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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 875 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 401)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 174)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 214)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
At-Tajdid : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access  
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 127)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access  
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access  
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Behavior Therapy
  [SJR: 1.929]   [H-I: 80]   [46 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0005-7894
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Anticipatory Processing, Maladaptive Attentional Focus, and Postevent
           Processing for Interactional and Performance Situations: Treatment
           Response and Relationships With Symptom Change for Individuals With Social
           Anxiety Disorder
    • Authors: Quincy J.J. Wong; Bree Gregory; Lauren F. McLellan; Maria Kangas; Maree J. Abbott; Leigh Carpenter; Peter M. McEvoy; Lorna Peters; Ronald M. Rapee
      Pages: 651 - 663
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 5
      Author(s): Quincy J.J. Wong, Bree Gregory, Lauren F. McLellan, Maria Kangas, Maree J. Abbott, Leigh Carpenter, Peter M. McEvoy, Lorna Peters, Ronald M. Rapee
      Anticipatory processing, maladaptive attentional focus, and postevent processing are key cognitive constructs implicated in the maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The current study examined how treatment for SAD concurrently affects these three cognitive maintaining processes and how these processes are associated with each other as well as with symptom change from pre- to posttreatment. The sample consisted of 116 participants with SAD receiving group cognitive behavioral therapy. All three cognitive maintaining processes were measured relative to a speech task and again relative to a conversation task. Across both tasks, the three cognitive process variables demonstrated decreases from pre- to posttreatment. Within the same task, a slower rate of decrease in a specific cognitive process variable from pre- to posttreatment was predicted from higher pretreatment levels of either one or both of the other cognitive process variables. Additionally, higher levels of pretreatment conversation-related anticipatory processing and maladaptive attentional focus predicted a slower rate of decrease in social anxiety symptoms from pre- to posttreatment. Results are consistent with cognitive models of SAD and have important implications for enhancing existing treatments.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T09:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.03.004
  • Long-Term Outcomes of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body
           Dysmorphic Disorder
    • Authors: Georgina Krebs; Lorena Fernández de la Cruz; Benedetta Monzani; Laura Bowyer; Martin Anson; Jacinda Cadman; Isobel Heyman; Cynthia Turner; David Veale; David Mataix-Cols
      Pages: 462 - 473
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 4
      Author(s): Georgina Krebs, Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, Benedetta Monzani, Laura Bowyer, Martin Anson, Jacinda Cadman, Isobel Heyman, Cynthia Turner, David Veale, David Mataix-Cols
      Emerging evidence suggests that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an efficacious treatment for adolescent body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in the short term, but longer-term outcomes remain unknown. The current study aimed to follow up a group of adolescents who had originally participated in a randomized controlled trial of CBT for BDD to determine whether treatment gains were maintained. Twenty-six adolescents (mean age = 16.2, SD = 1.6) with a primary diagnosis of BDD received a course of developmentally tailored CBT and were followed up over 12 months. Participants were assessed at baseline, midtreatment, posttreatment, 2-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure was the clinician-rated Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Modified for BDD. Secondary outcomes included measures of insight, depression, quality of life, and global functioning. BDD symptoms decreased significantly from pre- to posttreatment and remained stable over the 12-month follow-up. At this time point, 50% of participants were classified as responders and 23% as remitters. Participants remained significantly improved on all secondary outcomes at 12-month follow-up. Neither baseline insight nor baseline depression predicted long-term outcomes. The positive effects of CBT appear to be durable up to 12-month follow-up. However, the majority of patients remained symptomatic and vulnerable to a range of risks at 12-month follow-up, indicating that longer-term monitoring is advisable in this population. Future research should focus on enhancing the efficacy of CBT in order to improve long-term outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T12:57:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.01.001
  • Computer Informed and Flexible Family-Based Treatment for Adolescents: A
           Randomized Clinical Trial for at-Risk Racial/Ethnic Minority Adolescents
    • Authors: Daniel A. Santisteban; Sara J. Czaja; Sankaran N. Nair; Maite P. Mena; Alina R. Tulloch
      Pages: 474 - 489
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 4
      Author(s): Daniel A. Santisteban, Sara J. Czaja, Sankaran N. Nair, Maite P. Mena, Alina R. Tulloch

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T12:57:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2016.11.001
  • Does the Delivery of CBT for Youth Anxiety Differ Across Research and
           Practice Settings?
    • Authors: Meghan M. Smith; Bryce D. McLeod; Michael A. Southam-Gerow; Amanda Jensen-Doss; Philip C. Kendall; John R. Weisz
      Pages: 501 - 516
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 4
      Author(s): Meghan M. Smith, Bryce D. McLeod, Michael A. Southam-Gerow, Amanda Jensen-Doss, Philip C. Kendall, John R. Weisz
      Does delivery of the same manual-based individual cognitive-behavioral treatment (ICBT) program for youth anxiety differ across research and practice settings? We examined this question in a sample of 89 youths (M age = 10.56, SD = 1.99; 63.70% Caucasian; 52.80% male) diagnosed with a primary anxiety disorder. The youths received (a) ICBT in a research setting, (b) ICBT in practice settings, or (c) non-manual-based usual care (UC) in practice settings. Treatment delivery was assessed using four theory-based subscales (Cognitive-behavioral, Psychodynamic, Client-Centered, Family) from the Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy–Revised Strategies scale (TPOCS-RS). Reliable independent coders, using the TPOCS-RS, rated 954 treatment sessions from two randomized controlled trials (1 efficacy and 1 effectiveness trial). In both settings, therapists trained and supervised in ICBT delivered comparable levels of cognitive-behavioral interventions at the beginning of treatment. However, therapists trained in ICBT in the research setting increased their use of cognitive-behavioral interventions as treatment progressed whereas their practice setting counterparts waned over time. Relative to the two ICBT groups, the UC therapists delivered a significantly higher dose of psychodynamic and family interventions and a significantly lower dose of cognitive-behavioral interventions. Overall, results indicate that there were more similarities than differences in manual-based ICBT delivery across research and practice settings. Future research should explore why the delivery of cognitive-behavioral interventions in the ICBT program changed over time and across settings, and whether the answers to these questions could inform implementation of ICBT programs.

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T12:57:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2016.07.004
  • Criticism in the Romantic Relationships of Individuals With Social Anxiety
    • Authors: Eliora Porter; Dianne L. Chambless; John R. Keefe
      Pages: 517 - 532
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 4
      Author(s): Eliora Porter, Dianne L. Chambless, John R. Keefe
      Social anxiety is associated with difficulties in intimate relationships. Because fear of negative evaluation is a cardinal feature of social anxiety disorder, perceived criticism and upset due to criticism from partners may play a significant role in socially anxious individuals’ intimate relationships. In the present study, we examine associations between social anxiety and perceived, observed, and expressed criticism in interactions with romantic partners. In Study 1, we collected self-report data from 343 undergraduates and their romantic partners on social anxiety symptoms, perceived and expressed criticism, and upset due to criticism. One year later couples reported whether they were still in this relationship. Results showed that social anxiety was associated with being more critical of one’s partner, and among women, being more upset by criticism from a partner. Social anxiety was not related to perceived criticism, nor did criticism variables predict relationship status at Time 2. In Study 2, undergraduate couples with a partner high (n = 26) or low (n = 26) in social anxiety completed a 10-minute, video-recorded problem-solving task. Both partners rated their perceived and expressed criticism and upset due to criticism following the interaction, and observers coded interactions for criticism. Results indicated that social anxiety was not significantly related to any of the criticism variables, but post hoc analyses cast doubts upon the external validity of the problem-solving task. Results are discussed in light of known difficulties with intimacy among individuals with social anxiety.

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T12:57:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2016.11.002
  • Social Anxiety and Biased Recall of Positive Information: It's Not the
           Content, It's the Valence
    • Authors: Brianne L. Glazier; Lynn E. Alden
      Pages: 533 - 543
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 4
      Author(s): Brianne L. Glazier, Lynn E. Alden
      Cognitive theorists hypothesize that individuals with social anxiety are prone to memory biases such that event recall becomes more negative over time. With few exceptions, studies have focused primarily on changes in negative self-judgments. The current study examined whether memory for positive social events is also subject to recall bias. Undergraduate participants (N = 138) engaged in an unexpected public speaking task and received standardized positive or neutral feedback on their performance. They rated their memory of the received feedback following a 5-minute delay and again 1 week later. Results revealed that higher scores on social anxiety symptoms predicted significant reductions in the recalled valence of positive feedback over time, whereas no changes were observed for neutral feedback. The results suggest that social anxiety may lead to erosion in memory of positive events.

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T12:57:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2016.08.001
  • Prospective Investigation of the Contrast Avoidance Model of Generalized
           Anxiety and Worry
    • Authors: Tara A. Crouch; Jamie A. Lewis; Thane M. Erickson; Michelle G. Newman
      Pages: 544 - 556
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 4
      Author(s): Tara A. Crouch, Jamie A. Lewis, Thane M. Erickson, Michelle G. Newman
      The factors that maintain generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms and worry over time are not entirely clear. The Contrast Avoidance Model (CAM) postulates that individuals at risk for pathological worry and GAD symptoms uniquely fear emotional shifts from neutral or positive emotions into negative emotional states, and consequently use worry to maintain negative emotion in order to avoid shifts or blunt the effect of negative contrasts. This model has received support in laboratory experiments, but has not been investigated prospectively in the naturalistic context of daily life. The present study tested the CAM in a longitudinal experience sampling study with a subclinical sample. Participants selected to represent a broad range of symptoms (N = 92) completed baseline measures of GAD and depression symptoms, and eight weekly assessments of worry, experiences of negative emotional contrasts during their worst event of the week, and situation-specific negative emotion. Consistent with the CAM, GAD symptoms prospectively predicted higher endorsement of negative contrast experiences as worst events, independent of depression symptoms. Unsurprisingly, higher negative contrasts predicted higher negative emotion. However, both higher baseline GAD symptoms and weekly worry uniquely moderated (reduced) this relationship, providing consistent support for the idea that worry may blunt the emotional effects of contrasts. Depression symptoms did not have the same moderating effect. These findings support the CAM in an ecologically valid context.

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T12:57:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2016.10.001
  • Dialectical Behavior Therapy Group Skills Training for Bipolar Disorder
    • Authors: Lori Eisner; David Eddie; Rebecca Harley; Michelle Jacobo; Andrew A. Nierenberg; Thilo Deckersbach
      Pages: 557 - 566
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 4
      Author(s): Lori Eisner, David Eddie, Rebecca Harley, Michelle Jacobo, Andrew A. Nierenberg, Thilo Deckersbach
      There is growing evidence that the capacity for emotion regulation is compromised in individuals with bipolar disorder. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), an empirically supported treatment that specifically targets emotion dysregulation, may be an effective adjunct treatment for improving emotion regulation and residual mood symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. In this open, proof-of-concept pilot study, 37 participants engaged in a 12-week DBT group skills training program, learning mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance skills. Repeated measures mixed models revealed skill acquisition in the areas of mindfulness, emotion regulation and distress tolerance, as well as improved psychological well-being and decreased emotion reactivity. The results of this study support a burgeoning literature that DBT is a feasible adjunct intervention for patients with bipolar disorder.

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T12:57:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2016.12.006
  • Implementing Clinical Research Using Factorial Designs: A Primer
    • Authors: Timothy B. Baker; Stevens S. Smith; Daniel M. Bolt; Wei-Yin Loh; Robin Mermelstein; Michael C. Fiore; Megan E. Piper; Linda M. Collins
      Pages: 567 - 580
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 4
      Author(s): Timothy B. Baker, Stevens S. Smith, Daniel M. Bolt, Wei-Yin Loh, Robin Mermelstein, Michael C. Fiore, Megan E. Piper, Linda M. Collins
      Factorial experiments have rarely been used in the development or evaluation of clinical interventions. However, factorial designs offer advantages over randomized controlled trial designs, the latter being much more frequently used in such research. Factorial designs are highly efficient (permitting evaluation of multiple intervention components with good statistical power) and present the opportunity to detect interactions amongst intervention components. Such advantages have led methodologists to advocate for the greater use of factorial designs in research on clinical interventions (Collins, Dziak, & Li, 2009). However, researchers considering the use of such designs in clinical research face a series of choices that have consequential implications for the interpretability and value of the experimental results. These choices include: whether to use a factorial design, selection of the number and type of factors to include, how to address the compatibility of the different factors included, whether and how to avoid confounds between the type and number of interventions a participant receives, and how to interpret interactions. The use of factorial designs in clinical intervention research poses choices that differ from those typically considered in randomized clinical trial designs. However, the great information yield of the former encourages clinical researchers’ increased and careful execution of such designs.

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T12:57:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2016.12.005
  • Gender Difference in Attentional Bias Toward Negative and Positive Stimuli
           in Generalized Anxiety Disorder
    • Authors: Kerry L. Kinney; Joseph W. Boffa; Nader Amir
      Pages: 277 - 284
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 3
      Author(s): Kerry L. Kinney, Joseph W. Boffa, Nader Amir
      Females are two times as likely as males to develop generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; Steiner et al., 2005; Vesga-López et al., 2008). Moreover, the clinical presentation of GAD is different across genders. One explanation for these differences may be the role of cognitive biases involved in GAD between genders. In the present study, we used an exogenous spatial cueing task to examine gender differences in attentional bias for negative and positive information in 118 individuals with a primary diagnosis of GAD. Males and females did not differ in their attentional bias for idiographically selected negative or neutral words. However, women showed a significantly larger attentional bias for positive words than did men. Results suggest that developing gender-specific treatments for GAD could improve treatment response rates.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T09:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2016.06.002
  • The Role of Social Support in Cognitive-Behavioral Conjoint Therapy for
           Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    • Authors: Philippe Shnaider; Iris Sijercic; Sonya G. Wanklyn; Michael K. Suvak; Candice M. Monson
      Pages: 285 - 294
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 3
      Author(s): Philippe Shnaider, Iris Sijercic, Sonya G. Wanklyn, Michael K. Suvak, Candice M. Monson
      The current study examined the effect of total, as well as different sources (i.e., family, friends, significant other) of, pretreatment/baseline social support on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity and treatment response to cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy (CBCT) for PTSD. Thirty-six patients were randomized to receive treatment immediately or to a waitlist condition. Those in the treatment condition were offered CBCT for PTSD, a couple-based therapy aimed at reducing PTSD symptoms and improving relationship functioning. PTSD symptoms were assessed at pre-/baseline, mid-/4 weeks of waiting, and posttreatment/12 weeks of waiting using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, and patients self-reported on their levels of pretreatment/baseline social support using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Total support, as well as social support from family and friends, was not associated with initial PTSD severity or treatment response. However, there was a significant positive association between social support from a significant other and initial PTSD severity (g = .92). Additionally, significant other social support moderated treatment outcomes, such that higher initial significant other support was associated with larger decreases in PTSD severity for those in the treatment condition (g = -1.14) but not the waitlist condition (g = -.04). Social support from a significant other may influence PTSD treatment outcomes within couple therapy for PTSD. The inclusion of intimate partners and other family members may be a fruitful avenue for improving PTSD treatment outcomes; however, future studies are needed to examine whether support can be increased with treatment and whether those improvements lead to greater PTSD symptom response.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T09:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2016.05.003
  • Aggression Protects Against the Onset of Major Depressive Episodes in
           Individuals With Bipolar Spectrum Disorder
    • Authors: Tommy H. Ng; Rachel D. Freed; Madison K. Titone; Jonathan P. Stange; Rachel B. Weiss; Lyn Y. Abramson; Lauren B. Alloy
      Pages: 311 - 321
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 3
      Author(s): Tommy H. Ng, Rachel D. Freed, Madison K. Titone, Jonathan P. Stange, Rachel B. Weiss, Lyn Y. Abramson, Lauren B. Alloy
      A growing body of research suggests that bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) are associated with high aggression. However, little research has prospectively examined how aggression may affect time to onset of hypomanic/manic versus major depressive episodes. In a longitudinal study, we tested the hypothesis that aggression would prospectively predict a shorter time to the onset of hypomanic/manic episodes and a longer time to the onset of major depressive episodes, based on the behavioral approach system theory of BSDs. Young adults (N = 120) diagnosed with cyclothymia, bipolar II disorder, or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified were followed every 4 months for an average of 3.55 years. Participants completed measures of depressive and manic symptoms, family history of mood disorder, impulsivity, and aggression at baseline and were followed prospectively with semistructured diagnostic interview assessments of hypomanic/manic and major depressive episodes and treatment seeking for mood problems. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses indicated that overall, physical, and verbal aggression predicted a longer time to major depressive episode onset, even after controlling for baseline depressive and manic symptoms, family history of mood disorder, treatment seeking for mood problems, and impulsivity. Aggression, however, did not significantly predict time to onset of hypomanic/manic episodes, controlling for the same covariates. The findings suggest that approach-related behaviors may be utilized to delay the onset of major depressive episodes among people with BSDs.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T09:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2016.08.005
  • Daily Stress, Coping, and Negative and Positive Affect in Depression:
           Complex Trigger and Maintenance Patterns
    • Authors: David M. Dunkley; Maxim Lewkowski; Ihno A. Lee; Kristopher J. Preacher; David C. Zuroff; Jody-Lynn Berg; J. Elizabeth Foley; Gail Myhr; Ruta Westreich
      Pages: 349 - 365
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 3
      Author(s): David M. Dunkley, Maxim Lewkowski, Ihno A. Lee, Kristopher J. Preacher, David C. Zuroff, Jody-Lynn Berg, J. Elizabeth Foley, Gail Myhr, Ruta Westreich
      Major depressive disorder is characterized by emotional dysfunction, but mood states in daily life are not well understood. This study examined complex explanatory models of daily stress and coping mechanisms that trigger and maintain daily negative affect and (lower) positive affect in depression. Sixty-three depressed patients completed perfectionism measures, and then completed daily questionnaires of stress appraisals, coping, and affect for 7 consecutive days. Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) demonstrated that, across many stressors, when the typical individual with depression perceives more criticism than usual, he/she uses more avoidant coping and experiences higher event stress than usual, and this is connected to daily increases in negative affect as well as decreases in positive affect. In parallel, results showed that perceived control, less avoidant coping, and problem-focused coping commonly operate together when daily positive affect increases. MSEM also showed that avoidant coping tendencies and ongoing stress, in combination, explain why people with depression and higher self-critical perfectionism maintain daily negative affect and lower positive affect. These findings advance a richer and more detailed understanding of specific stress and coping patterns to target in order to more effectively accomplish the two predominant therapy goals of decreasing patients’ distress and strengthening resilience.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T09:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2016.06.001
  • Characterizing Interpersonal Difficulties Among Young Adults Who Engage in
           Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Using a Daily Diary
    • Authors: Brianna J. Turner; Matthew A. Wakefield; Kim L. Gratz; Alexander L. Chapman
      Pages: 366 - 379
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 3
      Author(s): Brianna J. Turner, Matthew A. Wakefield, Kim L. Gratz, Alexander L. Chapman
      Compared to people who have never engaged in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), people with a history of NSSI report multiple interpersonal problems. Theories propose that these interpersonal difficulties play a role in prompting and maintaining NSSI. The cross-sectional nature of most studies in this area limits our understanding of how day-to-day interpersonal experiences relate to the global interpersonal impairments observed among individuals with NSSI, and vice versa. This study compared young adults with (n =60) and without (n =56) recent, repeated NSSI on baseline and daily measures of interpersonal functioning during a 14-day daily diary study. Groups differed in baseline social anxiety, excessive reassurance seeking, and use of support seeking relative to other coping strategies, but did not differ in self-perceived interpersonal competence. In terms of day-to-day functioning, participants with (vs. without) NSSI had significantly less contact with their families and friends, perceived less support following interactions with friends, and were less likely to seek support to cope, regardless of level of negative affect. With the exception of contact with family members, these group differences in daily interpersonal functioning were accounted for by baseline levels of social anxiety and use of support seeking. Contrary to expectations, participants with NSSI had more frequent contact with their romantic partners, did not differ in perceptions of support in romantic relationships, and did not report more intense negative affect following negative interpersonal interactions. This study provides a novel test of recent interpersonal theories of NSSI using daily reports.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T09:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2016.07.001
  • Perfectionism and Contingent Self-Worth in Relation to Disordered Eating
           and Anxiety
    • Authors: Anna M. Bardone-Cone; Stacy L. Lin; Rachel M. Butler
      Pages: 380 - 390
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 3
      Author(s): Anna M. Bardone-Cone, Stacy L. Lin, Rachel M. Butler
      Perfectionism has been proposed as a transdiagnostic risk factor linked to eating disorders and anxiety. In the current study, we examine domains of contingent self-worth as potential moderators of the relationships between maladaptive perfectionism and disordered eating and anxiety using two waves of data collection. Undergraduate females (N = 237) completed online surveys of the study’s core constructs at two points separated by about 14 months. At a bivariate level, maladaptive perfectionism was positively associated with disordered eating and anxiety. Maladaptive perfectionism and both appearance and relationship contingent self-worth interacted to predict increases in disordered eating. Neither of the interactive models predicted change in anxiety. Findings highlight maladaptive perfectionism as a transdiagnostic construct related to both disordered eating and anxiety. Interactive findings suggest that targeting maladaptive perfectionism and contingent self-worth (appearance, relationship) in prevention and treatment efforts could mitigate risk for the development or increase of disordered eating.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T09:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2016.05.006
  • Internet-Based Extinction Therapy for Worry: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    • Authors: Erik Andersson; Erik Hedman; Olle Wadström; Julia Boberg; Emil Yaroslav Andersson; Erland Axelsson; Johan Bjureberg; Timo Hursti; Brjánn Ljótsson
      Pages: 391 - 402
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 3
      Author(s): Erik Andersson, Erik Hedman, Olle Wadström, Julia Boberg, Emil Yaroslav Andersson, Erland Axelsson, Johan Bjureberg, Timo Hursti, Brjánn Ljótsson
      Worry is a common phenotype in both psychiatric patients and the normal population. Worry can be seen as a covert behavior with primary function to avoid aversive emotional experiences. Our research group has developed a treatment protocol based on an operant model of worry, where we use exposure-based strategies to extinguish the catastrophic worry thoughts. The aim of this study was to test this treatment delivered via the Internet in a large-scale randomized controlled trial. We randomized 140 high-worriers (defined as > 56 on the Penn State Worry Questionnaire [PSWQ]) to either Internet-based extinction therapy (IbET) or to a waiting-list condition (WL). Results showed that IbET was superior to WL with an overall large between-group effect size of d = 1.39 (95% confidence interval [1.04,1.73]) on the PSWQ. In the IbET group, 58% were classified as responders. The corresponding figure for WL participants was 7%. IbET was also superior to the WL on secondary outcome measures of anxiety, depression, meta-cognitions, cognitive avoidance, and quality of life. Overall treatment results were maintained for the IbET group at 4- and 12-month follow-up. The results from this trial are encouraging as they indicate that worry can be targeted with an accessible and novel intervention for worry. Replication trials with active control group are needed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T09:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2016.07.003
  • Randomized Controlled Trial of a Computerized Interactive Media-Based
           Problem Solving Treatment for Depression
    • Authors: Luis R. Sandoval; Jay C. Buckey; Ricardo Ainslie; Martin Tombari; William Stone; Mark T. Hegel
      Pages: 413 - 425
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 3
      Author(s): Luis R. Sandoval, Jay C. Buckey, Ricardo Ainslie, Martin Tombari, William Stone, Mark T. Hegel
      This study evaluated the efficacy of an interactive media-based, computer-delivered depression treatment program (imbPST) compared to a no-treatment control condition (NTC) in a parallel-group, randomized, controlled trial conducted in an outpatient psychiatric research clinic. 45 adult participants with major depressive disorder or dysthymia were randomized to receive either 6 weekly sessions of imbPST or no treatment (No Treatment Control; NTC). The primary outcome measure was the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). There was a significant Group x Time interaction effect [F (1.73, 43)= 58.78; p<.001; η2=.58, Cohens d=1.94], such that the patients receiving imbPST had a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms compared to the patients in the NTC condition. Participants in the imbPST group improved their depression symptoms significantly from moderate (BDI-II=21.9±4.20) to mild levels of depression (BDI-II=17.9±4.0) after receiving 3 weekly sessions of imbPST (p<0.001), and progressed to still milder levels of depression after six weekly sessions (BDI-II=14.5±3.7, p<0.001). NTC participants showed no significant reduction in BDI-II scores (BDI-II=21.8±4.2 pre, BDI-II=21.5±5.2 post, N.S.). Additionally, 40% of the imbPST group showed a clinically significant and reliable change in depression levels while none of the NTC group met this criterion. imbPST participants rated the program highly usable on the system usability scale (SUS) after the first session (SUS Session 1=74.6±7.2) and usability scores increased significantly by the last session (SUS Session 6=85.4±5.6). We conclude that imbPST is an effective, engaging, and easily used depression treatment program that warrants further evaluation with heterogeneous depressed populations in a stand-alone, self-administered fashion.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T09:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2016.04.001
  • Economic Impact of 'Third-Wave' Cognitive Behavioral Therapies: A
           Systematic Review and Quality Assessment of Economic Evaluations in
           Randomized Controlled Trials
    • Authors: Albert Feliu-Soler; Ausiàs Cebolla; Lance M. McCracken; Francesco D’Amico; Martin Knapp; Alba López-Montoyo; Javier García-Campayo; Joaquim Soler; Rosa M. Baños; Adrián Pérez-Aranda; Laura Andrés-Rodriguez; María Rubio-Valera; Juan V. Luciano
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Albert Feliu-Soler, Ausiàs Cebolla, Lance M. McCracken, Francesco D’Amico, Martin Knapp, Alba López-Montoyo, Javier García-Campayo, Joaquim Soler, Rosa M. Baños, Adrián Pérez-Aranda, Laura Andrés-Rodriguez, María Rubio-Valera, Juan V. Luciano
      The term third-wave cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) encompasses new forms of CBT that both extend and innovate within CBT. Most third-wave therapies have been subject to RCTs focused on clinical effectiveness, however the number and quality of economic evaluations in these RCTs has been unknown and may be few. Evidence about efficiency of these therapies may help support decisions on efficient allocation of resources in health policies. The main aim of this study was to systematically review the economic impact of third-wave therapies in the treatment of patients with physical or mental conditions. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and CINALH to identify economic evaluations of third-wave therapies. Quality and Risk of Bias (RoB) assessment of economic evaluations was also made using the Drummond 35-item checklist and the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias, respectively. Eleven RCTs were included in this systematic review. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), and extended Behaviour Activation (eBA) showed acceptable cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratios. No study employed a time horizon of more than 3 years. Quality and RoB assessments highlight some limitations that temper the findings. There is some evidence that MBCT, MBSR, ACT, DBT, and eBA are efficient from a societal or a third-party payer perspective. No economic analysis was found for many third-wave therapies. Therefore, more economic evaluations with high methodological quality are needed.

      PubDate: 2017-07-09T12:46:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.07.001
  • A Meta-Analysis of Compassion-Based Interventions: Current State of
           Knowledge and Future Directions
    • Authors: James N. Kirby; Cassandra L. Tellegen; Stanley R. Steindl
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): James N. Kirby, Cassandra L. Tellegen, Stanley R. Steindl
      Objective Scientific research into compassion has burgeoned over the past 20 years and interventions aiming to cultivate compassion towards self and others have been developed. This meta-analysis examined the effects of compassion-based interventions on a range of outcome measures. Method Twenty-one randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from the last 12 years were included in the meta-analysis, with data from 1,285 participants analyzed. Effect sizes were standardized mean differences calculated using the difference in pre-post change in the treatment group and control group means, divided by the pooled pre-intervention standard deviation. Results Significant between group differences in change scores were found on self-report measures of compassion (d = 0.55, k = 4, 95% CI [0.33-0.78]), self-compassion (d = 0.70, k = 13, 95% CI [0.59-0.87]), mindfulness (d = 0.54, k = 6, 95% CI [0.38-0.71]), depression (d = 0.64, k = 9, 95% CI [0.45-0.82]), anxiety (d = 0.49, k = 9, 95% CI [0.30-0.68]), psychological distress (d = 0.47, k = 14, 95% CI [0.19-0.56]), and well-being (d = 0.51, k = 8, 95% CI [0.30-0.63]). These results remained when including active control comparisons. Evaluations of risk of bias across studies pointed towards a relative lack of publication bias and robustness of findings. However, the evidence-base underpinning compassion interventions relies predominantly on small sample sizes. Conclusions Future directions are provided for compassion research including, the need for improved methodological rigor, larger scale RCTs, increased specificity on the targets of compassion, and examination of compassion across the lifespan. Although further research is warranted, the current state of evidence highlights the potential benefits of compassion-based interventions on a range of outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-06-29T03:26:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.06.003
  • Comparing Children’s Memories for Negative Versus Positive Events in the
           Context of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms
    • Authors: Jemma Bray; Neil Brewer; Kate Cameron; Reginald D.V. Nixon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Jemma Bray, Neil Brewer, Kate Cameron, Reginald D.V. Nixon
      How well children remember negative events is not fully understood. Previous research has failed to simultaneously test memory and perceptions of memory for both negative and positive events. Children (n = 38, 7–17 years) recruited from a hospital following accidental injury were tested for their memory of an injury-producing accident (negative event) and a positive event (unexpectedly receiving a $50 gift voucher). Objective accuracy of memory, memory quality characteristics (e.g., how coherently the event was recalled), children’s judgments of their memory (meta-cognitive), and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms were assessed 2 months post-injury. Children’s memories for their experiences were verified using witness/parent reports. Memory quality characteristics of children’s free recollection were coded with a previously used standardized system. Overall, children showed high levels of accuracy for both events, with little degradation over time. High PTS children showed little evidence of deficits in coherence or organization in their narratives relative to low PTS children. Although in some instances high PTS children judged their memory quality to be poor compared to low PTS children, this depended on how this was assessed (e.g., self-report questionnaire vs. coded narratives). In terms of limitations, it is unclear whether the findings will generalize for memories of repeated events. Witness verification of the accident details itself could be prone to error. In conclusion, the findings are broadly supportive of the proposal made by theorists who argue that trauma memories are recalled no less accurately than other distinctive memories. The role of meta-cognitive elements of children’s memory and reporting in PTS is less clear.

      PubDate: 2017-06-29T03:26:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.03.006
  • Presidential Address: Are the Obsessive-Compulsive Related Disorders
           Related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder' A Critical Look at DSM-5's
           New Category
    • Authors: Jonathan S. Abramowitz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Jonathan S. Abramowitz
      The 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders includes a new class of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) that includes obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and a handful of other putatively related conditions. Although this new category promises to raise awareness of under-recognized and understudied problems, the empirical validity and practical utility of this new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) category is questionable. This article critically examines the arguments underlying the new OCRD class, illuminates a number of problems with this class, and then discusses implications for clinicians and researchers.

      PubDate: 2017-06-20T13:12:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.06.002
  • Exposure-based therapy for symptom preoccupation in atrial fibrillation:
           An uncontrolled pilot study
    • Authors: Josefin Särnholm; Helga Skúladóttir; Christian Rück; Susanne S. Pedersen; Frieder Braunschweig; Brjánn Ljótsson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Josefin Särnholm, Helga Skúladóttir, Christian Rück, Susanne S. Pedersen, Frieder Braunschweig, Brjánn Ljótsson
      Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Patients often experience a range of symptoms resulting in a markedly reduced quality of life, and commonly show symptom preoccupation in terms of avoidance and control behaviors. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to improve symptom burden and quality of life in other somatic disorders, but has never been evaluated in patients with AF. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy and feasibility of an AF-specific CBT protocol in an uncontrolled pilot study. The study included 19 patients with symptomatic paroxysmal (intermittent) atrial fibrillation who were assessed pre- and post-treatment and at six-month follow-up. The CBT lasted 10 weeks and included exposure to physical sensations similar to AF symptoms, exposure to avoided situations or activities, and behavioral activation. We observed large within-group improvements on the primary outcome AF-specific quality of life measurement AFEQT post-treatment (Cohen’s d =1.54; p <. 001) and at six-month follow-up (d =1.15; p <. 001). We also observed improvements in self-reported frequency and severity of AF symptoms. All participants completed the treatment and treatment satisfaction was high. This study demonstrates the potential efficacy and feasibility of a novel CBT approach to reduce symptoms and increase quality of life in AF patients.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T13:08:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.06.001
  • Long-term effectiveness of treatment-as-usual couple therapy for military
    • Authors: Kathryn M. Nowlan; Emily J. Georgia; Brian D. Doss
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Kathryn M. Nowlan, Emily J. Georgia, Brian D. Doss
      Despite the fact that veterans face increased psychological and relationship distress as a result of their service-related experiences, no study to date has explored long-term effectiveness of couple therapy for veterans. In the present investigation, 238 individuals (113 couples and 12 additional individuals) completed assessments 18 months after termination of treatment-as-usual couple therapy at two Veteran Administration Medical Centers. From pre-treatment to 18-month follow-up, couples experienced significant increases in relationship satisfaction (d = 0.59) and significant decreases in both psychological distress (d = -0.31) and presence of intimate partner violence (d = -0.47). Overall, pre-treatment demographic, psychological, and relationship characteristics did not significantly moderate maintenance of gains across 18 months. However, African American individuals (d = -0.58) and individuals not reporting intimate partner violence at pre-treatment (d = -0.46) experienced smaller improvements in relationship satisfaction through 18-month follow-up. Further, older participants showed smaller reductions in psychological symptoms 18 months after treatment (d = 0.16). Thus, for many veterans and their spouses, treatment-as-usual couple therapy is effective at intervening in psychological and relationship distress long-term. Moreover, the long-term effectiveness of couple therapy with veterans appears to generalize across many demographic, intra-, and interpersonal factors.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T12:59:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.05.007
  • Effectiveness of web- and mobile-based treatment of subthreshold
           depression with adherence-focused guidance. A single-blind randomised
           controlled trial
    • Authors: David Daniel Ebert; Claudia Buntrock; Dirk Lehr; Filip Smit; Heleen Riper; Harald Baumeister; Pim Cuijpers; Matthias Berking
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): David Daniel Ebert, Claudia Buntrock, Dirk Lehr, Filip Smit, Heleen Riper, Harald Baumeister, Pim Cuijpers, Matthias Berking
      Evidence for the impact of psychological Interventions for subthreshold depression (sD) is conflicting. Moreover, human resources to deliver such treatments are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based intervention with adherence-focused guidance in the treatment of sD. Participants with sD (CES-D≥ 16, no Major Depressive Disorder according to DSM-IV criteria, N=204) recruited via a large health insurance were randomly allocated to a web-based mobile-supported cognitive-behavioural intervention or to a waitlist control condition with unrestricted access to usual care. The primary outcome was the reduction in depressive symptom severity as measured by blind diagnostic raters using the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) at post-treatment. There was a statistically significant between-group difference in QIDS scores at post-treatment in favour of the intervention group [F(1,201)=11.31, p=.001] corresponding to a medium effect size of d=0.37 (95% CI 0.09-0.64) and a NNT of 7 (95%-CI 3.7–41.2). Significant effects in favour of the intervention group were also found for secondary outcomes such as quality of life, anxiety, and insomnia severity. Web-based self-help interventions with adherence-focused guidance could be an acceptable and effective approach to reduce a range of negative consequences associated with subclinical depression.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T12:42:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.05.004
  • PTSD Symptom Severity and Emotion Regulation Strategy Use during Trauma
           Cue Exposure among Patients with Substance Use Disorders: Associations
           with Negative Affect, Craving, and Cortisol Reactivity
    • Authors: Matthew T. Tull; Christopher R. Berghoff; Linnie E. Wheeless; Rivka T. Cohen; Kim L. Gratz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Matthew T. Tull, Christopher R. Berghoff, Linnie E. Wheeless, Rivka T. Cohen, Kim L. Gratz
      The co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) pathology with a substance use disorder (SUD) is associated with emotion regulation deficits. However, studies in this area generally rely on trait-based emotion regulation measures, and there is limited information on the relation of PTSD pathology to the use of specific emotion regulation strategies in response to trauma-related distress among SUD patients or the consequences of these strategies for trauma cue reactivity. This study examined the relation of PTSD symptom severity to the use of specific emotion regulation strategies during trauma cue exposure among trauma-exposed SUD patients, as well as the indirect relations of PTSD symptom severity to changes in negative affect, cravings, and cortisol levels pre- to post-trauma cue exposure through different emotion regulation strategies. Participants were 133 trauma-exposed SUD patients. Participants listened to a personalized trauma script and reported on emotion regulation strategies used during the script. Data on negative affect, cravings, and cortisol were collected pre- and post-script. PTSD symptom severity related positively to the use of more adaptive (e.g., distraction) and maladaptive (e.g., suppression) regulation strategies. Moreover, evidence for the indirect effects of PTSD symptom severity on negative affect and cortisol reactivity through both adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies was found. Implications of findings are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T12:42:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.05.005
  • Benchmarking Treatment Response in Tourette’s Disorder: A Psychometric
           Evaluation and Signal Detection Analysis of the Parent Tic Questionnaire
    • Authors: Emily J. Ricketts; Joseph F. McGuire; Susanna Chang; Deepika Bose; Madeline M. Rasch; Douglas W. Woods; Matthew W. Specht; John T. Walkup; Lawrence Scahill; Sabine Wilhelm; Alan L. Peterson; John Piacentini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Emily J. Ricketts, Joseph F. McGuire, Susanna Chang, Deepika Bose, Madeline M. Rasch, Douglas W. Woods, Matthew W. Specht, John T. Walkup, Lawrence Scahill, Sabine Wilhelm, Alan L. Peterson, John Piacentini
      This study assessed the psychometric properties of a parent-reported tic severity measure, the Parent Tic Questionnaire (PTQ), and used the scale to establish guidelines for delineating clinically significant tic treatment response. Participants were 126 children ages 9 to 17 who participated in a randomized controlled trial of Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT). Tic severity was assessed using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), Hopkins Motor/Vocal Tic Scale (HMVTS) and PTQ; positive treatment response was defined by a score of 1 (‘very much improved’) or 2 (‘much improved’) on the Clinical Global Impressions – Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlations (ICC) assessed internal consistency and test-retest reliability, with correlations evaluating validity. Receiver- and Quality-Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses assessed the efficiency of percent and raw-reduction cutoffs associated with positive treatment response. The PTQ demonstrated good internal consistency (α = 0.80 to 0.86), excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = .84 to .89), good convergent validity with the YGTSS and HM/VTS, and good discriminant validity from hyperactive, obsessive-compulsive, and externalizing (i.e., aggression and rule-breaking) symptoms. A 55% reduction and 10-point decrease in PTQ Total score were optimal for defining positive treatment response. Findings help standardize tic assessment and provide clinicians with greater clarity in determining clinically meaningful tic symptom change during treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T12:42:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.05.006
  • Honoring the Past, Envisioning the Future: ABCT’s 50th Anniversary
           Presidential Address
    • Authors: Michelle G. Craske
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Michelle G. Craske
      The theme of our Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapy (ABCT) 50th Anniversary was to honor the past and envision the future. From the wisdom, foresight, and determination of the pioneers of our organization, and the continuous upholding of the scientific method over the last fifty years, cognitive behavioral Therapy (CBT) has become the most empirically supported psychological treatment for a wide array of mental health problems. Yet, we still have a long way to go. This address outlines a vision for the future of CBT, which involves greater collaborative science, with all minds working together on the same problem, and greater attention to the risk factors and critical processes that underlie psychopathology and explain treatment change. Such knowledge generation can inform the development of new, more efficient and more effective therapies that are tailored with more precision to the needs of each person. Latest technologies provide tools for a precision focus while at the same time increasing the reach of our treatments to the many for whom traditional therapies are unavailable. Our impact will be greatly enhanced by large samples with common methods and measures that inform a precision approach. We have come a long way since ABCT was founded in 1966, and we are poised to make even larger strides in our mission to enhance health and well-being by harnessing science, our major guiding principle.

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T12:39:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.05.003
  • Multi-Informant Assessments of Adolescent Social Anxiety: Adding Clarity
           by Leveraging Reports from Unfamiliar Peer Confederates
    • Authors: Danielle E. Deros; Sarah J. Racz; Melanie F. Lipton; Tara M. Augenstein; Jeremy N. Karp; Lauren M. Keeley; Noor Qasmieh; Brigitte I. Grewe; Amelia Aldao; Andres De Los Reyes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Danielle E. Deros, Sarah J. Racz, Melanie F. Lipton, Tara M. Augenstein, Jeremy N. Karp, Lauren M. Keeley, Noor Qasmieh, Brigitte I. Grewe, Amelia Aldao, Andres De Los Reyes
      Adolescent social anxiety (SA) assessments often include adolescent and parent reports, and low reporting correspondence results in uncertainties in clinical decision-making. Adolescents display SA within non-home contexts such as peer interactions. Yet, current methods for collecting peer reports raise confidentiality concerns, though adolescent SA assessments nonetheless would benefit from context-specific reports relevant to adolescent SA (i.e., interactions with unfamiliar peers). In a sample of 89 adolescents (30 Evaluation-Seeking; 59 Community Control), we collected SA reports from adolescents and their parents, and SA reports from unfamiliar peer confederates who interacted with adolescents during 20-minute mock social interactions. Adolescents and parents completed reports on trait measures of adolescent SA and related concerns (e.g., depressive symptoms), and adolescents completed self-reports of state arousal within mock social interactions. Adolescents’ SA reports correlated with reports on parallel measures from parents in the .30s and with peer confederates in the .40s-to-.50s, whereas reports from parent-confederate dyads correlated in the .07-to-.22 range. Adolescent, parent, and peer confederate SA reports related to reports on trait measures of adolescent SA and depressive symptoms, and distinguished Evaluation-Seeking from Community Control Adolescents. Confederates’ SA reports incrementally predicted adolescents' self-reported SA over-and-above parent reports, and vice versa, with combined Rs ranging from.51-.60. These combined Rs approximate typical correspondence levels between informants who observe adolescents in the same context (e.g., mother-father). Adolescent and peer confederate (but not parent) SA reports predicted adolescents' state arousal in social interactions. These findings have implications for clarifying patterns of reporting correspondence in clinical assessments of adolescent SA.

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T12:39:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.05.001
  • Childhood ADHD and Negative Self-Statements: Important Differences
           Associated with Subtype and Anxiety Symptoms
    • Authors: Peter J. Castagna; Matthew Calamia; Thompson E. Davis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Peter J. Castagna, Matthew Calamia, Thompson E. Davis
      The current study examined the role negative self-statements have on the comorbidity between anxious symptomatology and ADHD-combined presentation (ADHD-C) and ADHD-predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I). A total of 114 children and adolescents with ADHD (M age = 10.15; SD = 2.30; range = 7-16) from a clinic-referred sample were grouped based on a semistructured diagnostic interview and consensus approach (ADHD-C, n = 62; ADHD-I, n = 52). Negative self-statements were measured using the Children’s Automatic Thoughts Scale and the total score from the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children was used to measure anxious symptomatology. Findings indicated youth diagnosed with ADHD-C, compared to those diagnosed with ADHD-I, had more frequent personal failure (Cohen's d =.40) and hostile intent negative self-statements (Cohen's d =.47). The association of ADHD subtype and negative self-statements was moderated by anxiety; negative self-statements of personal failure were highest in anxious ADHD-C children (β =.31). A second sample of 137 children and adolescents (M age = 10.61; SD = 2.26; range = 7-16) from a larger clinic referred sample was utilized to replicate our results dimensionally. Results indicated that both hyperactivity/impulsivity (β = .23, p < .01) and the interaction of hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety (β = .17, p < .05) were significant predictors of negative self-statements regarding personal failure, while holding child age, child gender, oppositional symptoms, and inattention constant. In all, negative self-statements should be considered in the treatment and assessment of ADHD with particular attention paid to ADHD subtype and internalizing comorbidity.

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T12:39:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.05.002
  • Efficacy of Guided iCBT for Depression and Mediation of Change by
           Cognitive Skill Acquisition
    • Authors: Nicholas R. Forand; Jeffrey G. Barnett; Daniel R. Strunk; Mohammed U. Hindiyeh; Jason E. Feinberg; John R. Keefe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 May 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Nicholas R. Forand, Jeffrey G. Barnett, Daniel R. Strunk, Mohammed U. Hindiyeh, Jason E. Feinberg, John R. Keefe
      Guided internet CBT (iCBT) is a promising treatment for depression; however, it is less well known through what mechanisms iCBT works. Two possible mediators of change are the acquisition of cognitive skills and increases in behavioral activation. We report results of an 8-week waitlist controlled trial of guided iCBT, and test whether early change in cognitive skills or behavioral activation mediated subsequent change in depression. The sample was 89 individuals randomized to guided iCBT (n = 59) or waitlist (n = 30). Participants were 75% female, 72% Caucasian, and 33 years old on average. The PHQ9 was the primary outcome measure. Mediators were the Competencies of Cognitive Therapy Scale-Self Report and the Behavioral Activation Scale for Depression-Short Form. Treatment was Beating the Blues plus manualized coaching. Outcomes were analyzed using linear mixed models, and mediation with a bootstrap resampling approach. The iCBT group was superior to waitlist, with large effect sizes at post-treatment (Hedge’s g = 1.45). Dropout of iCBT was 29% versus 10% for waitlist. In the mediation analyses, the acquisition of cognitive skills mediated subsequent depression change (indirect effect = -.61, 95% bootstrapped biased corrected CI: -1.47, -0.09), but increases in behavioral activation did not. iCBT is an effective treatment for depression, but dropout rates remain high. Change in iCBT appears to be mediated by improvements in the use of cognitive skills, such as critically evaluating and restructuring negative thoughts.

      PubDate: 2017-05-01T09:27:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.04.004
  • Effects of Bias Modification Training in Binge Eating Disorder
    • Authors: Florian Schmitz; Jennifer Svaldi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Florian Schmitz, Jennifer Svaldi
      Food-related attentional biases have been identified as maintaining factors in binge eating disorder (BED) as they can trigger a binge episode. Bias modification training may reduce symptoms, as it has been shown to be successful in other appetitive disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and modify food-related biases in BED. It was tested whether biases could be increased and decreased by means of a modified dot-probe paradigm, how long such bias modification persisted, and whether this affected subjective food craving. Participants were randomly assigned to a bias enhancement (attend to food stimulus) group or to a bias reduction (avoid food stimulus) group. Food-related attentional bias was found to be successfully reduced in the bias-reduction group, and effects persisted briefly. Additionally, subjective craving for food was influenced by the intervention, and possible mechanisms are discussed. Given these promising initial results, future research should investigate boundary conditions of the experimental intervention to understand how it could complement treatment of BED.

      PubDate: 2017-05-01T09:27:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.04.003
  • Mental imagery training increases wanting of rewards and reward
           sensitivity and reduces depressive symptoms
    • Authors: Julia Linke; Michèle Wessa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Julia Linke, Michèle Wessa
      High reward sensitivity and wanting of rewarding stimuli help to identify and motivate repetition of pleasant activities. This behavioral activation is thought to increase positive emotions. Therefore, both mechanisms are highly relevant for resilience against depressive symptoms. Yet, these mechanisms have not been targeted by psychotherapeutic interventions. In the present study, we tested a mental imagery training comprising eight 10-minute sessions every second day and delivered via the Internet to healthy volunteers (N=30, 21 female, mean age of 23.8 years, caucasian) who were pre-selected for low reward sensitivity. Participants were paired according to age, sex, reward sensitivity, and mental imagery ability. Then, members of each pair were randomly assigned to either the intervention or wait condition. Ratings of wanting and response bias toward probabilistic reward cues (Probabilistic Reward Task) served as primary outcomes. We further tested whether training effects extended to approach behavior (Approach Avoidance Task) and depressive symptoms (Becks Depression Inventory). The intervention led to an increase in wanting (p < .001, η 2 p = .45) and reward sensitivity (p = .004, η 2 p = .27). Further, the training group displayed faster approach toward positive edibles and activities (p = .025, η 2 p = .18) and reductions in depressive symptoms (p = .028, η 2 p = .16). Results extend existing literature by showing that mental imagery training can increase wanting of rewarding stimuli and reward sensitivity. Further, the training appears to reduce depressive symptoms and thus may foster the successful implementation of exsiting treatments for depression such as behavioral activation and could also increase resilience against depressive symptoms.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T09:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.04.002
  • Mechanisms of change during attention training and mindfulness in high
           trait anxious individuals: A randomized controlled study
    • Authors: Peter M. McEvoy; Rachel Graville; Sarra Hayes; Robert T. Kane; Jonathan K. Foster
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Peter M. McEvoy, Rachel Graville, Sarra Hayes, Robert T. Kane, Jonathan K. Foster
      The first aim of this study was to compare attention manipulation techniques deriving from metacognitive therapy (the Attention Training Technique, ATT) and mindfulness-based approaches (Mindfulness-Based Progressive Muscle Relaxation, MB-PMR) to a thought wandering control (TWC) condition, in terms of their impact on anxiety and four mechanisms: distancing, present-focused attention, uncontrollability and dangerousness metacognitive beliefs, and cognitive flexibility (Stroop task). The second aim was to test indirect effects of the techniques on anxiety via the mechanism measures. High trait anxious participants (N = 81, M age = 23.60, SD age = 7.66, 80% female) were randomized to receive ATT, MB-PMR or the TWC condition. Measures of cognitive and somatic anxiety, distancing, present-focused attention, metacognitive beliefs, and cognitive flexibility were administered before or after the attention manipulation task. Compared to the TWC group, ATT and MB-PMR were associated with greater changes on cognitive (but not somatic) anxiety, present-focused attention, metacognitive beliefs, and uncorrected errors for threat-related words on the Stroop task. The pattern of means was similar for distancing, but this did not reach statistical significance, and Stroop speed increased equally for all conditions. Indirect effects models revealed significant effects of condition on state anxiety via distancing, metacognitive beliefs, and present-focused attention, but not via Stroop errors. ATT and MB-PMR were associated with changes on anxiety and the mechanism measures, suggesting that the mechanisms of change may be more similar than different across these techniques.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T09:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.04.001
  • Results of a Pilot Study to Ameliorate Psychological and Behavioral
           Outcomes of Minority Stress among Young Gay and Bisexual Men
    • Authors: Nathan Grant Smith; Trevor A. Hart; Ammaar Kidwai; Julia Vernon; Martin Blais; Barry Adam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Nathan Grant Smith, Trevor A. Hart, Ammaar Kidwai, Julia Vernon, Martin Blais, Barry Adam
      Project PRIDE (Promoting Resilience In Discriminatory Environments) is an eight-session small group intervention aimed at reducing negative mental and behavioral health outcomes resulting from minority stress. This study reports the results of a one-armed pilot test of Project PRIDE, which aimed to examine the feasibility and potential for efficacy of the intervention in a sample of 33 gay and bisexual men aged 18 to 25. The intervention appeared feasible to administer in two different sites and all participants who completed post-treatment (n = 22) or follow-up (n = 19) assessments reported high satisfaction with the intervention. Small to large effect sizes were observed for increases in self-esteem; small effect sizes were found for decreases in loneliness and decreases in minority stress variables; and small and medium effect sizes were found for reductions in alcohol use and number of sex partners, respectively. Overall, Project PRIDE appears to be a feasible intervention with promise of efficacy.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T09:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.03.005
  • The Effects of Training Contingency Awareness during Attention Bias
           Modification on Learning and Stress Reactivity
    • Authors: Amit Lazarov; Rany Abend; Shiran Seidner; Daniel S. Pine; Yair Bar-Haim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Amit Lazarov, Rany Abend, Shiran Seidner, Daniel S. Pine, Yair Bar-Haim
      Current attention bias modification (ABM) procedures are designed to implicitly train attention away from threatening stimuli with the hope of reducing stress reactivity and anxiety symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying effective ABM delivery are not well understood, with awareness of the training contingency suggested as one possible factor contributing to ABM efficacy. Here, 45 high-anxious participants were trained to divert attention away from threat in two ABM sessions. They were randomly assigned to one of three training protocols: an implicit protocol, comprised of two standard implicit ABM training sessions; an explicit protocol, comprised of two sessions with explicit instruction as to the attention training contingency; and an implicit-explicit protocol, in which participants were not informed of the training contingency in the first ABM session and informed of it at the start of the second session. We examined learning processes and stress reactivity following a stress-induction task. Results indicate that relative to implicit instructions, explicit instructions led to stronger learning during the first training session. Following rest, the explicit and implicit groups exhibited consolidation-related improvement in performance whereas no such improvement was noted for the implicit-explicit group. Finally, although stress reactivity was reduced after training, contingency awareness did not yield a differential effect on stress reactivity measured using both self-reports and skin conductance, within and across sessions. These results suggest that explicit ABM administration leads to greater initial learning during the training protocol while not differing from standard implicit administration in terms of offline learning and stress reactivity.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:04:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.03.002
  • Effects of Tailored and ACT-Influenced Internet-based CBT for Eating
           Disorders and the Relation between Knowledge Acquisition and Outcome: A
           Randomized Controlled Trial
    • Authors: Sandra Weineland Strandskov; Ata Ghaderi; Hedvig Andersson; Nicole Parmskog; Emelie Hjort; Anna Svanberg Wärn; Maria Jannert; Gerhard Andersson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Sandra Weineland Strandskov, Ata Ghaderi, Hedvig Andersson, Nicole Parmskog, Emelie Hjort, Anna Svanberg Wärn, Maria Jannert, Gerhard Andersson
      Objectives This is the first trial to investigate the outcome of tailored and ACT-influenced, cognitive behavioral Internet treatment for eating disorder psychopathology, and the relation between knowledge acquisition and outcome. Design Randomized controlled design, with computer-based allocation to treatment or waiting list control group. Participants Participants were recruited via advertisements in social media and newspapers in Sweden. Participants fulfilling the criteria for bulimia nervosa (BN), or Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), with a BMI above 17.5, were enrolled in the study (N = 92). Intervention The treatment group received an Internet-based, ACT-influenced CBT intervention, developed by the authors, for eating disorders. The treatment lasted eight weeks, and was adapted to the participant's individual needs. A clinician provided support. Main outcome measures Eating disorder symptoms and body shape dissatisfaction. Results Intent-to-treat analysis showed that the treatment group (n = 46) improved significantly on eating disorder symptoms and body dissatisfaction, compared with the waiting list control group (n = 46), with small to moderate effect sizes (between group effects, d = 0.35-0.64). More than a third of the participants in the treatment group (36.6%), compared to 7.1% in the waiting list control condition, made clinically significant improvements. Results showed a significant increase in knowledge in the treatment group compared to the waiting list control group (between group effect, d = 1.12), but we found no significant correlations between knowledge acquisition and outcome (r = -0.27 to – r = 0.23). Conclusion The results provide preliminary support for Internet based, tailored, and ACT-influenced treatment, based on CBT for participants with eating disorder psychopathology. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT02700620.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T02:45:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.02.002
  • Trait Affect, Emotion Regulation, and the Generation of Negative and
           Positive Interpersonal Events
    • Authors: Jessica L. Hamilton; Taylor A. Burke; Jonathan P. Stange; Evan M. Kleiman; Liza M. Rubenstein; Kate A. Scopelliti; Lyn Y. Abramson; Lauren B. Alloy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Jessica L. Hamilton, Taylor A. Burke, Jonathan P. Stange, Evan M. Kleiman, Liza M. Rubenstein, Kate A. Scopelliti, Lyn Y. Abramson, Lauren B. Alloy
      Positive and negative trait affect and emotion regulatory strategies have received considerable attention in the literature as predictors of psychopathology. However, it remains unclear whether individuals’ trait affect is associated with responses to state positive affect (positive rumination and dampening) or negative affect (ruminative brooding), or whether these affective experiences contribute to negative or positive interpersonal event generation. Among 304 late adolescents, path analyses indicated that individuals with higher trait negative affect utilized dampening and brooding rumination responses, whereas those with higher trait positive affect engaged in rumination on positive affect. Further, there were indirect relationships between trait negative affect and fewer positive and negative interpersonal events via dampening, and between trait positive affect and greater positive and negative interpersonal events via positive rumination. These findings suggest that individuals’ trait negative and positive affect may be associated with increased utilization of emotion regulation strategies for managing these affects, which may contribute to the occurrence of positive and negative events in interpersonal relationships.

      PubDate: 2017-02-10T13:07:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.01.006
  • To Do or Not to Do' Task Control Deficit in Obsessive-Compulsive
    • Authors: Eyal Kalanthroff; Avishai Henik; Helen Blair Simpson; Doron Todder; Gideon E. Anholt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Eyal Kalanthroff, Avishai Henik, Helen Blair Simpson, Doron Todder, Gideon E. Anholt
      Task control is an executive control mechanism that facilitates goal-directed task selection by suppressing irrelevant automatic “stimulus-driven” behaviors. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that less efficient task control in individuals diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with OCD symptoms, and specifically, with the inability to inhibit unwanted behaviors in OCD. Thirty-five healthy controls, thirty participants with OCD, and twenty-six participants with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) completed the object-interference (OI) task to measure task control, the stop-signal task to measure response inhibition, and the arrow-flanker task to evaluate executive abilities not contingent upon task control. OCD patients, but not GAD patients or healthy controls, exhibited impaired performance on the OI task. The deficit in task control, but not in response inhibition, correlated with OCD symptom severity. We suggest that reduced task control may be one of the neurocognitive processes that underlie the inability to inhibit unwanted behaviors in OCD.

      PubDate: 2017-01-27T18:06:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.01.004
  • The role of threat level and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) in anxiety:
           An experimental test of IU theory
    • Authors: Mary E. Oglesby; Norman B. Schmidt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Mary E. Oglesby, Norman B. Schmidt
      Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been proposed as an important transdiagnostic variable within mood- and anxiety-related disorders. The extant literature has suggested that individuals high in IU interpret uncertainty more negatively. Furthermore, theoretical models of IU posit that those elevated in IU may experience an uncertain threat as more anxiety-provoking than a certain threat. However, no research to date has experimentally manipulated the certainty of an impending threat while utilizing an in vivo stressor. In the current study, undergraduate participants (N = 79) were randomized to one of two conditions: certain threat (participants were told that later on in the study they would give a 3-minute speech) or uncertain threat (participants were told that later on in the study they would flip a coin to determine whether or not they would give a 3-minute speech). Participants also completed self-report questionnaires measuring their baseline state anxiety, baseline trait IU, and pre-speech state anxiety. Results indicated that trait IU was associated with greater state anticipatory anxiety when the prospect of giving a speech was made uncertain (i.e., uncertain condition). Further, findings indicated no significant difference in anticipatory state anxiety among individuals high in IU when comparing an uncertain versus certain threat (i.e., uncertain and certain threat conditions, respectively). Furthermore, results found no significant interaction between condition and trait IU when predicting state anticipatory anxiety. This investigation is the first to test a crucial component of IU theory while utilizing an ecologically valid paradigm. Results of the present study are discussed in terms of theoretical models of IU and directions for future work.

      PubDate: 2017-01-27T18:06:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.01.005
  • The Role of Patient Characteristics in the Concordance of Daily and
           Retrospective Reports of PTSD
    • Authors: Sarah B. Campbell; Marketa Krenek; Tracy L. Simpson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Sarah B. Campbell, Marketa Krenek, Tracy L. Simpson
      Research has documented discrepancies between daily and retrospective reports of psychological symptoms in a variety of conditions. A limited number of studies have assessed these discrepancies in samples of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with even less research addressing potential covariates that may influence such discrepancies. In the current study, 65 individuals with co-occurring PTSD and alcohol use disorder (AUD) completed daily assessments of their PTSD symptoms for one month, followed by a standard retrospective report of PTSD over the same month. Initial analyses explored the mean levels of daily and retrospective PTSD symptoms, while multilevel models assessed the level of agreement between daily and retrospective reports and the role of demographic variables and comorbid psychopathology (e.g., depression) or substance use (e.g., alcohol use) in moderating the association of daily and retrospective reports. Results showed that retrospective reports of arousal and avoidance symptoms were weakly related to daily reports of these symptoms, while reports of re-experiencing and numbing symptoms showed better agreement. Intra-individual alcohol consumption also moderated associations of re-experiencing and avoidance symptoms, such that on days individuals drank more, their daily reports resembled their retrospective reports less well. Future research should explore the degree to which these results generalize to non-dually-diagnosed samples, as well as the role such reporting discrepancies may play in PTSD treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-01-20T06:44:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.01.003
  • Mobile phone-based mood ratings prospectively predict psychotherapy
    • Authors: Emma Bruehlman-Senecal; Adrian Aguilera; Stephen M. Schueller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Emma Bruehlman-Senecal, Adrian Aguilera, Stephen M. Schueller
      Objective Psychotherapy non-attendance is a costly and pervasive problem. While prior research has identified stable patient-level predictors of attendance, far less is known about dynamic (i.e., time-varying) factors. Identifying dynamic predictors can clarify how clinical states relate to psychotherapy attendance and inform effective “just-in-time” interventions to promote attendance. The present study examines whether daily mood, as measured by responses to automated mobile phone-based text messages, prospectively predicts attendance in group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Method Fifty-six Spanish-speaking Latino patients with elevated depressive symptoms (46 women, mean age = 50.92 years, SD = 10.90 years), enrolled in a manualized program of group CBT, received daily automated mood-monitoring text messages. Patients’ daily mood ratings, message response rate, and delay in responding were recorded. Results Patients’ self-reported mood the day prior to a scheduled psychotherapy session significantly predicted attendance, even after controlling for patients’ prior attendance history and age (OR = 1.33, 95% CI [1.04, 1.70], p = .02). Positive mood corresponded to a greater likelihood of attendance. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the clinical utility of automated mood-monitoring text messages in predicting attendance. These results underscore the value of text messaging, and other mobile technologies, as adjuncts to psychotherapy. Future work should explore the use of such monitoring to guide interventions to increase attendance, and ultimately the efficacy of psychotherapy.

      PubDate: 2017-01-12T21:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.01.002
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