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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 918 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 441)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 205)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 246)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 149)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access  
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Eat, Sleep, Work     Open Access  
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Behaviour Research and Therapy
  [SJR: 2.306]   [H-I: 138]   [18 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0005-7967
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • The Attention Training Technique improves Children's ability to delay
           gratification: A controlled comparison with progressive relaxation
    • Authors: Joanne Murray; Helen Scott; Claire Connolly; Adrian Wells
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 104
      Author(s): Joanne Murray, Helen Scott, Claire Connolly, Adrian Wells
      The ability to delay gratification at a young age is a predictor of psychological, cognitive, health, and academic later-life outcomes. This study aimed to extend earlier research and explore whether a metacognitive intervention, Wells' (1990) Attention Training Technique (ATT), could improve young children's ability to delay gratification compared to an active-control (Progressive Muscle Relaxation: PMR), and no-intervention group. One hundred and one children aged 5–6 years old were recruited from schools. Classes of children were randomly allocated to receive the ATT, PMR or no-intervention and tested at pre- and post-intervention on measures of delay of gratification (the Marshmallow Test) and verbal inhibition (Day/Night Task). Results showed that, even when covariates were controlled for, following ATT, children delayed gratification significantly longer than after PMR or no-intervention. ATT also improved verbal inhibition compared with the no-intervention group, whilst PMR did not. The results add to earlier findings; ATT appears to provide a simple and effective way of improving young children's ability to delay gratification which has previously been shown to predict positive outcomes in later-life.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:46:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2018)
  • Impaired detection and differentiation of briefly presented facial
           emotions in adults with high-functioning autism and asperger syndrome
    • Authors: R. Frank; L. Schulze; R. Hellweg; S. Koehne; S. Roepke
      Pages: 7 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 104
      Author(s): R. Frank, L. Schulze, R. Hellweg, S. Koehne, S. Roepke
      Although deficits in the recognition of emotional facial expressions are considered a hallmark of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characterization of abnormalities in the differentiation of emotional expressions (e.g., sad vs. angry) has been rather inconsistent, especially in adults without intellectual impairments who may compensate for their deficits. In addition, previous research neglected the ability to detect emotional expressions (e.g., angry vs. neutral). The present study used a backward masking paradigm to investigate, a) the detection of emotional expressions, and b) the differentiation of emotional expressions in adults diagnosed with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome (n = 23) compared to neurotypical controls (n = 25). Compensatory strategies were prevented by shortening the stimulus presentation time (33, 67, and 100 ms). In general, participants with ASD were significantly less accurate in detecting and differentiating emotional expressions compared to the control group. In the emotion differentiation task, individuals with ASD profited significantly less from an increase in presentation time. These results reinforce theoretical models that individuals with ASD have deficits in emotion recognition under time constraints. Furthermore, first evidence was provided that emotion detection and emotion differentiation are impaired in ASD.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:46:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2018)
  • A meta-analysis of dropout rates in acceptance and commitment therapy
    • Authors: Clarissa W. Ong; Eric B. Lee; Michael P. Twohig
      Pages: 14 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 104
      Author(s): Clarissa W. Ong, Eric B. Lee, Michael P. Twohig
      Many psychotherapies, including cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), have been found to be effective interventions for a range of psychological and behavioral health concerns. Another aspect of treatment utility to consider is dropout, as interventions only work if clients are engaged in them. To date, no research has used meta-analytic methods to examine dropout in ACT. Thus, the objectives of the present meta-analysis were to (1) determine the aggregate dropout rate for ACT in randomized controlled trials, (2) compare dropout rates in ACT to those in other psychotherapies, and (3) identify potential moderators of dropout in ACT. Our literature search yielded 68 studies, representing 4,729 participants. The weighted mean dropout rates in ACT exclusive conditions and ACT inclusive conditions (i.e., those that included an ACT intervention) were 15.8% (95% CI: 11.9%, 20.1%) and 16.0% (95% CI: 12.5%, 19.8%), respectively. ACT dropout rates were not significantly different from those of established psychological treatments. In addition, dropout rates did not vary by client characteristics or study methodological quality. However, master's-level clinicians/therapists (weighted mean = 29.9%, CI: 17.6%, 43.8%) were associated with higher dropout than psychologists (weighted mean = 12.4%, 95% CI: 6.7%, 19.4%). More research on manipulable, process variables that influence dropout is needed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:46:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2018)
  • The worrying mind in control: An investigation of adaptive working memory
           training and cognitive bias modification in worry-prone individuals
    • Authors: Maud Grol; Anne K. Schwenzfeier; Johannes Stricker; Charlotte Booth; Alexander Temple-McCune; Nazanin Derakshan; Colette Hirsch; Eni Becker; Elaine Fox
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 103
      Author(s): Maud Grol, Anne K. Schwenzfeier, Johannes Stricker, Charlotte Booth, Alexander Temple-McCune, Nazanin Derakshan, Colette Hirsch, Eni Becker, Elaine Fox
      Worry refers to the experience of uncontrollable negative thoughts. Cognitive models suggest that the combination of negative information processing biases along with diminished attentional control contribute to worry. In the current study we investigate whether promoting a) adaptive interpretation bias and b) efficient deployment of attentional control would influence the tendency to worry. Worry-prone individuals (n = 60) received either active cognitive bias modification for interpretation bias (CBM-I) combined with sham working memory training (WMT), adaptive WMT combined with sham CBM-I, or sham WMT combined with sham CBM-I. Neither of the active training conditions reduced worry during a breathing focus task relative to the control condition. However, when considering inter-individual differences in training-related improvements, we observed a relation between increases in positive interpretation bias and a decrease in negative intrusions. Moreover, increases in working memory performance were related to a reduction in reactivity of negative intrusions to a worry period. Our findings show that facilitating a more benign interpretation bias and improving working memory capacity can have beneficial effects in terms of worry, but also highlight that transfer related gains from existing training procedures can be dependent upon improvement levels on the training task.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:22:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2018)
  • You make me tired: An experimental test of the role of interpersonal
           operant conditioning in fatigue
    • Authors: Bert Lenaert; Rebecca Jansen; Caroline M. van Heugten
      Pages: 12 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 103
      Author(s): Bert Lenaert, Rebecca Jansen, Caroline M. van Heugten
      Chronic fatigue is highly prevalent in the general population as well as in multiple chronic diseases and psychiatric disorders. Its etiology however remains poorly understood and cannot be explained by biological factors alone. Occurring in a psychosocial context, the experience and communication of fatigue may be shaped by social interactions. In particular, interpersonal operant conditioning may strengthen and perpetuate fatigue complaints. In this experiment, individuals (N = 44) repeatedly rated their currently experienced fatigue while engaging in cognitive effort (working memory task). Subtle social reward was given when fatigue increased relative to the previous rating; or disapproval when fatigue decreased. In the control condition, only neutral feedback was given. Although all participants became more fatigued during cognitive effort, interpersonal operant conditioning led to increased fatigue reporting relative to neutral feedback. This effect occurred independently of conscious awareness. Interestingly, the experimental condition also performed worse on the working memory task. Results suggest that fatigue complaints (and cognitive performance) may become controlled by their consequences such as social reward, and not exclusively by their antecedents such as effort. Results have implications for treatment development and suggest that interpersonal operant conditioning may contribute to fatigue becoming a chronic symptom.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:22:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2018)
  • Sleep-related attentional bias for tired faces in insomnia: Evidence from
           a dot-probe paradigm
    • Authors: Umair Akram; Louise Beattie; Antonia Ypsilanti; John Reidy; Anna Robson; Ashley J. Chapman; Nicola L. Barclay
      Pages: 18 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 103
      Author(s): Umair Akram, Louise Beattie, Antonia Ypsilanti, John Reidy, Anna Robson, Ashley J. Chapman, Nicola L. Barclay
      People with insomnia often display an attentional bias for sleep-specific stimuli. However, prior studies have mostly utilized sleep-related words and images, and research is yet to examine whether people with insomnia display an attentional bias for sleep-specific (i.e. tired appearing) facial stimuli. This study aimed to examine whether individuals with insomnia present an attentional bias for sleep-specific faces depicting tiredness compared to normal-sleepers. Additionally, we aimed to determine whether the presence of an attentional bias was characterized by vigilance or disengagement. Forty-one individuals who meet the DSM-5 criteria for Insomnia Disorder and 41 normal-sleepers completed a dot-probe task comprising of neutral and sleep-specific tired faces. The results demonstrated that vigilance and disengagement scores differed significantly between the insomnia and normal-sleeper groups. Specifically, individuals with insomnia displayed difficulty in both orienting to and disengaging attention from tired faces compared to normal-sleepers. Using tired facial stimuli, the current study provides novel evidence that insomnia is characterized by a sleep-related attentional bias. These outcomes support cognitive models of insomnia by suggesting that individuals with insomnia monitor tiredness in their social environment.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:22:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2018)
  • Modifying mental health help-seeking stigma among undergraduates with
           untreated psychiatric disorders: A pilot randomized trial of a novel
           cognitive bias modification intervention
    • Authors: Ian H. Stanley; Melanie A. Hom; Thomas E. Joiner
      Pages: 33 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Ian H. Stanley, Melanie A. Hom, Thomas E. Joiner
      Help-seeking stigma is a potent barrier to the utilization of mental health services. This study aimed to determine if, compared to a psychoeducation condition, individuals randomized to a novel cognitive bias modification intervention for help-seeking stigma (CBM-HS) demonstrate greater reductions in help-seeking stigma, as well as increases in readiness to change and help-seeking behaviors. Participants included 32 undergraduates with a DSM-5 psychiatric disorder who denied past-year mental health treatment. Post-randomization, three intervention sessions were delivered in one-week intervals (45 min total). Participants were assessed at baseline, mid-intervention, one-week post-intervention, and two-month follow-up. RM-ANOVAs were utilized among the intent-to-treat sample. There were no significant differences across time points between the intervention groups for help-seeking stigma and readiness to change. At two-month follow-up, 25% of participants initiated mental health treatment (29.4% CBM-HS, 20.0% psychoeducation). Strikingly, across groups, there was a statistically significant reduction in help-seeking self-stigma (F[2.214,66.418] = 5.057, p = 0.007, ηp 2 = 0.144) and perceived public stigma (F[3,90] = 6.614, p < 0.001, ηp 2 = 0.181) from baseline to two-month follow-up, indicating large effects; 18.8% achieved clinically significant change, among whom two-thirds were in the CBM-HS condition. Two brief, scalable interventions appear to reduce help-seeking stigma among undergraduates with untreated psychiatric disorders. Studies are needed to evaluate these interventions against an inactive control.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:22:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2018)
  • The effect of adding Coping Power Program-Sweden to Parent Management
           Training-effects and moderators in a randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Maria Helander; John Lochman; Jens Högström; Brjánn Ljótsson; Clara Hellner; Pia Enebrink
      Pages: 43 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 103
      Author(s): Maria Helander, John Lochman, Jens Högström, Brjánn Ljótsson, Clara Hellner, Pia Enebrink
      For children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), Parent Management Training (PMT) is a recommended treatment in addition to child Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (child-CBT). There is however a lack of studies investigating the additive effect of group-based child-CBT to PMT for children between 8 and 12 years. The current study investigated the incremental effect of group-based child-CBT, based on the Coping Power Program, when added to the Swedish group-based PMT program KOMET. Outcomes were child behavior problems, child prosocial behavior, parenting skills and the moderating effect of child characteristics. One hundred and twenty children 8–12 years with ODD or Disruptive Behavioral Disorder NOS and their parents were randomized either to combined child-CBT and PMT (n = 63) or to PMT only (n = 57) in Swedish Child- and Adolescent Psychiatric settings. Participants were assessed pre- and post-treatment using semi-structured interviews and child- and parent ratings. After treatment, behavior problems were reduced in both groups. Prosocial behavior were significantly more improved in the combined treatment. Parenting skills were improved in both groups. In moderator analyses, behavior problems and prosocial behavior improved significantly more in the combined treatment compared to PMT only in the group of children with high levels of ODD symptoms.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:46:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2018)
  • Improving functional outcomes in women with borderline personality
    • Authors: Melanie S. Harned; Chelsey R. Wilks; Sara C. Schmidt; Trevor N. Coyle
      Pages: 53 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 103
      Author(s): Melanie S. Harned, Chelsey R. Wilks, Sara C. Schmidt, Trevor N. Coyle
      Although functional impairment typically improves during evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) for borderline personality disorder (BPD), functional levels often remain suboptimal after treatment. The present pilot study evaluated whether and how integrating PTSD treatment into an EBP for BPD would improve functional outcomes. Participants were 26 women with BPD, PTSD, and recent suicidal and/or self-injurious behavior who were randomized to receive one year of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) or DBT with the DBT Prolonged Exposure (DBT PE) protocol for PTSD. Five domains of functioning were assessed at 4-month intervals during treatment and at 3-months post-treatment. DBT + DBT PE was superior to DBT in improving global social adjustment, health-related quality of life, and achieving good global functioning, but not interpersonal problems or quality of life. Results of time-lagged mixed effects models indicated that, across both treatments, reductions in PTSD severity significantly predicted subsequent improvement in global social adjustment, global functioning, and health-related quality of life, whereas reductions in post-traumatic cognitions significantly predicted later improvement in all functional outcomes except global social adjustment. These findings provide preliminary evidence supporting the role of change in PTSD severity and trauma-related cognitions as active mechanisms in improving functional outcomes among individuals with BPD and PTSD.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:46:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2018)
  • Evaluating the role of repetitive negative thinking in the maintenance of
           social appearance anxiety: An experimental manipulation
    • Authors: Erin E. Reilly; Elana B. Gordis; James F. Boswell; Joseph M. Donahue; Stephanie M. Emhoff; Drew A. Anderson
      Pages: 36 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 102
      Author(s): Erin E. Reilly, Elana B. Gordis, James F. Boswell, Joseph M. Donahue, Stephanie M. Emhoff, Drew A. Anderson
      Social appearance anxiety (SAA), or fear of having one's appearance negatively evaluated by others, is a risk factor for eating pathology and social anxiety, but maintenance processes for SAA remain unclear. The current study evaluated repetitive negative thinking (RNT) as a process through which SAA is maintained over time. Undergraduates (N = 126) completed self-report measurements, made an impromptu speech task to induce SAA, and were randomized to either engage in RNT or distraction following the speech task. Participants then attended a second appointment one day later and were asked to make a second speech. Results indicated positive associations between self-reported trait SAA and RNT. Individuals asked to engage in RNT following the appointment 1 speech task reported significantly higher state SAA than those who engaged in distraction. Findings indicated no significant effect of group on appointment 2 SAA, but post-hoc analyses suggested that naturally-occurring RNT may have accounted for increases in SAA across appointments. Overall, results provide support for the importance of RNT in maintaining various internalizing symptoms.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:22:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2018)
  • Psychopathology and episodic future thinking: A systematic review and
           meta-analysis of specificity and episodic detail
    • Authors: D.J. Hallford; D.W. Austin; K. Takano; F. Raes
      Pages: 42 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 102
      Author(s): D.J. Hallford, D.W. Austin, K. Takano, F. Raes
      Episodic future thinking (EFT) refers to the mental simulation of future events that might be personally-experienced; a crucial mental process in adaptation. Psychiatric disorders are associated with deficits in recalling episodic memory, however, no study has reviewed the empirical literature to assess for similar deficits in EFT. A systematic review comparing psychiatric groups with control groups on the specificity and episodic detail of EFT returned 19 eligible studies. An overall effect of g = −0.84 (95%CI = −1.06, - 0.62, p < .001) indicated individuals with a psychiatric diagnosis have significantly less specific and detailed EFT. Publication bias was not detected, but heterogeneity was. No methodological characteristics were significant moderators. Subgroup analyses showed significant effects for depression (g = −0.79, p < .001, k = 7), bipolar disorder (g = −1.00, p < .001, k = 2), and schizophrenia (g = −1.06, p < .001, k = 6), but not posttraumatic stress disorder (g = −1.04, p = .260, k = 2) or complicated grief (g = −0.41, p = .08, k = 2). Deficits in EFT are apparent in some psychiatric disorders. However, many clinical groups are understudied, and the causal mechanisms and remediation of these deficits require further research attention.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:22:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2018)
  • Individual variation in working memory is associated with fear extinction
    • Authors: Daniel M. Stout; Dean T. Acheson; Tyler M. Moore; Ruben C. Gur; Dewleen G. Baker; Mark A. Geyer; Victoria B. Risbrough
      Pages: 52 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 102
      Author(s): Daniel M. Stout, Dean T. Acheson, Tyler M. Moore, Ruben C. Gur, Dewleen G. Baker, Mark A. Geyer, Victoria B. Risbrough
      PTSD has been associated consistently with abnormalities in fear acquisition and extinction learning and retention. Fear acquisition refers to learning to discriminate between threat and safety cues. Extinction learning reflects the formation of a new inhibitory-memory that competes with a previously learned threat-related memory. Adjudicating the competition between threat memory and the new inhibitory memory during extinction may rely, in part, on cognitive processes such as working memory (WM). Despite significant shared neural circuits and signaling pathways the relationship between WM, fear acquisition, and extinction is poorly understood. Here, we analyzed data from a large sample of healthy Marines who underwent an assessment battery including tests of fear acquisition, extinction learning, and WM (N-back). Fear potentiated startle (FPS), fear expectancy ratings, and self-reported anxiety served as the primary dependent variables. High WM ability (N = 192) was associated with greater CS + fear inhibition during the late block of extinction and greater US expectancy change during extinction learning compared to individuals with low WM ability (N = 204). WM ability was not associated with magnitude of fear conditioning/expression. Attention ability was unrelated to fear acquisition or extinction supporting specificity of WM associations with extinction. These results support the conclusion that individual differences in WM may contribute to regulating fear responses.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:22:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2018)
  • Trauma, attentional dysregulation, and the development of posttraumatic
           stress: An investigation of risk pathways
    • Authors: Judith Schäfer; Ariel Zvielli; Michael Höfler; Hans-Ulrich Wittchen; Amit Bernstein
      Pages: 60 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 102
      Author(s): Judith Schäfer, Ariel Zvielli, Michael Höfler, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Amit Bernstein
      Background Fundamental questions regarding the nature and function of attentional bias (AB) to threat in the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remain unanswered. We tested the temporal interplay between trauma exposure, dysregulated attentional processing of threatening information pre- and post-trauma, and the development of posttraumatic intrusions. Methods Response time to trauma-related threat, trauma-unrelated threat, as well as to trauma-related but typically emotionally-neutral stimuli was assessed using the dot probe task before and one week after watching a violent movie scene that served as a trauma analogue. AB was analyzed as a dynamic process by means of a recently developed approach indexing momentary fluctuations of AB toward and away from emotional stimuli. Posttraumatic intrusions were measured daily over the week following analogue trauma exposure. Results We found that key features of AB dynamics to trauma-related stimuli at post-, but not pre-, trauma exposure were associated with posttraumatic intrusions. Notably, these post-trauma exposure effects were specific to biased attentional processing of trauma-related but not threatening stimuli unrelated to the traumatic event. In line with a growing body of findings, pre- and post-trauma exposure traditional aggregated mean AB scores were not similarly associated with posttraumatic intrusions. Conclusions We conclude that one mechanism through which trauma exposure may contribute to the development of PTSD is through its dysregulation of attentional processing of trauma event-related cues. Future work may focus on delineating the developmental course through which attentional dysregulation post-trauma and posttraumatic intrusions unfold and interact.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:22:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2018)
  • Combat-related guilt and the mechanisms of exposure therapy
    • Authors: Benjamin Trachik; Clint Bowers; Sandra M. Neer; Vu Nguyen; B. Christopher Frueh; Deborah C. Beidel
      Pages: 68 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 102
      Author(s): Benjamin Trachik, Clint Bowers, Sandra M. Neer, Vu Nguyen, B. Christopher Frueh, Deborah C. Beidel
      Exposure therapy (EXP) is one of the most widely used and empirically supported treatments for PTSD; however, some researchers have questioned its efficacy with specific populations and in targeting specific symptoms. One such symptom, guilt, has garnered increased attention in the PTSD treatment literature, as it is associated with worse symptomatology and outcomes. The current study examined cognitive changes in guilt in response to Intensive (3-week) and Standard (17-week) Trauma Management Therapy (TMT), and the potential mechanisms underlying TMT treatment. TMT is an exposure based intervention that does not include an emotional processing component after the imaginal exposure session. A portion of the sample completed measures of guilt. As a result, sample size for these analyses ranged from 39 to 102 and varied by the domain and measure. Of the 102 individuals that completed the PTSD Checklist- Military Version, 42 completed the Trauma Related Guilt Inventory, and 39 completed the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale supplemental guilt items. Participants reported significant reductions in trauma-related guilt symptoms over the course of the TMT interventions. Greater reductions in avoidance and prior session general arousal predicted the reduction of guilt symptoms. Exposure therapy may be effective in reducing trauma-related guilt even in the absence of the emotional processing component of treatment.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:46:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2018)
  • The NIH Science of Behavior Change Program: Transforming the science
           through a focus on mechanisms of change
    • Authors: Lisbeth Nielsen; Melissa Riddle; Jonathan W. King; Will M. Aklin; Wen Chen; David Clark; Elaine Collier; Susan Czajkowski; Layla Esposito; Rebecca Ferrer; Paige Green; Christine Hunter; Karen Kehl; Rosalind King; Lisa Onken; Janine M. Simmons; Luke Stoeckel; Catherine Stoney; Lois Tully; Wendy Weber
      Pages: 3 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 101
      Author(s): Lisbeth Nielsen, Melissa Riddle, Jonathan W. King, Will M. Aklin, Wen Chen, David Clark, Elaine Collier, Susan Czajkowski, Layla Esposito, Rebecca Ferrer, Paige Green, Christine Hunter, Karen Kehl, Rosalind King, Lisa Onken, Janine M. Simmons, Luke Stoeckel, Catherine Stoney, Lois Tully, Wendy Weber
      The goal of the NIH Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) Common Fund Program is to provide the basis for an experimental medicine approach to behavior change that focuses on identifying and measuring the mechanisms that underlie behavioral patterns we are trying to change. This paper frames the development of the program within a discussion of the substantial disease burden in the U.S. attributable to behavioral factors, and details our strategies for breaking down the disease- and condition-focused silos in the behavior change field to accelerate discovery and translation. These principles serve as the foundation for our vision for a unified science of behavior change at the NIH and in the broader research community.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:22:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2018)
  • Everyday stress response targets in the science of behavior change
    • Authors: Joshua M. Smyth; Martin J. Sliwinski; Matthew J. Zawadzki; Stacey B. Scott; David E. Conroy; Stephanie T. Lanza; David Marcusson-Clavertz; Jinhyuk Kim; Robert S. Stawski; Catherine M. Stoney; Orfeu M. Buxton; Christopher N. Sciamanna; Paige M. Green; David M. Almeida
      Pages: 20 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 101
      Author(s): Joshua M. Smyth, Martin J. Sliwinski, Matthew J. Zawadzki, Stacey B. Scott, David E. Conroy, Stephanie T. Lanza, David Marcusson-Clavertz, Jinhyuk Kim, Robert S. Stawski, Catherine M. Stoney, Orfeu M. Buxton, Christopher N. Sciamanna, Paige M. Green, David M. Almeida
      Stress is an established risk factor for negative health outcomes, and responses to everyday stress can interfere with health behaviors such as exercise and sleep. In accordance with the Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program, we apply an experimental medicine approach to identifying stress response targets, developing stress response assays, intervening upon these targets, and testing intervention effectiveness. We evaluate an ecologically valid, within-person approach to measuring the deleterious effects of everyday stress on physical activity and sleep patterns, examining multiple stress response components (i.e., stress reactivity, stress recovery, and stress pile-up) as indexed by two key response indicators (negative affect and perseverative cognition). Our everyday stress response assay thus measures multiple malleable stress response targets that putatively shape daily health behaviors (physical activity and sleep). We hypothesize that larger reactivity, incomplete recovery, and more frequent stress responses (pile-up) will negatively impact health behavior enactment in daily life. We will identify stress-related reactivity, recovery, and response in the indicators using coordinated analyses across multiple naturalistic studies. These results are the basis for developing a new stress assay and replicating the initial findings in a new sample. This approach will advance our understanding of how specific aspects of everyday stress responses influence health behaviors, and can be used to develop and test an innovative ambulatory intervention for stress reduction in daily life to enhance health behaviors.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:22:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2018)
  • Targeting self-regulation to promote health behaviors in children
    • Authors: Alison L. Miller; Ashley N. Gearhardt; Emily M. Fredericks; Benjamin Katz; Lilly Fink Shapiro; Kelsie Holden; Niko Kaciroti; Richard Gonzalez; Christine Hunter; Julie C. Lumeng
      Pages: 71 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 101
      Author(s): Alison L. Miller, Ashley N. Gearhardt, Emily M. Fredericks, Benjamin Katz, Lilly Fink Shapiro, Kelsie Holden, Niko Kaciroti, Richard Gonzalez, Christine Hunter, Julie C. Lumeng
      Poor self-regulation (i.e., inability to harness cognitive, emotional, motivational resources to achieve goals) is hypothesized to contribute to unhealthy behaviors across the lifespan. Enhancing early self-regulation may increase positive health outcomes. Obesity is a major public health concern with early-emerging precursors related to self-regulation; it is therefore a good model for understanding self-regulation and health behavior. Preadolescence is a transition when children increase autonomy in health behaviors (e.g., eating, exercise habits), many of which involve self-regulation. This paper presents the scientific rationale for examining self-regulation mechanisms that are hypothesized to relate to health behaviors, specifically obesogenic eating, that have not been examined in children. We describe novel intervention protocols designed to enhance self-regulation skills, specifically executive functioning, emotion regulation, future-oriented thinking, and approach bias. Interventions are delivered via home visits. Assays of self-regulation and obesogenic eating behaviors using behavioral tasks and self-reports are implemented and evaluated to determine feasibility and psychometrics and to test intervention effects. Participants are low-income 9-12 year-old children who have been phenotyped for self-regulation, stress, eating behavior and adiposity through early childhood. Study goals are to examine intervention effects on self-regulation and whether change in self-regulation improves obesogenic eating.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:22:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2018)
  • Dismantling Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy: Creation and validation
           of 8-week focused attention and open monitoring interventions within a
           3-armed randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Willoughby B. Britton; Jake H. Davis; Eric B. Loucks; Barnes Peterson; Brendan H. Cullen; Laura Reuter; Alora Rando; Hadley Rahrig; Jonah Lipsky; Jared R. Lindahl
      Pages: 92 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 101
      Author(s): Willoughby B. Britton, Jake H. Davis, Eric B. Loucks, Barnes Peterson, Brendan H. Cullen, Laura Reuter, Alora Rando, Hadley Rahrig, Jonah Lipsky, Jared R. Lindahl
      Background While mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) employ two distinct practices, focused attention (FA) and open monitoring (OM), the integrated delivery of these practices in MBIs precludes understanding of their practice-specific effects or mechanisms of action. The purpose of this study is to isolate hypothesized active ingredients and practice-specific mechanistic target engagement by creating structurally equivalent interventions that differ only by the active ingredient (meditation practice) offered and to test whether the hypothesized components differentially engage the mechanistic targets that they are purported to engage. Methods Participants were intended to be representative of American meditators and had mild to severe affective disturbances. Measures of structural equivalence included participant-level (sample characteristics), treatment-level (program structure and duration, program materials, class size, attendance, homework compliance, etc.), and instructor-level variables (training, ratings and adherence/fidelity). Measures of differential validity included analysis of program materials and verification of differential mechanistic target engagement (cognitive and affective skills and beliefs about meditation acquired by participants after the 8-week training). Results The results indicate successful creation of structurally equivalent FA and OM programs that were matched on participant-level, treatment-level, and instructor-level variables. The interventions also differed as expected with respect to program materials as well as mechanistic targets engaged (skills and beliefs acquired). Conclusions These validated 8-week FA and OM training programs can be applied in future research to assess practice-specific effects of meditation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T19:22:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2018)
  • Effects of brief mindfulness and loving-kindness meditation inductions on
           emotional and behavioral responses to social rejection among individuals
           with high borderline personality traits
    • Authors: Shian-Ling Keng; Hui Han Tan
      Pages: 44 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 100
      Author(s): Shian-Ling Keng, Hui Han Tan
      Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by an enduring pattern of instability across affective, behavioral, cognitive, and interpersonal domains. Individuals with BPD are known to be particularly vulnerable to experiences of social rejection, but little work has examined strategies that may moderate their reactivity to social rejection. Using a laboratory experimental approach, this study investigated the effects of brief mindfulness and loving-kindness meditation (LKM) inductions on emotional and behavioral responses to social rejection in a sample of adults with high BPD traits. One hundred and eighteen participants were randomly assigned to receive 10 min of mindful breathing practice, LKM, or a no-instruction control condition, prior to exposure to a social rejection manipulation. Participants rated their emotions and completed a competitive reaction time task, which provided a proxy measure of aggression. Compared to the control condition, the mindfulness group demonstrated significantly quicker recovery in negative affect and feelings of rejection after social rejection. The mindfulness group also reported significantly quicker recovery in negative affect compared to the LKM group. Whereas baseline trait mindfulness negatively predicted aggressive behaviors across all participants, groups did not differ in immediate emotional reactivity or aggressive behavior following social rejection. The findings suggest that mindfulness training may be a promising strategy in alleviating negative emotional effects of social rejection among individuals with high borderline personality traits, and highlight the limited utility of brief LKM practice in buffering the effects of social rejection.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:46:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2018)
  • A randomised controlled trial investigating the benefits of adaptive
           working memory training for working memory capacity and attentional
           control in high worriers
    • Authors: Matthew Hotton; Nazanin Derakshan; Elaine Fox
      Pages: 67 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 100
      Author(s): Matthew Hotton, Nazanin Derakshan, Elaine Fox
      The process of worry has been associated with reductions in working memory capacity and availability of resources necessary for efficient attentional control. This, in turn, can lead to escalating worry. Recent investigations into working memory training have shown improvements in attentional control and cognitive performance in high trait-anxious individuals and individuals with sub-clinical depression. The current randomised controlled trial investigated the effects of 15 days of adaptive n-back working memory training, or an active control task, on working memory capacity, attentional control and worry in a sample of high worriers. Pre-training, post-training and one-month follow-up measures of working memory capacity were assessed using a Change Detection task, while a Flanker task was used to assess attentional control. A breathing focus task was used as a behavioural measure of worry in addition to a number of self-report assessments of worry and anxiety. Overall there was no difference between the active training and the active control condition with both groups demonstrating similar improvements in working memory capacity and worry, post-training and at follow-up. However, training-related improvements on the n-back task were associated with gains in working memory capacity and reductions in worry symptoms in the active training condition. These results highlight the need for further research investigating the role of individual differences in working memory training.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:46:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.10.011
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2018)
  • Corrigendum to “Mindfulness-oriented recovery enhancement versus CBT for
           co-occurring substance dependence, traumatic stress, and psychiatric
           disorders: Proximal outcomes from a pragmatic randomized trial” [Behav.
           Res. Ther. 77 (2016) 7–16]
    • Authors: Eric L. Garland; Amelia Roberts-Lewis; Christine D. Tronnier; Rebecca Graves; Karen Kelley
      First page: 78
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 100
      Author(s): Eric L. Garland, Amelia Roberts-Lewis, Christine D. Tronnier, Rebecca Graves, Karen Kelley

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T15:46:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2018)
  • The relationship between consumer, clinician, and organizational
           characteristics and use of evidence-based and non-evidence-based therapy
           strategies in a public mental health system
    • Authors: Rinad Beidas; Laura Skriner; Danielle Adams; Courtney Benjamin Wolk; Rebecca E. Stewart; Emily Becker-Haimes; Nathaniel Williams; Brenna Maddox; Ronnie Rubin; Shawna Weaver; Arthur Evans; David Mandell; Steven C. Marcus
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 99
      Author(s): Rinad Beidas, Laura Skriner, Danielle Adams, Courtney Benjamin Wolk, Rebecca E. Stewart, Emily Becker-Haimes, Nathaniel Williams, Brenna Maddox, Ronnie Rubin, Shawna Weaver, Arthur Evans, David Mandell, Steven C. Marcus
      We investigated the relationship between consumer, clinician, and organizational factors and clinician use of therapy strategies within a system-wide effort to increase the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Data from 247 clinicians in 28 child-serving organizations were collected. Clinicians participating in evidence-based practice training initiatives were more likely to report using cognitive-behavioral therapy when they endorsed more clinical experience, being salaried clinicians, and more openness to evidence-based practice. Clinicians participating in evidence-based practice initiatives were more likely to use psychodynamic techniques when they had older clients, less knowledge about evidence-based practice, more divergent attitudes toward EBP, higher financial strain, and worked in larger organizations. In clinicians not participating in evidence-based training initiatives; depersonalization was associated with higher use of cognitive-behavioral; whereas clinicians with less knowledge of evidence-based practices were more likely to use psychodynamic techniques. This study suggests that clinician characteristics are important when implementing evidence-based practices; and that consumer, clinician, and organizational characteristics are important when de-implementing non evidence-based practices. This work posits potential characteristics at multiple levels to target with implementation and deimplementation strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
  • Attentional control predicts change in bias in response to attentional
           bias modification
    • Authors: Julian Basanovic; Lies Notebaert; Ben Grafton; Colette R. Hirsch; Patrick J.F. Clarke
      Pages: 47 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Julian Basanovic, Lies Notebaert, Ben Grafton, Colette R. Hirsch, Patrick J.F. Clarke
      Procedures that effectively modify attentional bias to negative information have been examined for their potential to be a source of therapeutic change in emotional vulnerability. However, the degree to which these procedures modify attentional bias is subject to individual differences. This generates the need to understand the mechanisms that influence attentional bias change across individuals. The present study investigated the association between individual differences in attentional control and individual differences in the magnitude of bias change evoked by an attentional bias modification procedure. The findings demonstrate that individual differences in two facets of attentional control, control of attentional inhibition and control of attentional selectivity, were positively associated with individual differences in the magnitude of attentional bias change. The present findings inform upon the cognitive mechanisms underpinning change in attentional bias, and identify a target cognitive process for research seeking to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of attentional bias modification procedures.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T07:46:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
  • Hostile interpretation training for individuals with alcohol use disorder
           and elevated trait anger: A controlled trial of a web-based intervention
    • Authors: Jesse R. Cougle; Berta J. Summers; Nicholas P. Allan; Kirsten H. Dillon; Hillary L. Smith; Sarah A. Okey; Ashleigh M. Harvey
      Pages: 57 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 99
      Author(s): Jesse R. Cougle, Berta J. Summers, Nicholas P. Allan, Kirsten H. Dillon, Hillary L. Smith, Sarah A. Okey, Ashleigh M. Harvey
      High trait anger is associated with more severe alcohol use problems, and alcohol has been found to facilitate aggressive behavior among individuals with high trait anger. Treatments focused on a sample with alcohol use disorder with elevated anger could reduce alcohol use problems, as well as violence and aggression. We sought to examine the efficacy of interpretation bias modification for hostility (IBM-H) in a sample with high trait anger and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Fifty-eight individuals with AUD and elevated trait anger were randomly assigned to eight web-based sessions (two per week) of IBM-H or a healthy video control condition (HVC). Measures of interpretation bias, anger, and alcohol use were administered at pre- and post-treatment and at one-month follow-up. IBM-H led to greater improvements in interpretation bias compared to HVC at post and follow-up. IBM-H also led to greater reductions in trait anger than HVC, though this was an indirect effect mediated by changes in interpretation bias. Further, IBM-H led to lower anger expression than HVC; this was a direct (non-mediated) effect. Lastly, both conditions reported decreases in alcohol use and consequences following treatment, though there were no significant differences between them. These findings provide initial support for the utility of IBM-H as a brief non-confrontational intervention for AUD with elevated trait anger. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T15:24:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
  • What works better' Food cue exposure aiming at the habituation of
           eating desires or food cue exposure aiming at the violation of overeating
    • Authors: Ghislaine Schyns; Karolien van den Akker; Anne Roefs; Rianne Hilberath; Anita Jansen
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 102
      Author(s): Ghislaine Schyns, Karolien van den Akker, Anne Roefs, Rianne Hilberath, Anita Jansen
      Objective This study tested the role of habituation of eating desires and violation of overeating expectancies during food cue exposure in obese women. Method 52 obese females were randomised into a two-session exposure condition aimed at habituation, a two-session exposure condition aimed at expectancy violation, or a no-treatment control condition. Eating in the absence of hunger of foods included during cue exposure (i.e., exposed foods) and foods not included during cue exposure (i.e., non-exposed foods), and duration of exposure were measured. Results Both cue exposure conditions ate significantly less of the exposed foods compared to the control condition, though there were no differences between both types of exposure. No differences were found between conditions regarding the eating of non-exposed foods. In addition, the duration of exposure was not different between both cue exposure conditions. Conclusions While food cue exposure in obese women led to less eating of exposed foods, focusing on either habituation of eating desires or expectancy violation did not matter. It is discussed why exposure works.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T20:19:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • Development of an in-vivo metric to aid visual inspection of single-case
           design data: Do we need to run more sessions'
    • Authors: Lucy Barnard-Brak; David M. Richman; Todd D. Little; Zhanxia Yang
      Pages: 8 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 102
      Author(s): Lucy Barnard-Brak, David M. Richman, Todd D. Little, Zhanxia Yang
      Comparing visual inspection results of graphed data reveals inconsistencies in the interpretation of the same graph among single-case experimental design (SCED) researchers and practitioners. Although several investigators have disseminated structured criteria and visual inspection aids or strategies, inconsistencies in interpreting graphed data continue to exist even for individuals considered to be experts at interpreting SCED graphs. We propose a fail safe k metric that can be used in conjunction with visual inspection, and it can be used in-vivo after each additional data point is collected within a phase to determine the optimal point in time to shift between phases (e.g., from baseline to treatment). Preliminary proof of concept data are presented to demonstrate the potential utility of the fail safe k metric with a sample of previously published SCED graphs examining the effects on noncontingent reinforcement on occurrences of problem behavior. Results showed that if the value of fail safe k is equal to or less than the number of sessions in the current phase, then the data path may not be stable and more sessions should be run before changing phases. We discuss the results in terms of using the fail safe k as an additional aid for visual inspection of SCED data.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T20:19:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • A return to the psychiatric dark ages with a two-system framework for fear
    • Authors: Michael S. Fanselow; Zachary T. Pennington
      Pages: 24 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 100
      Author(s): Michael S. Fanselow, Zachary T. Pennington
      The past several decades has seen considerable progress in our understanding of the neurobiology of fear and anxiety. These advancements were spurred on by envisioning fear as emerging from the coordinated activation of brain and behavioral systems that evolved for the purpose of defense from environmental dangers. Recently, Joseph LeDoux, a previous proponent of this view, published a series of papers in which he challenges the value of this approach. As an alternative, he and colleagues propose that a ‘two-system’ framework for the study of responses to threat will expedite the advancement of medical treatments for fear disorders. This view suggests one system for autonomic and behavioral responses and a second for the subjective feeling of fear. They argue that these two systems operate orthogonally and thus inferences concerning the emotion of fear cannot be gleaned from physiological and behavioral measures; confounding these systems has impeded the mechanistic understanding and treatment of fear disorders. Counter to the claim that this view will advance scientific progress, it carries the frightening implication that we ought to reduce the study of fear to subjective report. Here, we outline why we believe that fear is best considered an integrated autonomic, behavioral, and cognitive-emotional response to danger emerging from a central fear generator whose evolutionarily conserved function is that of defense. Furthermore, we argue that although components of the fear response can be independently modulated and studied, common upstream brain regions dictate their genesis, and therefore inferences about a central fear state can be garnered from measures of each.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:28:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.10.012
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
  • Individual differences in fear relapse
    • Authors: G. King; B.M. Graham; R. Richardson
      Pages: 37 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 100
      Author(s): G. King, B.M. Graham, R. Richardson
      Vulnerability to anxiety disorders might be due to enhanced acquisition of aversive associations, impaired inhibition of those associations (extinction), and/or vulnerability to the return of fear (relapse). Animal research investigating the processes underpinning fear learning, extinction, and relapse will be critical to further advancing our understanding of anxiety disorders and their treatment. Here we examined whether individual differences in the rate of extinction might be related to vulnerability to relapse. Relapse of fear was examined by testing animals for conditioned freezing using renewal, reinstatement, and spontaneous recovery procedures. Across all three experiments we found that when tested under “milder” relapse conditions (in a novel context, after a mild reinstatement procedure, or 8 days after extinction training) Slow Extinguishers exhibited relapse of fear whereas Fast Extinguishers did not. However, when tested under “stronger” relapse conditions (in the training context, after a strong reinstatement procedure, or 29 days after extinction training) both Fast and Slow Extinguishers exhibited comparable relapse of fear. These results show that Slow Extinguishers are more vulnerable to relapse than Fast Extinguishers. These findings have clinical implications for identifying those most at risk of relapse following treatment and highlight the importance of developing further strategies to reduce relapse.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T18:22:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
  • Learning to feel tired: A learning trajectory towards chronic fatigue
    • Authors: Bert Lenaert; Yannick Boddez; Johan W.S. Vlaeyen; Caroline M. van Heugten
      Pages: 54 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 100
      Author(s): Bert Lenaert, Yannick Boddez, Johan W.S. Vlaeyen, Caroline M. van Heugten
      Chronic fatigue complaints are frequently reported in the general population and fatigue ranks among the most commonly reported symptoms in chronic disease. In contrast to its high prevalence and impact on quality of life, relatively little is understood about the etiology of chronic fatigue. We present a cognitive-behavioral framework, the ‘ALT+F’ model, that conceptualizes fatigue from an associative learning perspective, and we will evaluate the current evidence for this position. Central to this framework is the notion that interoceptive and exteroceptive stimuli can become associated with the fatigue experience. Consequently, these stimuli may acquire the capacity to elicit fatigue as well as anticipatory fear-related avoidance behavior. We will argue that associative learning processes may contribute to the development of chronic fatigue, fear of fatigue, avoidance of fatigue and activity, and eventually, functional disability. The extent to which associative learning processes give rise to chronic fatigue and fear-related avoidance behavior may depend on a number of risk factors, including perceptual-cognitive biases, sensitization, fatigue catastrophizing, and excessive generalization. The presented framework offers a new window on treatment and intervention options for chronic fatigue.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T18:22:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
  • Editor's Note
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T20:19:58Z
  • A mechanism-focused approach to the science of behavior change: An
           introduction to the special issue
    • Authors: Jennifer A. Sumner; Theodore P. Beauchaine; Lisbeth Nielsen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 December 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Jennifer A. Sumner, Theodore P. Beauchaine, Lisbeth Nielsen

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T20:19:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.12.005
  • Interpretation bias in middle childhood attachment: Causal effects on
           attachment memories and scripts
    • Authors: Simon De Winter; Elske Salemink; Guy Bosmans
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Simon De Winter, Elske Salemink, Guy Bosmans
      Attachment theory implies the causal influence of interpretation bias on the attachment-related expectations. Previous research demonstrated that training children to interpret maternal behavior as more supportive increased their trust in maternal support. The current study explored possible training effects on two attachment script-related processes: recollection of attachment-related memories and secure base script knowledge. Children (9–12 years old; N = 84) were assigned to either a secure training condition, training children to interpret mother's behavior as supportive, or a neutral placebo condition, where interpretations about maternal behavior were unrelated to support. Findings replicated the training effect on interpretation bias and trust. Furthermore, children's recollection of attachment-related memories became more positive. No training effect was found for secure base script knowledge.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T20:19:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.12.004
  • Effects of mindfulness exercises as stand-alone intervention on symptoms
           of anxiety and depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Paul Blanck; Sarah Perleth; Thomas Heidenreich; Paula Kröger; Beate Ditzen; Hinrich Bents; Johannes Mander
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Paul Blanck, Sarah Perleth, Thomas Heidenreich, Paula Kröger, Beate Ditzen, Hinrich Bents, Johannes Mander
      Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are currently well established in psychotherapy with meta-analyses demonstrating their efficacy. In these multifaceted interventions, the concrete performance of mindfulness exercises is typically integrated in a larger therapeutic framework. Thus, it is unclear whether stand-alone mindfulness exercises (SAMs) without such a framework are beneficial, as well. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the effects of SAMs on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Systematic searching of electronic databases resulted in 18 eligible studies (n = 1150) for meta-analyses. After exclusion of one outlier SAMs had small to medium effects on anxiety (SMD = 0.39; CI: 0.22, 0.56; PI: 0.07, 0.70; p < .001, I 2  = 18.90%) and on depression (SMD = 0.41; CI: 0.19, 0.64; PI: −0.05, 0.88; p < .001; I 2  = 33.43%), when compared with controls. Summary effect estimates decreased, but remained significant when corrected for potential publication bias. This is the first meta-analysis to show that the mere, regular performance of mindfulness exercises is beneficial, even without being integrated in larger therapeutic frameworks.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T20:19:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.12.002
  • Measuring self-efficacy, executive function, and temporal discounting in
    • Authors: Kristina Esopo; Daniel Mellow; Catherine Thomas; Hannah Uckat; Justin Abraham; Prachi Jain; Chaning Jang; Nicholas Otis; Michala Riis-Vestergaard; Amanda Starcev; Kate OrkinY; Johannes Haushofer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Kristina Esopo, Daniel Mellow, Catherine Thomas, Hannah Uckat, Justin Abraham, Prachi Jain, Chaning Jang, Nicholas Otis, Michala Riis-Vestergaard, Amanda Starcev, Kate OrkinY, Johannes Haushofer
      Developing countries have low adherence to medical regimens like water chlorination or antenatal and postnatal care, contributing to high infant and child mortality rates. We hypothesize that high levels of stress affect adherence through temporal discounting, self-efficacy, and executive control. Measurement of these constructs in developing countries requires adaptation of existing measures. In the current study, we adapt psychological scales and behavioral tasks, measuring each of these three constructs, for use among adults in Kenya. We translated and back-translated each measure to Kiswahili and conducted cognitive interviewing to establish cultural acceptability, refined existing behavioral tasks, and developed new ones. Then, in a laboratory session lasting 3 h, participants ( N = 511 ) completed the adapted psychological inventories and behavioral tasks. We report the psychometric properties of these measures. We find relatively low reliability and poor correlational evidence between psychological scales and behavioral tasks measuring the same construct, highlighting the challenges of adapting measures across cultures, and suggesting that assays within the same domain may tap distinct underlying processes.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T18:22:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.10.002
  • Subjective sleep disturbances are associated with intrinsic motivation
           toward sleep-related thinking
    • Authors: Keisuke Takano; Filip Raes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Keisuke Takano, Filip Raes
      Biased information processing has been highlighted as a possible vulnerability factor for sleep problems. A theory states that perceived sleeplessness triggers a strong approach motivation (or craving) for sleep, and then activates persistent preoccupation with sleep. However, there is no clear evidence that perceived sleeplessness is associated with such a motivation toward sleep-related information. Thus, we examined the untested idea that people with subjective sleep disturbances would prefer sleep-related topics, using a modified version of the pay-per-view task. In this task, 58 participants were offered two question-type options: the “sleep” option, where participants were asked to answer a question about their sleep, and the “eat” option, where participants needed to answer a question about their eating habits and beliefs. Each option is associated with a variable amount of economic reward and therefore participants sometimes face a conflict between the economic reward and their intrinsic preference for a specific question type. Results showed that people with higher levels of subjective sleep disturbances forgo greater amounts of reward to have an opportunity to answer sleep-related (as opposed to than eating-related) questions. These findings suggest that people who perceive themselves as lacking sleep are highly motivated to engage in sleep-related information processing.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T02:28:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.11.002
  • Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 99

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:03:04Z
  • The influence of maternal modeling on body image concerns and eating
           disturbances in preadolescent girls
    • Authors: Charlotte Handford; Ronald Rapee Jasmine Fardouly
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Charlotte M. Handford, Ronald M. Rapee, Jasmine Fardouly
      Research suggests that mothers may influence the development of body image concerns and eating disturbances in their daughters by modeling negative body image beliefs and unhealthy eating behaviors. However, the causal nature of that mode of influence is yet to be established. This study implemented an experimental design to examine the impact of mothers' modeling of negative comments about their own appearance and diet on their daughters' body image concerns and eating behaviors. Participants were 8–12 year old girls and their mothers (N = 50). While viewing thin-ideal magazine advertisements with their daughter, mothers were instructed to make either negative comments about their own weight, shape, and diet or to make no appearance or diet related comments. Daughters' levels of body esteem, body satisfaction, and eating attitudes were assessed pre- and post-manipulation, and their actual eating habits were measured post-manipulation. Girls whose mothers had made self-critical comments about their own appearance and diet reported lower body esteem, lower body satisfaction, more problematic eating attitudes, and ate significantly fewer sweets than girls whose mothers had not made self-critical comments. These results have implications for disordered eating prevention programs, suggesting that greater emphasis be placed on discouraging negative modeling behaviors among mothers.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T02:03:04Z
  • Major depression prevention effects for a cognitive-behavioral adolescent
           indicated prevention group intervention across four trials
    • Authors: Paul Rohde; Frédéric N. Brière; Eric Stice
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Paul Rohde, Frédéric N. Brière, Eric Stice
      Major depressive disorder (MDD) in young people is a leading cause of disability but most depressed youth are not treated, emphasizing the need for effective prevention. Our goal is to synthesize MDD onset prevention effects for the Blues Program, a brief cognitive-behavioral (CB) indicated prevention group, by merging data from four trials (three of which included CB bibliotherapy) and conducting an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis. Data were available from 766 high school/college students (M age = 16.4, SD = 2.3; 60% female, 64% White). CB group resulted in significantly lower MDD incidence rates relative to brochure control that persisted to 6-month follow-up; CB group also was associated with a lower 2-year MDD incidence rate relative to bibliotherapy but heterogeneity across trials was detected. Contrasts between bibliotherapy and brochure control were nonsignificant. For significant contrasts, the number needed to treat (NNT) by CB group to prevent one MDD onset relative to brochure or bibliotherapy ranged from 10 to 21. A brief CB group depression prevention intervention for at-risk adolescent is achieving meaningful effects compared to both active and minimal controls but outcomes need to be improved, perhaps by better screening or augmentations to produce more persistent intervention effects.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T01:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.10.013
  • A brighter future: The effect of positive episodic simulation on future
           predictions in non-depressed, moderately dysphoric & highly dysphoric
    • Authors: Jennifer Boland; Kevin J. Riggs; Rachel J. Anderson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Jennifer Boland, Kevin J. Riggs, Rachel J. Anderson
      Previous research suggests depressed individuals have difficulties with future directed cognitions. For instance, compared with non-depressed individuals, they predict positive events are less likely to occur. Recent work suggests that episodic simulation of positive futures may represent a useful strategy for improving prospective predictions. The current studies investigated positive future episodic simulation as a method of modifying predictions regarding the likelihood of occurrence, perceived control, and importance of positive and negative future events. Experiment 1 compared positive episodic simulation to a neutral visualization task in a non-clinical sample. Predictions regarding future events were rated more positively after the use of positive episodic simulation but not as a result of neutral visualization. Experiment 2 extended these findings to show that future episodic simulation can be used to modify predictions, for both positive and negative events, in individuals experiencing significant levels of dysphoric mood and depressive symptoms. Taken together, these findings suggest that training in positive episodic future simulation can improve future outlook and may represent a useful tool within cognitive therapeutic techniques.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T01:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.10.010
  • Targeting couple and parent-child coercion to improve health behaviors
    • Authors: Amy M. Smith Slep; Richard E. Heyman; Danielle M. Mitnick; Michael F. Lorber; Theodore P. Beauchaine
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Amy M. Smith Slep, Richard E. Heyman, Danielle M. Mitnick, Michael F. Lorber, Theodore P. Beauchaine
      This phase of the NIH Science of Behavior Change program emphasizes an “experimental medicine approach to behavior change,” that seeks to identify targets related to stress reactivity, self-regulation, and social processes for maximal effects on multiple health outcomes. Within this framework, our project focuses on interpersonal processes associated with health: coercive couple and parent-child conflict. Diabetes and poor oral health portend pain, distress, expense, loss of productivity, and even mortality. They share overlapping medical regimens, are driven by overlapping proximal health behaviors, and affect a wide developmental span, from early childhood to late adulthood. Coercive couple and parent-child conflict constitute potent and destructive influences on a wide range of adult and child health outcomes. Such interaction patterns give rise to disturbed environmental stress reactivity (e.g., disrupted sympathetic nervous and parasympathetic nervous systems) and a wide range of adverse health outcomes in children and adults, including dental caries, obesity, and diabetes-related metabolic markers. In this work, we seek to identify/develop/validate assays assessing coercion, identify/develop and test brief interventions to reduce coercion, and test whether changes in coercion trigger changes in health behaviors.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T01:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.10.003
  • Applying novel technologies and methods to inform the ontology of
    • Authors: Ian W. Eisenberg; Patrick G. Bissett; Jessica R. Canning; Jesse Dallery; A. Zeynep Enkavi; Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli; Oscar Gonzalez; Alan I. Green; Mary Ann Greene; Michaela Kiernan; Sunny Jung Kim; Jamie Li; Michael R. Lowe; Gina L. Mazza; Stephen A. Metcalf; Lisa Onken; Sadev S. Parikh; Ellen Peters; Judith J. Prochaska; Emily A. Scherer; Luke E. Stoeckel; Matthew J. Valente; Jialing Wu; Haiyi Xie; David P. MacKinnon; Lisa A. Marsch; Russell A. Poldrack
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Ian W. Eisenberg, Patrick G. Bissett, Jessica R. Canning, Jesse Dallery, A. Zeynep Enkavi, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Oscar Gonzalez, Alan I. Green, Mary Ann Greene, Michaela Kiernan, Sunny Jung Kim, Jamie Li, Michael R. Lowe, Gina L. Mazza, Stephen A. Metcalf, Lisa Onken, Sadev S. Parikh, Ellen Peters, Judith J. Prochaska, Emily A. Scherer, Luke E. Stoeckel, Matthew J. Valente, Jialing Wu, Haiyi Xie, David P. MacKinnon, Lisa A. Marsch, Russell A. Poldrack
      Self-regulation is a broad construct representing the general ability to recruit cognitive, motivational and emotional resources to achieve long-term goals. This construct has been implicated in a host of health-risk behaviors, and is a promising target for fostering beneficial behavior change. Despite its clear importance, the behavioral, psychological and neural components of self-regulation remain poorly understood, which contributes to theoretical inconsistencies and hinders maximally effective intervention development. We outline a research program that seeks to define a neuropsychological ontology of self-regulation, articulating the cognitive components that compose self-regulation, their relationships, and their associated measurements. The ontology will be informed by two large-scale approaches to assessing individual differences: first purely behaviorally using data collected via Amazon's Mechanical Turk, then coupled with neuroimaging data collected from a separate population. To validate the ontology and demonstrate its utility, we will then use it to contextualize health risk behaviors in two exemplar behavioral groups: overweight/obese adults who binge eat and smokers. After identifying ontological targets that precipitate maladaptive behavior, we will craft interventions that engage these targets. If successful, this work will provide a structured, holistic account of self-regulation in the form of an explicit ontology, which will better clarify the pattern of deficits related to maladaptive health behavior, and provide direction for more effective behavior change interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T01:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.014
  • The ENGAGE study: Integrating neuroimaging, virtual reality and smartphone
           sensing to understand self-regulation for managing depression and obesity
           in a precision medicine model
    • Authors: Leanne Williams; Adam Pines Andrea Goldstein-Piekarski Lisa Rosas Monica Kullar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Leanne M. Williams, Adam Pines, Andrea N. Goldstein-Piekarski, Lisa G. Rosas, Monica Kullar, Matthew D. Sacchet, Olivier Gevaert, Jeremy Bailenson, Philip W. Lavori, Paul Dagum, Brian Wandell, Carlos Correa, Walter Greenleaf, Trisha Suppes, L. Michael Perry, Joshua M. Smyth, Megan A. Lewis, Elizabeth M. Venditti, Mark Snowden, Janine M. Simmons, Jun Ma
      Precision medicine models for personalizing achieving sustained behavior change are largely outside of current clinical practice. Yet, changing self-regulatory behaviors is fundamental to the self-management of complex lifestyle-related chronic conditions such as depression and obesity - two top contributors to the global burden of disease and disability. To optimize treatments and address these burdens, behavior change and self-regulation must be better understood in relation to their neurobiological underpinnings. Here, we present the conceptual framework and protocol for a novel study, “Engaging self-regulation targets to understand the mechanisms of behavior change and improve mood and weight outcomes (ENGAGE)”. The ENGAGE study integrates neuroscience with behavioral science to better understand the self-regulation related mechanisms of behavior change for improving mood and weight outcomes among adults with comorbid depression and obesity. We collect assays of three self-regulation targets (emotion, cognition, and self-reflection) in multiple settings: neuroimaging and behavioral lab-based measures, virtual reality, and passive smartphone sampling. By connecting human neuroscience and behavioral science in this manner within the ENGAGE study, we develop a prototype for elucidating the underlying self-regulation mechanisms of behavior change outcomes and their application in optimizing intervention strategies for multiple chronic diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T18:35:47Z
  • A longitudinal examination of the role of attentional control in the
           relationship between posttraumatic stress and threat-related attentional
           bias: An eye-tracking study
    • Authors: Joseph R. Bardeen; Thomas A. Daniel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Joseph R. Bardeen, Thomas A. Daniel
      The purpose of the present study was to use eye-tracking technology to (a) show that attentional control can be used to reduce attentional bias to threat (ABT) among those with higher levels of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, (b) identify the specific attentional control (AC) processes (i.e., inhibition, shifting, working memory updating) that account for this effect, and (c) determine the short- (sympathetic nervous system reactivity) and long-term effects (PTS symptoms) of using attentional control in this manner. At Time 1 (T1), participants (N = 116 trauma exposed) completed self-report measures, an eye-tracking task assessing ABT, and behavioral measures assessing cognitive processes. A subsample (n = 49) completed an online follow-up assessment (T2). AC at T1 moderated the PTS-ABT relationship. Inhibitory ability appears to be driving this effect. Those with higher PTS symptoms and higher AC at T1, who spent less time attending to threat stimuli and had the lowest sympathetic response, had the highest levels of PTS symptoms at T2. Findings suggest that the habitual use of AC (especially inhibition) to shift attention from threat to neutral stimuli may alleviate distress in the short-term for those with higher PTS symptoms, but maintain, and perhaps exacerbate, PTS symptoms over longer periods.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T19:27:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.003
  • Social anxiety in pre-adolescent children: What do we know about
    • Authors: Brynjar Halldorsson; Cathy Creswell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Brynjar Halldorsson, Cathy Creswell
      The cognitive theory of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most widely accepted accounts of the maintenance of the disorder in adults, yet it remains unknown if, or to what extent, the same cognitive and behavioral maintenance mechanisms that occur in adult SAD also apply to SAD among pre-adolescent children. In contrast to the adult literature, current models of SAD in children mostly account for etiology and maintenance processes are given limited attention. Consequently, their clinical utility for the treatment of SAD in children may be limited. This narrative review, first, critically examines the different theoretical conceptualizations of the maintenance of social anxiety in the child and adult literature and illustrates how these have resulted in different treatment approaches and clinical understanding. Second, it reviews the available evidence relating to hypotheses about the maintenance of SAD in children as derived from adult cognitive and etiological models. Third, it highlights the need to attend directly to child specific maintenance mechanisms in SAD, to draw on cognitive theory, and to account for the influence of childhood-specific contextual (e.g. family and school-based interactions) and developmental factors on children's social experiences.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.08.013
  • Executive function predicts cognitive-behavioral therapy response in
           childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • Authors: Katja Anna Hybel; Erik Lykke Mortensen; Rikke Lambek; Davíð R.M.A. Højgaard; Per Hove Thomsen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2017
      Source:Behaviour Research and Therapy
      Author(s): Katja Anna Hybel, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Rikke Lambek, Davíð R.M.A. Højgaard, Per Hove Thomsen
      Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered first-line treatment for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite CBT's efficacy, too many children and adolescents do not fully respond to treatment, making the identification of predictors of treatment response highly relevant. Executive functions (EF) have been suggested to constitute such predictors, but studies with pediatric samples are scarce. In the present study, we investigate latent level EF test performance and ratings of daily life EF behavior as predictors of CBT response in pediatric OCD. We further examine the stability of EF from pre-to post-treatment and the association of EF changes with OCD severity change. EF test performance significantly predicted exposure-based CBT outcome. Patients with better EF test performance had significantly elevated risk of non-response relative to patients with poorer performance. Daily life EF behavior in OCD probands improved after treatment relative to controls. The findings suggest that EF performance impacts CBT outcome, and that exposure-based CBT is well-suited for children and adolescents with OCD and poorer EF test performance. This study supports the relevance of EF in CBT for childhood OCD and denotes a possible need for development of enhanced treatments for children and adolescents with OCD and superior EF performance.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T07:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2017.08.009
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