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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 882 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 413)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 187)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 226)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 143)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Escritos de Psicología : Psychological Writings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover Behavior Therapy
  [SJR: 1.929]   [H-I: 80]   [49 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0005-7894
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3048 journals]
  • Emotion Regulation Protects Against Recurrence of Depressive Symptoms
           Following Inpatient Care for Major Depressive Disorder
    • Authors: David D. Ebert; Lisa Hopfinger; Claudi L.H. Bockting; Matthias Berking
      Pages: 739 - 749
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 6
      Author(s): David D. Ebert, Lisa Hopfinger, Claudi L.H. Bockting, Matthias Berking
      Relapse following response in psychotherapy for major depressive disorder (MDD) is a major concern. Emotion regulation (ER) has been discussed as a putative emerging and maintaining factor for depression. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether ER protects against recurrence of depression over and above residual symptoms of depression following inpatient care for MDD. ER skills (ERSQ-ES) and depression (HEALTH-49) were assessed in 193 patients with MDD (age, M = 47.4, SD = 9.6, 75.1% female, 100% Caucasian) at treatment discontinuation, 3 and 12 months after treatment. Multiple hierarchical regressions were used to examine general and specific ER as predictors of depressive symptoms at follow-ups. Higher general ER predicted lower depression over and beyond residual symptoms of depression at 3-month follow-up among treatment responders but not among treatment nonresponders. With regard to specific ER skills, readiness to confront and acceptance of undesired emotions predicted lower depressive symptoms beyond residual symptoms of depression 12 months, respectively 3 and 12 months after treatment. Findings of the present study indicate that targeting general ER might be more important for remitted and less important for nonremitted patients. Enhancing ER should hence be realized in a sequential treatment design, in which a continuation phase treatment with a specific focus on ER directly follows, once patients sufficiently responded to treatment. Acceptance of undesired emotion and readiness to confront situations that cue these emotions appear to be particularly important for protecting against recurrence of depression. Future research should clarify whether findings can be generalized to outpatient care.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:35:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.03.003
  • Emotion Regulation in Borderline Personality Disorder: An Experimental
           Investigation of the Effects of Instructed Acceptance and Suppression
    • Authors: Katherine L. Dixon-Gordon; Brianna J. Turner; M. Zachary Rosenthal; Alexander L. Chapman
      Pages: 750 - 764
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 6
      Author(s): Katherine L. Dixon-Gordon, Brianna J. Turner, M. Zachary Rosenthal, Alexander L. Chapman
      Difficulties with emotion regulation are central to borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recent research suggests that avoidance of emotions in general, and emotion suppression specifically, may be commonly used among those who meet criteria for the disorder. Contemporary behavioral interventions for BPD incorporate cognitive and behavioral skills to increase emotional experiencing and acceptance while decreasing behaviors that function to escape or avoid from emotions. Few studies, however, have experimentally examined the effects of instructed emotion suppression and acceptance in BPD. The present study examined the effects of instructed use of different emotion regulation strategies on emotions, psychophysiology, and behavior in BPD. Participants with BPD, major depressive disorder (MDD), and nonpsychiatric controls (N = 193) were randomly assigned to either suppress or accept emotions during an audio recording of a social rejection scenario, and completed a behavioral measure of distress tolerance. BPD participants exhibited greater heart rate variability in the acceptance (vs. suppression) condition; this pattern was not evident within the other groups. These results suggest that deliberate use of acceptance-based emotion regulation strategies may have unique physiological effects among individuals with BPD.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:35:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.03.001
  • A Meta-Analysis of Compassion-Based Interventions: Current State of
           Knowledge and Future Directions
    • Authors: James N. Kirby; Cassandra L. Tellegen; Stanley R. Steindl
      Pages: 778 - 792
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 6
      Author(s): James N. Kirby, Cassandra L. Tellegen, Stanley R. Steindl
      Objective Scientific research into compassion has burgeoned over the past 20 years and interventions aiming to cultivate compassion towards self and others have been developed. This meta-analysis examined the effects of compassion-based interventions on a range of outcome measures. Method Twenty-one randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from the last 12 years were included in the meta-analysis, with data from 1,285 participants analyzed. Effect sizes were standardized mean differences calculated using the difference in pre-post change in the treatment group and control group means, divided by the pooled pre-intervention standard deviation. Results Significant between-group differences in change scores were found on self-report measures of compassion (d = 0.55, k = 4, 95% CI [0.33-0.78]), self-compassion (d = 0.70, k = 13, 95% CI [0.59-0.87]), mindfulness (d = 0.54, k = 6, 95% CI [0.38-0.71]), depression (d = 0.64, k = 9, 95% CI [0.45-0.82]), anxiety (d = 0.49, k = 9, 95% CI [0.30-0.68]), psychological distress (d = 0.47, k = 14, 95% CI [0.19-0.56]), and well-being (d = 0.51, k = 8, 95% CI [0.30-0.63]). These results remained when including active control comparisons. Evaluations of risk of bias across studies pointed towards a relative lack of publication bias and robustness of findings. However, the evidence base underpinning compassion interventions relies predominantly on small sample sizes. Conclusions Future directions are provided for compassion research, including the need for improved methodological rigor, larger scale RCTs, increased specificity on the targets of compassion, and examination of compassion across the lifespan. Although further research is warranted, the current state of evidence highlights the potential benefits of compassion-based interventions on a range of outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:35:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.06.003
  • Childhood ADHD and Negative Self-Statements: Important Differences
           Associated With Subtype and Anxiety Symptoms
    • Authors: Peter J. Castagna; Matthew Calamia; Thompson E. Davis
      Pages: 793 - 807
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 6
      Author(s): Peter J. Castagna, Matthew Calamia, Thompson E. Davis
      The current study examined the role negative self-statements have on the comorbidity between anxious symptomatology and ADHD-combined presentation (ADHD-C) and ADHD-predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I). A total of 114 children and adolescents with ADHD (M age = 10.15; SD = 2.30; range = 7–16) from a clinic-referred sample were grouped based on a semistructured diagnostic interview and consensus approach (ADHD-C, n = 62; ADHD-I, n = 52). Negative self-statements were measured using the Children’s Automatic Thoughts Scale and the total score from the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children was used to measure anxious symptomatology. Findings indicated youth diagnosed with ADHD-C, compared to those diagnosed with ADHD-I, had more frequent personal failure (Cohen’s d =.40) and hostile intent negative self-statements (Cohen’s d =.47). The association of ADHD subtype and negative self-statements was moderated by anxiety; negative self-statements of personal failure were highest in anxious ADHD-C children (β =.31). A second sample of 137 children and adolescents (M age = 10.61; SD = 2.26; range = 7–16) from a larger clinic-referred sample was utilized to replicate our results dimensionally. Results indicated that both hyperactivity/impulsivity (β = .23, p < .01) and the interaction of hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety (β = .17, p < .05) were significant predictors of negative self-statements regarding personal failure, while holding child age, child gender, oppositional symptoms, and inattention constant. In all, negative self-statements should be considered in the treatment and assessment of ADHD with particular attention paid to ADHD subtype and internalizing comorbidity.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:35:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.05.002
  • Exposure-Based Therapy for Symptom Preoccupation in Atrial Fibrillation:
           An Uncontrolled Pilot Study
    • Authors: Josefin Särnholm; Helga Skúladóttir; Christian Rück; Susanne S. Pedersen; Frieder Braunschweig; Brjánn Ljótsson
      Pages: 808 - 819
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 6
      Author(s): Josefin Särnholm, Helga Skúladóttir, Christian Rück, Susanne S. Pedersen, Frieder Braunschweig, Brjánn Ljótsson
      Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Patients often experience a range of symptoms resulting in a markedly reduced quality of life, and commonly show symptom preoccupation in terms of avoidance and control behaviors. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to improve symptom burden and quality of life in other somatic disorders, but has never been evaluated in patients with AF. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy and feasibility of an AF-specific CBT protocol in an uncontrolled pilot study. The study included 19 patients with symptomatic paroxysmal (intermittent) atrial fibrillation who were assessed pre- and posttreatment and at 6-month follow-up. The CBT lasted 10 weeks and included exposure to physical sensations similar to AF symptoms, exposure to avoided situations or activities, and behavioral activation. We observed large within-group improvements on the primary outcome AF-specific quality of life measurement AFEQT posttreatment (Cohen’s d = 1.54; p < . 001) and at 6-month follow-up (d = 1.15; p < . 001). We also observed improvements in self-reported frequency and severity of AF symptoms. All participants completed the treatment and treatment satisfaction was high. This study demonstrates the potential efficacy and feasibility of a novel CBT approach to reduce symptoms and increase quality of life in AF patients.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:35:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.06.001
  • Long-Term Effectiveness of Treatment-as-Usual Couple Therapy for Military
    • Authors: Kathryn M. Nowlan; Emily J. Georgia; Brian D. Doss
      Pages: 847 - 859
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 6
      Author(s): Kathryn M. Nowlan, Emily J. Georgia, Brian D. Doss
      Despite the fact that veterans face increased psychological and relationship distress as a result of their service-related experiences, no study to date has explored the long-term effectiveness of couple therapy for veterans. In the present investigation, 238 individuals (113 couples and 12 additional individuals) completed assessments 18 months after termination of treatment-as-usual couple therapy at two Veteran Administration Medical Centers. From pretreatment to 18-month follow-up, couples experienced significant increases in relationship satisfaction (d = 0.59) and significant decreases in both psychological distress (d = -0.31) and presence of intimate partner violence (d = -0.47). Overall, pretreatment demographic, psychological, and relationship characteristics did not significantly moderate maintenance of gains across 18 months. However, African American individuals (d = -0.58) and individuals not reporting intimate partner violence at pretreatment (d = -0.46) experienced smaller improvements in relationship satisfaction through 18-month follow-up. Further, older participants showed smaller reductions in psychological symptoms 18 months after treatment (d = 0.16). Thus, for many veterans and their spouses, treatment-as-usual couple therapy is effective at intervening in psychological and relationship distress long-term. Moreover, the long-term effectiveness of couple therapy with veterans appears to generalize across many demographic, intrapersonal, and interpersonal factors.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:35:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.05.007
  • Anticipatory Processing, Maladaptive Attentional Focus, and Postevent
           Processing for Interactional and Performance Situations: Treatment
           Response and Relationships With Symptom Change for Individuals With Social
           Anxiety Disorder
    • Authors: Quincy J.J. Wong; Bree Gregory; Lauren F. McLellan; Maria Kangas; Maree J. Abbott; Leigh Carpenter; Peter M. McEvoy; Lorna Peters; Ronald M. Rapee
      Pages: 651 - 663
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 5
      Author(s): Quincy J.J. Wong, Bree Gregory, Lauren F. McLellan, Maria Kangas, Maree J. Abbott, Leigh Carpenter, Peter M. McEvoy, Lorna Peters, Ronald M. Rapee
      Anticipatory processing, maladaptive attentional focus, and postevent processing are key cognitive constructs implicated in the maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The current study examined how treatment for SAD concurrently affects these three cognitive maintaining processes and how these processes are associated with each other as well as with symptom change from pre- to posttreatment. The sample consisted of 116 participants with SAD receiving group cognitive behavioral therapy. All three cognitive maintaining processes were measured relative to a speech task and again relative to a conversation task. Across both tasks, the three cognitive process variables demonstrated decreases from pre- to posttreatment. Within the same task, a slower rate of decrease in a specific cognitive process variable from pre- to posttreatment was predicted from higher pretreatment levels of either one or both of the other cognitive process variables. Additionally, higher levels of pretreatment conversation-related anticipatory processing and maladaptive attentional focus predicted a slower rate of decrease in social anxiety symptoms from pre- to posttreatment. Results are consistent with cognitive models of SAD and have important implications for enhancing existing treatments.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T09:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.03.004
  • From Efficacy to Global Impact: Lessons Learned About What Not to Do in
           Translating Our Research to Reach
    • Authors: Carolyn B. Becker
      Pages: 718 - 730
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 5
      Author(s): Carolyn B. Becker
      Although members of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies have made significant strides toward the collective goals outlined in our mission statement, we routinely acknowledge that our ability to develop empirically supported treatments exceeds our success in improving dissemination and implementation of said interventions. Further, as noted by Kazdin and Blase (2011), even if we succeeded in having every clinician worldwide administer our best treatments with excellent competency, we still would be unsuccessful in markedly impacting the worldwide burden of mental illness because most treatments require intensive labor by expensive providers. To this end, Kazdin and Blase and others call for increased use of alternative strategies. Examples include increased attention toward prevention; use of lower-cost, simplified interventions; task shifting; train-the-trainer models; community participatory research methodology; and identification of novel funding sources. The Body Project is an empirically supported, cognitive dissonance-based prevention intervention that targets body image, a well-established risk factor for eating disorders, negative affect, unhealthy weight control behaviors, smoking behavior, and decreased physical activity. Supported by a global village of researchers, community activists, and organizational partners, the Body Project is currently being implemented in 125 countries. The aim of this paper is to share lessons our team has learned in taking a prevention intervention from early testing to widespread implementation and connect these back to broader conversations occurring in our field regarding the importance of scalability and new directions in improving global mental health.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T15:58:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2016.12.007
  • A Multimethod Examination of the Effect of Insomnia Symptoms on Anxious
           Responding to a Social Stressor
    • Authors: Nicole A. Short; Norman B. Schmidt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Nicole A. Short, Norman B. Schmidt
      A growing number of studies identify insomnia symptoms as a potential risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders. However, little research has examined potential mechanisms through which insomnia could confer increased risk for anxiety. A separate line of literature suggests sleep is necessary for adaptive emotional and behavior responding to stressors, a potential mechanism linking insomnia symptoms to anxiety risk. To test whether insomnia symptoms affect emotional and behavioral responding to an anxiety-relevant stressor, the current study recruited a sample of 99 undergraduates with varying levels of insomnia symptoms. Participants completed self-report measures and psychophysiological before, during, and after an impromptu speech task. Results indicated that, after covarying for negative affectivity, increased insomnia symptoms were significantly associated with elevated anticipatory anxiety and skin conductance response prior to the speech, and increased skin conductance response, emotion regulation difficulties, and safety aid use during the speech. Taken together, results provide evidence for the notion that insomnia symptoms are associated with maladaptive emotional and behavioral responding to an anxiety-relevant stressor.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T19:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.11.001
  • Using Retrieval Cues to Attenuate Return of Fear in Individuals With
           Public Speaking Anxiety
    • Authors: Ki Eun Shin; Michelle G. Newman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Ki Eun Shin, Michelle G. Newman
      Even after successful exposure, relapse is not uncommon. Based on the retrieval model of fear extinction (e.g., Vervliet, Craske, & Hermans, 2013), return of fear can occur after exposure due to an elapse of time (spontaneous recovery) or change in context (contextual renewal). The use of external salient stimuli presented throughout extinction (i.e., retrieval cues [RCs]) has been suggested as a potential solution to this problem (Bouton, 2002). The current study examined whether RCs attenuated return of fear in individuals with public speaking anxiety. Sixty-five participants completed a brief exposure while presented with two RC stimuli aimed at a variety of senses (visual, tactile, olfactory, and auditory). Later, half the participants were tested for return of fear in a context different from the exposure context, and the other half in the same context. Half of each context group were presented with the same cues as in exposure, while the other half were not. Return of fear due to an elapse of time, change in context, and effects of RCs were evaluated on subjective, behavioral, and physiological measures of anxiety. Although contextual renewal was not observed, results supported effects of RCs in reducing spontaneous recovery on behavioral and physiological measures of anxiety. There was also evidence that participants who were reminded of feeling anxious during exposure by the RCs benefited more from using them at follow-up, whereas those who perceived the cues as comforting (safety signals) benefited less. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T19:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.07.011
  • The Use of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Promote Mental Health and
           School Engagement in University Students: A Multi-Site Randomized
           Controlled Trial
    • Authors: Simon Grégoire; Lise Lachance; Thérèse Bouffard; Frédérick Dionne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Simon Grégoire, Lise Lachance, Thérèse Bouffard, Frédérick Dionne
      The aim of this multi-site randomized controlled trial was to determine whether an intervention based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) was efficacious in improving university students’ psychological flexibility, mental health and school engagement. Students were recruited in four Canadian universities and randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 72) or a wait-list control group (n = 72). Students in the intervention group took part in four 2.5-hour workshops during a four-week period and were asked to do exercises at home (e.g., meditation, observation grids). Wait-list students received the intervention soon after the post measurements. MANCOVAs and ANCOVAs revealed that students in the intervention group showed greater psychological flexibility at post-intervention than those in the control group. They also reported greater well-being and school engagement, and lower stress, anxiety and depression symptoms. Taken together, results of this study suggest that an ACT based intervention offers a valuable way to promote mental health and school engagement in post-secondary settings.

      PubDate: 2017-11-04T19:00:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.10.003
  • Changes in Problematic Anger, Shame, and Disgust in Anxious and Depressed
           Adults Undergoing Treatment for Emotion Dysregulation
    • Authors: Andrada D. Neacsiu; Joscelyn Rompogren; Jeremy W. Eberle; Kibby McMahon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Andrada D. Neacsiu, Joscelyn Rompogren, Jeremy W. Eberle, Kibby McMahon
      Emotion dysregulation, the pervasive difficulty managing negative emotions, is a core problem across mood and anxiety disorders. Anger, shame, and disgust are particularly problematic emotions, impacting both disorder severity and treatment outcome. We previously found that a 16-week dialectical behavior therapy skills training group (DBT-ST) was superior to an activities-based support group (ASG) in decreasing emotion dysregulation in 44 adults with high emotion dysregulation who met diagnostic criteria for an anxiety or depressive disorder. We presently examine these participants’ changes in anger, shame, disgust, and distress using self-reports collected over 6 months during and after treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses show that DBT-ST was superior to ASG in decreasing anger suppression (d = 0.93) and distress (d = 1.04). Both conditions significantly reduced shame, disgust propensity, and disgust sensitivity, but neither was superior for these outcomes. The treatments did not significantly reduce anger expression. Mediation analyses suggest that condition indirectly influenced 4-month anger suppression, shame, and distress through its effect on 2-month emotion dysregulation. These findings suggest that DBT-ST is efficacious for certain problematic emotions and distress in depressed and anxious adults and that common factors may account for some, but not all, of its benefits.

      PubDate: 2017-10-28T18:56:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.10.004
  • Corrigendum to “Intervention Effectiveness of The Incredible Years: New
           Insights Into Sociodemographic and Intervention-Based Moderators”
           [Behavior Therapy 48 (2017) 1–18]
    • Authors: Joyce Weeland; Rabia R. Chhangur; Danielle van der Giessen; Walter Matthys; Bram Orobio de Castro; Geertjan Overbeek
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Joyce Weeland, Rabia R. Chhangur, Danielle van der Giessen, Walter Matthys, Bram Orobio de Castro, Geertjan Overbeek

      PubDate: 2017-10-21T01:54:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.09.007
  • Volume Author Index
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 6

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:35:06Z
  • Social anxiety and the quality of everyday social interactions: The
           moderating influence of alcohol consumption
    • Authors: Fallon R. Goodman; Melissa C. Stiksma; Todd B. Kashdan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Fallon R. Goodman, Melissa C. Stiksma, Todd B. Kashdan
      Most research on the link between social anxiety and alcohol consumption has examined problematic outcomes without consideration of potential adaptive functions. Alcohol is an anxiolytic that has the short-term benefit of reducing anxiety; consumption may act as a social lubricant that facilitates higher quality social interactions. Using experience-sampling methodology, we examined how consuming alcohol attenuates the adverse effects of social anxiety in naturally occurring social interactions. Participants (N = 160) completed demographic and trait measures then completed assessments for 14 consecutive days. Results from multilevel model analyses revealed that during face-to-face social interactions, state social anxiety was inversely related to 10 indicators of healthy social interactions (e.g., enjoyment, laughter, feelings of acceptance). The consumption of alcohol moderated seven of these associations, such that the presence of alcohol moderated the adverse effects of social anxiety. The quantity of alcoholic drinks consumed moderated two of these associations. Furthermore, we found evidence for a temporal relationship such that social anxiety in a given social interaction predicted alcohol consumption in a subsequent social interaction, but not the reverse (i.e., alcohol consumption did not prospectively predict state social anxiety). In social situations that involved alcohol, experiences of social anxiety no longer thwarted one’s ability to derive social benefits. These results should be interpreted in the context of participant sample with relatively low levels of trait social anxiety and frequency of alcohol use. Nonetheless, obtaining social rewards may be a reinforcement mechanism that maintains the link between social anxiety and alcohol consumption.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:35:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.10.002
  • Can a mediator moderate' Considering the role of time and change in
           the mediator-moderator distinction
    • Authors: Bryan T. Karazsia; Kristoffer S. Berlin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Bryan T. Karazsia, Kristoffer S. Berlin
      The concepts of mediation and moderation are important for specifying ways in which psychological treatments work and for whom they are most beneficial. Historically, the terms were confused and used interchangeably, so a rich body of scholarly literature makes clear their distinction. Researchers are also becoming increasingly aware that mediation and moderation can be integrated and that such integration can advance theory development and testing. One question that has not received sufficient attention is whether a mediator can simultaneously moderate. We tackle this question in this paper, and in doing so we expand on the MacArthur conceptualizations of mediation and moderation. The result is a presentation of a meta-theoretical model that illustrates how a construct that is initially a mediator can, not simultaneously but over time, evolve into a construct that moderates. When this occurs, a construct that changed for the better as a result of an intervention can later promote more positive change during a later intervention. Various implications of this novel paradigm for future research are discussed, including the importance of this model in the emerging context of managed healthcare.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:35:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.10.001
  • Does Traumatic Brain Injury Attenuate the Exposure Therapy Process'
    • Authors: Katie A. Ragsdale; Michael A. Gramlich; Deborah C. Beidel; Sandra M. Neer; Emily G. Kitsmiller; Krystal I. Morrison
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Katie A. Ragsdale, Michael A. Gramlich, Deborah C. Beidel, Sandra M. Neer, Emily G. Kitsmiller, Krystal I. Morrison
      Research indicates that exposure therapy is efficacious for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) comorbid with traumatic brain injury (TBI) as is shown by reduced PTSD treatment outcome scores. What is unknown, however, is whether the process of fear extinction is attenuated in veterans with TBI history. Increased PTSD symptomatology and possible cognitive deficits associated with TBI sequelae may indicate additional or longer exposure sessions to achieve habituation and extinction comparable to individuals without TBI history. As such, a more extensive course of treatment may be necessary to achieve comparable PTSD treatment outcome scores for individuals with TBI history. Using a sample of veterans with combat-related PTSD, some of whom were comorbid for TBI, this study compared process variables considered relevant to successful treatment outcome in exposure therapy. Individuals with and without TBI demonstrated similar rates of fear activation, length and number of exposure sessions, within-session habituation, between-session habituation, and extinction rate; results remained consistent when controlling for differential PTSD symptomatology. Furthermore, results indicated that self-perception of executive dysfunction did not impact the exposure process. Results suggest that individuals with PTSD and TBI history engage successfully and no differently in the exposure therapy process as compared to individuals with PTSD alone. Findings further support exposure therapy as a first-line treatment for combat-related PTSD regardless of TBI history.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T13:04:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.09.008
  • Body Image-Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-5: An abbreviation using
           Genetic Algorithms
    • Authors: Geetanjali Basarkod; Baljinder Sahdra; Joseph Ciarrochi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Geetanjali Basarkod, Baljinder Sahdra, Joseph Ciarrochi
      Body image concerns are typically linked with negative outcomes such as disordered eating and diminished wellbeing, but some people can exhibit psychological flexibility and remain committed to their valued goals despite being dissatisfied about their bodies. Such flexibility is most frequently measured by the Body Image-Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (BI-AAQ). This study used a recently validated, fully-automated method based on genetic algorithms (GAs) on data from an American community sample (N1 =538, 71.5% female, Age: M = 40.87, SD = 13.5) to abbreviate the 12-item BI-AAQ to a 5-item short form, BI-AAQ-5. Validation tests were conducted on data from an independent community sample (N2= 762, 44.6% female, Age: M = 40.65, SD = 13.06). The short form performed comparably to the long form in terms of its factor structure and correlations with theoretically relevant constructs, including body image dissatisfaction, stigma, internalisation of societal norms of appearance, self-compassion, and poor mental health. Further, preliminary analyses using structural equation modelling showed that body image flexibility, as measured by either the long or short form, was associated with almost all the criterion variables, even while controlling for a highly related construct of body image dissatisfaction. These results demonstrate the potential discriminant validity of both the long and short form of the BI-AAQ, and show that the BI-AAQ-5 is a suitable alternative to its long form. We discuss how psychological flexibility with respect to body image dissatisfaction can be conducive to positive functioning.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T14:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.09.006
  • Acceptability, Feasibility and Effectiveness of Internet Based Cognitive
           Behavioral Therapy for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in New York
    • Authors: Sapana R. Patel; Michael G. Wheaton; Erik Andersson; Christian Rück; Andrew B. Schmidt; Christopher La Lima; Hanga Galfavy; Olivia Pascucci; Robert W. Myers; Lisa B. Dixon; Helen Blair Simpson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Sapana R. Patel, Michael G. Wheaton, Erik Andersson, Christian Rück, Andrew B. Schmidt, Christopher La Lima, Hanga Galfavy, Olivia Pascucci, Robert W. Myers, Lisa B. Dixon, Helen Blair Simpson
      Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) consisting of exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) is both efficacious and preferred by OCD patients, yet few receive this treatment in practice. This study describes the implementation of an Internet Based CBT program (ICBT) developed in Sweden in individuals seeking OCD treatment in New York. After translating and adapting the Swedish ICBT for OCD, we conducted an open trial with 40 adults with OCD. Using the RE-AIM implementation science framework, we assessed the acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of ICBT. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was the primary outcome measure. Of 40 enrolled, 28 participants completed the 10-week ICBT. In the intent-to-treat sample (N = 40), Y-BOCS scores decreased significantly over time (F = 28.12, df = 2, 49, p <. 001). Depressive severity (F = 5.87, df = 2, 48, p <. 001), and quality of life (F = 12.34, df = 2, 48, p <. 001) also improved. Sensitivity analyses among treatment completers (N = 28) confirmed the ITT results, with a large effect size for Y-BOCS change (Cohen’s d = 1.38). ICBT took less time to implement than face-to face EX/RP and participants were very to mostly satisfied with ICBT. On par with results in Sweden, the adapted ICBT program reduced OCD and depressive symptoms and improved quality of life among individuals with moderate to severe OCD. Given its acceptability and feasibility, ICBT deserves further study as a way to increase access to CBT for OCD in the United States.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T14:12:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.09.003
  • Do Self-Incentives Change Behavior' A Systematic Review and
    • Authors: Emma M. Brown; Debbie M. Smith; Tracy Epton; Christopher J. Armitage
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Emma M. Brown, Debbie M. Smith, Tracy Epton, Christopher J. Armitage
      Encouraging people to self-incentivize (i.e., to reward themselves in the future if they are successful in changing their behavior) or self-reward (i.e., prompt people to reward themselves once they have successfully changed their behavior) are techniques that are frequently embedded within complex behavior change interventions. However, it is not clear whether self-incentives or self-rewards per se are effective at bringing about behavior change. Nine databases were searched alongside manual searching of systematic reviews and online research registers. One thousand four hundred papers were retrieved, spanning a range of behaviors, though the majority of included papers were in the domain of “health psychology”. Ten studies matched the inclusion criteria for self-incentive but no studies were retrieved for self-reward. The present systematic review and meta-analysis is therefore the first to evaluate the unique effect of self-incentives on behavior change. Effect sizes were retrieved from seven of the ten studies. Analysis of the seven studies produced a very small pooled effect size for self-incentives (k =7; N =1,161), which was statistically significant, d + =0.17, CI =0.06 to 0.29. The weak effect size and dearth of studies raises the question of why self-incentivizing is such a widely employed component of behavior change interventions. The present research opens up a new field of inquiry to establish: (a) whether or not self-incentivizing and self-rewarding are effective behavior change techniques, (b) if self-incentives and self-rewards need to be deployed alongside other behavior change techniques, and (c) when and for whom self-incentives and self-rewards could support effective behavior change.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T14:12:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.09.004
  • New Directions in the Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of OCD: Theory,
           Research, and Practice
    • Authors: Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Shannon M. Blakey; Lillian Reuman; Jennifer L. Buchholz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Jonathan S. Abramowitz, Shannon M. Blakey, Lillian Reuman, Jennifer L. Buchholz
      The beneficial effects of cognitive-behavioral interventions (particularly exposure and response prevention) for OCD are among the most consistent research findings in the mental health literature. Nevertheless, even after an adequate trial, many individuals experience residual symptoms, and others never receive adequate treatment due to limited access. These and other issues have prompted clinicians and researchers to search for ways to improve the conceptual and practical aspects of existing treatment approaches, as well as look for augmentation strategies. In the present article, we review a number of recent developments and new directions in the psychological treatment of OCD, including (a) the application of inhibitory learning approaches to exposure therapy, (b) the development of acceptance-based approaches, (c) involvement of caregivers (partners and parents) in treatment, (d) pharmacological cognitive enhancement of exposure therapy, and (e) the use of technology to disseminate effective treatment. We focus on both the conceptual/scientific and practical aspects of these topics so that clinicians and researchers alike can assess their relative merits and disadvantages.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T14:12:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.09.002
  • Parameters of Time-out: Research Update and Comparison to Parenting
           Programs, Books and Online Recommendations
    • Authors: Samantha M. Corralejo; Scott A. Jensen; Ashley D. Greathouse; Leah E. Ward
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Samantha M. Corralejo, Scott A. Jensen, Ashley D. Greathouse, Leah E. Ward
      In reviews published more than 30 years ago, eight parameters important to the use of time-out were identified and available research was summarized. The purpose of the current paper is to provide an updated summary of existing research for each parameter of time-out. Within each parameter, we conducted a thorough review of the published literature and identified all peer reviewed articles addressing each parameter. We identified and summarized a total of 46 articles across the eight parameters, including 32 not cited in previous reviews. Sufficient findings were available to draw conclusions regarding time-out warning, schedule of time-out, contingent versus non-contingent release, and duration. Tentative conclusions based on only a few studies could be drawn in regards to instructional versus physical administration and verbalized reason for time-out. No conclusions could be drawn regarding time-out signal and specific time-out location. While we know much more today regarding effective implementation of time-out, there is a clear need for further exploration within these identified parameters. In addition to summarizing the literature, we reviewed recommendations made by behavioral parent training programs, parenting books, and parenting websites and compared how well their recommendations matched current research based on the conclusions drawn from our review. We found that parenting sources made strong and specific recommendations on several of the parameters that were either not consistent with available research or simply lacked a sufficient research base.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T14:12:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.09.005
  • Working Memory and Motor Activity: A Comparison across
           Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder,
           and Healthy Control Groups
    • Authors: Sarah E. Lea; R. Matt Alderson; Connor H.G. Patros; Stephanie J. Tarle; Elaine F. Arrington; DeMond Grant
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Sarah E. Lea, R. Matt Alderson, Connor H.G. Patros, Stephanie J. Tarle, Elaine F. Arrington, DeMond Grant
      Converging findings from recent research suggest a functional relationship between ADHD-related hyperactivity and demands on working memory (WM) in both children and adults. Excessive motor activity such as restlessness and fidgeting are not pathognomonic symptoms of ADHD, however, and are often associated with other diagnoses such as generalized anxiety disorder. Further, previous research indicates that anticipatory processing associated with anxiety can directly interfere with storage and rehearsal processes of WM. The topographical similarity of excessive motor activity seen in both ADHD and anxiety disorders, as well as similar WM deficits, may indicate a common relationship between WM deficits and increased motor activity. The relationship between objectively measured motor activity (actigraphy) and phonological and visuospatial WM demands in adults with ADHD (n = 21), adults with GAD (n = 21), and healthy-control adults (n = 20) was examined. Although all groups exhibited significant increases in activity from control to WM conditions, the ADHD group exhibited a disproportionate increase in activity, while activity exhibited by the GAD and healthy control groups was not different. Findings indicate that ADHD-related hyperactivity is uniquely related to WM demands, and appear to suggest that adults with GAD are no more active relative to healthy control adults during a cognitively-demanding laboratory task.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T14:12:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.08.009
  • A pilot study of Emotion Regulation Therapy for generalized anxiety and
           depression: Findings from a diverse sample of young adults
    • Authors: Megan E. Renna; Jean M. Quintero; Ariella Soffer; Martin Pino; Leslie Ader; David M. Fresco; Douglas S. Mennin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Megan E. Renna, Jean M. Quintero, Ariella Soffer, Martin Pino, Leslie Ader, David M. Fresco, Douglas S. Mennin
      Emotion Regulation Therapy (ERT) for generalized anxiety (GAD) and accompanying depression (MDD) is a theoretically-derived, evidence based, treatment that integrates principles from traditional and contemporary cognitive-behavioral and experiential approaches with basic and translational findings from affect science to offer a blueprint for improving intervention by focusing on the motivational responses and corresponding self-referential regulatory characteristics. Preliminary evidence supports the efficacy of a 20-session version of ERT. However, previous trials of ERT and other traditional and contemporary cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs) have often utilized relatively homogeneous samples. Various contextual and demographic factors may be associated with challenges that increase risk for negative mental and social outcomes for young adults aged 18-29, particularly for individuals from diverse backgrounds. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a briefer 16-session version of ERT in a racially and ethnically diverse sample of young adults. Participants (N = 31) were enrolled at an urban-based, commuter, college who consented to treatment for anxiety, worry, or depression at an on-campus counseling center. Open trial results demonstrate strong ameliorative changes in worry, rumination, self-reported and clinician rated GAD and MDD severity, social disability, quality of life, attentional flexibility, decentering/distancing, reappraisal, trait mindfulness, and negative emotionality from pre- to post-treatment. These gains were maintained throughout a 3- and 9-month follow-up. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy of ERT in treating a racially and ethnically heterogeneous population. Further, this study highlights comparable effectiveness of a briefer 16-session version of ERT.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T13:57:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.09.001
  • Experiential avoidance: An examination of the construct validity of the
           AAQ-II and MEAQ
    • Authors: Catherine Rochefort; Austin S. Baldwin; Michael Chmielewski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Catherine Rochefort, Austin S. Baldwin, Michael Chmielewski
      Experiential avoidance (also referred to as acceptance or psychological flexibility) is a core construct of third-wave behavior therapies. It is the tendency to avoid uncomfortable thoughts or feelings, even when doing so has negative long-term consequences. In order for developments in experiential avoidance and third-wave behavior therapies to continue, it is imperative to examine the construct validity of the most widely used measures of this construct, the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-2 (AAQ-II) and the Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (MEAQ). In Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (N = 1,052) and college (N = 364) samples, we evaluated the construct validity of these measures. The AAQ-II demonstrated suboptimal patterns of convergent and discriminant validity with measures of neuroticism/negative affect (BFI, BFAS, PANAS), the MEAQ, and mindfulness (Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire). In contrast, the MEAQ demonstrated optimal convergent and discriminant validity. Factor analyses at the scale, subscale, and item levels demonstrated that the AAQ-II loads with indicators of neuroticism/negative affect and not with other constructs at the core of third-wave behavior therapies. In contrast, the MEAQ loads on factors with mindfulness or forms its own factors. These findings suggest the AAQ-II functions as a measure of neuroticism/negative affect, whereas the MEAQ functions as an indicator of experiential avoidance. These findings have substantial implications for research on experiential avoidance and third-wave behavior therapies. Therefore, in order to improve the theory, research, and practice of third-wave behavior therapies, we recommend using the MEAQ to assess experiential avoidance.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T13:47:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.08.008
  • Presidential Address: Embracing the Repulsive: The Case for Disgust as a
           Functionally Central Emotional State in the Theory, Practice, and
           Dissemination of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy
    • Authors: Dean McKay
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Dean McKay
      Disgust is a primary emotion, but it is also understudied in general, and in psychopathology in particular. Disgust plays a potential role in the reluctance of many non-scientifically minded practitioners from adopting evidence-based methods of treatment. This article summarizes findings from psychopathology research and treatment, and highlights basic science that potentially accounts for the hesitancy for some therapists to adopt evidence-based methods. Several recommendations are provided for future research in disgust related to both psychopathology and dissemination research.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T13:47:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.08.006
  • Safety Behavior After Extinction Triggers a Return of Threat Expectancy
    • Authors: Sophie L. van Uijen; Arne Leer; Iris M. Engelhard
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Sophie L. van Uijen, Arne Leer, Iris M. Engelhard
      Safety behavior is involved in the maintenance of anxiety disorders, presumably because it prevents the violation of negative expectancies. Recent research showed that safety behavior is resistant to fear extinction. This fear conditioning study investigated whether safety behavior after fear extinction triggers a return of fear in healthy participants. Participants learned that two stimuli (A and C) were followed by an aversive loud noise (‘threat’), and one stimulus (B) was not. Participants then learned to use safety behavior that prevented the loud noise. Next, A and C were no longer followed by the loud noise, which typically led to extinction of threat expectancy. Safety behavior then became available again for C, but not for A and B. All participants used safety behavior on these C trials. In a final test phase, A, B, and C were presented once without the availability to use safety behavior. At each stimulus presentation, participants rated threat expectancy by indicating to what extent they expected that the loud noise would follow. Compared to the last extinction trial, threat expectancy increased for C in the test phase, whereas it did not increase for A and B. Hence, safety behavior after the extinction of classically conditioned fear caused a partial return of fear. The findings suggest that safety behavior may be involved in relapse after exposure-based therapy for anxiety disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T13:47:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.08.005
  • Prospective Associations between Sleep Disturbance and Repetitive Negative
           Thinking: The Mediating Roles of Focusing and Shifting Attentional Control
    • Authors: Rebecca C. Cox; David A. Cole; Eliza L. Kramer; Bunmi O. Olatunji
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Rebecca C. Cox, David A. Cole, Eliza L. Kramer, Bunmi O. Olatunji
      Although considerable evidence has linked sleep disturbance to symptoms of psychopathology, including repetitive negative thinking, few studies have examined how sleep disturbance may predict repetitive negative thinking over time. Further, no study to date has examined specific mechanisms that may account for this relationship. The present study sought to address these gaps in the literature by testing focusing and shifting attentional control as two potential mediators of the relationship between sleep disturbance and repetitive negative thinking over a six-month period. A final sample of 445 unselected community participants completed measures of sleep disturbance and repetitive negative thinking at Time 1, measures of focusing and shifting attentional control 3 months later, and measures of repetitive negative thinking again 6 months later. Results revealed that focusing, but not shifting, attentional control mediated the relationship between sleep disturbance and repetitive negative thinking, specifically worry, rumination, and obsessions. These findings provide preliminary evidence for focusing attentional control as a candidate mechanism that may explain the causal role of sleep disturbance in the development of repetitive negative thinking observed in various disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T13:47:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.08.007
  • Investigating Habituation to Premonitory Urges in Behavior Therapy for Tic
    • Authors: David C. Houghton; Matthew R. Capriotti; Lawrence D. Scahill; Sabine Wilhelm; Alan L. Peterson; John T. Walkup; John Piacentini; Douglas W. Woods
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): David C. Houghton, Matthew R. Capriotti, Lawrence D. Scahill, Sabine Wilhelm, Alan L. Peterson, John T. Walkup, John Piacentini, Douglas W. Woods
      Behavior therapy is effective for Persistent Tic Disorders (PTDs), but behavioral processes facilitating tic reduction are not well understood. One process, habituation, is thought to create tic reduction through decreases in premonitory urge severity. The current study tested whether premonitory urges decreased in youth with PTDs (N = 126) and adults with PTDs (N = 122) who participated in parallel randomized clinical trials comparing behavior therapy to psychoeducation and supportive therapy (PST). Trends in premonitory urges, tic severity, and treatment outcome were analyzed according to the predictions of a habituation model, whereby urge severity would be expected to decrease in those who responded to behavior therapy. Although adults who responded to behavior therapy showed a significant trend of declining premonitory urge severity across treatment, results failed to demonstrate that behavior therapy specifically caused changes in premonitory urge severity. In addition, reductions in premonitory urge severity in those who responded to behavior therapy were significant greater than those who did not respond to behavior therapy but no different than those who responded or did not respond to PST. Children with PTDs failed to show any significant changes in premonitory urges. Reductions in premonitory urge severity did not mediate the relationship between treatment and outcome in either adults or children. These results cast doubt on the notion that habituation is the therapeutic process underlying the effectiveness of behavior therapy, which has immediate implications for the psychoeducation and therapeutic rationale presented in clinical practice. Moreover, there may be important developmental changes in premonitory urges in PTDs, and alternative models of therapeutic change warrant investigation. Clinical trial registration information: U.S. National Institutes of Health human subject’s trial forum (; #NCT00218777, #NCT00231985)

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T13:47:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.08.004
  • Does Situation-Specificity Affect the Operation of Implementation
    • Authors: Tracy Epton; Christopher J. Armitage
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Tracy Epton, Christopher J. Armitage
      Interventions that encourage people to link critical situations with appropriate responses (i.e., “implementation intentions”) show promise in increasing physical activity. The study tested whether implementation intentions designed to deal with generic situations are more effective than implementation intentions designed to respond to specific situations. One hundred thirty-three participants either: (a) formed implementation intentions using a volitional help sheet with 10 critical situations (i.e., standard volitional help sheet); (b) formed implementation intentions using a volitional help sheet with one generic situation (i.e., single situation volitional help sheet); or (c) did not form implementation intentions (i.e., control condition). Participants who formed implementation intentions reported more physical activity and greater self-regulation than those in the control condition. There were no differences between participants who were provided with one generic critical situation and those who were provided with 10 specific critical situations. Implementation intentions successfully increased self-reported physical activity irrespective of critical situation specificity. The implication is that implementation intention-based interventions are robust and require minimal tailoring.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T13:47:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.08.003
  • Modification of Hostile Interpretation Bias in Depression: A Randomized
           Controlled Trial
    • Authors: Hillary L. Smith; Kirsten H. Dillon; Jesse R. Cougle
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Hillary L. Smith, Kirsten H. Dillon, Jesse R. Cougle
      Interpretation Bias Modification (IBM) is gaining attention in the literature as an intervention that alters cognitive biases and reduces associated symptoms. Forty, primarily college-aged, non-treatment-seeking adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) were randomly assigned to receive either IBM targeting hostile interpretation bias (IBM-H) or a healthy video control (HVC) condition. Compared to those in HVC, participants in IBM-H reported more benign interpretations and fewer hostile interpretations at posttreatment. No difference in depressive interpretation bias was found between groups at posttreatment. IBM-H led to improved anger control at posttreatment and follow-up compared to HVC, though no effects of condition were found on trait anger or depressive symptoms. The IBM-H group perceived their treatment as less credible than the HVC group. For individuals with high expectancy of treatment success, IBM-H led to lower posttreatment depressive symptoms compared to HVC, while findings trended in the opposite direction for those with low expectancy of success. Overall, these preliminary findings point to boundary conditions for the efficacy of IBM protocols for anger and depression and potential improvements to be made to future IBM protocols.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T13:47:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.08.001
  • Treating Procrastination using Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Pragmatic
           Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Treatment Delivered via the Internet
           or in Groups
    • Authors: Alexander Rozental; David Forsström; Philip Lindner; Simon Nilsson; Lina Mårtensson; Angela Rizzo; Gerhard Andersson; Per Carlbring
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Alexander Rozental, David Forsström, Philip Lindner, Simon Nilsson, Lina Mårtensson, Angela Rizzo, Gerhard Andersson, Per Carlbring
      Procrastination is a common problem among university students, with at least half of the population reporting great difficulties initiating or completing tasks and assignments. Procrastination can have a negative impact on course grades and the ability to achieve a university degree, but can also lead to psychological distress. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is believed to reduce procrastination, but few studies have investigated its effectiveness in a regular clinical setting. The current study explored its effects using a pragmatic randomized controlled trial comparing treatment delivered during eight weeks as self-guided CBT via the Internet (ICBT) or as group CBT. In total, 92 university students with severe procrastination were included in the study (registered as a clinical trial on NCT02112383). Outcome measures on procrastination, depression, anxiety, and well-being were distributed at pre- and post-treatment as well as six-month follow-up. An outcome measure of procrastination was administered weekly. Linear mixed and fixed effects models were calculated, along with improvement and deterioration rates. The results showed large within-group effect sizes on procrastination, Cohen’s d of 1.29 for ICBT, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.81, 1.74], and d of 1.24 for group CBT, 95% CI [0.76, 1.70], and small to moderate benefits for depression, anxiety, and well-being. In total, 33.7% were regarded as improved at post-treatment and 46.7% at follow-up. No differences between conditions were observed after the treatment period, however, participants in group CBT continued or maintained their improvement at follow-up, while participants in self-guided ICBT showed some signs of deterioration. The findings from the current study suggest that CBT might be an effective treatment for those struggling with severe procrastination, but that a group format may be better for some to sustain their benefits over time and that the clinical significance of the results need to be investigated further.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T13:47:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.08.002
  • Prospective Associations of Coping Styles with Depression and Suicide Risk
           among Psychiatric Emergency Patients
    • Authors: Adam G. Horwitz; Ewa K. Czyz; Johnny Berona; Cheryl A. King
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Adam G. Horwitz, Ewa K. Czyz, Johnny Berona, Cheryl A. King
      Suicide is the second leading cause of death for those ages 13-25 in the United States. Coping is a mediator between stressful life events and adverse outcomes, and coping skills have been incorporated into interventions (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, safety-planning interventions) for suicidal populations. However, longitudinal research has not directly examined the prospective associations between multiple coping styles and suicide-related outcomes in high risk samples. This study identified cross-sectional and 4-month longitudinal associations of coping styles with suicide risk factors (i.e., depression, suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior) in a sample of 286 adolescent and young adult psychiatric emergency patients. Positive reframing was the coping style most consistently associated with positive outcomes, whereas self-blame and disengagement were consistently associated with negative outcomes. Active coping protected against suicidal behavior for males, but not for females. This was the first study to examine longitudinal relationships between coping and suicide-related outcomes in a high risk clinical sample. Findings suggest that clinical interventions with suicidal adolescents and young adults may benefit from a specific focus on increasing positive reframing and reducing self-blame.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T11:14:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.07.010
  • Predicting response to an internet-delivered parenting program for anxiety
           in early childhood
    • Authors: Amy J. Morgan; Ronald M. Rapee; Agus Salim; Jordana K. Bayer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Amy J. Morgan, Ronald M. Rapee, Agus Salim, Jordana K. Bayer
      Previous research has identified factors related to outcome in child anxiety treatment and parent training programs for child behavior problems. However, it is unclear what factors predict outcomes in interventions delivered online to parents of young children at risk of anxiety. This study investigated predictors of child anxiety outcomes among 433 families with young children (3-6 years) who participated in a randomized controlled trial of Cool Little Kids Online, an 8-module early intervention program for child anxiety based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Potential predictors included baseline demographic factors, child and parent mental health factors, and indicators of program use, including number of online modules completed and frequency of homework practice. Results showed that only access to a printer moderated intervention effectiveness. Printer access predicted lower child anxiety in the Cool Little Kids Online group, but had no effect on outcomes in the waitlist group. In both groups, higher levels of child anxiety symptoms, child inhibited temperament and poorer parent mental health at baseline predicted higher levels of child anxiety symptoms at 6-month follow-up. The amount of online program use was not related to improvements in child anxiety symptoms. However, parents who reported practicing the program skills more frequently showed greater reductions in child anxiety, and access to a printer was related to frequency of program skills practice. These findings provide empirical support for the important role of skills practice in online CBT interventions, and suggest that practicing program skills may be more important than completing the online modules.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T11:14:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.07.009
  • Consumer smartphone apps marketed for child and adolescent anxiety: A
           systematic review and content analysis
    • Authors: Laura Jane Bry; Tommy Chou; Elizabeth Miguel; Jonathan S. Comer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Laura Jane Bry, Tommy Chou, Elizabeth Miguel, Jonathan S. Comer
      Anxiety disorders are collectively the most prevalent mental health problems affecting youth. To increase the reach of mental healthcare, recent years have seen increasing enthusiasm surrounding mobile platforms for expanding treatment delivery options. Apps developed in academia and supported in clinical trials are slow to reach the consumer marketplace. Meanwhile, proliferation of industry-developed apps on consumer marketplaces has been high. The present study analyzed content within mobile products prominently marketed toward consumers for anxiety in youth. Systematic inventory of the Google Play Store and Apple Store using keyword searches for child and adolescent anxiety yielded 121 apps, which were evaluated on the basis of their descriptive characteristics, mobile functionalities, and adherence to evidence-based treatment principles. Findings revealed that evidence-based treatment content within the sample is scant and few comprehensive anxiety self-management apps were identified. Advanced features that leverage the broader functionalities of smartphone capabilities (e.g., sensors, ecological momentary assessments) were rarely present. Findings underscore the need to increase the prominence and accessibility of quality child anxiety intervention products for consumers. Strategies for improving marketing of supported apps to better penetrate consumer markets are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T11:14:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.07.008
  • Patterns of anxious arousal during a speech task between non-anxious
           controls and individuals with social anxiety disorder pre- and post-
    • Authors: Carol S. Lee; Lauren P. Wadsworth; Sarah A. Hayes-Skelton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Carol S. Lee, Lauren P. Wadsworth, Sarah A. Hayes-Skelton
      Although research indicates that anxious arousal in response to feared stimuli is related to treatment outcome (Heimberg et al., 1990), less is known about the patterns of anxious arousal. We identified patterns of anxious arousal in individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) at pre- (n = 61) and post-treatment (n = 40; 12-session CBGT, Heimberg & Becker, 2002), and in non-anxious controls (NACs; n = 31) using an assessment speech task administered at pre-treatment (SAD) or the pre-treatment equivalent (NACs), as well as at post-treatment (SAD only). We identified nine patterns of anxious arousal across groups that we further clustered into three groups: fear habituation, fear plateau, and fear increase. Chi-Square and adjusted standardized residual analyses revealed that individuals in the pre-treatment SAD group displayed the fear habituation patterns significantly more than chance and the fear plateau patterns significantly less than chance. In contrast, NACs displayed the fear plateau patterns significantly more than chance and the fear habituation patterns significantly less than chance. At post-treatment, treatment non-responders displayed fear habituation patterns significantly more than chance, whereas treatment responders displayed the fear habituation patterns significantly less than chance. Findings indicate that fear habituation during an anxiety-provoking assessment task is not necessary for treatment response.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T11:14:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.07.006
  • Positive and Negative Affect as Links between Social Anxiety and
           Depression: Predicting Concurrent and Prospective Mood Symptoms in
           Unipolar and Bipolar Mood Disorders
    • Authors: Jonah N. Cohen; M. Taylor Dryman; Amanda S. Morrison; Kirsten E. Gilbert; Richard G. Heimberg; June Gruber
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 July 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Jonah N. Cohen, M. Taylor Dryman, Amanda S. Morrison, Kirsten E. Gilbert, Richard G. Heimberg, June Gruber
      The co-occurrence of social anxiety and depression is associated with increased functional impairment and a more severe course of illness. Social anxiety disorder is unique among the anxiety disorders in sharing an affective profile with depression, characterized by low levels of positive affect (PA) and high levels of negative affect (NA). Yet it remains unclear how this shared affective profile contributes to the covariation of social anxiety and depressive symptoms. We examined whether self-reported PA and NA accounted for unique variance in the association between social anxiety and depressive symptoms across three groups (individuals with remitted bipolar disorder, type I [BD; n = 32], individuals with remitted major depressive disorder [MDD; n = 31], and non-psychiatric controls [n = 30]) at baseline and follow-ups of six and 12 months. Low levels of PA, but not NA, accounted for unique variance in both concurrent and prospective associations between social anxiety and depression in the BD group; in contrast, high levels of NA, but not PA, accounted for unique variance in concurrent and prospective associations between social anxiety and depression in the MDD group. Limitations include that social anxiety and PA/NA were assessed concurrently and all measurement was self-report. Few individuals with MDD/BD met current diagnostic criteria for social anxiety disorder. There was some attrition at follow-up assessments. Results suggest that affective mechanisms may contribute to the high rates of co-occurrence of social anxiety and depression in both MDD and BD. Implications of the differential role of PA and NA in the relationship between social anxiety and depression in MDD and BD and considerations for treatment are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T15:58:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.07.003
  • A Comparison of Veterans Who Repeat versus Who Do Not Repeat a Course of
           Manualized, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    • Authors: Jeremiah A. Schumm; Nicole D. Pukay-Martin; Whitney L. Gore
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Jeremiah A. Schumm, Nicole D. Pukay-Martin, Whitney L. Gore
      Despite evidence that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is effective, some individuals do not experience clinically significant reduction or remission of their PTSD symptoms. These individuals may return for additional PTSD-focused psychotherapy. However, there is no research to know whether PTSD treatment repeaters have worse symptoms prior to the initial treatment episode or display differences in other pre-treatment characteristics versus non-repeaters. Research is also needed to explore whether treatment repeaters exhibit PTSD symptom changes during an initial or second course of treatment. The current study examines differences in pre-treatment characteristics and treatment response among US military veterans who participated in either a single course (n = 711) or in two separate courses (n = 87) of CBT for PTSD through an outpatient Veterans Affairs PTSD treatment program. Veterans completing two courses of CBT for PTSD were more likely to be married and employed and more likely to drop out of their initial course of treatment versus those who completed a single course. Hierarchical linear models showed that reductions in PTSD symptoms during treatment were not different for those who completed a second versus single course of CBT for PTSD. However, for those participating in two courses of CBT for PTSD, a relapse in PTSD symptoms was observed between the first and second course. These findings show that a second course of CBT may be viable for those with ongoing PTSD symptoms.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T15:58:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.06.004
  • Effects of Bias Modification Training in Binge Eating Disorder
    • Authors: Florian Schmitz; Jennifer Svaldi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Florian Schmitz, Jennifer Svaldi
      Food-related attentional biases have been identified as maintaining factors in binge eating disorder (BED) as they can trigger a binge episode. Bias modification training may reduce symptoms, as it has been shown to be successful in other appetitive disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and modify food-related biases in BED. It was tested whether biases could be increased and decreased by means of a modified dot-probe paradigm, how long such bias modification persisted, and whether this affected subjective food craving. Participants were randomly assigned to a bias enhancement (attend to food stimulus) group or to a bias reduction (avoid food stimulus) group. Food-related attentional bias was found to be successfully reduced in the bias-reduction group, and effects persisted briefly. Additionally, subjective craving for food was influenced by the intervention, and possible mechanisms are discussed. Given these promising initial results, future research should investigate boundary conditions of the experimental intervention to understand how it could complement treatment of BED.

      PubDate: 2017-05-01T09:27:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.04.003
  • Mental imagery training increases wanting of rewards and reward
           sensitivity and reduces depressive symptoms
    • Authors: Julia Linke; Michèle Wessa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Julia Linke, Michèle Wessa
      High reward sensitivity and wanting of rewarding stimuli help to identify and motivate repetition of pleasant activities. This behavioral activation is thought to increase positive emotions. Therefore, both mechanisms are highly relevant for resilience against depressive symptoms. Yet, these mechanisms have not been targeted by psychotherapeutic interventions. In the present study, we tested a mental imagery training comprising eight 10-minute sessions every second day and delivered via the Internet to healthy volunteers (N=30, 21 female, mean age of 23.8 years, caucasian) who were pre-selected for low reward sensitivity. Participants were paired according to age, sex, reward sensitivity, and mental imagery ability. Then, members of each pair were randomly assigned to either the intervention or wait condition. Ratings of wanting and response bias toward probabilistic reward cues (Probabilistic Reward Task) served as primary outcomes. We further tested whether training effects extended to approach behavior (Approach Avoidance Task) and depressive symptoms (Becks Depression Inventory). The intervention led to an increase in wanting (p < .001, η 2 p = .45) and reward sensitivity (p = .004, η 2 p = .27). Further, the training group displayed faster approach toward positive edibles and activities (p = .025, η 2 p = .18) and reductions in depressive symptoms (p = .028, η 2 p = .16). Results extend existing literature by showing that mental imagery training can increase wanting of rewarding stimuli and reward sensitivity. Further, the training appears to reduce depressive symptoms and thus may foster the successful implementation of exsiting treatments for depression such as behavioral activation and could also increase resilience against depressive symptoms.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T09:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.04.002
  • Mechanisms of change during attention training and mindfulness in high
           trait anxious individuals: A randomized controlled study
    • Authors: Peter M. McEvoy; Rachel Graville; Sarra Hayes; Robert T. Kane; Jonathan K. Foster
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Peter M. McEvoy, Rachel Graville, Sarra Hayes, Robert T. Kane, Jonathan K. Foster
      The first aim of this study was to compare attention manipulation techniques deriving from metacognitive therapy (the Attention Training Technique, ATT) and mindfulness-based approaches (Mindfulness-Based Progressive Muscle Relaxation, MB-PMR) to a thought wandering control (TWC) condition, in terms of their impact on anxiety and four mechanisms: distancing, present-focused attention, uncontrollability and dangerousness metacognitive beliefs, and cognitive flexibility (Stroop task). The second aim was to test indirect effects of the techniques on anxiety via the mechanism measures. High trait anxious participants (N = 81, M age = 23.60, SD age = 7.66, 80% female) were randomized to receive ATT, MB-PMR or the TWC condition. Measures of cognitive and somatic anxiety, distancing, present-focused attention, metacognitive beliefs, and cognitive flexibility were administered before or after the attention manipulation task. Compared to the TWC group, ATT and MB-PMR were associated with greater changes on cognitive (but not somatic) anxiety, present-focused attention, metacognitive beliefs, and uncorrected errors for threat-related words on the Stroop task. The pattern of means was similar for distancing, but this did not reach statistical significance, and Stroop speed increased equally for all conditions. Indirect effects models revealed significant effects of condition on state anxiety via distancing, metacognitive beliefs, and present-focused attention, but not via Stroop errors. ATT and MB-PMR were associated with changes on anxiety and the mechanism measures, suggesting that the mechanisms of change may be more similar than different across these techniques.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T09:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.04.001
  • Results of a Pilot Study to Ameliorate Psychological and Behavioral
           Outcomes of Minority Stress among Young Gay and Bisexual Men
    • Authors: Nathan Grant Smith; Trevor A. Hart; Ammaar Kidwai; Julia Vernon; Martin Blais; Barry Adam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Nathan Grant Smith, Trevor A. Hart, Ammaar Kidwai, Julia Vernon, Martin Blais, Barry Adam
      Project PRIDE (Promoting Resilience In Discriminatory Environments) is an eight-session small group intervention aimed at reducing negative mental and behavioral health outcomes resulting from minority stress. This study reports the results of a one-armed pilot test of Project PRIDE, which aimed to examine the feasibility and potential for efficacy of the intervention in a sample of 33 gay and bisexual men aged 18 to 25. The intervention appeared feasible to administer in two different sites and all participants who completed post-treatment (n = 22) or follow-up (n = 19) assessments reported high satisfaction with the intervention. Small to large effect sizes were observed for increases in self-esteem; small effect sizes were found for decreases in loneliness and decreases in minority stress variables; and small and medium effect sizes were found for reductions in alcohol use and number of sex partners, respectively. Overall, Project PRIDE appears to be a feasible intervention with promise of efficacy.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T09:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.03.005
  • The Effects of Training Contingency Awareness during Attention Bias
           Modification on Learning and Stress Reactivity
    • Authors: Amit Lazarov; Rany Abend; Shiran Seidner; Daniel S. Pine; Yair Bar-Haim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Amit Lazarov, Rany Abend, Shiran Seidner, Daniel S. Pine, Yair Bar-Haim
      Current attention bias modification (ABM) procedures are designed to implicitly train attention away from threatening stimuli with the hope of reducing stress reactivity and anxiety symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying effective ABM delivery are not well understood, with awareness of the training contingency suggested as one possible factor contributing to ABM efficacy. Here, 45 high-anxious participants were trained to divert attention away from threat in two ABM sessions. They were randomly assigned to one of three training protocols: an implicit protocol, comprised of two standard implicit ABM training sessions; an explicit protocol, comprised of two sessions with explicit instruction as to the attention training contingency; and an implicit-explicit protocol, in which participants were not informed of the training contingency in the first ABM session and informed of it at the start of the second session. We examined learning processes and stress reactivity following a stress-induction task. Results indicate that relative to implicit instructions, explicit instructions led to stronger learning during the first training session. Following rest, the explicit and implicit groups exhibited consolidation-related improvement in performance whereas no such improvement was noted for the implicit-explicit group. Finally, although stress reactivity was reduced after training, contingency awareness did not yield a differential effect on stress reactivity measured using both self-reports and skin conductance, within and across sessions. These results suggest that explicit ABM administration leads to greater initial learning during the training protocol while not differing from standard implicit administration in terms of offline learning and stress reactivity.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:04:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.03.002
  • Effects of Tailored and ACT-Influenced Internet-based CBT for Eating
           Disorders and the Relation between Knowledge Acquisition and Outcome: A
           Randomized Controlled Trial
    • Authors: Sandra Weineland Strandskov; Ata Ghaderi; Hedvig Andersson; Nicole Parmskog; Emelie Hjort; Anna Svanberg Wärn; Maria Jannert; Gerhard Andersson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Sandra Weineland Strandskov, Ata Ghaderi, Hedvig Andersson, Nicole Parmskog, Emelie Hjort, Anna Svanberg Wärn, Maria Jannert, Gerhard Andersson
      Objectives This is the first trial to investigate the outcome of tailored and ACT-influenced, cognitive behavioral Internet treatment for eating disorder psychopathology, and the relation between knowledge acquisition and outcome. Design Randomized controlled design, with computer-based allocation to treatment or waiting list control group. Participants Participants were recruited via advertisements in social media and newspapers in Sweden. Participants fulfilling the criteria for bulimia nervosa (BN), or Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), with a BMI above 17.5, were enrolled in the study (N = 92). Intervention The treatment group received an Internet-based, ACT-influenced CBT intervention, developed by the authors, for eating disorders. The treatment lasted eight weeks, and was adapted to the participant's individual needs. A clinician provided support. Main outcome measures Eating disorder symptoms and body shape dissatisfaction. Results Intent-to-treat analysis showed that the treatment group (n = 46) improved significantly on eating disorder symptoms and body dissatisfaction, compared with the waiting list control group (n = 46), with small to moderate effect sizes (between group effects, d = 0.35-0.64). More than a third of the participants in the treatment group (36.6%), compared to 7.1% in the waiting list control condition, made clinically significant improvements. Results showed a significant increase in knowledge in the treatment group compared to the waiting list control group (between group effect, d = 1.12), but we found no significant correlations between knowledge acquisition and outcome (r = -0.27 to – r = 0.23). Conclusion The results provide preliminary support for Internet based, tailored, and ACT-influenced treatment, based on CBT for participants with eating disorder psychopathology. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT02700620.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T02:45:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.02.002
  • To Do or Not to Do' Task Control Deficit in Obsessive-Compulsive
    • Authors: Eyal Kalanthroff; Avishai Henik; Helen Blair Simpson; Doron Todder; Gideon E. Anholt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Eyal Kalanthroff, Avishai Henik, Helen Blair Simpson, Doron Todder, Gideon E. Anholt
      Task control is an executive control mechanism that facilitates goal-directed task selection by suppressing irrelevant automatic “stimulus-driven” behaviors. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that less efficient task control in individuals diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with OCD symptoms, and specifically, with the inability to inhibit unwanted behaviors in OCD. Thirty-five healthy controls, thirty participants with OCD, and twenty-six participants with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) completed the object-interference (OI) task to measure task control, the stop-signal task to measure response inhibition, and the arrow-flanker task to evaluate executive abilities not contingent upon task control. OCD patients, but not GAD patients or healthy controls, exhibited impaired performance on the OI task. The deficit in task control, but not in response inhibition, correlated with OCD symptom severity. We suggest that reduced task control may be one of the neurocognitive processes that underlie the inability to inhibit unwanted behaviors in OCD.

      PubDate: 2017-01-27T18:06:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.01.004
  • Mobile phone-based mood ratings prospectively predict psychotherapy
    • Authors: Emma Bruehlman-Senecal; Adrian Aguilera; Stephen M. Schueller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Emma Bruehlman-Senecal, Adrian Aguilera, Stephen M. Schueller
      Objective Psychotherapy non-attendance is a costly and pervasive problem. While prior research has identified stable patient-level predictors of attendance, far less is known about dynamic (i.e., time-varying) factors. Identifying dynamic predictors can clarify how clinical states relate to psychotherapy attendance and inform effective “just-in-time” interventions to promote attendance. The present study examines whether daily mood, as measured by responses to automated mobile phone-based text messages, prospectively predicts attendance in group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Method Fifty-six Spanish-speaking Latino patients with elevated depressive symptoms (46 women, mean age = 50.92 years, SD = 10.90 years), enrolled in a manualized program of group CBT, received daily automated mood-monitoring text messages. Patients’ daily mood ratings, message response rate, and delay in responding were recorded. Results Patients’ self-reported mood the day prior to a scheduled psychotherapy session significantly predicted attendance, even after controlling for patients’ prior attendance history and age (OR = 1.33, 95% CI [1.04, 1.70], p = .02). Positive mood corresponded to a greater likelihood of attendance. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the clinical utility of automated mood-monitoring text messages in predicting attendance. These results underscore the value of text messaging, and other mobile technologies, as adjuncts to psychotherapy. Future work should explore the use of such monitoring to guide interventions to increase attendance, and ultimately the efficacy of psychotherapy.

      PubDate: 2017-01-12T21:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.01.002
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