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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 889 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 421)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 200)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 228)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 140)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access  
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Behaviour Research and Therapy
  [SJR: 2.306]   [H-I: 138]   [17 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0005-7967
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3089 journals]
  • The relationship between consumer, clinician, and organizational
           characteristics and use of evidence-based and non-evidence-based therapy
           strategies in a public mental health system
    • Authors: Rinad Beidas; Laura Skriner; Danielle Adams; Courtney Benjamin Wolk; Rebecca E. Stewart; Emily Becker-Haimes; Nathaniel Williams; Brenna Maddox; Ronnie Rubin; Shawna Weaver; Arthur Evans; David Mandell; Steven C. Marcus
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 99
      Author(s): Rinad Beidas, Laura Skriner, Danielle Adams, Courtney Benjamin Wolk, Rebecca E. Stewart, Emily Becker-Haimes, Nathaniel Williams, Brenna Maddox, Ronnie Rubin, Shawna Weaver, Arthur Evans, David Mandell, Steven C. Marcus
      We investigated the relationship between consumer, clinician, and organizational factors and clinician use of therapy strategies within a system-wide effort to increase the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Data from 247 clinicians in 28 child-serving organizations were collected. Clinicians participating in evidence-based practice training initiatives were more likely to report using cognitive-behavioral therapy when they endorsed more clinical experience, being salaried clinicians, and more openness to evidence-based practice. Clinicians participating in evidence-based practice initiatives were more likely to use psychodynamic techniques when they had older clients, less knowledge about evidence-based practice, more divergent attitudes toward EBP, higher financial strain, and worked in larger organizations. In clinicians not participating in evidence-based training initiatives; depersonalization was associated with higher use of cognitive-behavioral; whereas clinicians with less knowledge of evidence-based practices were more likely to use psychodynamic techniques. This study suggests that clinician characteristics are important when implementing evidence-based practices; and that consumer, clinician, and organizational characteristics are important when de-implementing non evidence-based practices. This work posits potential characteristics at multiple levels to target with implementation and deimplementation strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Attentional control predicts change in bias in response to attentional
           bias modification
    • Authors: Julian Basanovic; Lies Notebaert; Ben Grafton; Colette R. Hirsch; Patrick J.F. Clarke
      Pages: 47 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Julian Basanovic, Lies Notebaert, Ben Grafton, Colette R. Hirsch, Patrick J.F. Clarke
      Procedures that effectively modify attentional bias to negative information have been examined for their potential to be a source of therapeutic change in emotional vulnerability. However, the degree to which these procedures modify attentional bias is subject to individual differences. This generates the need to understand the mechanisms that influence attentional bias change across individuals. The present study investigated the association between individual differences in attentional control and individual differences in the magnitude of bias change evoked by an attentional bias modification procedure. The findings demonstrate that individual differences in two facets of attentional control, control of attentional inhibition and control of attentional selectivity, were positively associated with individual differences in the magnitude of attentional bias change. The present findings inform upon the cognitive mechanisms underpinning change in attentional bias, and identify a target cognitive process for research seeking to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of attentional bias modification procedures.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T07:46:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Hostile interpretation training for individuals with alcohol use disorder
           and elevated trait anger: A controlled trial of a web-based intervention
    • Authors: Jesse R. Cougle; Berta J. Summers; Nicholas P. Allan; Kirsten H. Dillon; Hillary L. Smith; Sarah A. Okey; Ashleigh M. Harvey
      Pages: 57 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 99
      Author(s): Jesse R. Cougle, Berta J. Summers, Nicholas P. Allan, Kirsten H. Dillon, Hillary L. Smith, Sarah A. Okey, Ashleigh M. Harvey
      High trait anger is associated with more severe alcohol use problems, and alcohol has been found to facilitate aggressive behavior among individuals with high trait anger. Treatments focused on a sample with alcohol use disorder with elevated anger could reduce alcohol use problems, as well as violence and aggression. We sought to examine the efficacy of interpretation bias modification for hostility (IBM-H) in a sample with high trait anger and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Fifty-eight individuals with AUD and elevated trait anger were randomly assigned to eight web-based sessions (two per week) of IBM-H or a healthy video control condition (HVC). Measures of interpretation bias, anger, and alcohol use were administered at pre- and post-treatment and at one-month follow-up. IBM-H led to greater improvements in interpretation bias compared to HVC at post and follow-up. IBM-H also led to greater reductions in trait anger than HVC, though this was an indirect effect mediated by changes in interpretation bias. Further, IBM-H led to lower anger expression than HVC; this was a direct (non-mediated) effect. Lastly, both conditions reported decreases in alcohol use and consequences following treatment, though there were no significant differences between them. These findings provide initial support for the utility of IBM-H as a brief non-confrontational intervention for AUD with elevated trait anger. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T15:24:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Moving towards the benign: Automatic interpretation bias modification in
           dysphoria
    • Authors: Alexandra H. Cowden Hindash; Jonathan A. Rottenberg
      Pages: 98 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 99
      Author(s): Alexandra H. Cowden Hindash, Jonathan A. Rottenberg
      Automatic cognitive biases are important to theories of depression and reducing such biases may contribute to therapeutic gains. The present study examined (1) whether it was possible to reduce automatic interpretation biases (AIB) in a single session among dysphoric subjects and (2) whether the effects of modifying AIB generalized to other measures of cognition and emotion. 76 dysphoric students completed a modified semantic association paradigm in which they were randomized to receive active or random-feedback-based training. Groups did not differ on AIB at baseline. Compared to the placebo group, the active training group demonstrated decreased endorsement of negative AIB, faster endorsement of benign AIB, and slower rejection of benign AIB. AIB modification generalized to a separate measure of interpretation bias. Further, greater reductions in AIB predicted a more resilient emotional response pattern to a laboratory stressor. Implications of AIB modification for basic and clinical research are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T18:39:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • A randomized clinical trial examining the effects of an anxiety
           sensitivity intervention on insomnia symptoms: Replication and extension
    • Authors: Nicole A. Short; Joseph W. Boffa; Savannah King; Brian J. Albanese; Nicholas P. Allan; Norman B. Schmidt
      Pages: 108 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 99
      Author(s): Nicole A. Short, Joseph W. Boffa, Savannah King, Brian J. Albanese, Nicholas P. Allan, Norman B. Schmidt
      Insomnia disorder is impairing and prevalent, particularly among individuals with comorbid anxiety disorders. Despite the availability of effective computerized treatments for insomnia, there are few that target both insomnia as well as co-occurring anxiety symptoms. The current study tests the efficacy of a computerized treatment for anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, a transdiagnostic risk factor for anxiety, mood, and insomnia symptoms, against a repeated contact control, on reducing insomnia symptoms. Hypotheses were tested in a mixed clinical sample of community individuals presenting for a treatment study (n = 151) who were followed up 1-, 3- and 6-months after treatment. Results indicated that the anxiety sensitivity intervention resulted in reductions in insomnia symptoms and clinically significant insomnia scores at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. These reductions remained significant when covarying for concurrent reductions in depression and anxiety. Models accounted for 15–54% of the variance in follow-up insomnia symptoms. Current findings add to a growing body of literature suggesting anxiety sensitivity may play a causal role in insomnia symptoms. Results also suggest that targeting anxiety sensitivity may be an effective way to reduce insomnia symptoms in a brief and portable intervention that also reduces symptoms commonly comorbid with insomnia disorder.

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T18:39:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.013
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Direction of stimulus movement alters fear-linked individual differences
           in attentional vigilance to spider stimuli
    • Authors: Julian Basanovic; Laurence Dean; John H. Riskind; Colin MacLeod
      Pages: 117 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Julian Basanovic, Laurence Dean, John H. Riskind, Colin MacLeod
      Researchers have proposed that high spider-fearful individuals are characterised by heightened attentional vigilance to spider stimuli, as compared to low spider-fearful individuals. However, these findings have arisen from methodologies that have uniformly employed only static stimuli. Such findings do not inform upon the patterns of fear-linked attentional selectivity that occur in the face of moving feared stimuli. Hence, the present study developed a novel methodology designed to examine the influence of stimulus movement on attentional vigilance to spider and non-spider stimuli. Eighty participants who varied in level of spider-fear completed an attentional-probe task that presented stimuli under two conditions. One condition presented stimuli that displayed an approaching movement, while the other condition presented stimuli that displayed a receding movement. Fear-linked heightened attentional vigilance was observed exclusively under the latter condition. These findings suggest that fear-linked attentional vigilance to spider stimuli does not represent a uniform characteristic of heightened spider-fear, but rather is influenced by stimulus context. The means by which these findings inform understanding of attentional mechanisms that characterise heightened spider-fear, and avenues for future research, are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T18:39:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Best practice guidelines for modern statistical methods in applied
           clinical research: Introduction to the Special Section
    • Authors: Timothy A. Brown; Andy P. Field
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 98
      Author(s): Timothy A. Brown, Andy P. Field


      PubDate: 2017-09-19T19:27:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.008
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Multiple imputation as a flexible tool for missing data handling in
           clinical research
    • Authors: Craig K. Enders
      Pages: 4 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 98
      Author(s): Craig K. Enders
      The last 20 years has seen an uptick in research on missing data problems, and most software applications now implement one or more sophisticated missing data handling routines (e.g., multiple imputation or maximum likelihood estimation). Despite their superior statistical properties (e.g., less stringent assumptions, greater accuracy and power), the adoption of these modern analytic approaches is not uniform in psychology and related disciplines. Thus, the primary goal of this manuscript is to describe and illustrate the application of multiple imputation. Although maximum likelihood estimation is perhaps the easiest method to use in practice, psychological data sets often feature complexities that are currently difficult to handle appropriately in the likelihood framework (e.g., mixtures of categorical and continuous variables), but relatively simple to treat with imputation. The paper describes a number of practical issues that clinical researchers are likely to encounter when applying multiple imputation, including mixtures of categorical and continuous variables, item-level missing data in questionnaires, significance testing, interaction effects, and multilevel missing data. Analysis examples illustrate imputation with software packages that are freely available on the internet.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T19:27:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2016.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Robust statistical methods: A primer for clinical psychology and
           experimental psychopathology researchers
    • Authors: Andy P. Field; Rand R. Wilcox
      Pages: 19 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 98
      Author(s): Andy P. Field, Rand R. Wilcox
      This paper reviews and offers tutorials on robust statistical methods relevant to clinical and experimental psychopathology researchers. We review the assumptions of one of the most commonly applied models in this journal (the general linear model, GLM) and the effects of violating them. We then present evidence that psychological data are more likely than not to violate these assumptions. Next, we overview some methods for correcting for violations of model assumptions. The final part of the paper presents 8 tutorials of robust statistical methods using R that cover a range of variants of the GLM (t-tests, ANOVA, multiple regression, multilevel models, latent growth models). We conclude with recommendations that set the expectations for what methods researchers submitting to the journal should apply and what they should report.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T19:27:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.013
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Regression-based statistical mediation and moderation analysis in clinical
           research: Observations, recommendations, and implementation
    • Authors: Andrew F. Hayes; Nicholas J. Rockwood
      Pages: 39 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 98
      Author(s): Andrew F. Hayes, Nicholas J. Rockwood
      There have been numerous treatments in the clinical research literature about various design, analysis, and interpretation considerations when testing hypotheses about mechanisms and contingencies of effects, popularly known as mediation and moderation analysis. In this paper we address the practice of mediation and moderation analysis using linear regression in the pages of Behaviour Research and Therapy and offer some observations and recommendations, debunk some popular myths, describe some new advances, and provide an example of mediation, moderation, and their integration as conditional process analysis using the PROCESS macro for SPSS and SAS. Our goal is to nudge clinical researchers away from historically significant but increasingly old school approaches toward modifications, revisions, and extensions that characterize more modern thinking about the analysis of the mechanisms and contingencies of effects.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T19:27:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2016.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • An introduction to using Bayesian linear regression with clinical data
    • Authors: Scott A. Baldwin; Michael J. Larson
      Pages: 58 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 98
      Author(s): Scott A. Baldwin, Michael J. Larson
      Statistical training psychology focuses on frequentist methods. Bayesian methods are an alternative to standard frequentist methods. This article provides researchers with an introduction to fundamental ideas in Bayesian modeling. We use data from an electroencephalogram (EEG) and anxiety study to illustrate Bayesian models. Specifically, the models examine the relationship between error-related negativity (ERN), a particular event-related potential, and trait anxiety. Methodological topics covered include: how to set up a regression model in a Bayesian framework, specifying priors, examining convergence of the model, visualizing and interpreting posterior distributions, interval estimates, expected and predicted values, and model comparison tools. We also discuss situations where Bayesian methods can outperform frequentist methods as well has how to specify more complicated regression models. Finally, we conclude with recommendations about reporting guidelines for those using Bayesian methods in their own research. We provide data and R code for replicating our analyses.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T19:27:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2016.12.016
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • A practical guide to propensity score analysis for applied clinical
           research
    • Authors: Jaehoon Lee; Todd D. Little
      Pages: 76 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 98
      Author(s): Jaehoon Lee, Todd D. Little
      Observational studies are often the only viable options in many clinical settings, especially when it is unethical or infeasible to randomly assign participants to different treatment régimes. In such case propensity score (PS) analysis can be applied to accounting for possible selection bias and thereby addressing questions of causal inference. Many PS methods exist, yet few guidelines are available to aid applied researchers in their conduct and evaluation of a PS analysis. In this article we give an overview of available techniques for PS estimation and application, balance diagnostic, treatment effect estimation, and sensitivity assessment, as well as recent advances. We also offer a tutorial that can be used to emulate the steps of PS analysis. Our goal is to provide information that will bring PS analysis within the reach of applied clinical researchers and practitioners.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T19:27:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • Fitting latent variable mixture models
    • Authors: Gitta H. Lubke; Justin Luningham
      Pages: 91 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 98
      Author(s): Gitta H. Lubke, Justin Luningham
      Latent variable mixture models (LVMMs) are models for multivariate observed data from a potentially heterogeneous population. The responses on the observed variables are thought to be driven by one or more latent continuous factors (e.g. severity of a disorder) and/or latent categorical variables (e.g., subtypes of a disorder). Decomposing the observed covariances in the data into the effects of categorical group membership and the effects of continuous trait differences is not trivial, and requires the consideration of a number of different aspects of LVMMs. The first part of this paper provides the theoretical background of LVMMs and emphasizes their exploratory character, outlines the general framework together with assumptions and necessary constraints, highlights the difference between models with and without covariates, and discusses the interrelation between the number of classes and the complexity of the within-class model as well as the relevance of measurement invariance. The second part provides a growth mixture modeling example with simulated data and covers several practical issues when fitting LVMMs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T19:27:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
       
  • A longitudinal investigation of perfectionism and repetitive negative
           thinking in perinatal depression
    • Authors: Sarah J. Egan; Robert T. Kane; Karen Winton; Catherine Eliot; Peter M. McEvoy
      Pages: 26 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 97
      Author(s): Sarah J. Egan, Robert T. Kane, Karen Winton, Catherine Eliot, Peter M. McEvoy
      Repetitive negative thinking and perfectionism have both been proposed as processes that are related to depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate concurrent and prospective relationships between antenatal and postnatal depression, perfectionism, and repetitive negative thinking. A longitudinal design was used and 71 women were followed from their third trimester of pregnancy to six weeks post birth. A structural equation model was tested with antenatal perfectionism predicting antenatal repetitive negative thinking, perfectionism predicting postnatal depression, and antenatal repetitive negative thinking predicting antenatal and postnatal depression. The final model provided an adequate fit to the data but the pathway from antenatal repetitive negative thinking to postnatal depression was not significant. The findings provide support for the role of perfectionism and repetitive negative thinking in the onset and maintenance of perinatal symptoms of depression. It is suggested that future research investigates the efficacy of targeting repetitive negative thinking and perfectionism in pregnancy to examine if this can reduce perinatal depression.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T02:16:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2017)
       
  • Effects of brief mindful breathing and loving-kindness meditation on shame
           and social problem solving abilities among individuals with high
           borderline personality traits
    • Authors: Shian-Ling Keng; Jun Xian Tan
      Pages: 43 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Shian-Ling Keng, Jun Xian Tan
      Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental condition characterized by a range of cognitive and behavioral vulnerabilities, including chronic shame and deficits in social problem solving (SPS) abilities. Little research however, has examined strategies that may alleviate shame and SPS deficits among individuals with BPD traits. Using a laboratory experimental approach, the present study compared the effects of a brief mindfulness versus loving-kindness meditation (LKM) induction on shame and SPS abilities in a sample of adults with high BPD traits. Eighty-eight participants underwent a shame induction procedure involving recall of a negative autobiographical memory. They were then randomly assigned to 10 min of mindful breathing or LKM, or a no-instruction condition. Shame and SPS abilities were assessed via visual analogue scales and the Means-Ends Problem Solving task respectively. Results indicated that there were significant decreases in shame from pre-to post-regulation in the mindfulness group versus the LKM and no-instruction groups. Groups did not differ on changes in SPS abilities from pre-to post-regulation. Overall, the findings support the efficacy of mindfulness as a strategy to regulate shame among individuals with BPD traits, and raises questions with regard to the utility of LKM in modulating shame in the context of high emotional arousal.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T02:17:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2017)
       
  • A return to the psychiatric dark ages with a two-system framework for fear
    • Authors: Michael S. Fanselow; Zachary T. Pennington
      Pages: 24 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 100
      Author(s): Michael S. Fanselow, Zachary T. Pennington
      The past several decades has seen considerable progress in our understanding of the neurobiology of fear and anxiety. These advancements were spurred on by envisioning fear as emerging from the coordinated activation of brain and behavioral systems that evolved for the purpose of defense from environmental dangers. Recently, Joseph LeDoux, a previous proponent of this view, published a series of papers in which he challenges the value of this approach. As an alternative, he and colleagues propose that a ‘two-system’ framework for the study of responses to threat will expedite the advancement of medical treatments for fear disorders. This view suggests one system for autonomic and behavioral responses and a second for the subjective feeling of fear. They argue that these two systems operate orthogonally and thus inferences concerning the emotion of fear cannot be gleaned from physiological and behavioral measures; confounding these systems has impeded the mechanistic understanding and treatment of fear disorders. Counter to the claim that this view will advance scientific progress, it carries the frightening implication that we ought to reduce the study of fear to subjective report. Here, we outline why we believe that fear is best considered an integrated autonomic, behavioral, and cognitive-emotional response to danger emerging from a central fear generator whose evolutionarily conserved function is that of defense. Furthermore, we argue that although components of the fear response can be independently modulated and studied, common upstream brain regions dictate their genesis, and therefore inferences about a central fear state can be garnered from measures of each.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:28:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.10.012
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Individual differences in fear relapse
    • Authors: G. King; B.M. Graham; R. Richardson
      Pages: 37 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 100
      Author(s): G. King, B.M. Graham, R. Richardson
      Vulnerability to anxiety disorders might be due to enhanced acquisition of aversive associations, impaired inhibition of those associations (extinction), and/or vulnerability to the return of fear (relapse). Animal research investigating the processes underpinning fear learning, extinction, and relapse will be critical to further advancing our understanding of anxiety disorders and their treatment. Here we examined whether individual differences in the rate of extinction might be related to vulnerability to relapse. Relapse of fear was examined by testing animals for conditioned freezing using renewal, reinstatement, and spontaneous recovery procedures. Across all three experiments we found that when tested under “milder” relapse conditions (in a novel context, after a mild reinstatement procedure, or 8 days after extinction training) Slow Extinguishers exhibited relapse of fear whereas Fast Extinguishers did not. However, when tested under “stronger” relapse conditions (in the training context, after a strong reinstatement procedure, or 29 days after extinction training) both Fast and Slow Extinguishers exhibited comparable relapse of fear. These results show that Slow Extinguishers are more vulnerable to relapse than Fast Extinguishers. These findings have clinical implications for identifying those most at risk of relapse following treatment and highlight the importance of developing further strategies to reduce relapse.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T18:22:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Learning to feel tired: A learning trajectory towards chronic fatigue
    • Authors: Bert Lenaert; Yannick Boddez; Johan W.S. Vlaeyen; Caroline M. van Heugten
      Pages: 54 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 100
      Author(s): Bert Lenaert, Yannick Boddez, Johan W.S. Vlaeyen, Caroline M. van Heugten
      Chronic fatigue complaints are frequently reported in the general population and fatigue ranks among the most commonly reported symptoms in chronic disease. In contrast to its high prevalence and impact on quality of life, relatively little is understood about the etiology of chronic fatigue. We present a cognitive-behavioral framework, the ‘ALT+F’ model, that conceptualizes fatigue from an associative learning perspective, and we will evaluate the current evidence for this position. Central to this framework is the notion that interoceptive and exteroceptive stimuli can become associated with the fatigue experience. Consequently, these stimuli may acquire the capacity to elicit fatigue as well as anticipatory fear-related avoidance behavior. We will argue that associative learning processes may contribute to the development of chronic fatigue, fear of fatigue, avoidance of fatigue and activity, and eventually, functional disability. The extent to which associative learning processes give rise to chronic fatigue and fear-related avoidance behavior may depend on a number of risk factors, including perceptual-cognitive biases, sensitization, fatigue catastrophizing, and excessive generalization. The presented framework offers a new window on treatment and intervention options for chronic fatigue.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T18:22:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Combat-related guilt and the mechanisms of exposure therapy
    • Authors: Benjamin Trachik; Clint Bowers; Sandra M. Neer; Vu Nguyen; B. Christopher Frueh; Deborah C. Beidel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Benjamin Trachik, Clint Bowers, Sandra M. Neer, Vu Nguyen, B. Christopher Frueh, Deborah C. Beidel
      Exposure therapy (EXP) is one of the most widely used and empirically supported treatments for PTSD; however, some researchers have questioned its efficacy with specific populations and in targeting specific symptoms. One such symptom, guilt, has garnered increased attention in the PTSD treatment literature, as it is associated with worse symptomatology and outcomes. The current study examined cognitive changes in guilt in response to Intensive (3-week) and Standard (17-week) Trauma Management Therapy (TMT), and the potential mechanisms underlying TMT treatment. TMT is an exposure based intervention that does not include an emotional processing component after the imaginal exposure session. A portion of the sample completed measures of guilt. As a result, sample size for these analyses ranged from 39 to 102 and varied by the domain and measure. Of the 102 individuals that completed the PTSD Checklist- Military Version, 42 completed the Trauma Related Guilt Inventory, and 39 completed the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale supplemental guilt items. Participants reported significant reductions in trauma-related guilt symptoms over the course of the TMT interventions. Greater reductions in avoidance and prior session general arousal predicted the reduction of guilt symptoms. Exposure therapy may be effective in reducing trauma-related guilt even in the absence of the emotional processing component of treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T18:22:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.11.006
       
  • Effects of brief mindfulness and loving-kindness meditation inductions on
           emotional and behavioral responses to social rejection among individuals
           with high borderline personality traits
    • Authors: Shian-Ling Keng; Hui Han Tan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Shian-Ling Keng, Hui Han Tan
      Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by an enduring pattern of instability across affective, behavioral, cognitive, and interpersonal domains. Individuals with BPD are known to be particularly vulnerable to experiences of social rejection, but little work has examined strategies that may moderate their reactivity to social rejection. Using a laboratory experimental approach, this study investigated the effects of brief mindfulness and loving-kindness meditation (LKM) inductions on emotional and behavioral responses to social rejection in a sample of adults with high BPD traits. One hundred and eighteen participants were randomly assigned to receive 10 min of mindful breathing practice, LKM, or a no-instruction control condition, prior to exposure to a social rejection manipulation. Participants rated their emotions and completed a competitive reaction time task, which provided a proxy measure of aggression. Compared to the control condition, the mindfulness group demonstrated significantly quicker recovery in negative affect and feelings of rejection after social rejection. The mindfulness group also reported significantly quicker recovery in negative affect compared to the LKM group. Whereas baseline trait mindfulness negatively predicted aggressive behaviors across all participants, groups did not differ in immediate emotional reactivity or aggressive behavior following social rejection. The findings suggest that mindfulness training may be a promising strategy in alleviating negative emotional effects of social rejection among individuals with high borderline personality traits, and highlight the limited utility of brief LKM practice in buffering the effects of social rejection.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T18:22:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.11.005
       
  • Measuring self-efficacy, executive function, and temporal discounting in
           Kenya
    • Authors: Kristina Esopo; Daniel Mellow; Catherine Thomas; Hannah Uckat; Justin Abraham; Prachi Jain; Chaning Jang; Nicholas Otis; Michala Riis-Vestergaard; Amanda Starcev; Kate OrkinY; Johannes Haushofer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Kristina Esopo, Daniel Mellow, Catherine Thomas, Hannah Uckat, Justin Abraham, Prachi Jain, Chaning Jang, Nicholas Otis, Michala Riis-Vestergaard, Amanda Starcev, Kate OrkinY, Johannes Haushofer
      Developing countries have low adherence to medical regimens like water chlorination or antenatal and postnatal care, contributing to high infant and child mortality rates. We hypothesize that high levels of stress affect adherence through temporal discounting, self-efficacy, and executive control. Measurement of these constructs in developing countries requires adaptation of existing measures. In the current study, we adapt psychological scales and behavioral tasks, measuring each of these three constructs, for use among adults in Kenya. We translated and back-translated each measure to Kiswahili and conducted cognitive interviewing to establish cultural acceptability, refined existing behavioral tasks, and developed new ones. Then, in a laboratory session lasting 3 h, participants ( N = 511 ) completed the adapted psychological inventories and behavioral tasks. We report the psychometric properties of these measures. We find relatively low reliability and poor correlational evidence between psychological scales and behavioral tasks measuring the same construct, highlighting the challenges of adapting measures across cultures, and suggesting that assays within the same domain may tap distinct underlying processes.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T18:22:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.10.002
       
  • Subjective sleep disturbances are associated with intrinsic motivation
           toward sleep-related thinking
    • Authors: Keisuke Takano; Filip Raes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Keisuke Takano, Filip Raes
      Biased information processing has been highlighted as a possible vulnerability factor for sleep problems. A theory states that perceived sleeplessness triggers a strong approach motivation (or craving) for sleep, and then activates persistent preoccupation with sleep. However, there is no clear evidence that perceived sleeplessness is associated with such a motivation toward sleep-related information. Thus, we examined the untested idea that people with subjective sleep disturbances would prefer sleep-related topics, using a modified version of the pay-per-view task. In this task, 58 participants were offered two question-type options: the “sleep” option, where participants were asked to answer a question about their sleep, and the “eat” option, where participants needed to answer a question about their eating habits and beliefs. Each option is associated with a variable amount of economic reward and therefore participants sometimes face a conflict between the economic reward and their intrinsic preference for a specific question type. Results showed that people with higher levels of subjective sleep disturbances forgo greater amounts of reward to have an opportunity to answer sleep-related (as opposed to than eating-related) questions. These findings suggest that people who perceive themselves as lacking sleep are highly motivated to engage in sleep-related information processing.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:28:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.11.002
       
  • Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 99


      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:03:04Z
       
  • The influence of maternal modeling on body image concerns and eating
           disturbances in preadolescent girls
    • Authors: Charlotte Handford; Ronald Rapee Jasmine Fardouly
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Charlotte M. Handford, Ronald M. Rapee, Jasmine Fardouly
      Research suggests that mothers may influence the development of body image concerns and eating disturbances in their daughters by modeling negative body image beliefs and unhealthy eating behaviors. However, the causal nature of that mode of influence is yet to be established. This study implemented an experimental design to examine the impact of mothers' modeling of negative comments about their own appearance and diet on their daughters' body image concerns and eating behaviors. Participants were 8–12 year old girls and their mothers (N = 50). While viewing thin-ideal magazine advertisements with their daughter, mothers were instructed to make either negative comments about their own weight, shape, and diet or to make no appearance or diet related comments. Daughters' levels of body esteem, body satisfaction, and eating attitudes were assessed pre- and post-manipulation, and their actual eating habits were measured post-manipulation. Girls whose mothers had made self-critical comments about their own appearance and diet reported lower body esteem, lower body satisfaction, more problematic eating attitudes, and ate significantly fewer sweets than girls whose mothers had not made self-critical comments. These results have implications for disordered eating prevention programs, suggesting that greater emphasis be placed on discouraging negative modeling behaviors among mothers.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:03:04Z
       
  • A randomised controlled trial investigating the benefits of adaptive
           working memory training for working memory capacity and attentional
           control in high worriers
    • Authors: Matthew Hotton; Nazanin Derakshan; Elaine Fox
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Matthew Hotton, Nazanin Derakshan, Elaine Fox
      The process of worry has been associated with reductions in working memory capacity and availability of resources necessary for efficient attentional control. This, in turn, can lead to escalating worry. Recent investigations into working memory training have shown improvements in attentional control and cognitive performance in high trait-anxious individuals and individuals with sub-clinical depression. The current randomised controlled trial investigated the effects of 15 days of adaptive n-back working memory training, or an active control task, on working memory capacity, attentional control and worry in a sample of high worriers. Pre-training, post-training and one-month follow-up measures of working memory capacity were assessed using a Change Detection task, while a Flanker task was used to assess attentional control. A breathing focus task was used as a behavioural measure of worry in addition to a number of self-report assessments of worry and anxiety. Overall there was no difference between the active training and the active control condition with both groups demonstrating similar improvements in working memory capacity and worry, post-training and at follow-up. However, training-related improvements on the n-back task were associated with gains in working memory capacity and reductions in worry symptoms in the active training condition. These results highlight the need for further research investigating the role of individual differences in working memory training.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:03:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.10.011
       
  • Major depression prevention effects for a cognitive-behavioral adolescent
           indicated prevention group intervention across four trials
    • Authors: Paul Rohde; Frédéric N. Brière; Eric Stice
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Paul Rohde, Frédéric N. Brière, Eric Stice
      Major depressive disorder (MDD) in young people is a leading cause of disability but most depressed youth are not treated, emphasizing the need for effective prevention. Our goal is to synthesize MDD onset prevention effects for the Blues Program, a brief cognitive-behavioral (CB) indicated prevention group, by merging data from four trials (three of which included CB bibliotherapy) and conducting an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis. Data were available from 766 high school/college students (M age = 16.4, SD = 2.3; 60% female, 64% White). CB group resulted in significantly lower MDD incidence rates relative to brochure control that persisted to 6-month follow-up; CB group also was associated with a lower 2-year MDD incidence rate relative to bibliotherapy but heterogeneity across trials was detected. Contrasts between bibliotherapy and brochure control were nonsignificant. For significant contrasts, the number needed to treat (NNT) by CB group to prevent one MDD onset relative to brochure or bibliotherapy ranged from 10 to 21. A brief CB group depression prevention intervention for at-risk adolescent is achieving meaningful effects compared to both active and minimal controls but outcomes need to be improved, perhaps by better screening or augmentations to produce more persistent intervention effects.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T01:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.10.013
       
  • A brighter future: The effect of positive episodic simulation on future
           predictions in non-depressed, moderately dysphoric & highly dysphoric
           individuals
    • Authors: Jennifer Boland; Kevin J. Riggs; Rachel J. Anderson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Jennifer Boland, Kevin J. Riggs, Rachel J. Anderson
      Previous research suggests depressed individuals have difficulties with future directed cognitions. For instance, compared with non-depressed individuals, they predict positive events are less likely to occur. Recent work suggests that episodic simulation of positive futures may represent a useful strategy for improving prospective predictions. The current studies investigated positive future episodic simulation as a method of modifying predictions regarding the likelihood of occurrence, perceived control, and importance of positive and negative future events. Experiment 1 compared positive episodic simulation to a neutral visualization task in a non-clinical sample. Predictions regarding future events were rated more positively after the use of positive episodic simulation but not as a result of neutral visualization. Experiment 2 extended these findings to show that future episodic simulation can be used to modify predictions, for both positive and negative events, in individuals experiencing significant levels of dysphoric mood and depressive symptoms. Taken together, these findings suggest that training in positive episodic future simulation can improve future outlook and may represent a useful tool within cognitive therapeutic techniques.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T01:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.10.010
       
  • The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal
           cortex on implicit self-esteem is mediated by rumination after criticism
    • Authors: Rudi De Raedt; Jonathan Remue; Tom Loeys; Jill Hooley; Chris Baeken
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Rudi De Raedt, Jonathan Remue, Tom Loeys, Jill Hooley, Chris Baeken
      It has been proposed that a crucial link between cognitive (i.e., self-schemas) and biological vulnerability is prefrontal control. This is because decreased control leads to impaired ability to inhibit ruminative thinking after the activation of negative self-schemas. However, current evidence is mainly correlational. In the current experimental study we tested whether the effect of neurostimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on self-esteem is mediated by momentary ruminative self-referential thinking (MRST) after the induction of negative self-schemas by criticism. We used a single, sham-controlled crossover session of anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) applied to the left DLPFC (cathode over the right supraorbital region) in healthy female individuals. After receiving tDCS/sham stimulation, we measured MRST and exposed the participants to critical audio scripts, followed by another MRST measurement. Subsequently, all participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures to implicitly measure actual and ideal self-esteem. Our behavioral data indicated a significant decrease in MRST after real but not sham tDCS. Moreover, although there was no immediate effect of tDCS on implicit self-esteem, an indirect effect was found through double mediation, with the difference in MRST from baseline to after stimulation and from baseline to after criticism as our two mediators. The larger the decrease of criticism induced MRST after real tDCS, the higher the level of actual self-esteem. Our results show that tDCS can influence cognitive processes such as rumination, and subsequently self-esteem, but only after the activation of negative self-schemas. Rumination and negative self-esteem characterize different forms of psychopathology, and these data expand our knowledge of the role of the prefrontal cortex in controlling these self-referential processes, and the mechanisms of action of tDCS.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T01:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.10.009
       
  • Avoidance in posttraumatic stress among refugee survivors of violent
           conflict and atrocities: Testing trans-cultural risk processes and
           candidate intervention targets
    • Authors: Kim Yuval; Amit Bernstein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Kim Yuval, Amit Bernstein
      Background A fast-growing population of refugees and survivors of violent conflict and atrocities are at risk for trauma-related mental health problems. Experimental clinical research key to the development of interventions tailored to this population is limited. Aims In an experimental psychopathology laboratory paradigm, we tested the expression and function of avoidance in posttraumatic stress (PTS) among a highly traumatized community sample of forcibly displaced refugees seeking asylum. Method We measured behavioral avoidance and emotional reactivity to repeated exposure to threatening stimuli (trauma-, war-, and geographically-relevant natural threat) in 110 Sudanese male asylum seekers (M(SD)age = 32.7(6.5)) recruited from the community in Israel. Results First, we found evidence of sensitization – traumatized refugees expressed increasing levels of behavioral avoidance and emotional reactivity in response to repeated exposure to threatening stimuli. Second, as predicted, refugees suffering from more severe PTS were more likely to exhibit greater behavioral avoidance and emotional reactivity reflexively or immediately upon exposure to threat stimuli. Finally, as predicted, behavioral avoidance mediated the effect of PTS severity on emotional reactivity to threat exposure. Conclusions Findings are consistent with theorizing that avoidance may function as a trans-cultural malleable risk process sub-serving PTS and thereby a promising intervention target among highly traumatized refugees from E. Africa.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T01:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.10.008
       
  • Targeting couple and parent-child coercion to improve health behaviors
    • Authors: Amy M. Smith Slep; Richard E. Heyman; Danielle M. Mitnick; Michael F. Lorber; Theodore P. Beauchaine
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Amy M. Smith Slep, Richard E. Heyman, Danielle M. Mitnick, Michael F. Lorber, Theodore P. Beauchaine
      This phase of the NIH Science of Behavior Change program emphasizes an “experimental medicine approach to behavior change,” that seeks to identify targets related to stress reactivity, self-regulation, and social processes for maximal effects on multiple health outcomes. Within this framework, our project focuses on interpersonal processes associated with health: coercive couple and parent-child conflict. Diabetes and poor oral health portend pain, distress, expense, loss of productivity, and even mortality. They share overlapping medical regimens, are driven by overlapping proximal health behaviors, and affect a wide developmental span, from early childhood to late adulthood. Coercive couple and parent-child conflict constitute potent and destructive influences on a wide range of adult and child health outcomes. Such interaction patterns give rise to disturbed environmental stress reactivity (e.g., disrupted sympathetic nervous and parasympathetic nervous systems) and a wide range of adverse health outcomes in children and adults, including dental caries, obesity, and diabetes-related metabolic markers. In this work, we seek to identify/develop/validate assays assessing coercion, identify/develop and test brief interventions to reduce coercion, and test whether changes in coercion trigger changes in health behaviors.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T01:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.10.003
       
  • The mediating role of changes in harm beliefs and coping efficacy in youth
           with specific phobias
    • Authors: Thomas H. Ollendick; Sarah M. Ryan; Nicole N. Capriola-Hall; Lena Reuterskiöld; Lars-Göran Öst
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Thomas H. Ollendick, Sarah M. Ryan, Nicole N. Capriola-Hall, Lena Reuterskiöld, Lars-Göran Öst
      Individuals with specific phobias (SPs) often experience catastrophic cognitions and compromised efficacy regarding their ability to cope when in the presence of the phobic object/situation. In the current study, 165 children (7–16 years; 62% male) received either One Session Treatment or Educational Support Therapy for their SP. The children identified their feared belief and rated “how bad” it was, “how likely” it was to occur, and their ability to cope if it did occur. All of these ratings were reduced from pre-treatment to 6-month follow-up, across both treatment conditions. However, ratings of “how bad” and “how likely” reduced to a significantly greater degree for children who received OST. Greater change in each of the three beliefs predicted lower clinician severity ratings (CSRs) at post-treatment and 6-month follow-up. Additionally, changes in “how bad” and “how likely” the children rated their beliefs, and their reported ability to cope, partially mediated the relationship between treatment and post-treatment and follow-up CSRs. Overall, these findings suggest that although both treatment conditions produced changes in harm beliefs and coping efficacy, OST elicited greater changes and these changes may be important mechanisms in reduction of SP clinical severity.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T01:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.10.007
       
  • Applying novel technologies and methods to inform the ontology of
           self-regulation
    • Authors: Ian W. Eisenberg; Patrick G. Bissett; Jessica R. Canning; Jesse Dallery; A. Zeynep Enkavi; Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli; Oscar Gonzalez; Alan I. Green; Mary Ann Greene; Michaela Kiernan; Sunny Jung Kim; Jamie Li; Michael R. Lowe; Gina L. Mazza; Stephen A. Metcalf; Lisa Onken; Sadev S. Parikh; Ellen Peters; Judith J. Prochaska; Emily A. Scherer; Luke E. Stoeckel; Matthew J. Valente; Jialing Wu; Haiyi Xie; David P. MacKinnon; Lisa A. Marsch; Russell A. Poldrack
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Ian W. Eisenberg, Patrick G. Bissett, Jessica R. Canning, Jesse Dallery, A. Zeynep Enkavi, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Oscar Gonzalez, Alan I. Green, Mary Ann Greene, Michaela Kiernan, Sunny Jung Kim, Jamie Li, Michael R. Lowe, Gina L. Mazza, Stephen A. Metcalf, Lisa Onken, Sadev S. Parikh, Ellen Peters, Judith J. Prochaska, Emily A. Scherer, Luke E. Stoeckel, Matthew J. Valente, Jialing Wu, Haiyi Xie, David P. MacKinnon, Lisa A. Marsch, Russell A. Poldrack
      Self-regulation is a broad construct representing the general ability to recruit cognitive, motivational and emotional resources to achieve long-term goals. This construct has been implicated in a host of health-risk behaviors, and is a promising target for fostering beneficial behavior change. Despite its clear importance, the behavioral, psychological and neural components of self-regulation remain poorly understood, which contributes to theoretical inconsistencies and hinders maximally effective intervention development. We outline a research program that seeks to define a neuropsychological ontology of self-regulation, articulating the cognitive components that compose self-regulation, their relationships, and their associated measurements. The ontology will be informed by two large-scale approaches to assessing individual differences: first purely behaviorally using data collected via Amazon's Mechanical Turk, then coupled with neuroimaging data collected from a separate population. To validate the ontology and demonstrate its utility, we will then use it to contextualize health risk behaviors in two exemplar behavioral groups: overweight/obese adults who binge eat and smokers. After identifying ontological targets that precipitate maladaptive behavior, we will craft interventions that engage these targets. If successful, this work will provide a structured, holistic account of self-regulation in the form of an explicit ontology, which will better clarify the pattern of deficits related to maladaptive health behavior, and provide direction for more effective behavior change interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T01:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.014
       
  • A cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness-based group sleep intervention
           improves behavior problems in at-risk adolescents by improving perceived
           sleep quality
    • Authors: Matthew J. Blake; Lian Snoep; Monika Raniti; Orli Schwartz; Joanna M. Waloszek; Julian G. Simmons; Greg Murray; Laura Blake; Elizabeth R. Landau; Ronald E. Dahl; Richard Bootzin; Dana L. McMakin; Paul Dudgeon; John Trinder; Nicholas B. Allen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Matthew J. Blake, Lian Snoep, Monika Raniti, Orli Schwartz, Joanna M. Waloszek, Julian G. Simmons, Greg Murray, Laura Blake, Elizabeth R. Landau, Ronald E. Dahl, Richard Bootzin, Dana L. McMakin, Paul Dudgeon, John Trinder, Nicholas B. Allen
      Objective The aim of this study was to test whether a cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness-based group sleep intervention would improve behavior problems in at-risk adolescents, and whether these improvements were specifically related to improvements in sleep. Method Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial conducted with 123 adolescent participants (female = 60%; mean age = 14.48, range 12.04–16.31 years) who had high levels of sleep problems and anxiety symptoms. Participants were randomized into either a sleep improvement intervention (n = 63) or an active control “study skills” intervention (n = 60). Participants completed sleep and behavior problems questionnaires, wore an actiwatch and completed a sleep diary for five school nights, both before and after the intervention. Results Parallel multiple mediation models showed that postintervention improvements in social problems, attention problems, and aggressive behaviors were specifically mediated by moderate improvements in self-reported sleep quality on school nights, but were not mediated by moderate improvements in actigraphy-assessed sleep onset latency or sleep diary-measured sleep efficiency on school nights. Conclusion This study provides evidence, using a methodologically rigorous design, that a cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness-based group sleep intervention improved behavior problems in at-risk adolescent by improving perceived sleep quality on school nights. These findings suggest that sleep interventions could be directed towards adolescents with behavior problems. Clinical Trial Registration This study was part of The SENSE Study (Sleep and Education: learning New Skills Early). URL: ACTRN12612001177842; http://www.anzctr.org.au/TrialSearch.aspx'searchTxt=ACTRN12612001177842&isBasic=True.

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T18:39:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.10.006
       
  • Brief training in mindfulness meditation reduces symptoms in patients with
           a chronic or recurrent lifetime history of depression: A randomized
           controlled study
    • Authors: Emilia Winnebeck; Maria Fissler; Matti Gärtner; Paul Chadwick; Thorsten Barnhofer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Emilia Winnebeck, Maria Fissler, Matti Gärtner, Paul Chadwick, Thorsten Barnhofer
      Background Training in mindfulness has been introduced to the treatment of depression as a means of relapse prevention. However, given its buffering effects on maladaptive responses to negative mood, mindfulness training would be expected to be particularly helpful in those who are currently suffering from symptoms. This study investigated whether a brief and targeted mindfulness-based intervention can reduce symptoms in acutely depressed patients. Methods Seventy-four patients with a chronic or recurrent lifetime history were randomly allocated to receive either a brief mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) encompassing three individual sessions and regular home practice or a control condition that combined psycho-educational components and regular rest periods using the same format as the MBI. Self-reported severity of symptoms, mindfulness in every day life, ruminative tendencies and cognitive reactivity were assessed before and after intervention. Results Treatment completers in the MBI condition showed pronounced and significantly stronger reductions in symptoms than those in the control condition. In the MBI group only, patients showed significant increases in mindfulness, and significant reductions in ruminative tendencies and cognitive reactivity. Conclusions Brief targeted mindfulness interventions can help to reduce symptoms and buffer maladaptive responses to negative mood in acutely depressed patients with chronic or recurrent lifetime history.

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T18:39:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.10.005
       
  • The ENGAGE study: Integrating neuroimaging, virtual reality and smartphone
           sensing to understand self-regulation for managing depression and obesity
           in a precision medicine model
    • Authors: Leanne Williams; Adam Pines Andrea Goldstein-Piekarski Lisa Rosas Monica Kullar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Leanne M. Williams, Adam Pines, Andrea N. Goldstein-Piekarski, Lisa G. Rosas, Monica Kullar, Matthew D. Sacchet, Olivier Gevaert, Jeremy Bailenson, Philip W. Lavori, Paul Dagum, Brian Wandell, Carlos Correa, Walter Greenleaf, Trisha Suppes, L. Michael Perry, Joshua M. Smyth, Megan A. Lewis, Elizabeth M. Venditti, Mark Snowden, Janine M. Simmons, Jun Ma
      Precision medicine models for personalizing achieving sustained behavior change are largely outside of current clinical practice. Yet, changing self-regulatory behaviors is fundamental to the self-management of complex lifestyle-related chronic conditions such as depression and obesity - two top contributors to the global burden of disease and disability. To optimize treatments and address these burdens, behavior change and self-regulation must be better understood in relation to their neurobiological underpinnings. Here, we present the conceptual framework and protocol for a novel study, “Engaging self-regulation targets to understand the mechanisms of behavior change and improve mood and weight outcomes (ENGAGE)”. The ENGAGE study integrates neuroscience with behavioral science to better understand the self-regulation related mechanisms of behavior change for improving mood and weight outcomes among adults with comorbid depression and obesity. We collect assays of three self-regulation targets (emotion, cognition, and self-reflection) in multiple settings: neuroimaging and behavioral lab-based measures, virtual reality, and passive smartphone sampling. By connecting human neuroscience and behavioral science in this manner within the ENGAGE study, we develop a prototype for elucidating the underlying self-regulation mechanisms of behavior change outcomes and their application in optimizing intervention strategies for multiple chronic diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T18:35:47Z
       
  • Improving the efficiency of psychological treatment using outcome feedback
           technology
    • Authors: Jaime Delgadillo; Karen Overend; Mike Lucock; Martin Groom; Naomi Kirby; Dean McMillan; Simon Gilbody; Wolfgang Lutz; Julian A. Rubel; Kim de Jong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Jaime Delgadillo, Karen Overend, Mike Lucock, Martin Groom, Naomi Kirby, Dean McMillan, Simon Gilbody, Wolfgang Lutz, Julian A. Rubel, Kim de Jong
      Aims This study evaluated the impact of applying computerized outcome feedback (OF) technology in a stepped care psychological service offering low and high intensity therapies for depression and anxiety. Methods A group of therapists were trained to use OF based on routine outcome monitoring using depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7) measures. Therapists regularly reviewed expected treatment response graphs with patients and discussed cases that were “not on track” in clinical supervision. Clinical outcomes data were collected for all patients treated by this group (N = 594), six months before (controls = 349) and six months after the OF training (OF cases = 245). Symptom reductions in PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were compared between controls and OF cases using longitudinal multilevel modelling. Treatment duration and costs were compared using MANOVA. Qualitative interviews with therapists (N = 15) and patients (N = 6) were interpreted using thematic analysis. Results OF technology was generally acceptable and feasible to integrate in routine practice. No significant between-group differences were found in post-treatment PHQ-9 or GAD-7 measures. However, OF cases had significantly lower average duration and cost of treatment compared to controls. Conclusions After adopting OF into their practice, this group of therapists attained similar clinical outcomes but within a shorter space of time and at a reduced average cost per treatment episode. We conclude that OF can improve the efficiency of stepped care.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T14:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.011
       
  • Altered appetitive conditioning in overweight and obese women
    • Authors: Karolien van den Akker; Ghislaine Schyns; Anita Jansen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Karolien van den Akker, Ghislaine Schyns, Anita Jansen
      Overweight and obese individuals show increased psychological and physiological reactivity to food cues and many of them have difficulties in achieving long-term weight loss. The current study tests whether abnormalities in the learning and extinction of appetitive responses to food cues might be responsible for this. Overweight/obese and healthy weight women completed a differential appetitive conditioning task using food as rewards, while eating expectancies, eating desires, conditioned stimulus evaluations, salivation, and electrodermal responses were assessed during an acquisition and extinction phase. Results suggested reduced discriminative conditioning in the overweight/obese group, as reflected by a worse acquisition of differential eating desires and no successful acquisition of differential evaluative responses. Some evidence was also found for impaired contingency learning in overweight and obese individuals. No group differences in conditioned salivation and skin conductance responses were found and no compelling evidence for differences in extinction was found as well. In sum, the current findings indicate that overweight and obesity may be characterized by reduced appetitive conditioning. It is suggested that this could be causally related to overeating via stronger context conditioning or a tendency towards overgeneralization in overweight and obese individuals.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T15:24:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.006
       
  • Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 98


      PubDate: 2017-09-19T19:27:30Z
       
  • A longitudinal examination of the role of attentional control in the
           relationship between posttraumatic stress and threat-related attentional
           bias: An eye-tracking study
    • Authors: Joseph R. Bardeen; Thomas A. Daniel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Joseph R. Bardeen, Thomas A. Daniel
      The purpose of the present study was to use eye-tracking technology to (a) show that attentional control can be used to reduce attentional bias to threat (ABT) among those with higher levels of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, (b) identify the specific attentional control (AC) processes (i.e., inhibition, shifting, working memory updating) that account for this effect, and (c) determine the short- (sympathetic nervous system reactivity) and long-term effects (PTS symptoms) of using attentional control in this manner. At Time 1 (T1), participants (N = 116 trauma exposed) completed self-report measures, an eye-tracking task assessing ABT, and behavioral measures assessing cognitive processes. A subsample (n = 49) completed an online follow-up assessment (T2). AC at T1 moderated the PTS-ABT relationship. Inhibitory ability appears to be driving this effect. Those with higher PTS symptoms and higher AC at T1, who spent less time attending to threat stimuli and had the lowest sympathetic response, had the highest levels of PTS symptoms at T2. Findings suggest that the habitual use of AC (especially inhibition) to shift attention from threat to neutral stimuli may alleviate distress in the short-term for those with higher PTS symptoms, but maintain, and perhaps exacerbate, PTS symptoms over longer periods.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T19:27:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.003
       
  • Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 97


      PubDate: 2017-09-14T07:46:06Z
       
  • A randomized controlled evaluation of a secondary school mindfulness
           program for early adolescents: Do we have the recipe right yet'
    • Authors: Catherine Johnson; Christine Burke; Sally Brinkman; Tracey Wade
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Catherine Johnson, Christine Burke, Sally Brinkman, Tracey Wade
      Objective Mindfulness is being promoted in schools as a prevention program despite a current small evidence base. The aim of this research was to conduct a rigorous evaluation of the .b (“Dot be”) mindfulness curriculum, with or without parental involvement, compared to a control condition. Method In a randomized controlled design, students (M age 13.44, SD 0.33; 45.4% female) across a broad range of socioeconomic indicators received the nine lesson curriculum delivered by an external facilitator with (N = 191) or without (N = 186) parental involvement, or were allocated to a usual curriculum control group (N = 178). Self-report outcome measures were anxiety, depression, weight/shape concerns, wellbeing and mindfulness. Results There were no differences in outcomes between any of the three groups at post-intervention, six or twelve month follow-up. Between-group effect sizes (Cohen's d) across the variables ranged from 0.002 to 0.37. A wide range of moderators were examined but none impacted outcome. Conclusions Further research is required to identify the optimal age, content and length of mindfulness programs for adolescents in universal prevention settings. Trial registration ACTRN12615001052527.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T07:43:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.001
       
  • Social anxiety in pre-adolescent children: What do we know about
           maintenance'
    • Authors: Brynjar Halldorsson; Cathy Creswell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Brynjar Halldorsson, Cathy Creswell
      The cognitive theory of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most widely accepted accounts of the maintenance of the disorder in adults, yet it remains unknown if, or to what extent, the same cognitive and behavioral maintenance mechanisms that occur in adult SAD also apply to SAD among pre-adolescent children. In contrast to the adult literature, current models of SAD in children mostly account for etiology and maintenance processes are given limited attention. Consequently, their clinical utility for the treatment of SAD in children may be limited. This narrative review, first, critically examines the different theoretical conceptualizations of the maintenance of social anxiety in the child and adult literature and illustrates how these have resulted in different treatment approaches and clinical understanding. Second, it reviews the available evidence relating to hypotheses about the maintenance of SAD in children as derived from adult cognitive and etiological models. Third, it highlights the need to attend directly to child specific maintenance mechanisms in SAD, to draw on cognitive theory, and to account for the influence of childhood-specific contextual (e.g. family and school-based interactions) and developmental factors on children's social experiences.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.08.013
       
  • Executive function predicts cognitive-behavioral therapy response in
           childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • Authors: Katja Anna Hybel; Erik Lykke Mortensen; Rikke Lambek; Davíð R.M.A. Højgaard; Per Hove Thomsen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Katja Anna Hybel, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Rikke Lambek, Davíð R.M.A. Højgaard, Per Hove Thomsen
      Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered first-line treatment for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite CBT's efficacy, too many children and adolescents do not fully respond to treatment, making the identification of predictors of treatment response highly relevant. Executive functions (EF) have been suggested to constitute such predictors, but studies with pediatric samples are scarce. In the present study, we investigate latent level EF test performance and ratings of daily life EF behavior as predictors of CBT response in pediatric OCD. We further examine the stability of EF from pre-to post-treatment and the association of EF changes with OCD severity change. EF test performance significantly predicted exposure-based CBT outcome. Patients with better EF test performance had significantly elevated risk of non-response relative to patients with poorer performance. Daily life EF behavior in OCD probands improved after treatment relative to controls. The findings suggest that EF performance impacts CBT outcome, and that exposure-based CBT is well-suited for children and adolescents with OCD and poorer EF test performance. This study supports the relevance of EF in CBT for childhood OCD and denotes a possible need for development of enhanced treatments for children and adolescents with OCD and superior EF performance.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.08.009
       
  • Exposure and non-fear emotions: A randomized controlled study of
           exposure-based and rescripting-based imagery in PTSD treatment
    • Authors: Tomas Formo Langkaas; Asle Hoffart; Tuva Øktedalen; Pål G. Ulvenes; Elizabeth A. Hembree; Mervin Smucker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Tomas Formo Langkaas, Asle Hoffart, Tuva Øktedalen, Pål G. Ulvenes, Elizabeth A. Hembree, Mervin Smucker
      Interventions involving rescripting-based imagery have been proposed as a better approach than exposure-based imagery when posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with emotions other than fear. Prior research led to the study's hypotheses that (a) higher pretreatment non-fear emotions will predict relatively better response to rescripting as compared to exposure, (b) rescripting will be associated with greater reduction in non-fear emotions, and (c) pretreatment non-fear emotions will predict poor response to exposure. A clinically representative sample of 65 patients presenting a wide range of traumas was recruited from patients seeking and being offered PTSD treatment in an inpatient setting. Subjects were randomly assigned to 10 weeks of treatment involving either rescripting-based imagery (Imagery Rescripting; IR) or exposure-based imagery (Prolonged Exposure; PE). Patients were assessed on outcome and emotion measures at pretreatment, posttreatment and 12 months follow-up. Comparison to control benchmarks indicated that both treatments were effective, but no outcome differences between them appeared. None of the initial hypotheses were supported. The results from this study challenge previous observations and hypotheses about exposure mainly being effective for fear-based PTSD and strengthen the notion that exposure-based treatment is a generally effective treatment for all types of PTSD. Keywords: posttraumatic stress disorder, prolonged exposure, imagery rescripting, non-fear emotions.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T02:16:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.007
       
  • Efficacy of imagery rescripting and imaginal exposure for nightmares: A
           randomized wait-list controlled trial
    • Authors: Anna E. Kunze; Arnoud Arntz; Nexhmedin Morina; Merel Kindt; Jaap Lancee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Anna E. Kunze, Arnoud Arntz, Nexhmedin Morina, Merel Kindt, Jaap Lancee
      Nightmares can be effectively treated with cognitive-behavioral therapies. Though it remains elusive which therapeutic elements are responsible for the beneficial effects on nightmare symptoms, imagery rescripting (IR) and imaginal exposure (IE) are commonly identified as active treatment components of nightmare therapies. With this randomized controlled trial, we compared IR and IE as individual treatments to a wait-list (WL) condition to determine whether these particular therapeutic elements reduced nightmare symptoms. For this purpose, 104 patients with a primary DSM-5 diagnosis of nightmare disorder were randomly assigned to three weekly individual sessions of either IR or IE, or WL. Results showed that compared to WL, both interventions effectively reduced nightmare frequency (Δd IR-WL = 0.74; Δd IE-WL = 0.70) and distress (Δd IR-WL = 0.98; Δd IE-WL = 1.35) in a sample that predominantly consisted of idiopathic nightmare sufferers. The effects of IR and IE were comparable to those observed for other psychological nightmare treatments. Initial effects at post-treatment were sustained at 3- and 6-month follow-up, indicating that IR and IE both seem to be efficacious treatment components of nightmare therapies. Additional research is needed to directly compare IR and IE among both idiographic and posttraumatic nightmare sufferers with respect to treatment expectancy, acceptability, and effectiveness.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T07:18:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.005
       
  • Trajectories of social anxiety, cognitive reappraisal, and mindfulness
           during an RCT of CBGT versus MBSR for social anxiety disorder
    • Authors: Philippe R. Goldin; Amanda S. Morrison; Hooria Jazaieri; Richard G. Heimberg; James J. Gross
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Philippe R. Goldin, Amanda S. Morrison, Hooria Jazaieri, Richard G. Heimberg, James J. Gross
      Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) are efficacious in treating social anxiety disorder (SAD). It is not yet clear, however, whether they share similar trajectories of change and underlying mechanisms in the context of SAD. This randomized controlled study of 108 unmedicated adults with generalized SAD investigated the impact of CBGT vs. MBSR on trajectories of social anxiety, cognitive reappraisal, and mindfulness during 12 weeks of treatment. CBGT and MBSR produced similar trajectories showing decreases in social anxiety and increases in reappraisal (changing the way of thinking) and mindfulness (mindful attitude). Compared to MBSR, CBGT produced greater increases in disputing anxious thoughts/feelings and reappraisal success. Compared to CBGT, MBSR produced greater acceptance of anxiety and acceptance success. Granger Causality analyses revealed that increases in weekly reappraisal and reappraisal success predicted subsequent decreases in weekly social anxiety during CBGT (but not MBSR), and that increases in weekly mindful attitude and disputing anxious thoughts/feelings predicted subsequent decreases in weekly social anxiety during MBSR (but not CBGT). This examination of temporal dynamics identified shared and distinct changes during CBGT and MBSR that both support and challenge current conceptualizations of these clinical interventions. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02036658.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T17:28:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.001
       
 
 
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