for younger children (5–9 years) with FAP. Assessments included diagnostic interviews, 14 days of daily pain monitoring, and questionnaires. Treatment involved 10 weekly appointments. Using cartoon characters to represent bodily sensations (e.g., Gassy Gus), children were trained to be “FBI agents” – Feeling and Body Investigators - who investigated sensations through exercises that provoked somatic experience. 24 parent-child dyads are reported. Pain (experience, distress, and interference) and negative affect demonstrated clinically meaningful and statistically significant change with effect sizes ranging from 0.48 to 71 for pain and from 0.38 to 0.61 for pain distress, total pain: X2 (1, n = 24) = 13.14, p < 0.0003. An intervention that helps children adopt a curious stance and focus on somatic symptoms reduces pain and may help lessen somatic fear generally. Clinical trial registration NCT02075437.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T18:21:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.009
  • Avoidance and depression vulnerability: An examination of avoidance in
           remitted and currently depressed individuals
    • Authors: Leanne Quigley; Alainna Wen; Keith S. Dobson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Leanne Quigley, Alainna Wen, Keith S. Dobson
      Behavioral theories posit that depression is characterized by heightened levels of avoidance, and recent research has supported this notion. Whether avoidance persists after remission from depression is unknown, however. In this study, we investigated levels of cognitive and behavioral avoidance in remitted, currently, and never depressed individuals. We also examined relationships among avoidance and purported adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. Remitted depressed individuals exhibited levels of cognitive and behavioral avoidance, in social and nonsocial domains, that were greater than nonclinical control individuals but lower than currently depressed individuals. Avoidance was significantly associated with use of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, although the pattern of relationships differed across currently and remitted depressed individuals. In contrast, avoidance was largely unrelated to use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies, among currently and remitted depressed individuals.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T18:21:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.015
  • Time to remission from mild to moderate depressive symptoms: One year
           results from the EVIDENT-study, an RCT of an internet intervention for
    • Authors: Jan Philipp Klein; Christina Späth; Johanna Schröder; Björn Meyer; Wolfgang Greiner; Martin Hautzinger; Wolfgang Lutz; Matthias Rose; Eik Vettorazzi; Gerhard Andersson; Fritz Hohagen; Steffen Moritz; Thomas Berger
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Jan Philipp Klein, Christina Späth, Johanna Schröder, Björn Meyer, Wolfgang Greiner, Martin Hautzinger, Wolfgang Lutz, Matthias Rose, Eik Vettorazzi, Gerhard Andersson, Fritz Hohagen, Steffen Moritz, Thomas Berger
      Background Internet interventions are effective in treating depressive symptoms but few studies conducted a long-term follow-up. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an internet intervention in increasing the remission rate over a twelve months period. Methods A total of 1013 participants with mild to moderate depressive symptoms were randomized to either care as usual alone or a 12-week internet intervention (Deprexis) plus usual care. Self-rated depression severity (PHQ-9) was assessed regularly over twelve months. Results Remission rates over time were significantly higher in the intervention group (Cox regression: hazard ratio [HR] 1.31; p = 0.009). The intervention was more effective in the subgroup not taking antidepressant medication (Cox regression: HR 1.88; p < 0.001). PHQ-change from baseline was greater in the intervention group (linear mixed model [LMM]: p < 0.001) with the between-group effect gradually decreasing from d = 0.36 at three months to d = 0.13 at twelve months (LMM: group by time interaction: p < 0.001). Conclusion This internet intervention can contribute to achieving remission in people with mild to moderate depressive symptoms, especially if they are not on antidepressant medication (Trial Registration: NCT01636752).

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:47:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.013
  • Reality monitoring performance and the role of visual imagery in visual
    • Authors: Charlotte Aynsworth; Nazik Nemat; Daniel Collerton; David Smailes; Robert Dudley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Charlotte Aynsworth, Nazik Nemat, Daniel Collerton, David Smailes, Robert Dudley
      Background Auditory Hallucinations may arise from people confusing their own inner speech with external spoken speech. People with visual hallucinations (VH) may similarly confuse vivid mental imagery with external events. This paper reports two experiments exploring confusion between internal and external visual material. Method Experiment 1 examined reality monitoring in people with psychosis; those with visual hallucinations (n = 16) and those without (n = 15). Experiment 2 used two non-clinical groups of people with high or low predisposition to VH (HVH, n = 26, LVH, n = 21). All participants completed the same reality monitoring task. Participants in Experiment 2 also completed measures of imagery. Results Psychosis patients with VH demonstrated biased reality monitoring, where they misremembered items that had been presented as words as having been presented as pictures. Patients without VH did not show this bias. In Experiment 2, the HVH group demonstrated the same bias in reality monitoring that psychosis patients with VH had shown. The LVH group did not show this bias. In addition, the HVH group reported more vivid imagery and particularly more negative imagery. Conclusions Both studies found that people with visual hallucinations or prone-ness to such experiences confused their inner visual experiences with external images. Vivid imagery was also related to proneness to VH. Hence, vivid imagery and reality monitoring confusion could be contributory factors to understanding VH.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:47:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.012
  • Attentional avoidance of threats in obsessive compulsive disorder: An
           event related potential study
    • Authors: Zhong-Ming Zhang; Meng-Yun Wang; Xiaowei Guo; Xiaocui Miao; Ting Zhang; Dong Gao; Zhen Yuan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Zhong-Ming Zhang, Meng-Yun Wang, Xiaowei Guo, Xiaocui Miao, Ting Zhang, Dong Gao, Zhen Yuan
      The neural mechanism underlying attentional bias in OCD (Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder) remains unclear. The goal of this study was to examine and compare the time course and the event related potential (ERP) components in OCD patients and healthy controls (HC) to reveal the complex brain activation pattern associated with attentional bias in OCD. The behavioural and electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded while the participants performed an emotional Stroop task. Compared to HC, the individuals with OCD exhibited slower response time, prolonged N1 latency and larger N1 and P2 amplitudes across different emotional words. In addition, we discovered that the OCD group showed an enlarged N1 component to OCD-related threat words compared to neutral words. Moreover, the OCD group had decreased P3 and later positive potential (LPP) amplitudes towards all types of words compared to the HC group. More importantly, the OCD group manifested smaller LPP amplitude to threat words compared to the HC group. Our findings suggest that OCD individuals may excessively direct their attention away from the threat at the late processing stage, probably due to the intensive processing or overestimation of the stimuli in the early automatic processing stage.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:47:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.011
  • Negativity bias and instability in spontaneous and deliberate evaluations
           of others: The role of borderline personality features
    • Authors: Félix Gauthier Mongeon; Jean Gagnon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Félix Gauthier Mongeon, Jean Gagnon
      This study tested the hypotheses that borderline personality (BP) features are characterized by a negativity bias and instability in spontaneous and deliberate evaluations of others. Undergraduate women (N = 204) watched two movie clips depicting either positive or negative conjugal interactions. Spontaneous and deliberate evaluations of the male character were assessed after each clip with an Evaluative Priming Task and a self-report measure, respectively. Participants with high BP features showed unstable spontaneous evaluations. Results revealed a non-significant trend toward more negative spontaneous evaluations after the negative clip and less positive and more negative deliberate evaluations after watching the positive clip first relative to participants with low BP features. These results provide preliminary evidence that impression formation in borderline personality may be characterized by negative and unstable evaluations that are shaped at least in part at earlier processing stages.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:47:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.010
  • Perseverate or decenter' Differential effects of metacognition on the
           relationship between parasympathetic inflexibility and symptoms of
           depression in a multi-wave study
    • Authors: Jonathan P. Stange; Jessica L. Hamilton; David M. Fresco; Lauren B. Alloy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Jonathan P. Stange, Jessica L. Hamilton, David M. Fresco, Lauren B. Alloy
      Depression often is characterized by inflexible autonomic and metacognitive processes that interfere with effective self-regulation. However, few studies have integrated these factors to improve the prediction of which individuals are at greatest risk for depression. Among 134 undergraduates, we evaluated whether parasympathetic inflexibility (a lack of reduction in respiratory sinus arrhythmia) in response to a sadness induction involving loss would prospectively predict symptoms of depression across four waves of follow-up over twelve weeks. Furthermore, we evaluated whether metacognitive components of perseverative cognition (PC) and decentering (identified by a principal component analysis) would moderate this relationship in opposite directions. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that the relationship between parasympathetic inflexibility and prospective symptoms of depression was exacerbated by PC, but attenuated by decentering. Furthermore, individuals with parasympathetic inflexibility, PC, and low decentering were at greatest risk for symptoms of depression across follow-up. These results support the utility of integrating autonomic and metacognitive risk factors to identify individuals at risk for depression.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:47:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.007
  • Brief, intensive and concentrated cognitive behavioral treatments for
           anxiety disorders in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Lars-Göran Öst; Thomas H. Ollendick
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Lars-Göran Öst, Thomas H. Ollendick
      Anxiety disorders are among the most common disorders affecting youths in the general population, with up to 10% of children and 20% of adolescents meeting criteria for an anxiety disorder at any one point in time. Cognitive-behavior therapies (CBT), varying between 9 and 18 weeks of treatment, are considered evidence-based for the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth. During the last two decades treatments that are brief, intensive, or concentrated (BIC) have been developed and this meta-analysis includes 23 RCTs of these new approaches across the anxiety disorders. BIC yielded a lower attrition (2.3%) than standard CBT (6.5%). The effect sizes (ES) for comparison of BIC with waiting-list (1.47) and placebo (0.91) were significant, whereas that with standard CBT (0.01) was not. Regarding remission at post/recovery at follow-up BIC (54%/64%) and standard CBT (57%/63%) were comparable and both were significantly higher than placebo (26%/35%), which was higher than WLC (7%/9%). Within-group ES at post and follow-up were 1.50 and 1.53 for BIC, and 0.98 and 1.05 for standard CBT, indicating maintenance of the effects up to 12 months after therapy. Advantages and disadvantages of BIC are discussed and we suggest that BIC-interventions represent a paradigm shift in the delivery of services for youth with anxiety disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:47:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.008
  • A laboratory model of impulsivity and alcohol use in late adolescence
    • Authors: Matthew J. Gullo; Natalie J. Loxton; Therese Price; Joanne Voisey; Ross McD. Young; Jason P. Connor
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Matthew J. Gullo, Natalie J. Loxton, Therese Price, Joanne Voisey, Ross McD. Young, Jason P. Connor
      Impulsivity is a core characteristic of externalizing problems and a robust predictor of alcohol use in adolescence. There is little evidence on the causal mechanisms through which impulsivity influences drinking or how they are affected by key social factors (peer influence). This study reports the development of the first comprehensive laboratory model of adolescent impulsivity and alcohol use. One-hundred and twenty adolescents (50% female) of legal drinking age (M = 19.47 years, SD = 1.12) in Australia (18 + years) were subjected to 1 of 3 experimental manipulations to increase impulsive behavior (reward cue exposure, negative mood induction, ego depletion). Changes in disinhibition (stop-signal task) and reward-seeking (BAS-Fun Seeking) were measured before completing a laboratory drinking task alone or with a heavy-drinking confederate. Reward cue exposure increased alcohol consumption, with the effect mediated by increased reward-seeking. Negative mood induction increased disinhibition, but not drinking. The presence of a heavy-drinking peer increased alcohol consumption independent of experimental manipulations. Findings provide causal evidence that extends survey-based research by highlighting the role of reward-related impulsivity in adolescent alcohol use. The new laboratory model can provide novel insights into the psychological processes underlying adolescent impulsivity and impulsivity-related drinking.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T02:17:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.003
  • Mixed evidence for the potential of non-invasive transcutaneous vagal
           nerve stimulation to improve the extinction and retention of fear
    • Authors: A.M. Burger; Verkuil Fenlon Thijs Cools Miller Vervliet Van Diest
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): A.M. Burger, B. Verkuil, H. Fenlon, L. Thijs, L. Cools, H. Miller, B. Vervliet, I. Van Diest
      Extinction memories are fragile and their formation has been proposed to partially rely on vagus nerve activity. We tested whether stimulating the auricular branch of the vagus (transcutaneous VNS; tVNS) accelerates extinction and reduces spontaneous recovery of fear. Forty-two healthy students participated in a 3-day fear conditioning study, where we tested fear acquisition (day 1), fear extinction (day 2) and the retention of the extinction memory (day 3). During extinction, participants were randomly allocated to receive tVNS or sham stimulation concurrently with each CS presentation. During the acquisition and retention phases, all participants received sham stimulation. Indexes of fear included US-expectancy, startle blink EMG and skin conductance responses. Results showed successful acquisition and extinction of fear in all measures. tVNS facilitated the extinction of declarative fear (US expectancy ratings), but did not promote a stronger retention of the declarative extinction memory. No clear effects of tVNS on extinction and retention of extinction were found for the psychophysiological indexes. The present findings provide tentative indications that tVNS could be a promising tool to improve fear extinction and call for larger scale studies to replicate these effects.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T02:17:03Z
  • Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 95

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T02:16:26Z
  • Best practice guidelines for modern statistical methods in applied
           clinical research: Introduction to the special section
    • Authors: Timothy A. Brown; Andy P. Field
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Timothy A. Brown, Andy P. Field

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T02:16:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.008
  • Exposure and non-fear emotions: A randomized controlled study of
           exposure-based and rescripting-based imagery in PTSD treatment
    • Authors: Tomas Formo Langkaas; Asle Hoffart; Tuva Øktedalen; Pål G. Ulvenes; Elizabeth A. Hembree; Mervin Smucker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Tomas Formo Langkaas, Asle Hoffart, Tuva Øktedalen, Pål G. Ulvenes, Elizabeth A. Hembree, Mervin Smucker
      Interventions involving rescripting-based imagery have been proposed as a better approach than exposure-based imagery when posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with emotions other than fear. Prior research led to the study's hypotheses that (a) higher pretreatment non-fear emotions will predict relatively better response to rescripting as compared to exposure, (b) rescripting will be associated with greater reduction in non-fear emotions, and (c) pretreatment non-fear emotions will predict poor response to exposure. A clinically representative sample of 65 patients presenting a wide range of traumas was recruited from patients seeking and being offered PTSD treatment in an inpatient setting. Subjects were randomly assigned to 10 weeks of treatment involving either rescripting-based imagery (Imagery Rescripting; IR) or exposure-based imagery (Prolonged Exposure; PE). Patients were assessed on outcome and emotion measures at pretreatment, posttreatment and 12 months follow-up. Comparison to control benchmarks indicated that both treatments were effective, but no outcome differences between them appeared. None of the initial hypotheses were supported. The results from this study challenge previous observations and hypotheses about exposure mainly being effective for fear-based PTSD and strengthen the notion that exposure-based treatment is a generally effective treatment for all types of PTSD. Keywords: posttraumatic stress disorder, prolonged exposure, imagery rescripting, non-fear emotions.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T02:16:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.007
  • Efficacy of imagery rescripting and imaginal exposure for nightmares: A
           randomized wait-list controlled trial
    • Authors: Anna E. Kunze; Arnoud Arntz; Nexhmedin Morina; Merel Kindt; Jaap Lancee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Anna E. Kunze, Arnoud Arntz, Nexhmedin Morina, Merel Kindt, Jaap Lancee
      Nightmares can be effectively treated with cognitive-behavioral therapies. Though it remains elusive which therapeutic elements are responsible for the beneficial effects on nightmare symptoms, imagery rescripting (IR) and imaginal exposure (IE) are commonly identified as active treatment components of nightmare therapies. With this randomized controlled trial, we compared IR and IE as individual treatments to a wait-list (WL) condition to determine whether these particular therapeutic elements reduced nightmare symptoms. For this purpose, 104 patients with a primary DSM-5 diagnosis of nightmare disorder were randomly assigned to three weekly individual sessions of either IR or IE, or WL. Results showed that compared to WL, both interventions effectively reduced nightmare frequency (Δd IR-WL = 0.74; Δd IE-WL = 0.70) and distress (Δd IR-WL = 0.98; Δd IE-WL = 1.35) in a sample that predominantly consisted of idiopathic nightmare sufferers. The effects of IR and IE were comparable to those observed for other psychological nightmare treatments. Initial effects at post-treatment were sustained at 3- and 6-month follow-up, indicating that IR and IE both seem to be efficacious treatment components of nightmare therapies. Additional research is needed to directly compare IR and IE among both idiographic and posttraumatic nightmare sufferers with respect to treatment expectancy, acceptability, and effectiveness.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T07:18:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.005
  • Working with parents to treat anxiety-disordered children: A proof of
           concept RCT evaluating Fear-less Triple P
    • Authors: Vanessa E. Cobham; Ania Filus; Matthew R. Sanders
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Vanessa E. Cobham, Ania Filus, Matthew R. Sanders
      Little is known about the efficacy of parent-only interventions and the maintenance of gains over time with anxiety-disordered children and adolescents. The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a 6-session parent-focused intervention (Fear-less Triple P) in reducing children's anxiety symptomatology. The parents of 61 anxiety-disordered children (7–14 years) were randomly assigned to either the 6-session parent-only group CBT intervention or a wait-list control (WL) group. Diagnostic and questionnaire measures were administered at post-treatment; as well as 3-, 6- and 12 months following the completion of treatment. Families in the WL group were re-assessed after 6 weeks (the duration of the active intervention) and were then offered the intervention. The parent-only intervention produced superior outcomes for children on diagnostic and questionnaire measures. The percentages of children free of any anxiety diagnosis following the intervention were 38.7% (post-treatment); 58.6% (3-mth); 69.2% (6-mth); and 84% (12-mth). At the post-treatment assessment point, 3.4% of children in the WL group were free of any anxiety diagnosis. Mother and child questionnaire measures demonstrated gains from pre to post-treatment that were maintained over time. This proof of concept study suggests that the brief, parent-only intervention evaluated is an efficacious treatment approach for child anxiety disorders. A parent-only, group CBT intervention such as the one described here offers a cost-effective, low intensity alternative to traditional child-focused interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T07:16:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.004
  • The behavioral economics of social anxiety disorder reveal a robust effect
           for interpersonal traits
    • Authors: Thomas L. Rodebaugh; Natasha A. Tonge; Jaclyn S. Weisman; Michelle H. Lim; Katya C. Fernandez; Ryan Bogdan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Thomas L. Rodebaugh, Natasha A. Tonge, Jaclyn S. Weisman, Michelle H. Lim, Katya C. Fernandez, Ryan Bogdan
      Recent evidence suggests that reduced generosity among individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) in behavioral economic tasks may result from constraint in changing behavior according to interpersonal contingencies. That is, people with SAD may be slower to be more generous when the situation warrants. Conversely, more global effects on generosity may be related to interpersonal vindictiveness, a dimension only somewhat related to SAD. A total of 133 participants, 73 with the generalized form of SAD, completed self-report instruments and a behavioral economic task with simulated interpersonal (friend, romantic partner, stranger) interactions. In a separate visit, friends (n = 88) also came to the lab and rated participants on vindictiveness. Interpersonal vindictiveness was associated with reduced initial and overall giving to simulated friends. SAD predicted a lack of increased giving to a simulated friend, and attenuated an increase in giving to simulated known versus unknown players compared to participants without SAD. Friend-reported vindictiveness predicted in the same direction as diagnosis. However, the findings for SAD were less robust than those for vindictiveness. SAD is perhaps weakly related to behavioral constraint in economic tasks that simulate interpersonal interactions, whereas vindictiveness is strongly related to lower overall generosity as well as (via friend report) behavioral constraint. Further study is needed to better characterize the construct of vindictiveness. Our findings dovetail with the suggestion that SAD is related to impairment in the proposed affiliation and attachment system, but further suggest that direct study of that system may be more fruitful than focusing on disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T07:16:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.003
  • Emotional dysregulation in borderline personality disorder and its
           influence on communication behavior and feelings in romantic relationships
    • Authors: Annemarie Miano; Luna Grosselli; Stefan Roepke; Isabel Dziobek
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Annemarie Miano, Luna Grosselli, Stefan Roepke, Isabel Dziobek
      Dysfunction in romantic relationships constitutes one of the most burdensome symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The aim of this study was to ascertain how emotional dysregulation affects behavior and relationship related feelings of women with BPD in threatening conversations with their own romantic partner. Thirty couples in which the women were diagnosed with BPD and 34 healthy control (HC) couples were videotaped while discussing personally threatening (i.e., personal failure) and relationship-threatening (i.e., separation) themes. Third party raters evaluated stress and communication behaviors during the conversations. Relationship related feelings, i.e., closeness and relationship insecurity, were assessed by self-report. Overall, women with BPD were rated as more stressed in threatening situations than HC women and their partners, but not more stressed in relationship-threatening than personally threatening situations. A heightened stress response of women with BPD predicted more negative and less positive communication behaviors and a stronger decline in self-rated closeness to the partner compared to HC. Stress-induced increases in relationship insecurity were specific to women with BPD. Our results highlight the central role of emotional dysregulation in interpersonal dysfunctions of persons with BPD and the need to address individual emotion regulation strategies more explicitly in dyadic contexts.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T07:16:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.002
  • Trajectories of social anxiety, cognitive reappraisal, and mindfulness
           during an RCT of CBGT versus MBSR for social anxiety disorder
    • Authors: Philippe R. Goldin; Amanda S. Morrison; Hooria Jazaieri; Richard G. Heimberg; James J. Gross
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Philippe R. Goldin, Amanda S. Morrison, Hooria Jazaieri, Richard G. Heimberg, James J. Gross
      Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) are efficacious in treating social anxiety disorder (SAD). It is not yet clear, however, whether they share similar trajectories of change and underlying mechanisms in the context of SAD. This randomized controlled study of 108 unmedicated adults with generalized SAD investigated the impact of CBGT vs. MBSR on trajectories of social anxiety, cognitive reappraisal, and mindfulness during 12 weeks of treatment. CBGT and MBSR produced similar trajectories showing decreases in social anxiety and increases in reappraisal (changing the way of thinking) and mindfulness (mindful attitude). Compared to MBSR, CBGT produced greater increases in disputing anxious thoughts/feelings and reappraisal success. Compared to CBGT, MBSR produced greater acceptance of anxiety and acceptance success. Granger Causality analyses revealed that increases in weekly reappraisal and reappraisal success predicted subsequent decreases in weekly social anxiety during CBGT (but not MBSR), and that increases in weekly mindful attitude and disputing anxious thoughts/feelings predicted subsequent decreases in weekly social anxiety during MBSR (but not CBGT). This examination of temporal dynamics identified shared and distinct changes during CBGT and MBSR that both support and challenge current conceptualizations of these clinical interventions. identifier NCT02036658.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T17:28:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.001
  • Brief mindfulness training de-couples the anxiogenic effects of distress
           intolerance on reactivity to and recovery from stress among deprived
    • Authors: Rotem Paz; Ariel Zvielli; Pavel Goldstein; Amit Bernstein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Rotem Paz, Ariel Zvielli, Pavel Goldstein, Amit Bernstein
      Objective We tested whether mindfulness de-couples the expected anxiogenic effects of distress intolerance on psychological and physiological reactivity to and recovery from an anxiogenic stressor among participants experimentally sensitized to experience distress. Method N = 104 daily smokers underwent 18-hours of biochemically-verified smoking deprivation. Participants were then randomized to a 7-min analogue mindfulness intervention (present moment attention and awareness training; PMAA) or a cope-as-usual control condition; and subsequently exposed to a 2.5-min paced over breathing (hyperventilation) stressor designed to elicit acute anxious arousal. Psychological and physiological indices of anxious arousal (Skin Conductance Levels; SCL) as well as emotion (dys)regulation (Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia; RSA) were measured before, during and following the stressor. Results We found that PMAA reduced psycho-physiological dysregulation in response to an anxiogenic stressor, as well as moderated the anxiogenic effect of distress intolerance on psychological but not physiological responding to the stressor among smokers pre-disposed to experience distress via deprivation. Conclusions The present study findings have a number of theoretical and clinical implications for work on mindfulness mechanisms, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, and smoking cessation interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T17:28:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.017
  • Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 94

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T18:43:14Z
  • Is the devil in the detail? A randomized controlled trial of guided
           internet-based CBT for perfectionism
    • Authors: Roz Shafran; Tracey Wade Sarah Egan Radha Kothari Hannah Allcott-Watson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Roz Shafran, Tracey Wade, Sarah Egan, Radha Kothari, Hannah Allcott-Watson, Per Carlbring, Alexander Rozental, Gerhard Andersson
      An internet guided self-help cognitive-behavioural treatment (ICBT) for perfectionism was recently found to be effective (see this issue). Such studies stand in need of replication. The aim of this study was to report the outcomes and predictors of change when the treatment is delivered in a UK setting. A total of 120 people (Mean = 28.9 years; 79% female) were randomised to receive ICBT or wait-list control over 12 weeks (trial registration: NCT02756871). While there were strong similarities between the current study and its Swedish counterpart, there were also important differences in procedural details. There was a significant impact of the intervention on the primary outcome measure (Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Concern over Mistakes subscale) and also on the Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire (between group effect sizes d = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.60–1.36) and d = 1.04 (95% CI: 0.66–1.43) respectively using intent-to-treat analyses). Unlike the Swedish study, there was significant non-engagement and non-completion of modules with 71% of participants completing fewer than half the modules. The number of modules completed moderated the rate of change in clinical perfectionism over time. In conclusion, the study indicates the intervention is effective in a UK setting but highlighted the importance of procedural details to optimise retention.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T18:33:08Z
  • A randomized controlled trial of Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy
           for perfectionism including an investigation of outcome predictors
    • Authors: Alexander Rozental; Roz Shafran Tracey Wade Sarah Egan Lise Bergman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Alexander Rozental, Roz Shafran, Tracey Wade, Sarah Egan, Lise Bergman Nordgren, Per Carlbring, Andreas Landström, Stina Roos, Malin Skoglund, Elisabet Thelander, Linnéa Trosell, Alexander Örtenholm, Gerhard Andersson
      Being highly attentive to details can be a positive feature. However, for some individuals, perfectionism can lead to distress and is associated with many psychiatric disorders. Cognitive behavior therapy has been shown to yield many benefits for those experiencing problems with perfectionism, but the access to evidence-based care is limited. The current study investigated the efficacy of guided Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ICBT) and predictors of treatment outcome. In total, 156 individuals were included and randomized to an eight-week treatment or wait-list control. Self-report measures of perfectionism, depression, anxiety, self-criticism, self-compassion, and quality of life were distributed during screening and at post-treatment. Intention-to-treat were used for all statistical analyses. Moderate to large between-group effect sizes were obtained for the primary outcome measures, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, subscales Concerns over Mistakes and Personal Standards, Cohen's d = 0.68–1.00, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.36–1.33], with 35 (44.9%) of the patients in treatment being improved. Predictors were also explored, but none were related to treatment outcome. In sum, guided ICBT can be helpful for addressing problems with clinical perfectionism, but research of its long-term benefits is warranted.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T18:33:08Z
  • Manualized cognitive therapy versus cognitive-behavioral
           treatment-as-usual for social anxiety disorder in routine practice: A
           cluster-randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Juergen Hoyer; Jasmin Andre Pittig Stephen Crawcour Manuela Moeser Denise
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Juergen Hoyer, Jasmin Čolić, Andre Pittig, Stephen Crawcour, Manuela Moeser, Denise Ginzburg, Jihong Lin, Joerg Wiltink, Eric Leibing, Ulrich Stangier
      Objective This study examined the effectiveness of manualized cognitive therapy (mCT) following the Clark-Wells approach versus non-manualized cognitive-behavioral treatment-as-usual (CBTAU) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) in routine practice. Methods Forty-eight private practitioners were recruited within a multi-center trial and either received training in manualized CT for SAD or no such training. Practitioners treated 162 patients with SAD in routine practice (N = 107 completers, n = 57 for mCT, n = 50 for CBTAU). Social anxiety symptoms (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale; LSAS) and secondary measures were assessed before treatment, at session 8, 15, and 25, at end of treatment, as well as 6 and 12 months after treatment. Results Patients in both groups showed a significant reduction of SAD severity after treatment (d = 1.91 for the mCT, d = 1.80 for CBTAU for within-group effect sizes), which remained stable at follow-up. There were no differences between groups in terms of symptom reduction and treatment duration. Conclusions The present trial confirms the high effectiveness of CBTAU and mCT for SAD when practitioners conduct the treatments in routine practice. Additional training in the CT manual did not result in significant between-group effects on therapy outcome. Explanations for this unexpected result are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T18:33:08Z
  • Shape of change in internet based behavioral activation treatment for
    • Authors: Heather O'Mahen; Esther Wilkinson; Kara Bagnall; David Richards; Amanda Swales
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Heather O'Mahen, Esther Wilkinson, Kara Bagnall, David Richards, Amanda Swales
      Shape of change, sudden gains and depression spikes were examined in an online 12-session Behavioral Activation (BA) treatment for depression. Client and therapist factors related to sudden gains were examined to investigate processes associated with outcome. Methods: Postpartum Women with Major Depressive Disorder (n=42) who received online BA supported in 30-minute telephone sessions by a mental health worker. Depression symptoms were assessed at each session and number of sessions completed were recorded by the online program. Therapist records were rated for client stressful life event and therapist concrete focus. A quadratic pattern provided the best fit with the data; a cubic pattern was a poor fit. Sudden gains, but not depression spikes, predicted lower depression scores at 17-week outcome. Women who had higher baseline social functioning, did not experience a stressful life event during therapy, and completed more online modules, but not more telephone sessions, were more likely to have a sudden gain. A concrete therapist focus was associated with sudden gains. These results extend research on trajectories of change and sudden gains to an online BA treatment and to postpartum depression, and suggest important client and therapist factors associated with sudden gains.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T04:42:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.011
  • Individuals with clinically significant insomnia symptoms are
           characterised by a negative sleep-related expectancy bias: Results from a
           cognitive-experimental assessment
    • Authors: Hannah Courtauld; Lies Notebaert; Bronwyn Milkins; Simon D. Kyle; Patrick J.F. Clarke
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Hannah Courtauld, Lies Notebaert, Bronwyn Milkins, Simon D. Kyle, Patrick J.F. Clarke
      Cognitive models of insomnia consistently suggest that negative expectations regarding the consequences of poor sleep contribute to the maintenance of insomnia. To date, however, no research has sought to determine whether insomnia is indeed characterised by such a negative sleep-related expectancy bias, using objective cognitive assessment tasks which are more immune to response biases than questionnaire assessments. Therefore, the current study employed a reaction-time task assessing biased expectations among a group with clinically significant insomnia symptoms (n = 30) and a low insomnia symptoms group (n = 40). The task involved the presentation of scenarios describing the consequences of poor sleep, and non-sleep related activities, which could be resolved in a benign or a negative manner. The results demonstrated that the high insomnia symptoms group were disproportionately fast to resolve sleep-related scenarios in line with negative outcomes, as compared to benign outcomes, relative to the low insomnia symptoms group. The two groups did not differ in their pattern of resolving non-sleep related scenarios. This pattern of findings is entirely consistent with a sleep-specific expectancy bias operating in individuals with clinically significant insomnia symptoms, and highlights the potential of cognitive-experimental assessment tasks to objectively index patterns of biased cognition in insomnia.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T04:42:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.010
  • Randomized control trial investigating the efficacy of a computer-based
           intolerance of uncertainty intervention
    • Authors: Mary E. Oglesby; Nicholas P. Allan; Norman B. Schmidt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Mary E. Oglesby, Nicholas P. Allan, Norman B. Schmidt
      Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is an important transdiagnostic variable within various anxiety and mood disorders. Theory suggests that individuals high in IU interpret ambiguous information in a more threatening manner. A parallel line of research has shown that interpretive biases can be modified through cognitive training and previous research aimed at modifying negative interpretations through Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM-I) has yielded promising results. Despite these findings, no research to date has examined the efficacy of an IU-focused CBM-I paradigm. The current study investigated the impact of a brief IU-focused CBM-I on reductions in IU. Participants selected for a high IU interpretation bias (IU-IB) were randomly assigned to an active (IU CBM-I) or control CBM-I condition. Results indicated that our active IU CBM-I was associated with significant changes in IU-IB from pre-to-post intervention as well as with significant reductions in IU at post-intervention and month-one follow-up. Findings also found that the IU CBM-I led to reductions in IU self-report via the hypothesized mechanism. This study is the first to provide evidence that a CBM-I focused on IU is effective in reducing IU-IB and IU across time and suggest that IU CBM-I paradigms may be a novel prevention/intervention treatment for anxiety.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:39:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.007
  • The relative effectiveness of extinction and counter-conditioning in
           diminishing Children's fear
    • Authors: Carol Newall; Tiffany Watson; Kerry-Ann Grant; Rick Richardson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Carol Newall, Tiffany Watson, Kerry-Ann Grant, Rick Richardson
      Two behavioural strategies for reducing learned fear are extinction and counter-conditioning, and in this study we compared the relative effectiveness of the two procedures at diminishing fear in children. Seventy-three children aged 7–12 years old (M = 9.30, SD = 1.62) were exposed to pictures of two novel animals on a computer screen during the fear acquisition phase. One of these animals was paired with a picture of a scared human face (CS+) while the other was not (CS-). The children were then randomly assigned to one of three conditions: counter-conditioning (animal paired with a happy face), extinction (animal without scared face), or control (no fear reduction procedure). Changes in fear beliefs and behavioural avoidance of the animal were measured. Counter-conditioning was more effective at reducing fear to the CS + than extinction. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for behavioural treatments of childhood anxiety disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:39:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.006
  • Beneficial effects of training in self-distancing and perspective
           broadening for people with a history of recurrent depression
    • Authors: Emma Travers-Hill; Barnaby D. Dunn; Laura Hoppitt; Caitlin Hitchcock; Tim Dalgleish
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Emma Travers-Hill, Barnaby D. Dunn, Laura Hoppitt, Caitlin Hitchcock, Tim Dalgleish
      Cognitive training designed to recalibrate maladaptive aspects of cognitive-affective processing associated with the presence of emotional disorder can deliver clinical benefits. This study examined the ability of an integrated training in self-distancing and perspective broadening (SD-PB) with respect to distressing experiences to deliver such benefits in individuals with a history of recurrent depression (≥3 prior episodes), currently in remission. Relative to an overcoming avoidance (OA) control condition, SD-PB: a) reduced distress to upsetting memories and to newly encountered events, both during training when explicitly instructed to apply SD-PB techniques, and after-training in the absence of explicit instructions; b) enhanced capacity to self-distance from and broaden perspectives on participants' experiences; c) reduced residual symptoms of depression. These data provide initial support for SD-PB as a low-intensity cognitive training providing a spectrum of cognitive and affective benefits for those with recurrent depression who are at elevated risk of future episodes.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:39:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.008
  • Exploring mechanisms of change in cognitive therapy and interpersonal
           psychotherapy for adult depression
    • Authors: Lotte H.J.M. Lemmens; Francisca Galindo-Garre; Arnoud Arntz; Frenk Peeters; Steven D. Hollon; Robert J. DeRubeis; Marcus J.H. Huibers
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Lotte H.J.M. Lemmens, Francisca Galindo-Garre, Arnoud Arntz, Frenk Peeters, Steven D. Hollon, Robert J. DeRubeis, Marcus J.H. Huibers
      The present study explored the temporal relationships between change in five candidate causal mechanisms and change in depressive symptoms in a randomized comparison of individual Cognitive Therapy (CT) and Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) for adult depression. Furthermore, hypotheses concerning the mediation of change in these treatments were tested. Patients were 151 depressed adult outpatients treated with either CT (n = 76) or IPT (n = 75). Depression severity was assessed with the BDI-II. Candidate mediators included both therapy-specific as well as common factors. Measures were taken multiple times over the course of treatment (baseline, mid-, and post-treatment). Pearson's correlations and Latent-Difference-Score models were used to examine the direct and indirect relationships between (change in) the candidate mediators and (subsequent) (change in) depression. Patients showed improvement on all measures. No differential effects in pre-to post-treatment changes were observed between the two conditions. However, change in interpersonal functioning occurred more rapidly in IPT. Only little empirical support for the respective theoretical models of change in CT and IPT was found. Future studies should pay special attention to the timing of assessments and within-patient variance.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:39:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.005
  • Stimulus fear relevance and the speed, magnitude, and robustness of
           vicariously learned fear
    • Authors: Güler Dunne; Gemma Reynolds; Chris Askew
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Güler Dunne, Gemma Reynolds, Chris Askew
      Superior learning for fear-relevant stimuli is typically indicated in the laboratory by faster acquisition of fear responses, greater learned fear, and enhanced resistance to extinction. Three experiments investigated the speed, magnitude, and robustness of UK children's (6–10 years; N = 290; 122 boys, 168 girls) vicariously learned fear responses for three types of stimuli. In two experiments, children were presented with pictures of novel animals (Australian marsupials) and flowers (fear-irrelevant stimuli) alone (control) or together with faces expressing fear or happiness. To determine learning speed the number of stimulus-face pairings seen by children was varied (1, 10, or 30 trials). Robustness of learning was examined via repeated extinction procedures over 3 weeks. A third experiment compared the magnitude and robustness of vicarious fear learning for snakes and marsupials. Significant increases in fear responses were found for snakes, marsupials and flowers. There was no indication that vicarious learning for marsupials was faster than for flowers. Moreover, vicariously learned fear was neither greater nor more robust for snakes compared to marsupials, or for marsupials compared to flowers. These findings suggest that for this age group stimulus fear relevance may have little influence on vicarious fear learning.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T04:24:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.002
  • A prospective examination of risk factors in the development of intrusions
           following a trauma analog
    • Authors: Adam J. Ripley; Joshua D. Clapp; J. Gayle Beck
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Adam J. Ripley, Joshua D. Clapp, J. Gayle Beck
      Several factors have been linked to the severity of posttraumatic distress, although retrospective designs in much of the literature limit conclusions regarding the temporal relation between risk factors and corresponding symptoms. To address these concerns, the current project employed an analog trauma paradigm to assess the impact of background characteristics, stress response, and post-stressor affect regulation on subjective distress and intrusive memories experienced during the subsequent processing of emotional stimuli. University students (N = 184; 56% female, 42% White/Non-Hispanic) were shown graphic scenes of a televised suicide. Physiological activation was recorded during exposure with emotion ratings collected following the film. Participants then viewed a sadness- or humor-eliciting prime under instructions to inhibit or naturally express emotion. Intrusions experienced during the priming film and residual distress at study's conclusion were rated prior to debriefing. Hierarchical regression identified reductions in emotional valence as a robust predictor of intrusions and distress. Sympathetic activation and exposure to the sadness prime were associated with intrusion frequency, whereas attenuated parasympathetic response predicted intrusion intensity. Expressive inhibition demonstrated a unique association with residual distress. Results suggest peritraumatic processes and post-exposure factors may hold more prominent relations with immediate trauma-related distress as compared to pre-existing survivor characteristics.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T04:24:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.001
  • Corrigendum to “Take a look at the bright side: Effects of positive body
           exposure on selective visual attention in women with high body
           dissatisfaction” [Behav. Res. Therapy 83 (2016) 19-25]
    • Authors: Klaske Glashouwer; Nienke Jonker Karen Thomassen Peter Jong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Klaske A. Glashouwer, Nienke C. Jonker, Karen Thomassen, Peter J. de Jong

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T04:21:35Z
  • Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 93

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T04:14:05Z
  • The use of support people to improve the weight-related and psychological
           outcomes of adults with obesity: A randomised controlled trial
    • Authors: Elizabeth Rieger; Janet Treasure; Kristen Murray; Ian Caterson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Elizabeth Rieger, Janet Treasure, Kristen Murray, Ian Caterson
      Objectives To investigate whether training individuals from the personal networks of adults with obesity in the skills of motivational interviewing enhances the anthropometric and psychological outcomes of a cognitive-behavioural weight loss intervention. Methods Adults with obesity (N = 201) were randomised to participate in 26 sessions of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for weight loss either alone (CBT-A) or with the addition of a support person (CBT-SP). Outcomes were assessed at the end of the 12-month intervention and at a follow-up one year later. Results Analyses indicated negligible additive effect for the CBT-SP versus the CBT-A condition, although the quality of the patient's relationship with their support person predicted the anthropometric outcomes. Across conditions, significant improvements were observed for all anthropometric (weight, body mass index, and waist circumference) and psychological (self efficacy, weight-related quality of life, weight satisfaction, and binge eating) variables between baseline and post-treatment, and baseline and the follow-up. Conclusions The benefits of the cognitive-behavioural weight loss program were found to extend to psychological variables. Yet the lack of evidence for the additive benefits of including support people in treatment suggests a need to develop more effective training programs for support people in weight management. Trial registration Trial ID: ACTRN12611000509965.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T04:14:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.04.012
  • Lost in distractors: Reduced Autobiographical Memory Specificity and
           dispersed activation spreading over distractors in working memory
    • Authors: Keisuke Takano; Jun Moriya; Filip Raes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Keisuke Takano, Jun Moriya, Filip Raes
      Studies on autobiographical memory retrieval highlight the prominence of rapid and direct access to a specific event memory. Because it has been believed that autobiographical memory retrieval mostly relies on an effortful generative process, there is little empirical evidence on the early stage of information processing that contributes to autobiographical memory specificity (AMS). Therefore, we investigated the associations between AMS and automatic activation of information stimulated by rapid presentation of emotional words. Study 1 involved a visual search task to assess activation of various distractors in working memory. Participants with reduced AMS showed a tendency to activate distractors that were not semantically associated with preceding cues. In Study 2, we manipulated the levels of AMS by using a computerized version of Memory Specificity Training (c-MeST) to observe the changes in the activation of distractors. Results showed that increases in AMS were associated with decreases in activation of cue-unassociated distractors. These findings suggest that reduced AMS can be characterized by dispersed activation spreading over semantically unassociated distractors in automatic information selection of working memory. Because we also found an association between depressive symptoms and AMS, the role of automatic information processing in the relation between reduced AMS and depression is discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T03:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.04.005
  • Pilot test of a novel food response and attention training treatment for
           obesity: Brain imaging data suggest actions shape valuation
    • Authors: Eric Stice; Sonja Yokum; Harm Veling; Eva Kemps; Natalia Lawrence
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Eric Stice, Sonja Yokum, Harm Veling, Eva Kemps, Natalia Lawrence
      Elevated brain reward and attention region response, and weaker inhibitory region response to high-calorie food images have been found to predict future weight gain. These findings suggest that an intervention that reduces reward and attention region response and increases inhibitory control region response to such foods might reduce overeating. We conducted a randomized pilot experiment that tested the hypothesis that a multi-faceted food response and attention training with personalized high- and low-calorie food images would produce changes in behavioral and neural responses to food images and body fat compared to a control training with non-food images among community-recruited overweight/obese adults. Compared to changes observed in controls, completing the intervention was associated with significant reductions in reward and attention region response to high-calorie food images (Mean Cohen's d = 1.54), behavioral evidence of learning, reductions in palatability ratings and monetary valuation of high-calorie foods (p = 0.009, d's = 0.92), and greater body fat loss over a 4-week period (p = 0.009, d = 0.90), though body fat effects were not significant by 6-month follow-up. Results suggest that this multifaceted response and attention training intervention was associated with reduced reward and attention region responsivity to food cues, and a reduction in body fat. Because this implicit training treatment is both easy and inexpensive to deliver, and does not require top-down executive control that is necessary for negative energy balance obesity treatment, it may prove useful in treating obesity if future studies can determine how to create more enduring effects.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T03:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.04.007
  • How durable is the effect of low intensity CBT for depression and anxiety?
           Remission and relapse in a longitudinal cohort study
    • Authors: Shehzad Ali; Laura Rhodes; Omar Moreea; Dean McMillan; Simon Gilbody; Chris Leach; Mike Lucock; Wolfgang Lutz; Jaime Delgadillo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Shehzad Ali, Laura Rhodes, Omar Moreea, Dean McMillan, Simon Gilbody, Chris Leach, Mike Lucock, Wolfgang Lutz, Jaime Delgadillo
      Background Depression and anxiety disorders are relapse-prone conditions, even after successful treatment with pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is known to prevent relapse, but there is little evidence of the durability of remission after low intensity forms of CBT (LiCBT). Method This study aimed to examine relapse rates 12 months after completing routinely-delivered LiCBT. A cohort of 439 LiCBT completers with remission of symptoms provided monthly depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7) measures during 12 months after treatment. Survival analysis was conducted to model time-to-relapse while controlling for patient characteristics. Results Overall, 53% of cases relapsed within 1 year. Of these relapse events, the majority (79%) occurred within the first 6 months post-treatment. Cases reporting residual depression symptoms (PHQ-9 = 5 to 9) at the end of treatment had significantly higher risk of relapse (hazard ratio = 1.90, p < 0.001). Conclusions The high rate of relapse after LiCBT highlights the need for relapse prevention, particularly for those with residual depression symptoms.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T03:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.04.006
  • Feeling safe but appearing anxious: Differential effects of alcohol on
           anxiety and social performance in individuals with social anxiety disorder
    • Authors: Stephan Stevens; Ruth Cooper; Trisha Bantin; Christiane Hermann; Alexander L. Gerlach
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Stephan Stevens, Ruth Cooper, Trisha Bantin, Christiane Hermann, Alexander L. Gerlach
      Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) co-occur frequently and there is preliminary evidence that alcohol might reduce social anxiety. It is, however, unclear which mechanisms contribute to the anxiety reducing effect, particularly regarding key aspects of social anxiety such as deficits in social performance. We compared self-rated and physiological measures of anxiety as well as self- and observer-rated social performance in a sample of 62 individuals with SAD and 60 nonanxious control participants during a speech task after receiving either alcohol, an alcohol-free placebo drink or orange juice. SAD patients reported more anxiety during the speech task than did control participants. Furthermore, SAD patients underestimated their performance in comparison to observer ratings. Alcohol reduced self-report anxiety only in SAD patients, while observers rated all participants as less competent when intoxicated. Although individuals with SAD experience a reduction in anxiety when drinking alcohol, simultaneous decreases in social performance might contribute to negative reactions from others and consequently increase the risk of further alcohol use to cope with these negative reactions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T03:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.04.008
  • Reducing intrusive traumatic memories after emergency caesarean section: A
           proof-of-principle randomized controlled study
    • Authors: Antje Horsch; Yvan Vial; Céline Favrod; Mathilde Morisod Harari; Simon E. Blackwell; Peter Watson; Lalitha Iyadurai; Michael B. Bonsall; Emily A. Holmes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Antje Horsch, Yvan Vial, Céline Favrod, Mathilde Morisod Harari, Simon E. Blackwell, Peter Watson, Lalitha Iyadurai, Michael B. Bonsall, Emily A. Holmes
      Preventative psychological interventions to aid women after traumatic childbirth are needed. This proof-of-principle randomised controlled study evaluated whether the number of intrusive traumatic memories mothers experience after emergency caesarean section (ECS) could be reduced by a brief cognitive intervention. 56 women after ECS were randomized to one of two parallel groups in a 1:1 ratio: intervention (usual care plus cognitive task procedure) or control (usual care). The intervention group engaged in a visuospatial task (computer-game ‘Tetris’ via a handheld gaming device) for 15 min within six hours following their ECS. The primary outcome was the number of intrusive traumatic memories related to the ECS recorded in a diary for the week post-ECS. As predicted, compared with controls, the intervention group reported fewer intrusive traumatic memories (M = 4.77, SD = 10.71 vs. M = 9.22, SD = 10.69, d = 0.647 [95% CI: 0.106, 1.182] over 1 week (intention-to-treat analyses, primary outcome). There was a trend towards reduced acute stress re-experiencing symptoms (d = 0.503 [95% CI: −0.032, 1.033]) after 1 week (intention-to-treat analyses). Times series analysis on daily intrusions data confirmed the predicted difference between groups. 72% of women rated the intervention “rather” to “extremely” acceptable. This represents a first step in the development of an early (and potentially universal) intervention to prevent postnatal posttraumatic stress symptoms that may benefit both mother and child. Clinical trial registration,, NCT02502513.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T03:17:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.03.018
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