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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 880 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 406)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 236)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 224)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 137)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Escritos de Psicología : Psychological Writings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover Behaviour Research and Therapy
  [SJR: 2.306]   [H-I: 138]   [17 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0005-7967
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • The relationship between consumer, clinician, and organizational
           characteristics and use of evidence-based and non-evidence-based therapy
           strategies in a public mental health system
    • Authors: Rinad Beidas; Laura Skriner; Danielle Adams; Courtney Benjamin Wolk; Rebecca E. Stewart; Emily Becker-Haimes; Nathaniel Williams; Brenna Maddox; Ronnie Rubin; Shawna Weaver; Arthur Evans; David Mandell; Steven C. Marcus
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 99
      Author(s): Rinad Beidas, Laura Skriner, Danielle Adams, Courtney Benjamin Wolk, Rebecca E. Stewart, Emily Becker-Haimes, Nathaniel Williams, Brenna Maddox, Ronnie Rubin, Shawna Weaver, Arthur Evans, David Mandell, Steven C. Marcus
      We investigated the relationship between consumer, clinician, and organizational factors and clinician use of therapy strategies within a system-wide effort to increase the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Data from 247 clinicians in 28 child-serving organizations were collected. Clinicians participating in evidence-based practice training initiatives were more likely to report using cognitive-behavioral therapy when they endorsed more clinical experience, being salaried clinicians, and more openness to evidence-based practice. Clinicians participating in evidence-based practice initiatives were more likely to use psychodynamic techniques when they had older clients, less knowledge about evidence-based practice, more divergent attitudes toward EBP, higher financial strain, and worked in larger organizations. In clinicians not participating in evidence-based training initiatives; depersonalization was associated with higher use of cognitive-behavioral; whereas clinicians with less knowledge of evidence-based practices were more likely to use psychodynamic techniques. This study suggests that clinician characteristics are important when implementing evidence-based practices; and that consumer, clinician, and organizational characteristics are important when de-implementing non evidence-based practices. This work posits potential characteristics at multiple levels to target with implementation and deimplementation strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
  • Attentional control predicts change in bias in response to attentional
           bias modification
    • Authors: Julian Basanovic; Lies Notebaert; Ben Grafton; Colette R. Hirsch; Patrick J.F. Clarke
      Pages: 47 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Julian Basanovic, Lies Notebaert, Ben Grafton, Colette R. Hirsch, Patrick J.F. Clarke
      Procedures that effectively modify attentional bias to negative information have been examined for their potential to be a source of therapeutic change in emotional vulnerability. However, the degree to which these procedures modify attentional bias is subject to individual differences. This generates the need to understand the mechanisms that influence attentional bias change across individuals. The present study investigated the association between individual differences in attentional control and individual differences in the magnitude of bias change evoked by an attentional bias modification procedure. The findings demonstrate that individual differences in two facets of attentional control, control of attentional inhibition and control of attentional selectivity, were positively associated with individual differences in the magnitude of attentional bias change. The present findings inform upon the cognitive mechanisms underpinning change in attentional bias, and identify a target cognitive process for research seeking to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of attentional bias modification procedures.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T07:46:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
  • Hostile interpretation training for individuals with alcohol use disorder
           and elevated trait anger: A controlled trial of a web-based intervention
    • Authors: Jesse R. Cougle; Berta J. Summers; Nicholas P. Allan; Kirsten H. Dillon; Hillary L. Smith; Sarah A. Okey; Ashleigh M. Harvey
      Pages: 57 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 99
      Author(s): Jesse R. Cougle, Berta J. Summers, Nicholas P. Allan, Kirsten H. Dillon, Hillary L. Smith, Sarah A. Okey, Ashleigh M. Harvey
      High trait anger is associated with more severe alcohol use problems, and alcohol has been found to facilitate aggressive behavior among individuals with high trait anger. Treatments focused on a sample with alcohol use disorder with elevated anger could reduce alcohol use problems, as well as violence and aggression. We sought to examine the efficacy of interpretation bias modification for hostility (IBM-H) in a sample with high trait anger and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Fifty-eight individuals with AUD and elevated trait anger were randomly assigned to eight web-based sessions (two per week) of IBM-H or a healthy video control condition (HVC). Measures of interpretation bias, anger, and alcohol use were administered at pre- and post-treatment and at one-month follow-up. IBM-H led to greater improvements in interpretation bias compared to HVC at post and follow-up. IBM-H also led to greater reductions in trait anger than HVC, though this was an indirect effect mediated by changes in interpretation bias. Further, IBM-H led to lower anger expression than HVC; this was a direct (non-mediated) effect. Lastly, both conditions reported decreases in alcohol use and consequences following treatment, though there were no significant differences between them. These findings provide initial support for the utility of IBM-H as a brief non-confrontational intervention for AUD with elevated trait anger. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T15:24:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
  • Moving towards the benign: Automatic interpretation bias modification in
    • Authors: Alexandra H. Cowden Hindash; Jonathan A. Rottenberg
      Pages: 98 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 99
      Author(s): Alexandra H. Cowden Hindash, Jonathan A. Rottenberg
      Automatic cognitive biases are important to theories of depression and reducing such biases may contribute to therapeutic gains. The present study examined (1) whether it was possible to reduce automatic interpretation biases (AIB) in a single session among dysphoric subjects and (2) whether the effects of modifying AIB generalized to other measures of cognition and emotion. 76 dysphoric students completed a modified semantic association paradigm in which they were randomized to receive active or random-feedback-based training. Groups did not differ on AIB at baseline. Compared to the placebo group, the active training group demonstrated decreased endorsement of negative AIB, faster endorsement of benign AIB, and slower rejection of benign AIB. AIB modification generalized to a separate measure of interpretation bias. Further, greater reductions in AIB predicted a more resilient emotional response pattern to a laboratory stressor. Implications of AIB modification for basic and clinical research are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T18:39:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
  • A randomized clinical trial examining the effects of an anxiety
           sensitivity intervention on insomnia symptoms: Replication and extension
    • Authors: Nicole A. Short; Joseph W. Boffa; Savannah King; Brian J. Albanese; Nicholas P. Allan; Norman B. Schmidt
      Pages: 108 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 99
      Author(s): Nicole A. Short, Joseph W. Boffa, Savannah King, Brian J. Albanese, Nicholas P. Allan, Norman B. Schmidt
      Insomnia disorder is impairing and prevalent, particularly among individuals with comorbid anxiety disorders. Despite the availability of effective computerized treatments for insomnia, there are few that target both insomnia as well as co-occurring anxiety symptoms. The current study tests the efficacy of a computerized treatment for anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, a transdiagnostic risk factor for anxiety, mood, and insomnia symptoms, against a repeated contact control, on reducing insomnia symptoms. Hypotheses were tested in a mixed clinical sample of community individuals presenting for a treatment study (n = 151) who were followed up 1-, 3- and 6-months after treatment. Results indicated that the anxiety sensitivity intervention resulted in reductions in insomnia symptoms and clinically significant insomnia scores at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. These reductions remained significant when covarying for concurrent reductions in depression and anxiety. Models accounted for 15–54% of the variance in follow-up insomnia symptoms. Current findings add to a growing body of literature suggesting anxiety sensitivity may play a causal role in insomnia symptoms. Results also suggest that targeting anxiety sensitivity may be an effective way to reduce insomnia symptoms in a brief and portable intervention that also reduces symptoms commonly comorbid with insomnia disorder.

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T18:39:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.013
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
  • Direction of stimulus movement alters fear-linked individual differences
           in attentional vigilance to spider stimuli
    • Authors: Julian Basanovic; Laurence Dean; John H. Riskind; Colin MacLeod
      Pages: 117 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Julian Basanovic, Laurence Dean, John H. Riskind, Colin MacLeod
      Researchers have proposed that high spider-fearful individuals are characterised by heightened attentional vigilance to spider stimuli, as compared to low spider-fearful individuals. However, these findings have arisen from methodologies that have uniformly employed only static stimuli. Such findings do not inform upon the patterns of fear-linked attentional selectivity that occur in the face of moving feared stimuli. Hence, the present study developed a novel methodology designed to examine the influence of stimulus movement on attentional vigilance to spider and non-spider stimuli. Eighty participants who varied in level of spider-fear completed an attentional-probe task that presented stimuli under two conditions. One condition presented stimuli that displayed an approaching movement, while the other condition presented stimuli that displayed a receding movement. Fear-linked heightened attentional vigilance was observed exclusively under the latter condition. These findings suggest that fear-linked attentional vigilance to spider stimuli does not represent a uniform characteristic of heightened spider-fear, but rather is influenced by stimulus context. The means by which these findings inform understanding of attentional mechanisms that characterise heightened spider-fear, and avenues for future research, are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T18:39:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
  • Best practice guidelines for modern statistical methods in applied
           clinical research: Introduction to the Special Section
    • Authors: Timothy A. Brown; Andy P. Field
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 98
      Author(s): Timothy A. Brown, Andy P. Field

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T19:27:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.008
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
  • Multiple imputation as a flexible tool for missing data handling in
           clinical research
    • Authors: Craig K. Enders
      Pages: 4 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 98
      Author(s): Craig K. Enders
      The last 20 years has seen an uptick in research on missing data problems, and most software applications now implement one or more sophisticated missing data handling routines (e.g., multiple imputation or maximum likelihood estimation). Despite their superior statistical properties (e.g., less stringent assumptions, greater accuracy and power), the adoption of these modern analytic approaches is not uniform in psychology and related disciplines. Thus, the primary goal of this manuscript is to describe and illustrate the application of multiple imputation. Although maximum likelihood estimation is perhaps the easiest method to use in practice, psychological data sets often feature complexities that are currently difficult to handle appropriately in the likelihood framework (e.g., mixtures of categorical and continuous variables), but relatively simple to treat with imputation. The paper describes a number of practical issues that clinical researchers are likely to encounter when applying multiple imputation, including mixtures of categorical and continuous variables, item-level missing data in questionnaires, significance testing, interaction effects, and multilevel missing data. Analysis examples illustrate imputation with software packages that are freely available on the internet.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T19:27:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2016.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
  • Robust statistical methods: A primer for clinical psychology and
           experimental psychopathology researchers
    • Authors: Andy P. Field; Rand R. Wilcox
      Pages: 19 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 98
      Author(s): Andy P. Field, Rand R. Wilcox
      This paper reviews and offers tutorials on robust statistical methods relevant to clinical and experimental psychopathology researchers. We review the assumptions of one of the most commonly applied models in this journal (the general linear model, GLM) and the effects of violating them. We then present evidence that psychological data are more likely than not to violate these assumptions. Next, we overview some methods for correcting for violations of model assumptions. The final part of the paper presents 8 tutorials of robust statistical methods using R that cover a range of variants of the GLM (t-tests, ANOVA, multiple regression, multilevel models, latent growth models). We conclude with recommendations that set the expectations for what methods researchers submitting to the journal should apply and what they should report.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T19:27:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.013
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
  • Regression-based statistical mediation and moderation analysis in clinical
           research: Observations, recommendations, and implementation
    • Authors: Andrew F. Hayes; Nicholas J. Rockwood
      Pages: 39 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 98
      Author(s): Andrew F. Hayes, Nicholas J. Rockwood
      There have been numerous treatments in the clinical research literature about various design, analysis, and interpretation considerations when testing hypotheses about mechanisms and contingencies of effects, popularly known as mediation and moderation analysis. In this paper we address the practice of mediation and moderation analysis using linear regression in the pages of Behaviour Research and Therapy and offer some observations and recommendations, debunk some popular myths, describe some new advances, and provide an example of mediation, moderation, and their integration as conditional process analysis using the PROCESS macro for SPSS and SAS. Our goal is to nudge clinical researchers away from historically significant but increasingly old school approaches toward modifications, revisions, and extensions that characterize more modern thinking about the analysis of the mechanisms and contingencies of effects.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T19:27:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2016.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
  • An introduction to using Bayesian linear regression with clinical data
    • Authors: Scott A. Baldwin; Michael J. Larson
      Pages: 58 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 98
      Author(s): Scott A. Baldwin, Michael J. Larson
      Statistical training psychology focuses on frequentist methods. Bayesian methods are an alternative to standard frequentist methods. This article provides researchers with an introduction to fundamental ideas in Bayesian modeling. We use data from an electroencephalogram (EEG) and anxiety study to illustrate Bayesian models. Specifically, the models examine the relationship between error-related negativity (ERN), a particular event-related potential, and trait anxiety. Methodological topics covered include: how to set up a regression model in a Bayesian framework, specifying priors, examining convergence of the model, visualizing and interpreting posterior distributions, interval estimates, expected and predicted values, and model comparison tools. We also discuss situations where Bayesian methods can outperform frequentist methods as well has how to specify more complicated regression models. Finally, we conclude with recommendations about reporting guidelines for those using Bayesian methods in their own research. We provide data and R code for replicating our analyses.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T19:27:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2016.12.016
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
  • A practical guide to propensity score analysis for applied clinical
    • Authors: Jaehoon Lee; Todd D. Little
      Pages: 76 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 98
      Author(s): Jaehoon Lee, Todd D. Little
      Observational studies are often the only viable options in many clinical settings, especially when it is unethical or infeasible to randomly assign participants to different treatment régimes. In such case propensity score (PS) analysis can be applied to accounting for possible selection bias and thereby addressing questions of causal inference. Many PS methods exist, yet few guidelines are available to aid applied researchers in their conduct and evaluation of a PS analysis. In this article we give an overview of available techniques for PS estimation and application, balance diagnostic, treatment effect estimation, and sensitivity assessment, as well as recent advances. We also offer a tutorial that can be used to emulate the steps of PS analysis. Our goal is to provide information that will bring PS analysis within the reach of applied clinical researchers and practitioners.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T19:27:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
  • Fitting latent variable mixture models
    • Authors: Gitta H. Lubke; Justin Luningham
      Pages: 91 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 98
      Author(s): Gitta H. Lubke, Justin Luningham
      Latent variable mixture models (LVMMs) are models for multivariate observed data from a potentially heterogeneous population. The responses on the observed variables are thought to be driven by one or more latent continuous factors (e.g. severity of a disorder) and/or latent categorical variables (e.g., subtypes of a disorder). Decomposing the observed covariances in the data into the effects of categorical group membership and the effects of continuous trait differences is not trivial, and requires the consideration of a number of different aspects of LVMMs. The first part of this paper provides the theoretical background of LVMMs and emphasizes their exploratory character, outlines the general framework together with assumptions and necessary constraints, highlights the difference between models with and without covariates, and discusses the interrelation between the number of classes and the complexity of the within-class model as well as the relevance of measurement invariance. The second part provides a growth mixture modeling example with simulated data and covers several practical issues when fitting LVMMs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T19:27:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 98 (2017)
  • A longitudinal investigation of perfectionism and repetitive negative
           thinking in perinatal depression
    • Authors: Sarah J. Egan; Robert T. Kane; Karen Winton; Catherine Eliot; Peter M. McEvoy
      Pages: 26 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 97
      Author(s): Sarah J. Egan, Robert T. Kane, Karen Winton, Catherine Eliot, Peter M. McEvoy
      Repetitive negative thinking and perfectionism have both been proposed as processes that are related to depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate concurrent and prospective relationships between antenatal and postnatal depression, perfectionism, and repetitive negative thinking. A longitudinal design was used and 71 women were followed from their third trimester of pregnancy to six weeks post birth. A structural equation model was tested with antenatal perfectionism predicting antenatal repetitive negative thinking, perfectionism predicting postnatal depression, and antenatal repetitive negative thinking predicting antenatal and postnatal depression. The final model provided an adequate fit to the data but the pathway from antenatal repetitive negative thinking to postnatal depression was not significant. The findings provide support for the role of perfectionism and repetitive negative thinking in the onset and maintenance of perinatal symptoms of depression. It is suggested that future research investigates the efficacy of targeting repetitive negative thinking and perfectionism in pregnancy to examine if this can reduce perinatal depression.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T02:16:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2017)
  • Effects of brief mindful breathing and loving-kindness meditation on shame
           and social problem solving abilities among individuals with high
           borderline personality traits
    • Authors: Shian-Ling Keng; Jun Xian Tan
      Pages: 43 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Shian-Ling Keng, Jun Xian Tan
      Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental condition characterized by a range of cognitive and behavioral vulnerabilities, including chronic shame and deficits in social problem solving (SPS) abilities. Little research however, has examined strategies that may alleviate shame and SPS deficits among individuals with BPD traits. Using a laboratory experimental approach, the present study compared the effects of a brief mindfulness versus loving-kindness meditation (LKM) induction on shame and SPS abilities in a sample of adults with high BPD traits. Eighty-eight participants underwent a shame induction procedure involving recall of a negative autobiographical memory. They were then randomly assigned to 10 min of mindful breathing or LKM, or a no-instruction condition. Shame and SPS abilities were assessed via visual analogue scales and the Means-Ends Problem Solving task respectively. Results indicated that there were significant decreases in shame from pre-to post-regulation in the mindfulness group versus the LKM and no-instruction groups. Groups did not differ on changes in SPS abilities from pre-to post-regulation. Overall, the findings support the efficacy of mindfulness as a strategy to regulate shame among individuals with BPD traits, and raises questions with regard to the utility of LKM in modulating shame in the context of high emotional arousal.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T02:17:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2017)
  • Rumination interacts with life stress to predict depressive symptoms: An
           ecological momentary assessment study
    • Authors: Samantha L. Connolly; Lauren B. Alloy
      Pages: 86 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 97
      Author(s): Samantha L. Connolly, Lauren B. Alloy
      Rumination is a well-established vulnerability factor for depression that may exert deleterious effects both independently and in interaction with stress. The current study examined momentary ruminative self-focus (MRS) and stress-reactive rumination (SRR) as predictors of depressive symptoms utilizing a smartphone ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design. 121 undergraduates responded to four text message alerts per day for one week in which they indicated the occurrence of life stress, rumination, and depressed mood. SRR, but not MRS, independently predicted increases in depressive symptoms. MRS interacted with depressive symptoms to predict increases in symptoms at the subsequent timepoint, supporting the deleterious effects of depressive rumination on future mood state. Interactions emerged between stress and both MRS and SRR, such that experiencing higher levels of stressors and rumination at an observation predicted greater increases in depressive symptoms. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that state rumination moderates the effect of stress in predicting depressive symptoms using EMA methodology. Results suggest that rumination levels in response to stress vary within individuals and can have an important effect on depressed mood. Findings may have important clinical implications, as lessening individuals’ tendency to engage in rumination following stress may help to alleviate depressive symptoms.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:47:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2017)
  • Sleep disturbance as a predictor of affective functioning and symptom
           severity among individuals with PTSD: An ecological momentary assessment
    • Authors: Nicole A. Short; Nicholas P. Allan; Norman B. Schmidt
      Pages: 146 - 153
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 97
      Author(s): Nicole A. Short, Nicholas P. Allan, Norman B. Schmidt
      Recent research has highlighted the etiological role of sleep disturbance in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however it is currently unknown how daily changes in sleep are associated with next-day PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, sleep is critical for maintaining appropriate affect, leading some to hypothesize that affective dysfunction may account for the link between sleep disturbances and PTSD symptoms. Thus, the current study tested the relationship between sleep disturbances, affective valence, and PTSD symptoms utilizing an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design among individuals with PTSD (n=30) who participated in 4 EMA-based assessments daily over 8 days. Multilevel modeling indicated that, after accounting for prior evening's PTSD symptoms, poor sleep quality and reduced sleep efficiency were associated with increased PTSD symptoms and negative affect. Furthermore, results supported the indirect effect of poor sleep quality on elevated PTSD symptoms through increased negative affect in the morning. Findings add to the body of research demonstrating the negative impact of poor sleep for individuals with PTSD by indicating that daily variations in sleep can affect next-day PTSD symptoms, and identifying negative affect as a mechanism of this relationship.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T18:21:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.014
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2017)
  • Altered interaction with environmental reinforcers in major depressive
           disorder: Relationship to anhedonia
    • Authors: Joanna E. Szczepanik; Maura L. Furey; Allison C. Nugent; Ioline D. Henter; Carlos A. Zarate; Carl W. Lejuez
      Pages: 170 - 177
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 97
      Author(s): Joanna E. Szczepanik, Maura L. Furey, Allison C. Nugent, Ioline D. Henter, Carlos A. Zarate, Carl W. Lejuez
      Anhedonia—defined as loss of interest or pleasure—is one of two core symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). Anhedonia may involve decreased enjoyment of potentially rewarding activities and decreased motivation to engage in such activities. Increased engagement with reinforcers—activities with the potential to be positive experiences—is a frequent target of cognitive-behavioral therapies. Nevertheless, how environmental reinforcers are perceived, and how decisions to approach or avoid them are made by individuals with MDD, is largely unknown. We developed an experimental Behavioral Approach Motivation Paradigm to study how activities are evaluated and approached in MDD. Twenty-one MDD participants and 23 healthy controls performed an experimental task that rated activity words for their hedonic value, then engaged in an approach-avoidance joystick task with each individual's unique set of ‘liked’ and ‘disliked’ activity words. A negative correlation was observed between anhedonia and the number of ‘liked’ activities across participants. No significant difference between approach and avoidance behavior was found in direct comparisons between healthy controls and MDD participants; however, weaker avoidance and greater approach toward ‘disliked’ activities was found in MDD participants. This suggests negative bias in selecting environmental opportunities, potentially further compromising access to hedonic experiences in MDD.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2017)
  • Patient recall of specific cognitive therapy contents predicts adherence
           and outcome in adults with major depressive disorder
    • Authors: Lu Dong; Xin Zhao; Stacie L. Ong; Allison G. Harvey
      Pages: 189 - 199
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 97
      Author(s): Lu Dong, Xin Zhao, Stacie L. Ong, Allison G. Harvey
      The current study examined whether and which specific contents of patients' memory for cognitive therapy (CT) were associated with treatment adherence and outcome. Data were drawn from a pilot RCT of forty-eight depressed adults, who received either CT plus Memory Support Intervention (CT + Memory Support) or CT-as-usual. Patients' memory for treatment was measured using the Patient Recall Task and responses were coded into cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) codes, such as CBT Model and Cognitive Restructuring, and non-CBT codes, such as individual coping strategies and no code. Treatment adherence was measured using therapist and patient ratings during treatment. Depression outcomes included treatment response, remission, and recurrence. Total number of CBT codes recalled was not significantly different comparing CT + Memory Support to CT-as-usual. Total CBT codes recalled were positively associated with adherence, while non-CBT codes recalled were negatively associated with adherence. Treatment responders (vs. non-responders) exhibited a significant increase in their recall of Cognitive Restructuring from session 7 to posttreatment. Greater recall of Cognitive Restructuring was marginally significantly associated with remission. Greater total number of CBT codes recalled (particularly CBT Model) was associated with non-recurrence of depression. Results highlight the important relationships between patients' memory for treatment and treatment adherence and outcome.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2017)
  • A network analysis investigation of the cognitive-behavioral theory of
           eating disorders
    • Authors: Russell H. DuBois; Rachel F. Rodgers; Debra L. Franko; Kamryn T. Eddy; Jennifer J. Thomas
      Pages: 213 - 221
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 97
      Author(s): Russell H. DuBois, Rachel F. Rodgers, Debra L. Franko, Kamryn T. Eddy, Jennifer J. Thomas
      Network analysis has recently been introduced as a clinically relevant methodology for understanding the structure of mental disorders and for evaluating cognitive behavioral models of psychopathology. The current study uses network analysis to validate the transdiagnostic model of eating disorders by examining the association between overvaluation of shape and weight and eating disorder symptoms. Eating disorder symptoms were measured among a sample of 194 treatment-seeking children, adolescents, and adults presenting to an outpatient eating disorder clinic. We created transdiagnostic and disorder-specific symptom networks and assessed symptom strength and connectivity. Congruent with the transdiagnostic model, overvaluation of weight and shape emerged among the strongest symptoms in the network, and global network connectivity was higher among individuals with high overvaluation when compared to individuals with low overvaluation. An exploratory analysis revealed that overvaluation of weight and shape was central to anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Results highlight the associative strength of overvaluation of shape and weight with eating disorder symptoms, regardless of the specific eating disorder diagnosis. Our findings corroborate overvaluation of weight and shape as a transdiagnostic treatment target and potentially useful severity specifier for binge eating disorder.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2017)
  • Insomnia identity
    • Authors: Kenneth L. Lichstein
      Pages: 230 - 241
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 97
      Author(s): Kenneth L. Lichstein
      Insomnia identity refers to the conviction that one has insomnia, and this sleep complaint can be measured independently of sleep. Conventional wisdom predicts that sleep complaints are synchronous with poor sleep, but crossing the presence or absence of poor sleep with the presence or absence of insomnia identity reveals incongruity with expected patterns. This review of existing research on insomnia identity processes and influence finds that about one-fourth of the population are uncoupled sleepers, meaning there is an uncoupling of sleep and sleep appraisal, and daytime impairment accrues more strongly to those who endorse an insomnia identity. Research supports the conclusion that there is a cost to pathologizing sleep. Individuals claiming an insomnia identity, regardless of sleep status, are at greater risk for a range of sequelae including self-stigma, depression, suicidal ideation, anxiety, hypertension, and fatigue. A broad research agenda is proposed with hypotheses about the sources, clinical mechanisms, and clinical management of insomnia identity.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2017)
  • Parent-child interactions in children with asthma and anxiety
    • Authors: Gemma Sicouri; Louise Sharpe; Jennifer L. Hudson; Joanne Dudeney; Adam Jaffe; Hiran Selvadurai; Caroline Hunt
      Pages: 242 - 251
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 97
      Author(s): Gemma Sicouri, Louise Sharpe, Jennifer L. Hudson, Joanne Dudeney, Adam Jaffe, Hiran Selvadurai, Caroline Hunt
      Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in children with asthma yet very little is known about the parenting factors that may underlie this relationship. The aim of the current study was to examine observed parenting behaviours – involvement and negativity - associated with asthma and anxiety in children using the tangram task and the Five Minute Speech Sample (FMSS). Eighty-nine parent-child dyads were included across four groups of children (8–13 years old): asthma and anxiety, anxiety only, asthma only and healthy controls. Overall, results from both tasks showed that parenting behaviours of children with and without asthma did not differ significantly. Results from a subcomponent of the FMSS indicated that parents of children with asthma were more overprotective, or self-sacrificing, or non-objective than parents of children without asthma, and this difference was greater in the non-anxious groups. The results suggest that some parenting strategies developed for parents of children with anxiety may be useful for parents of children with asthma and anxiety (e.g. strategies targeting involvement), however, others may not be necessary (e.g. those targeting negativity).

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.08.010
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2017)
  • A cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness-based group sleep intervention
           improves behavior problems in at-risk adolescents by improving perceived
           sleep quality
    • Authors: Matthew J. Blake; Lian Snoep; Monika Raniti; Orli Schwartz; Joanna M. Waloszek; Julian G. Simmons; Greg Murray; Laura Blake; Elizabeth R. Landau; Ronald E. Dahl; Richard Bootzin; Dana L. McMakin; Paul Dudgeon; John Trinder; Nicholas B. Allen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Matthew J. Blake, Lian Snoep, Monika Raniti, Orli Schwartz, Joanna M. Waloszek, Julian G. Simmons, Greg Murray, Laura Blake, Elizabeth R. Landau, Ronald E. Dahl, Richard Bootzin, Dana L. McMakin, Paul Dudgeon, John Trinder, Nicholas B. Allen
      Objective The aim of this study was to test whether a cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness-based group sleep intervention would improve behavior problems in at-risk adolescents, and whether these improvements were specifically related to improvements in sleep. Method Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial conducted with 123 adolescent participants (female = 60%; mean age = 14.48, range 12.04–16.31 years) who had high levels of sleep problems and anxiety symptoms. Participants were randomized into either a sleep improvement intervention (n = 63) or an active control “study skills” intervention (n = 60). Participants completed sleep and behavior problems questionnaires, wore an actiwatch and completed a sleep diary for five school nights, both before and after the intervention. Results Parallel multiple mediation models showed that postintervention improvements in social problems, attention problems, and aggressive behaviors were specifically mediated by moderate improvements in self-reported sleep quality on school nights, but were not mediated by moderate improvements in actigraphy-assessed sleep onset latency or sleep diary-measured sleep efficiency on school nights. Conclusion This study provides evidence, using a methodologically rigorous design, that a cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness-based group sleep intervention improved behavior problems in at-risk adolescent by improving perceived sleep quality on school nights. These findings suggest that sleep interventions could be directed towards adolescents with behavior problems. Clinical Trial Registration This study was part of The SENSE Study (Sleep and Education: learning New Skills Early). URL: ACTRN12612001177842;'searchTxt=ACTRN12612001177842&isBasic=True.

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T18:39:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.10.006
  • Brief training in mindfulness meditation reduces symptoms in patients with
           a chronic or recurrent lifetime history of depression: A randomized
           controlled study
    • Authors: Emilia Winnebeck; Maria Fissler; Matti Gärtner; Paul Chadwick; Thorsten Barnhofer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Emilia Winnebeck, Maria Fissler, Matti Gärtner, Paul Chadwick, Thorsten Barnhofer
      Background Training in mindfulness has been introduced to the treatment of depression as a means of relapse prevention. However, given its buffering effects on maladaptive responses to negative mood, mindfulness training would be expected to be particularly helpful in those who are currently suffering from symptoms. This study investigated whether a brief and targeted mindfulness-based intervention can reduce symptoms in acutely depressed patients. Methods Seventy-four patients with a chronic or recurrent lifetime history were randomly allocated to receive either a brief mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) encompassing three individual sessions and regular home practice or a control condition that combined psycho-educational components and regular rest periods using the same format as the MBI. Self-reported severity of symptoms, mindfulness in every day life, ruminative tendencies and cognitive reactivity were assessed before and after intervention. Results Treatment completers in the MBI condition showed pronounced and significantly stronger reductions in symptoms than those in the control condition. In the MBI group only, patients showed significant increases in mindfulness, and significant reductions in ruminative tendencies and cognitive reactivity. Conclusions Brief targeted mindfulness interventions can help to reduce symptoms and buffer maladaptive responses to negative mood in acutely depressed patients with chronic or recurrent lifetime history.

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T18:39:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.10.005
  • The ENGAGE study: Integrating neuroimaging, virtual reality and smartphone
           sensing to understand self-regulation for managing depression and obesity
           in a precision medicine model
    • Authors: Leanne Williams; Adam Pines Andrea Goldstein-Piekarski Lisa Rosas Monica Kullar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Leanne M. Williams, Adam Pines, Andrea N. Goldstein-Piekarski, Lisa G. Rosas, Monica Kullar, Matthew D. Sacchet, Olivier Gevaert, Jeremy Bailenson, Philip W. Lavori, Paul Dagum, Brian Wandell, Carlos Correa, Walter Greenleaf, Trisha Suppes, L. Michael Perry, Joshua M. Smyth, Megan A. Lewis, Elizabeth M. Venditti, Mark Snowden, Janine M. Simmons, Jun Ma
      Precision medicine models for personalizing achieving sustained behavior change are largely outside of current clinical practice. Yet, changing self-regulatory behaviors is fundamental to the self-management of complex lifestyle-related chronic conditions such as depression and obesity - two top contributors to the global burden of disease and disability. To optimize treatments and address these burdens, behavior change and self-regulation must be better understood in relation to their neurobiological underpinnings. Here, we present the conceptual framework and protocol for a novel study, “Engaging self-regulation targets to understand the mechanisms of behavior change and improve mood and weight outcomes (ENGAGE)”. The ENGAGE study integrates neuroscience with behavioral science to better understand the self-regulation related mechanisms of behavior change for improving mood and weight outcomes among adults with comorbid depression and obesity. We collect assays of three self-regulation targets (emotion, cognition, and self-reflection) in multiple settings: neuroimaging and behavioral lab-based measures, virtual reality, and passive smartphone sampling. By connecting human neuroscience and behavioral science in this manner within the ENGAGE study, we develop a prototype for elucidating the underlying self-regulation mechanisms of behavior change outcomes and their application in optimizing intervention strategies for multiple chronic diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T18:35:47Z
  • Improving the efficiency of psychological treatment using outcome feedback
    • Authors: Jaime Delgadillo; Karen Overend; Mike Lucock; Martin Groom; Naomi Kirby; Dean McMillan; Simon Gilbody; Wolfgang Lutz; Julian A. Rubel; Kim de Jong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Jaime Delgadillo, Karen Overend, Mike Lucock, Martin Groom, Naomi Kirby, Dean McMillan, Simon Gilbody, Wolfgang Lutz, Julian A. Rubel, Kim de Jong
      Aims This study evaluated the impact of applying computerized outcome feedback (OF) technology in a stepped care psychological service offering low and high intensity therapies for depression and anxiety. Methods A group of therapists were trained to use OF based on routine outcome monitoring using depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7) measures. Therapists regularly reviewed expected treatment response graphs with patients and discussed cases that were “not on track” in clinical supervision. Clinical outcomes data were collected for all patients treated by this group (N = 594), six months before (controls = 349) and six months after the OF training (OF cases = 245). Symptom reductions in PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were compared between controls and OF cases using longitudinal multilevel modelling. Treatment duration and costs were compared using MANOVA. Qualitative interviews with therapists (N = 15) and patients (N = 6) were interpreted using thematic analysis. Results OF technology was generally acceptable and feasible to integrate in routine practice. No significant between-group differences were found in post-treatment PHQ-9 or GAD-7 measures. However, OF cases had significantly lower average duration and cost of treatment compared to controls. Conclusions After adopting OF into their practice, this group of therapists attained similar clinical outcomes but within a shorter space of time and at a reduced average cost per treatment episode. We conclude that OF can improve the efficiency of stepped care.

      PubDate: 2017-10-03T14:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.011
  • Altered appetitive conditioning in overweight and obese women
    • Authors: Karolien van den Akker; Ghislaine Schyns; Anita Jansen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Karolien van den Akker, Ghislaine Schyns, Anita Jansen
      Overweight and obese individuals show increased psychological and physiological reactivity to food cues and many of them have difficulties in achieving long-term weight loss. The current study tests whether abnormalities in the learning and extinction of appetitive responses to food cues might be responsible for this. Overweight/obese and healthy weight women completed a differential appetitive conditioning task using food as rewards, while eating expectancies, eating desires, conditioned stimulus evaluations, salivation, and electrodermal responses were assessed during an acquisition and extinction phase. Results suggested reduced discriminative conditioning in the overweight/obese group, as reflected by a worse acquisition of differential eating desires and no successful acquisition of differential evaluative responses. Some evidence was also found for impaired contingency learning in overweight and obese individuals. No group differences in conditioned salivation and skin conductance responses were found and no compelling evidence for differences in extinction was found as well. In sum, the current findings indicate that overweight and obesity may be characterized by reduced appetitive conditioning. It is suggested that this could be causally related to overeating via stronger context conditioning or a tendency towards overgeneralization in overweight and obese individuals.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T15:24:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.006
  • Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 98

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T19:27:30Z
  • A longitudinal examination of the role of attentional control in the
           relationship between posttraumatic stress and threat-related attentional
           bias: An eye-tracking study
    • Authors: Joseph R. Bardeen; Thomas A. Daniel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Joseph R. Bardeen, Thomas A. Daniel
      The purpose of the present study was to use eye-tracking technology to (a) show that attentional control can be used to reduce attentional bias to threat (ABT) among those with higher levels of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, (b) identify the specific attentional control (AC) processes (i.e., inhibition, shifting, working memory updating) that account for this effect, and (c) determine the short- (sympathetic nervous system reactivity) and long-term effects (PTS symptoms) of using attentional control in this manner. At Time 1 (T1), participants (N = 116 trauma exposed) completed self-report measures, an eye-tracking task assessing ABT, and behavioral measures assessing cognitive processes. A subsample (n = 49) completed an online follow-up assessment (T2). AC at T1 moderated the PTS-ABT relationship. Inhibitory ability appears to be driving this effect. Those with higher PTS symptoms and higher AC at T1, who spent less time attending to threat stimuli and had the lowest sympathetic response, had the highest levels of PTS symptoms at T2. Findings suggest that the habitual use of AC (especially inhibition) to shift attention from threat to neutral stimuli may alleviate distress in the short-term for those with higher PTS symptoms, but maintain, and perhaps exacerbate, PTS symptoms over longer periods.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T19:27:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.003
  • Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 97

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T07:46:06Z
  • A randomized controlled evaluation of a secondary school mindfulness
           program for early adolescents: Do we have the recipe right yet'
    • Authors: Catherine Johnson; Christine Burke; Sally Brinkman; Tracey Wade
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Catherine Johnson, Christine Burke, Sally Brinkman, Tracey Wade
      Objective Mindfulness is being promoted in schools as a prevention program despite a current small evidence base. The aim of this research was to conduct a rigorous evaluation of the .b (“Dot be”) mindfulness curriculum, with or without parental involvement, compared to a control condition. Method In a randomized controlled design, students (M age 13.44, SD 0.33; 45.4% female) across a broad range of socioeconomic indicators received the nine lesson curriculum delivered by an external facilitator with (N = 191) or without (N = 186) parental involvement, or were allocated to a usual curriculum control group (N = 178). Self-report outcome measures were anxiety, depression, weight/shape concerns, wellbeing and mindfulness. Results There were no differences in outcomes between any of the three groups at post-intervention, six or twelve month follow-up. Between-group effect sizes (Cohen's d) across the variables ranged from 0.002 to 0.37. A wide range of moderators were examined but none impacted outcome. Conclusions Further research is required to identify the optimal age, content and length of mindfulness programs for adolescents in universal prevention settings. Trial registration ACTRN12615001052527.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T07:43:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.001
  • Social anxiety in pre-adolescent children: What do we know about
    • Authors: Brynjar Halldorsson; Cathy Creswell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Brynjar Halldorsson, Cathy Creswell
      The cognitive theory of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most widely accepted accounts of the maintenance of the disorder in adults, yet it remains unknown if, or to what extent, the same cognitive and behavioral maintenance mechanisms that occur in adult SAD also apply to SAD among pre-adolescent children. In contrast to the adult literature, current models of SAD in children mostly account for etiology and maintenance processes are given limited attention. Consequently, their clinical utility for the treatment of SAD in children may be limited. This narrative review, first, critically examines the different theoretical conceptualizations of the maintenance of social anxiety in the child and adult literature and illustrates how these have resulted in different treatment approaches and clinical understanding. Second, it reviews the available evidence relating to hypotheses about the maintenance of SAD in children as derived from adult cognitive and etiological models. Third, it highlights the need to attend directly to child specific maintenance mechanisms in SAD, to draw on cognitive theory, and to account for the influence of childhood-specific contextual (e.g. family and school-based interactions) and developmental factors on children's social experiences.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.08.013
  • Executive function predicts cognitive-behavioral therapy response in
           childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • Authors: Katja Anna Hybel; Erik Lykke Mortensen; Rikke Lambek; Davíð R.M.A. Højgaard; Per Hove Thomsen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Katja Anna Hybel, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Rikke Lambek, Davíð R.M.A. Højgaard, Per Hove Thomsen
      Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered first-line treatment for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite CBT's efficacy, too many children and adolescents do not fully respond to treatment, making the identification of predictors of treatment response highly relevant. Executive functions (EF) have been suggested to constitute such predictors, but studies with pediatric samples are scarce. In the present study, we investigate latent level EF test performance and ratings of daily life EF behavior as predictors of CBT response in pediatric OCD. We further examine the stability of EF from pre-to post-treatment and the association of EF changes with OCD severity change. EF test performance significantly predicted exposure-based CBT outcome. Patients with better EF test performance had significantly elevated risk of non-response relative to patients with poorer performance. Daily life EF behavior in OCD probands improved after treatment relative to controls. The findings suggest that EF performance impacts CBT outcome, and that exposure-based CBT is well-suited for children and adolescents with OCD and poorer EF test performance. This study supports the relevance of EF in CBT for childhood OCD and denotes a possible need for development of enhanced treatments for children and adolescents with OCD and superior EF performance.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.08.009
  • Acceptance-based interoceptive exposure for young children with functional
           abdominal pain
    • Authors: Nancy Zucker; Christian Mauro; Michelle Craske; H. Ryan Wagner; Nandini Datta; Hannah Hopkins; Kristen Caldwell; Adam Kiridly; Samuel Marsan; Gary Maslow; Emeran Mayer; Helen Egger
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Nancy Zucker, Christian Mauro, Michelle Craske, H. Ryan Wagner, Nandini Datta, Hannah Hopkins, Kristen Caldwell, Adam Kiridly, Samuel Marsan, Gary Maslow, Emeran Mayer, Helen Egger
      Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is a common childhood somatic complaint that contributes to impairment in daily functioning (e.g., school absences) and increases risk for chronic pain and psychiatric illness. Cognitive behavioral treatments for FAP target primarily older children (9 + years) and employ strategies to reduce a focus on pain. The experience of pain may be an opportunity to teach viscerally hypersensitive children to interpret the function of a variety of bodily signals (including those of hunger, emotions) thereby reducing fear of bodily sensations and facilitating emotion awareness and self-regulation. We designed and tested an interoceptive exposure treatment for younger children (5–9 years) with FAP. Assessments included diagnostic interviews, 14 days of daily pain monitoring, and questionnaires. Treatment involved 10 weekly appointments. Using cartoon characters to represent bodily sensations (e.g., Gassy Gus), children were trained to be “FBI agents” – Feeling and Body Investigators - who investigated sensations through exercises that provoked somatic experience. 24 parent-child dyads are reported. Pain (experience, distress, and interference) and negative affect demonstrated clinically meaningful and statistically significant change with effect sizes ranging from 0.48 to 71 for pain and from 0.38 to 0.61 for pain distress, total pain: X2 (1, n = 24) = 13.14, p < 0.0003. An intervention that helps children adopt a curious stance and focus on somatic symptoms reduces pain and may help lessen somatic fear generally. Clinical trial registration NCT02075437.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T18:21:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.009
  • Time to remission from mild to moderate depressive symptoms: One year
           results from the EVIDENT-study, an RCT of an internet intervention for
    • Authors: Jan Philipp Klein; Christina Späth; Johanna Schröder; Björn Meyer; Wolfgang Greiner; Martin Hautzinger; Wolfgang Lutz; Matthias Rose; Eik Vettorazzi; Gerhard Andersson; Fritz Hohagen; Steffen Moritz; Thomas Berger
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Jan Philipp Klein, Christina Späth, Johanna Schröder, Björn Meyer, Wolfgang Greiner, Martin Hautzinger, Wolfgang Lutz, Matthias Rose, Eik Vettorazzi, Gerhard Andersson, Fritz Hohagen, Steffen Moritz, Thomas Berger
      Background Internet interventions are effective in treating depressive symptoms but few studies conducted a long-term follow-up. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an internet intervention in increasing the remission rate over a twelve months period. Methods A total of 1013 participants with mild to moderate depressive symptoms were randomized to either care as usual alone or a 12-week internet intervention (Deprexis) plus usual care. Self-rated depression severity (PHQ-9) was assessed regularly over twelve months. Results Remission rates over time were significantly higher in the intervention group (Cox regression: hazard ratio [HR] 1.31; p = 0.009). The intervention was more effective in the subgroup not taking antidepressant medication (Cox regression: HR 1.88; p < 0.001). PHQ-change from baseline was greater in the intervention group (linear mixed model [LMM]: p < 0.001) with the between-group effect gradually decreasing from d = 0.36 at three months to d = 0.13 at twelve months (LMM: group by time interaction: p < 0.001). Conclusion This internet intervention can contribute to achieving remission in people with mild to moderate depressive symptoms, especially if they are not on antidepressant medication (Trial Registration: NCT01636752).

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:47:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.013
  • Reality monitoring performance and the role of visual imagery in visual
    • Authors: Charlotte Aynsworth; Nazik Nemat; Daniel Collerton; David Smailes; Robert Dudley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Charlotte Aynsworth, Nazik Nemat, Daniel Collerton, David Smailes, Robert Dudley
      Background Auditory Hallucinations may arise from people confusing their own inner speech with external spoken speech. People with visual hallucinations (VH) may similarly confuse vivid mental imagery with external events. This paper reports two experiments exploring confusion between internal and external visual material. Method Experiment 1 examined reality monitoring in people with psychosis; those with visual hallucinations (n = 16) and those without (n = 15). Experiment 2 used two non-clinical groups of people with high or low predisposition to VH (HVH, n = 26, LVH, n = 21). All participants completed the same reality monitoring task. Participants in Experiment 2 also completed measures of imagery. Results Psychosis patients with VH demonstrated biased reality monitoring, where they misremembered items that had been presented as words as having been presented as pictures. Patients without VH did not show this bias. In Experiment 2, the HVH group demonstrated the same bias in reality monitoring that psychosis patients with VH had shown. The LVH group did not show this bias. In addition, the HVH group reported more vivid imagery and particularly more negative imagery. Conclusions Both studies found that people with visual hallucinations or prone-ness to such experiences confused their inner visual experiences with external images. Vivid imagery was also related to proneness to VH. Hence, vivid imagery and reality monitoring confusion could be contributory factors to understanding VH.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:47:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.012
  • Attentional avoidance of threats in obsessive compulsive disorder: An
           event related potential study
    • Authors: Zhong-Ming Zhang; Meng-Yun Wang; Xiaowei Guo; Xiaocui Miao; Ting Zhang; Dong Gao; Zhen Yuan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Zhong-Ming Zhang, Meng-Yun Wang, Xiaowei Guo, Xiaocui Miao, Ting Zhang, Dong Gao, Zhen Yuan
      The neural mechanism underlying attentional bias in OCD (Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder) remains unclear. The goal of this study was to examine and compare the time course and the event related potential (ERP) components in OCD patients and healthy controls (HC) to reveal the complex brain activation pattern associated with attentional bias in OCD. The behavioural and electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded while the participants performed an emotional Stroop task. Compared to HC, the individuals with OCD exhibited slower response time, prolonged N1 latency and larger N1 and P2 amplitudes across different emotional words. In addition, we discovered that the OCD group showed an enlarged N1 component to OCD-related threat words compared to neutral words. Moreover, the OCD group had decreased P3 and later positive potential (LPP) amplitudes towards all types of words compared to the HC group. More importantly, the OCD group manifested smaller LPP amplitude to threat words compared to the HC group. Our findings suggest that OCD individuals may excessively direct their attention away from the threat at the late processing stage, probably due to the intensive processing or overestimation of the stimuli in the early automatic processing stage.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:47:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.011
  • Negativity bias and instability in spontaneous and deliberate evaluations
           of others: The role of borderline personality features
    • Authors: Félix Gauthier Mongeon; Jean Gagnon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Félix Gauthier Mongeon, Jean Gagnon
      This study tested the hypotheses that borderline personality (BP) features are characterized by a negativity bias and instability in spontaneous and deliberate evaluations of others. Undergraduate women (N = 204) watched two movie clips depicting either positive or negative conjugal interactions. Spontaneous and deliberate evaluations of the male character were assessed after each clip with an Evaluative Priming Task and a self-report measure, respectively. Participants with high BP features showed unstable spontaneous evaluations. Results revealed a non-significant trend toward more negative spontaneous evaluations after the negative clip and less positive and more negative deliberate evaluations after watching the positive clip first relative to participants with low BP features. These results provide preliminary evidence that impression formation in borderline personality may be characterized by negative and unstable evaluations that are shaped at least in part at earlier processing stages.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:47:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.010
  • Perseverate or decenter' Differential effects of metacognition on the
           relationship between parasympathetic inflexibility and symptoms of
           depression in a multi-wave study
    • Authors: Jonathan P. Stange; Jessica L. Hamilton; David M. Fresco; Lauren B. Alloy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Jonathan P. Stange, Jessica L. Hamilton, David M. Fresco, Lauren B. Alloy
      Depression often is characterized by inflexible autonomic and metacognitive processes that interfere with effective self-regulation. However, few studies have integrated these factors to improve the prediction of which individuals are at greatest risk for depression. Among 134 undergraduates, we evaluated whether parasympathetic inflexibility (a lack of reduction in respiratory sinus arrhythmia) in response to a sadness induction involving loss would prospectively predict symptoms of depression across four waves of follow-up over twelve weeks. Furthermore, we evaluated whether metacognitive components of perseverative cognition (PC) and decentering (identified by a principal component analysis) would moderate this relationship in opposite directions. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that the relationship between parasympathetic inflexibility and prospective symptoms of depression was exacerbated by PC, but attenuated by decentering. Furthermore, individuals with parasympathetic inflexibility, PC, and low decentering were at greatest risk for symptoms of depression across follow-up. These results support the utility of integrating autonomic and metacognitive risk factors to identify individuals at risk for depression.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:47:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.007
  • Brief, intensive and concentrated cognitive behavioral treatments for
           anxiety disorders in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Lars-Göran Öst; Thomas H. Ollendick
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Lars-Göran Öst, Thomas H. Ollendick
      Anxiety disorders are among the most common disorders affecting youths in the general population, with up to 10% of children and 20% of adolescents meeting criteria for an anxiety disorder at any one point in time. Cognitive-behavior therapies (CBT), varying between 9 and 18 weeks of treatment, are considered evidence-based for the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth. During the last two decades treatments that are brief, intensive, or concentrated (BIC) have been developed and this meta-analysis includes 23 RCTs of these new approaches across the anxiety disorders. BIC yielded a lower attrition (2.3%) than standard CBT (6.5%). The effect sizes (ES) for comparison of BIC with waiting-list (1.47) and placebo (0.91) were significant, whereas that with standard CBT (0.01) was not. Regarding remission at post/recovery at follow-up BIC (54%/64%) and standard CBT (57%/63%) were comparable and both were significantly higher than placebo (26%/35%), which was higher than WLC (7%/9%). Within-group ES at post and follow-up were 1.50 and 1.53 for BIC, and 0.98 and 1.05 for standard CBT, indicating maintenance of the effects up to 12 months after therapy. Advantages and disadvantages of BIC are discussed and we suggest that BIC-interventions represent a paradigm shift in the delivery of services for youth with anxiety disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T00:47:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.008
  • A laboratory model of impulsivity and alcohol use in late adolescence
    • Authors: Matthew J. Gullo; Natalie J. Loxton; Therese Price; Joanne Voisey; Ross McD. Young; Jason P. Connor
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Matthew J. Gullo, Natalie J. Loxton, Therese Price, Joanne Voisey, Ross McD. Young, Jason P. Connor
      Impulsivity is a core characteristic of externalizing problems and a robust predictor of alcohol use in adolescence. There is little evidence on the causal mechanisms through which impulsivity influences drinking or how they are affected by key social factors (peer influence). This study reports the development of the first comprehensive laboratory model of adolescent impulsivity and alcohol use. One-hundred and twenty adolescents (50% female) of legal drinking age (M = 19.47 years, SD = 1.12) in Australia (18 + years) were subjected to 1 of 3 experimental manipulations to increase impulsive behavior (reward cue exposure, negative mood induction, ego depletion). Changes in disinhibition (stop-signal task) and reward-seeking (BAS-Fun Seeking) were measured before completing a laboratory drinking task alone or with a heavy-drinking confederate. Reward cue exposure increased alcohol consumption, with the effect mediated by increased reward-seeking. Negative mood induction increased disinhibition, but not drinking. The presence of a heavy-drinking peer increased alcohol consumption independent of experimental manipulations. Findings provide causal evidence that extends survey-based research by highlighting the role of reward-related impulsivity in adolescent alcohol use. The new laboratory model can provide novel insights into the psychological processes underlying adolescent impulsivity and impulsivity-related drinking.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T02:17:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.003
  • Mixed evidence for the potential of non-invasive transcutaneous vagal
           nerve stimulation to improve the extinction and retention of fear
    • Authors: A.M. Burger; Verkuil Fenlon Thijs Cools Miller Vervliet Van Diest
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): A.M. Burger, B. Verkuil, H. Fenlon, L. Thijs, L. Cools, H. Miller, B. Vervliet, I. Van Diest
      Extinction memories are fragile and their formation has been proposed to partially rely on vagus nerve activity. We tested whether stimulating the auricular branch of the vagus (transcutaneous VNS; tVNS) accelerates extinction and reduces spontaneous recovery of fear. Forty-two healthy students participated in a 3-day fear conditioning study, where we tested fear acquisition (day 1), fear extinction (day 2) and the retention of the extinction memory (day 3). During extinction, participants were randomly allocated to receive tVNS or sham stimulation concurrently with each CS presentation. During the acquisition and retention phases, all participants received sham stimulation. Indexes of fear included US-expectancy, startle blink EMG and skin conductance responses. Results showed successful acquisition and extinction of fear in all measures. tVNS facilitated the extinction of declarative fear (US expectancy ratings), but did not promote a stronger retention of the declarative extinction memory. No clear effects of tVNS on extinction and retention of extinction were found for the psychophysiological indexes. The present findings provide tentative indications that tVNS could be a promising tool to improve fear extinction and call for larger scale studies to replicate these effects.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T02:17:03Z
  • Exposure and non-fear emotions: A randomized controlled study of
           exposure-based and rescripting-based imagery in PTSD treatment
    • Authors: Tomas Formo Langkaas; Asle Hoffart; Tuva Øktedalen; Pål G. Ulvenes; Elizabeth A. Hembree; Mervin Smucker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Tomas Formo Langkaas, Asle Hoffart, Tuva Øktedalen, Pål G. Ulvenes, Elizabeth A. Hembree, Mervin Smucker
      Interventions involving rescripting-based imagery have been proposed as a better approach than exposure-based imagery when posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with emotions other than fear. Prior research led to the study's hypotheses that (a) higher pretreatment non-fear emotions will predict relatively better response to rescripting as compared to exposure, (b) rescripting will be associated with greater reduction in non-fear emotions, and (c) pretreatment non-fear emotions will predict poor response to exposure. A clinically representative sample of 65 patients presenting a wide range of traumas was recruited from patients seeking and being offered PTSD treatment in an inpatient setting. Subjects were randomly assigned to 10 weeks of treatment involving either rescripting-based imagery (Imagery Rescripting; IR) or exposure-based imagery (Prolonged Exposure; PE). Patients were assessed on outcome and emotion measures at pretreatment, posttreatment and 12 months follow-up. Comparison to control benchmarks indicated that both treatments were effective, but no outcome differences between them appeared. None of the initial hypotheses were supported. The results from this study challenge previous observations and hypotheses about exposure mainly being effective for fear-based PTSD and strengthen the notion that exposure-based treatment is a generally effective treatment for all types of PTSD. Keywords: posttraumatic stress disorder, prolonged exposure, imagery rescripting, non-fear emotions.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T02:16:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.007
  • Efficacy of imagery rescripting and imaginal exposure for nightmares: A
           randomized wait-list controlled trial
    • Authors: Anna E. Kunze; Arnoud Arntz; Nexhmedin Morina; Merel Kindt; Jaap Lancee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Anna E. Kunze, Arnoud Arntz, Nexhmedin Morina, Merel Kindt, Jaap Lancee
      Nightmares can be effectively treated with cognitive-behavioral therapies. Though it remains elusive which therapeutic elements are responsible for the beneficial effects on nightmare symptoms, imagery rescripting (IR) and imaginal exposure (IE) are commonly identified as active treatment components of nightmare therapies. With this randomized controlled trial, we compared IR and IE as individual treatments to a wait-list (WL) condition to determine whether these particular therapeutic elements reduced nightmare symptoms. For this purpose, 104 patients with a primary DSM-5 diagnosis of nightmare disorder were randomly assigned to three weekly individual sessions of either IR or IE, or WL. Results showed that compared to WL, both interventions effectively reduced nightmare frequency (Δd IR-WL = 0.74; Δd IE-WL = 0.70) and distress (Δd IR-WL = 0.98; Δd IE-WL = 1.35) in a sample that predominantly consisted of idiopathic nightmare sufferers. The effects of IR and IE were comparable to those observed for other psychological nightmare treatments. Initial effects at post-treatment were sustained at 3- and 6-month follow-up, indicating that IR and IE both seem to be efficacious treatment components of nightmare therapies. Additional research is needed to directly compare IR and IE among both idiographic and posttraumatic nightmare sufferers with respect to treatment expectancy, acceptability, and effectiveness.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T07:18:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.005
  • Trajectories of social anxiety, cognitive reappraisal, and mindfulness
           during an RCT of CBGT versus MBSR for social anxiety disorder
    • Authors: Philippe R. Goldin; Amanda S. Morrison; Hooria Jazaieri; Richard G. Heimberg; James J. Gross
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Philippe R. Goldin, Amanda S. Morrison, Hooria Jazaieri, Richard G. Heimberg, James J. Gross
      Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) are efficacious in treating social anxiety disorder (SAD). It is not yet clear, however, whether they share similar trajectories of change and underlying mechanisms in the context of SAD. This randomized controlled study of 108 unmedicated adults with generalized SAD investigated the impact of CBGT vs. MBSR on trajectories of social anxiety, cognitive reappraisal, and mindfulness during 12 weeks of treatment. CBGT and MBSR produced similar trajectories showing decreases in social anxiety and increases in reappraisal (changing the way of thinking) and mindfulness (mindful attitude). Compared to MBSR, CBGT produced greater increases in disputing anxious thoughts/feelings and reappraisal success. Compared to CBGT, MBSR produced greater acceptance of anxiety and acceptance success. Granger Causality analyses revealed that increases in weekly reappraisal and reappraisal success predicted subsequent decreases in weekly social anxiety during CBGT (but not MBSR), and that increases in weekly mindful attitude and disputing anxious thoughts/feelings predicted subsequent decreases in weekly social anxiety during MBSR (but not CBGT). This examination of temporal dynamics identified shared and distinct changes during CBGT and MBSR that both support and challenge current conceptualizations of these clinical interventions. identifier NCT02036658.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T17:28:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.06.001
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