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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 901 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 432)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 195)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 244)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 146)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access  
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Eat, Sleep, Work     Open Access  
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)

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Journal Cover Behavior Therapy
  [SJR: 1.929]   [H-I: 80]   [50 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0005-7894
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3123 journals]
  • Behavioral versus Nonbehavioral Guided Self-Help for Parents of Children
           with Externalizing Disorders in a Randomized Controlled Trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Christopher Hautmann, Christina Dose, Karin Duda-Kirchhof, Lisa Greimel, Martin Hellmich, Stephanie Imort, Josepha Katzmann, Julia Pinior, Kristin Scholz, Stephanie Schürmann, Tanja Wolff Metternich-Kaizman, Manfred Döpfner
      Self-help interventions for parents, which have a behavioral basis, are considered to be an effective treatment option for children with externalizing disorders. Nonbehavioral approaches are widely used but have little empirical evidence. The main objective of this trial was to compare the efficacy of a behavioral and a nonbehavioral guided self-help program for parents. Families of children (aged 4–11years) diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) were randomized to either a behavioral or a nonbehavioral guided self-help program including eight parenting booklets and ten counseling telephone calls. The analyses considered the ratings of five informants: blinded clinician, therapist, participant, (her or his) partner, and teacher. Of the 149 families randomized to treatment (intention-to-treat sample [ITT]), 110 parents completed the intervention (per-protocol sample [PP]). For the four primary outcome measures (blinded clinician- and participant-rated ADHD and ODD) at post-assessment, the analysis revealed a treatment advantage for the behavioral group in blinded clinician-rated ODD symptoms (ITT: d =0.37; PP: d =0.35). Further treatment differences, all in favor of the behavioral group (ITT and PP), were detected in therapist ratings (i.e., ODD) and participant ratings (e.g., parental self-efficacy [only PP], negative parenting behavior, parental stress). In both samples, no differences were found at post-assessment for ratings of the partner and the teacher, or at the 12-month follow-up (only participant ratings available). Behavioral guided self-help shows some treatment advantage in the short term. No superiority over nonbehavioral therapy was detected 12months after treatment termination.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T03:39:12Z
  • Associations of Stress Exposures and Social Support with Subsequent
           Long-Term Mental Health Outcomes Among U.S. Iraq War Veterans
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Maria M. Ciarleglio, Mihaela Aslan, Susan P. Proctor, John Concato, John Ko, Anica Pless Kaiser, Jennifer J. Vasterling
      The long-term mental health effects of war-zone deployment in the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars on military personnel are a significant public health concern. Using data collected prospectively at three distinct assessments during 2003–2014 as part of the Neurocognition Deployment Health Study and VA Cooperative Studies Program Study #566, we explored how stress exposures prior, during, and after return from deployment influence the long-term mental health outcomes of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety disorders, and problem drinking. Longer-term mental health outcomes were assessed in 375 service members and military veterans an average of 7.5years (standard deviation=1.0year) after the initial (i.e., “index”) Iraq deployment following their pre-deployment assessment. Anxiety disorder was the most commonly observed long-term mental health outcome (36.0%), followed by depression (24.5%), PTSD (24.3%), and problem drinking (21.0%). Multivariable regression models showed that greater post-deployment stressors, as measured by the Post-Deployment Life Events scale, were associated with greater risk of depression, anxiety disorders, and problem drinking. Anxiety disorder was the only outcome affected by pre-deployment stress concerns. In addition, greater post-deployment social support was associated with lower risk of all outcomes except problem drinking. These findings highlight the importance of assessing post-deployment stress exposures, such as stressful or traumatic life events, given the potential impact of these stressors on long-term mental health outcomes. This study also highlights the importance of post-deployment social support as a modifiable protective factor that can be used to help mitigate risk of long-term adverse mental health outcomes following war-zone exposure.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T03:39:12Z
  • A Method for Tracking Implementation Strategies: An Exemplar Implementing
           Measurement-Based Care in Community Behavioral Health Clinics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Meredith R. Boyd, Byron J. Powell, David Endicott, Cara C. Lewis
      Implementation experts suggest tailoring strategies to the intended context may enhance outcomes. However, it remains unclear which strategies are best suited to address specific barriers to implementation, in part because few measurement methods exist that adhere to recommendations for reporting. In the context of a dynamic cluster randomized trial comparing a standardized to tailored approach to implementing measurement-based care (MBC), this study aimed to (a) describe a method for tracking implementation strategies, (b) demonstrate the method by tracking strategies generated by teams tasked with implementing MBC at their clinics in the tailored condition, and (c) conduct preliminary examinations of the relation between strategy use and implementation outcomes (i.e., self-reported fidelity to MBC). The method consisted of a coding form based on Proctor, Powell, and McMillen (2013) implementation strategy reporting guidelines and Powell et al.’s (2012) taxonomy to facilitate specification of the strategies. A trained research specialist coded digitally recorded implementation team meetings. The method allowed for the following characterization of strategy use. Each site generated 39 unique strategies across an average of six meetings in five months. There was little variability in the use of types of implementation strategies across sites with the following order of prevalence: quality management (50.00%), restructuring (16.53%), communication (15.68%), education (8.90%), planning (7.20%), and financing (1.69%). We identified a new category of strategies not captured by the existing taxonomy, labeled “communication.” There was no evidence that number of implementation strategies enacted was statistically significantly associated with changes in self-reported fidelity to MBC—however, financing strategies were associated with increased fidelity. This method has the capacity to yield rich data that will inform investigations into tailored implementation approaches.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T03:39:12Z
  • Evaluating the Effectiveness of Safety Plans for Military Veterans: Do
           Safety Plans Tailored to Veteran Characteristics Decrease Suicide
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Jonathan D. Green, Jaclyn C. Kearns, Raymond C. Rosen, Terence M. Keane, Brian P. Marx
      In response to high suicide rates among veterans, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has mandated that veterans at risk for suicide be given Safety Plans (SP). Research on the efficacy of SPs, however, is unclear and no prior study has examined the degree to which more personally relevant (i.e., higher quality) SPs may be associated with better outcomes or evaluate which components of SPs may be most effective at reducing suicidal behavior. The goal of the present study was to examine whether more personally relevant (i.e., higher quality) SPs reduce future suicide-related outcomes (psychiatric hospitalization, self-harm, and suicide attempts), and to determine which components of a SP may be most effective at reducing these outcomes. Participants were 68 individuals enrolled in a longitudinal national registry of returning military veterans receiving care from the VA, and who had at least one suicide-related event in the VA Suicide Prevention Applications Network. Data were collected between December 2009 and September 2016 and were analyzed between March 2016 and February 2017. Scores of SP quality were used to predict suicide-related outcomes. SP quality was low. Higher SP quality scores predicted a decreased likelihood of future suicide behavior reports (note entered into veteran’s chart after a report of any self-harm behavior, including a suicide attempt). Higher scores on Step 3 (people and places that serve as distractions) predicted a decreased likelihood of future suicide behavior reports. More personally relevant SPs may reduce future suicide-related outcomes among veterans. Low SP quality scores highlight the need for training around SP implementation in the VA.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T03:39:12Z
  • Predictors and Outcomes of Sudden Gains and Sudden Regressions in
           Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Youth Anxiety
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Phoebe H. Durland, Christopher M. Wyszynski, Brian C. Chu
      Sudden gains (SGs), referring to large, stable symptom improvement occurring between consecutive treatment sessions, have been associated with improved outcomes among adults with various psychological disorders. Little research exists on SGs or sudden symptom worsening (i.e., sudden regressions [SRs]) during treatment for youth disorders. The current study examined predictors and outcomes of SGs/SRs via multiple informants in youth anxiety treatment. Participants were 118 youth (age M =11.6, SD =2.5; 53.8% female) and their caregivers receiving a CBT protocol for a principal anxiety disorder. Anxiety symptom severity was assessed weekly via the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children–Trait–Child/Parent versions. SGs and SRs occurred in 45.8% and 31.3% of youth, respectively. SRs were more common among youth with comorbid mood or externalizing disorders, while SGs occurred more often among youth with greater pre-treatment anxiety symptom severity. SGs were not associated with post-treatment outcomes, but SRs predicted significantly higher post-treatment internalizing symptoms based on child report (β =.23, p =.03) and externalizing symptoms based on child (β =.15, p =.04) and parent report (β =.16, p =.03), controlling for overall magnitude of symptom change. SRs among youth receiving CBT for anxiety are associated with pre-treatment clinical complexity and poorer post-treatment outcomes and may serve as a warning sign to clinicians of possible treatment failure.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T03:02:53Z
  • Changes in Decentering across Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for
           Social Anxiety Disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Sarah A. Hayes-Skelton, Carol S. Lee
      To further improve treatments, we need to better understand potential common treatment mechanisms, such as decentering, or the ability to observe thoughts and feelings as objective events in the mind rather than personally identifying with them (Safran & Segal, 1990). Therefore, this study examined whether 12-sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for 81 clients (57.6% female, 50.8% White) diagnosed with social anxiety disorder led to increases in decentering and whether increased decentering was associated with improved outcome. Furthermore, this study examined whether decentering was associated with outcome over and above a competing mechanism - cognitive reappraisal. Overall, results indicated that CBGT in this study led to similar outcomes compared to previous studies and decentering increased over CBGT (d’s from 0.81 to 2.23). Change in decentering predicted improvement on most, but not all measures of outcome and those who no longer met criteria for social anxiety disorder at post-treatment had significantly greater change in decentering across therapy and significantly higher decentering scores at post-treatment compared to those who retained a social anxiety disorder diagnosis at post-treatment. Finally, changes in decentering predicted outcome over and above change reappraisal on all outcome measures. These results largely support the role of decentering in CBGT for social anxiety; however, the implications of the inconsistencies in results based on which outcome measure was used are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T03:02:53Z
  • Comparing Alliance in Two Cognitive-Behavioural Therapies for Adolescents
           with ADHD using a Randomized Controlled Trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): B. Boyer, K.J. MacKay, B.D. McLeod, S. Van Der Oord
      Alliance is defined as the client-therapist bond and their ability to collaborate on therapeutic activities. Treatment for adolescents with ADHD is rarely studied in terms of alliance. In this study, two cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBT; one structured treatment aimed at planning skills and one less-structured solution focused treatment both delivered in the style of Motivational Interviewing) were compared with regard to alliance and alliance-outcome association. The influence of therapist competence on this alliance-outcome association was also evaluated. The alliance between 69 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and their therapists was measured early in treatment, using the Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy - Alliance scale. Observer-rated therapist competence was measured using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity scale (version 3.1.1.). Outcome variables were the adolescents’ reduction in Planning problems and ADHD symptoms. The alliance, and more specifically collaboration on therapeutic activities, was significantly higher for the more structured CBT (p =.04; moderate effect size). Alliance was not related to outcome in the more structured CBT, whilst the alliance was positively related to the reduction in planning problems in the less structured CBT. Finally, alliance was a significant mediator between therapist competence and treatment outcome for the less-structured CBT. The clarity and structure of CBT may help facilitate alliance formation for adolescents with ADHD who often have difficulty implementing structure themselves. Therapists may need to invest more in alliance formation in less structured CBT as the alliance affects outcome. Moreover, enhancing therapist competence in less structured CBT may help improve outcomes in less structured CBT, as therapist competence may impact outcome through alliance.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T03:02:53Z
  • A Cross-Lagged Panel Approach to Understanding Social Support and Chronic
           Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Veterans: Assessment Modality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Matthew J. Woodward, Sandra B. Morissette, Nathan A. Kimbrel, Eric C. Meyer, Bryann B. DeBeer, Suzy B. Gulliver, J. Gayle Beck
      Although there is a strong and consistent association between social support and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the directionality of this association has been debated, with some research indicating that social support protects against PTSD symptoms, whereas other research suggests that PTSD symptoms erode social support. The majority of studies in the literature have been cross-sectional, rendering directionality impossible to determine. Cross-lagged panel models overcome many previous limitations; however, findings from the few studies employing these designs have been mixed, possibly due to methodological differences including self-report versus clinician-administered assessment. The current study used a cross-lagged panel structural equation model to explore the relationship between social support and chronic PTSD symptoms over a one-year period in a sample of 264 Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans assessed several years after trauma exposure. Approximately a third of the sample met criteria for PTSD at the baseline assessment, with veterans’ trauma occurring an average of six years prior to baseline. Two separate models were run, with one using PTSD symptoms assessed via self-report and the other using clinician-assessed PTSD symptoms. Excellent model fit was found for both models. Results indicated that the relationship between social support and PTSD symptoms was affected by assessment modality. Whereas the self-report model indicated a bidirectional relationship between social support and PTSD symptoms over time, the clinician assessed model indicated only that baseline PTSD symptoms predicted social support one year later. Results highlight that assessment modality is one factor that likely impacts disparate findings across previous studies. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed, with suggestions for the growing body of literature utilizing these designs to dismantle this complex association.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T03:02:53Z
  • Presidential Address: Are the Obsessive-Compulsive Related Disorders
           Related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder' A Critical Look at DSM-5’s
           New Category
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 49, Issue 1
      Author(s): Jonathan S. Abramowitz
      The 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) includes a new class of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) that includes obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and a handful of other putatively related conditions. Although this new category promises to raise awareness of underrecognized and understudied problems, the empirical validity and practical utility of this new DSM category is questionable. This article critically examines the arguments underlying the new OCRD class, illuminates a number of problems with this class, and then discusses implications for clinicians and researchers.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T03:02:53Z
  • Prospective Associations Between Sleep Disturbance and Repetitive Negative
           Thinking: The Mediating Roles of Focusing and Shifting Attentional Control
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 49, Issue 1
      Author(s): Rebecca C. Cox, David A. Cole, Eliza L. Kramer, Bunmi O. Olatunji
      Although considerable evidence has linked sleep disturbance to symptoms of psychopathology, including repetitive negative thinking, few studies have examined how sleep disturbance may predict repetitive negative thinking over time. Further, no study to date has examined specific mechanisms that may account for this relationship. The present study sought to address these gaps in the literature by testing focusing and shifting attentional control as two potential mediators of the relationship between sleep disturbance and repetitive negative thinking over a 6-month period. A final sample of 445 unselected community participants completed measures of sleep disturbance and repetitive negative thinking at Time 1, measures of focusing and shifting attentional control 3 months later, and measures of repetitive negative thinking again 6 months later. Results revealed that focusing, but not shifting, attentional control mediated the relationship between sleep disturbance and repetitive negative thinking, specifically, worry, rumination, and obsessions. These findings provide preliminary evidence for focusing attentional control as a candidate mechanism that may explain the causal role of sleep disturbance in the development of repetitive negative thinking observed in various disorders.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T03:02:53Z
  • Comparing Children’s Memories for Negative Versus Positive Events in the
           Context of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 49, Issue 1
      Author(s): Jemma Bray, Neil Brewer, Kate Cameron, Reginald D.V. Nixon
      How well children remember negative events is not fully understood. Previous research has failed to simultaneously test memory and perceptions of memory for both negative and positive events. Children (n = 38, 7–17 years) recruited from a hospital following accidental injury were tested for their memory of an injury-producing accident (negative event) and a positive event (unexpectedly receiving a $50 gift voucher). Objective accuracy of memory, memory quality characteristics (e.g., how coherently the event was recalled), children’s judgments of their memory (meta-cognitive), and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms were assessed 2 months post-injury. Children’s memories for their experiences were verified using witness/parent reports. Memory quality characteristics of children’s free recollection were coded with a previously used standardized system. Overall, children showed high levels of accuracy for both events, with little degradation over time. High PTS children showed little evidence of deficits in coherence or organization in their narratives relative to low PTS children. Although in some instances high PTS children judged their memory quality to be poor compared to low PTS children, this depended on how this was assessed (e.g., self-report questionnaire vs. coded narratives). In terms of limitations, it is unclear whether the findings will generalize for memories of repeated events. Witness verification of the accident details itself could be prone to error. In conclusion, the findings are broadly supportive of the proposal made by theorists who argue that trauma memories are recalled no less accurately than other distinctive memories. The role of meta-cognitive elements of children’s memory and reporting in PTS is less clear.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T03:02:53Z
  • Benchmarking Treatment Response in Tourette’s Disorder: A Psychometric
           Evaluation and Signal Detection Analysis of the Parent Tic Questionnaire
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 49, Issue 1
      Author(s): Emily J. Ricketts, Joseph F. McGuire, Susanna Chang, Deepika Bose, Madeline M. Rasch, Douglas W. Woods, Matthew W. Specht, John T. Walkup, Lawrence Scahill, Sabine Wilhelm, Alan L. Peterson, John Piacentini
      This study assessed the psychometric properties of a parent-reported tic severity measure, the Parent Tic Questionnaire (PTQ), and used the scale to establish guidelines for delineating clinically significant tic treatment response. Participants were 126 children ages 9 to 17 who participated in a randomized controlled trial of Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT). Tic severity was assessed using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), Hopkins Motor/Vocal Tic Scale (HMVTS) and PTQ; positive treatment response was defined by a score of 1 (very much improved) or 2 (much improved) on the Clinical Global Impressions – Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlations (ICC) assessed internal consistency and test-retest reliability, with correlations evaluating validity. Receiver- and Quality-Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses assessed the efficiency of percent and raw-reduction cutoffs associated with positive treatment response. The PTQ demonstrated good internal consistency (α = 0.80 to 0.86), excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = .84 to .89), good convergent validity with the YGTSS and HM/VTS, and good discriminant validity from hyperactive, obsessive-compulsive, and externalizing (i.e., aggression and rule-breaking) symptoms. A 55% reduction and 10-point decrease in PTQ Total score were optimal for defining positive treatment response. Findings help standardize tic assessment and provide clinicians with greater clarity in determining clinically meaningful tic symptom change during treatment.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T03:02:53Z
  • PTSD Symptom Severity and Emotion Regulation Strategy Use During Trauma
           Cue Exposure Among Patients With Substance Use Disorders: Associations
           With Negative Affect, Craving, and Cortisol Reactivity
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 49, Issue 1
      Author(s): Matthew T. Tull, Christopher R. Berghoff, Linnie E. Wheeless, Rivka T. Cohen, Kim L. Gratz
      The co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) pathology with a substance use disorder (SUD) is associated with emotion regulation deficits. However, studies in this area generally rely on trait-based emotion regulation measures, and there is limited information on the relation of PTSD pathology to the use of specific emotion regulation strategies in response to trauma-related distress among SUD patients or the consequences of these strategies for trauma cue reactivity. This study examined the relation of PTSD symptom severity to the use of specific emotion regulation strategies during trauma cue exposure among trauma-exposed SUD patients, as well as the indirect relations of PTSD symptom severity to changes in negative affect, cravings, and cortisol levels pre- to posttrauma cue exposure through different emotion regulation strategies. Participants were 133 trauma-exposed SUD patients. Participants listened to a personalized trauma script and reported on emotion regulation strategies used during the script. Data on negative affect, cravings, and cortisol were collected pre- and postscript. PTSD symptom severity related positively to the use of more adaptive (e.g., distraction) and maladaptive (e.g., suppression) regulation strategies. Moreover, evidence for the indirect effects of PTSD symptom severity on negative affect and cortisol reactivity through both adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies was found. Implications of findings are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T03:02:53Z
  • Effectiveness of Web- and Mobile-Based Treatment of Subthreshold
           Depression With Adherence-Focused Guidance: A Single-Blind Randomized
           Controlled Trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 49, Issue 1
      Author(s): David Daniel Ebert, Claudia Buntrock, Dirk Lehr, Filip Smit, Heleen Riper, Harald Baumeister, Pim Cuijpers, Matthias Berking
      Evidence for the impact of psychological Interventions for subthreshold depression (sD) is conflicting. Moreover, human resources to deliver such treatments are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based intervention with adherence-focused guidance in the treatment of sD. Participants with sD (CES-D≥ 16, no Major Depressive Disorder according to DSM-IV criteria, N = 204) recruited via a large health insurance were randomly allocated to a web-based mobile-supported cognitive-behavioral intervention or to a waitlist control condition with unrestricted access to usual care. The primary outcome was the reduction in depressive symptom severity as measured by blind diagnostic raters using the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) at posttreatment. There was a statistically significant between-group difference in QIDS scores at posttreatment in favor of the intervention group, F(1, 201) = 11.31, p = .001, corresponding to a medium effect size of d = 0.37 (95% CI 0.09–0.64) and a NNT of 7 (95%–CI 3.7–41.2). Significant effects in favour of the intervention group were also found for secondary outcomes such as quality of life, anxiety, and insomnia severity. Web-based self-help interventions with adherence-focused guidance could be an acceptable and effective approach to reduce a range of negative consequences associated with subclinical depression.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T03:02:53Z
  • Multi-Informant Assessments of Adolescent Social Anxiety: Adding Clarity
           by Leveraging Reports from Unfamiliar Peer Confederates
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 49, Issue 1
      Author(s): Danielle E. Deros, Sarah J. Racz, Melanie F. Lipton, Tara M. Augenstein, Jeremy N. Karp, Lauren M. Keeley, Noor Qasmieh, Brigitte I. Grewe, Amelia Aldao, Andres De Los Reyes
      Adolescent social anxiety (SA) assessments often include adolescent and parent reports, and low reporting correspondence results in uncertainties in clinical decision-making. Adolescents display SA within non-home contexts such as peer interactions. Yet, current methods for collecting peer reports raise confidentiality concerns, though adolescent SA assessments nonetheless would benefit from context-specific reports relevant to adolescent SA (i.e., interactions with unfamiliar peers). In a sample of 89 adolescents (30 Evaluation-Seeking; 59 Community Control), we collected SA reports from adolescents and their parents, and SA reports from unfamiliar peer confederates who interacted with adolescents during 20-minute mock social interactions. Adolescents and parents completed reports on trait measures of adolescent SA and related concerns (e.g., depressive symptoms), and adolescents completed self-reports of state arousal within mock social interactions. Adolescents’ SA reports correlated with reports on parallel measures from parents in the .30s and with peer confederates in the .40s to .50s, whereas reports from parent-confederate dyads correlated in the .07 to .22 range. Adolescent, parent, and peer confederate SA reports related to reports on trait measures of adolescent SA and depressive symptoms, and distinguished Evaluation-Seeking from Community Control Adolescents. Confederates’ SA reports incrementally predicted adolescents’ self-reported SA over and above parent reports, and vice versa, with combined Rs ranging from .51 to .60. These combined Rs approximate typical correspondence levels between informants who observe adolescents in the same context (e.g., mother-father). Adolescent and peer confederate (but not parent) SA reports predicted adolescents’ state arousal in social interactions. These findings have implications for clarifying patterns of reporting correspondence in clinical assessments of adolescent SA.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T03:02:53Z
  • Economic Impact of Third-Wave Cognitive Behavioral Therapies: A Systematic
           Review and Quality Assessment of Economic Evaluations in Randomized
           Controlled Trials
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 49, Issue 1
      Author(s): Albert Feliu-Soler, Ausiàs Cebolla, Lance M. McCracken, Francesco D’Amico, Martin Knapp, Alba López-Montoyo, Javier García-Campayo, Joaquim Soler, Rosa M. Baños, Adrián Pérez-Aranda, Laura Andrés-Rodriguez, María Rubio-Valera, Juan V. Luciano
      The term third-wave cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) encompasses new forms of CBT that both extend and innovate within CBT. Most third-wave therapies have been subject to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focused on clinical effectiveness; however, the number and quality of economic evaluations in these RCTs has been unknown and may be few. Evidence about efficiency of these therapies may help support decisions on efficient allocation of resources in health policies. The main aim of this study was to systematically review the economic impact of third-wave therapies in the treatment of patients with physical or mental conditions. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and CINALH to identify economic evaluations of third-wave therapies. Quality and Risk of Bias (RoB) assessment of economic evaluations was also made using the Drummond 35-item checklist and the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias, respectively. Eleven RCTs were included in this systematic review. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), and extended Behaviour Activation (eBA) showed acceptable cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratios. No study employed a time horizon of more than 3 years. Quality and RoB assessments highlight some limitations that temper the findings. There is some evidence that MBCT, MBSR, ACT, DBT, and eBA are efficient from a societal or a third-party payer perspective. No economic analysis was found for many third-wave therapies. Therefore, more economic evaluations with high methodological quality are needed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T03:02:53Z
  • Acknowledgment to 2017 Reviewers
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 49, Issue 1

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T03:02:53Z
  • Group CBT for externalizing disorders in urban schools: Effect of training
           strategy on treatment fidelity and child outcomes
    • Authors: Ricardo Eiraldi; Jennifer A. Mautone; Muniya S. Khanna; Thomas J. Power; Andrew Orapallo; Jaclyn Cacia; Billie S. Schwartz; Barry McCurdy; Jacqueline Keiffer; Cynthia Paidipati; Rebecca Kanine; Manju Abraham; Shelby Tulio; Lauren Swift; Shannon N. Bressler; Beatriz Cabello; Abbas F. Jawad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Ricardo Eiraldi, Jennifer A. Mautone, Muniya S. Khanna, Thomas J. Power, Andrew Orapallo, Jaclyn Cacia, Billie S. Schwartz, Barry McCurdy, Jacqueline Keiffer, Cynthia Paidipati, Rebecca Kanine, Manju Abraham, Shelby Tulio, Lauren Swift, Shannon N. Bressler, Beatriz Cabello, Abbas F. Jawad
      Public schools are an ideal setting for the delivery of mental health services to children. Unfortunately, services provided in schools, and more so in urban schools, have been found to lead to little or no significant clinical improvements. Studies with urban school children seldom report on the effects of clinician training on treatment fidelity and child outcomes. This study examines the differential effects of two levels of school-based counselor training: Training workshop with basic consultation (C) vs. Training workshop plus enhanced consultation (C+) on treatment fidelity and child outcomes. Fourteen school staff members (counselors) were randomly assigned to C or C+. Counselors implemented a group cognitive behavioral therapy protocol (Coping Power Program, CPP) for children with or at risk for externalizing behavior disorders. Independent coders coded each CPP session for content and process fidelity. Changes in outcomes from pre- to post- were assessed via a parent psychiatric interview and interviewer-rated severity of illness and global impairment. Counselors in C+ delivered CPP with significantly higher levels of content and process fidelity compared to counselors in C. Both C and C+ resulted in significant improvement in interviewer-rated impairment; the conditions did not differ from each other with regard to impairment. Groups did not differ with regard to pre- to- post-treatment changes in diagnostic severity level. School-based behavioral health staff in urban schools are able to implement interventions with fidelity and clinical effectiveness when provided with ongoing consultation. Enhanced consultation resulted in higher fidelity. Enhanced consultation did not result in better student outcomes compared to basic consultation. Implications for resource allocation decisions with staff training in EBP are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-01-16T02:38:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2018.01.001
  • The Influence of Race and Income on Community Mothers’ Acceptance of
           Child Management Methods
    • Authors: Kasia S. Plessy; Anna C.J. Long; Mary Lou Kelley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Kasia S. Plessy, Anna C.J. Long, Mary Lou Kelley
      The consideration of diverse family factors on parents’ acceptance of behavioral parent training (BPT) components aids in the development and delivery of culturally sensitive parenting programs. Perceptions of acceptability are particularly important to investigate among low-income and racial-minority families, as they are less likely to engage in non-adapted BPT programs. Therefore, the current study examines the synergistic effects of race and income on mothers’ acceptance of five common child management methods relevant to BPT. The relationship between mothers’ acceptability ratings and self-reported parenting practices was also explored. Participants were 106 White and Black mothers from different income levels who completed measures related to the acceptability of response cost, positive reinforcement, time out, spanking, and medication. The results indicated that mothers from varying backgrounds differed in their acceptance of child management methods, particularly with regard to corporal punishment. Additionally, a relationship was found between parents’ acceptability ratings and their self-reported parenting behavior. The findings support the consideration of parents’ perceptions of child discipline methods when recommending and delivering BPT programs to diverse parents.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T01:34:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.12.011
  • Feasibility of Automated Training for Facial Emotion Expression and
           Recognition in Autism
    • Authors: Susan W. White; A. Lynn Abbott; Andrea Trubanova Wieckowski; Nicole N. Capriola; Sherin Aly; Amira Youssef
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Susan W. White, A. Lynn Abbott, Andrea Trubanova Wieckowski, Nicole N. Capriola, Sherin Aly, Amira Youssef
      Impairment in facial emotion recognition (FER) and facial emotion expression (FEE), often documented in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), are believed to contribute to the observed core social-communication disability that characterizes this disorder. Moreover, impaired FER and FEE are frequently seen in other disorders and problem behaviors. We describe the development of a novel system to detect and give real-time feedback on these processes, termed FEET (Facial Emotion Expression Training), an automated, game-like system that is based on 3-dimensional sensing (Kinect) technology. A sample of 40 children (n = 20 ASD, n = 20 typically developing) interacted with our prototype system, which presented audiovisual stimuli and assessed responses of participants. Overall, consumer satisfaction ratings were high, and youth with ASD reported enjoying interacting with the system moreso than did the typical youth. Results suggest that new technology-based interventions are acceptable to consumers and viable for use in remediation of transdiagnostic processes, such as FER and FEE. Implications for future technology-based intervention to target transdiagnostic processes are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T01:34:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.12.010
  • Emotion Regulation Protects Against Recurrence of Depressive Symptoms
           Following Inpatient Care for Major Depressive Disorder
    • Authors: David D. Ebert; Lisa Hopfinger; Claudi L.H. Bockting; Matthias Berking
      Pages: 739 - 749
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 6
      Author(s): David D. Ebert, Lisa Hopfinger, Claudi L.H. Bockting, Matthias Berking
      Relapse following response in psychotherapy for major depressive disorder (MDD) is a major concern. Emotion regulation (ER) has been discussed as a putative emerging and maintaining factor for depression. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether ER protects against recurrence of depression over and above residual symptoms of depression following inpatient care for MDD. ER skills (ERSQ-ES) and depression (HEALTH-49) were assessed in 193 patients with MDD (age, M = 47.4, SD = 9.6, 75.1% female, 100% Caucasian) at treatment discontinuation, 3 and 12 months after treatment. Multiple hierarchical regressions were used to examine general and specific ER as predictors of depressive symptoms at follow-ups. Higher general ER predicted lower depression over and beyond residual symptoms of depression at 3-month follow-up among treatment responders but not among treatment nonresponders. With regard to specific ER skills, readiness to confront and acceptance of undesired emotions predicted lower depressive symptoms beyond residual symptoms of depression 12 months, respectively 3 and 12 months after treatment. Findings of the present study indicate that targeting general ER might be more important for remitted and less important for nonremitted patients. Enhancing ER should hence be realized in a sequential treatment design, in which a continuation phase treatment with a specific focus on ER directly follows, once patients sufficiently responded to treatment. Acceptance of undesired emotion and readiness to confront situations that cue these emotions appear to be particularly important for protecting against recurrence of depression. Future research should clarify whether findings can be generalized to outpatient care.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:35:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.03.003
  • Emotion Regulation in Borderline Personality Disorder: An Experimental
           Investigation of the Effects of Instructed Acceptance and Suppression
    • Authors: Katherine L. Dixon-Gordon; Brianna J. Turner; M. Zachary Rosenthal; Alexander L. Chapman
      Pages: 750 - 764
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy, Volume 48, Issue 6
      Author(s): Katherine L. Dixon-Gordon, Brianna J. Turner, M. Zachary Rosenthal, Alexander L. Chapman
      Difficulties with emotion regulation are central to borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recent research suggests that avoidance of emotions in general, and emotion suppression specifically, may be commonly used among those who meet criteria for the disorder. Contemporary behavioral interventions for BPD incorporate cognitive and behavioral skills to increase emotional experiencing and acceptance while decreasing behaviors that function to escape or avoid from emotions. Few studies, however, have experimentally examined the effects of instructed emotion suppression and acceptance in BPD. The present study examined the effects of instructed use of different emotion regulation strategies on emotions, psychophysiology, and behavior in BPD. Participants with BPD, major depressive disorder (MDD), and nonpsychiatric controls (N = 193) were randomly assigned to either suppress or accept emotions during an audio recording of a social rejection scenario, and completed a behavioral measure of distress tolerance. BPD participants exhibited greater heart rate variability in the acceptance (vs. suppression) condition; this pattern was not evident within the other groups. These results suggest that deliberate use of acceptance-based emotion regulation strategies may have unique physiological effects among individuals with BPD.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:35:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.03.001
  • The Influence of Acetaminophen and Observational Conditioning on the
           Acquired Capability for Suicide
    • Authors: Bruno Chiurliza; Thomas E. Joiner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Bruno Chiurliza, Thomas E. Joiner
      The effects of acetaminophen and a reading task on physical pain tolerance and fearlessness about death were tested in 106 undergraduate students. Participants were randomized into four groups, each receiving either acetaminophen or no medication, along with either a control or experimental reading task. It was predicted that acetaminophen would increase pain tolerance and fearlessness about death, that the experimental reading task would decrease both outcomes, and that the interventions would interact (i.e., acetaminophen would dampen the effects of the reading task). Multivariate analysis of variance was used to test hypotheses. No significant interaction was found (p = .17) and there was no effect for acetaminophen (p = .56), but individuals administered the experimental reading task demonstrated significantly higher physical pain tolerance (p < .05).

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T11:29:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.12.009
  • Supervision in Community Mental Health: Understanding Intensity of EBT
    • Authors: Leah Lucid; Rosemary Meza; Michael D. Pullmann; Nathaniel Jungbluth; Esther Deblinger; Shannon Dorsey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Leah Lucid, Rosemary Meza, Michael D. Pullmann, Nathaniel Jungbluth, Esther Deblinger, Shannon Dorsey
      The goal of the present study is to examine clinician, supervisor, and organizational factors that are associated with the intensity of evidence-based treatment (EBT) focus in workplace-based clinical supervision of a specific EBT, Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT). Supervisors (n = 56) and clinicians (n = 207) from mental health organizations across Washington State completed online self-report questionnaires. Multilevel modeling (MLM) analyses were used to examine the relative influence of nested clinician and supervisor factors on the intensity of EBT focus in supervision. We found that 33% of the variance in clinician report of EBT supervision intensity clustered at the supervisor level and implementation climate was the only significant factor associated with EBT supervision intensity. While individual clinician and supervisor factors may play a role in EBT coverage in supervision, our results suggest that an implementation climate that supports EBT may be the most critical factor for improving intensity of EBT coverage. Thus, implementation efforts that address the extent to which EBTs are expected, rewarded, and supported within an organization may be needed to support greater coverage of EBT during workplace-based supervision.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T11:29:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.12.007
  • Breath versus Emotions: The Impact of Different Foci of Attention During
           Mindfulness Meditation on the Experience of Negative and Positive Emotions
    • Authors: Thomas Beblo; Sarah Pelster; Christine Schilling; K. Kleinke; Benjamin Iffland; Martin Driessen; Silvia Fernando
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Thomas Beblo, Sarah Pelster, Christine Schilling, K. Kleinke, Benjamin Iffland, Martin Driessen, Silvia Fernando
      Mindfulness meditation yields beneficial effects on the processing of emotions. However, it is still unclear whether the focus of attention during meditation influences these effects. In the present study we aimed at comparing the effects of breathing meditation and emotion-focused meditation on the immediate and delayed processing of negative and positive emotions. The study included 65 adult novice meditators who were exposed to positively and negatively valenced film clips. Participants were randomly assigned to three conditions. While watching the films at t1, they were asked to mindfully focus on their breath (condition 1), on emotions (condition 2), or on nothing in particular (condition 3). Ten minutes later at t2, comparable film clips were shown but all participants watched them without taking up a mindful attitude. Dependent measures were emotional states at t1 and t2. Participants of both meditation conditions particularly showed a more preferable delayed emotional reaction to negative stimuli than participants of the control condition. Breathing meditation and emotion-focused meditation may constitute effective emotion regulation strategies to deal with negatively valenced emotional states.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T11:29:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.12.006
  • Willingness to Seek Treatment among Black Students with Anxiety or
           Depression: The Synergistic Effect of Sociocultural Factors with Symptom
           Severity and Intolerance of Uncertainty
    • Authors: Kimberlye E. Dean; Anna C.J. Long; Russell A. Matthews; Julia D. Buckner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Kimberlye E. Dean, Anna C.J. Long, Russell A. Matthews, Julia D. Buckner
      Anxiety and depressive disorders are among the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders, yet they remain largely under-treated in the U.S. and Black adults are especially unlikely to seek or receive mental health services. Symptom severity has been found to impact treatment seeking behaviors as have sociocultural factors. Yet no known research has tested whether these factors work synergistically to effect willingness to seek treatment. Further, emerging data point to the importance of transdiagnostic risk factors such as intolerance of uncertainty (IU). IU may be negatively related to seeking treatment given that Black adults may be uncertain whether treatment might benefit them. Thus, the current study examined the relations between symptom severity/IU and willingness to seek treatment for anxiety/depression problems and the impact of key sociocultural variables (i.e., cultural mistrust-interpersonal relations [CMI-IR], perceived discrimination [PED]) on these relations among 161 (85% female) Black undergraduates. Consistent with prediction, symptom severity was positively related to willingness, but unexpectedly, IU was positively related. There was a significant symptom severity X CMI-IR interaction such that severity was positively related to willingness among students with lower cultural mistrust, but not higher mistrust. There were also significant IU X PED interaction such that IU was positively related to willingness among students with lower PED, but not higher PED. Results highlight the importance of considering the interplay between symptom severity, transdiagnostic vulnerability factors, and sociocultural variables when striving to identify factors related to treatment seeking behaviors among anxious and/or depressed Black students.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T11:29:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.12.008
  • Assessing Sexual Orientation Symptoms in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:
           Development and Validation of the Sexual Orientation Obsessions and
           Reactions Test (SORT)
    • Authors: Monnica T. Williams; Terence H.W. Ching; Ghazel Tellawi; Jedidiah Siev; Jessica Dowell; Victoria Schauldt; Joseph C. Slimowicz; Chad T. Wetterneck
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Monnica T. Williams, Terence H.W. Ching, Ghazel Tellawi, Jedidiah Siev, Jessica Dowell, Victoria Schauldt, Joseph C. Slimowicz, Chad T. Wetterneck
      Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) includes many symptom presentations, which creates unique diagnostic challenges. Fears surrounding one’s sexual orientation are common within OCD (also called SO-OCD), but SO-OCD is consistently misdiagnosed by physicians and psychologists. To address this issue, we describe the development of a self-report measure for assessing SO-OCD to help distinguish OCD from distress caused by a sexual orientation identity crisis. The current manuscript details two studies that established the psychometric properties and clinical utility of this measure. In Study 1, the factor structure, validity, and reliability were examined for the measure’s twelve items in a sample of 1,673 university students. The results revealed a two-factor solution for the measure (Factor 1: Transformation Fears, Factor 2: Somatic Checking), and preliminary evidence of validity and reliability. In Study 2, the measure was tested with LGBTQ and heterosexual community samples and clinical samples of individuals with SO-OCD and other types of OCD. The two-factor solution and evidence of validity and reliability were supported in these samples. Cut-off points were established to distinguish between community members and SO-OCD sufferers, as well as between those experiencing SO-OCD and other types of OCD. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T11:29:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.12.005
  • Teacher Job Stress and Satisfaction in Urban Schools: Disentangling
           Individual, Classroom, and Organizational Level Influences
    • Authors: Rachel R. Ouellette; Stacy L. Frazier; Elisa S. Shernoff; Elise Cappella; Tara G. Mehta; Ané Maríñez-Lora; Grace Cua; Marc S. Atkins
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Rachel R. Ouellette, Stacy L. Frazier, Elisa S. Shernoff, Elise Cappella, Tara G. Mehta, Ané Maríñez-Lora, Grace Cua, Marc S. Atkins
      Schools remain among the most frequent providers of children’s mental health services, particularly in low income urban settings. Several decades of research have focused on training teachers to implement evidence-based interventions for minimizing disruptive behavior. Studies consistently demonstrate robust improvements in student behavior and learning; however, the impact on teachers’ work-related stress or satisfaction is not well understood. Six urban, high poverty elementary schools were randomly assigned to a school mental health services model (Links to Learning; L2L) for referred, disruptive students or to services and professional development as usual (SAU). Teachers (n = 71, K-4 general education teachers) in L2L schools participated in professional development and consultation in two universal and two targeted interventions to reduce disruptive behaviors and promote learning. Teachers (n = 65) in SAU schools participated in professional development as usual. Multiple regression models examined teacher reports of individual-level self-efficacy, classroom-level student functioning, and school-level organizational health as predictors of stress and satisfaction. Findings revealed no significant difference between conditions on teacher work-related stress or satisfaction. Organizational health was the strongest predictor of stress and satisfaction. Training on and implementation of evidence-based classroom interventions did not appear to significantly impact teachers’ work-related stress or satisfaction. Instead, findings point to organizational climate and teacher connectedness as potential levers for change, supporting prior work on teacher stress and satisfaction in schools. The significance of targeting organizational factors may be particularly significant in urban school districts.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T11:29:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.11.011
  • A mixed methods study of the stages of implementation for an
           evidence-based trauma intervention in schools
    • Authors: Erum Nadeem; Lisa Saldana; Jason Chapman; Holle Schaper
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Erum Nadeem, Lisa Saldana, Jason Chapman, Holle Schaper
      A mixed methods study was conducted to examine the implementation process of 26 urban school-based mental health clinics that took part in a training and implementation support program for an evidence-based school trauma intervention. Implementation process was observed using the Stages of Implementation Completion (SIC) measure. Qualitative interviews were conducted with clinic leaders in order to gain insight into clinic processes related to the SIC. Results showed that almost all of the clinics engaged in some activities related to pre-implementation (engagement, feasibility, and readiness), but only 31% of the sites formally started delivering the program to youth. Completing more Pre-Implementation activities, particularly those related to readiness, predicted program start-up. Qualitative analysis comparing those that implemented the program to those that did not revealed critical differences in decision-making processes, leadership strategies, and the presence of local champions for the program. This study documented the patterns of clinic behavior that occurs as part of large-scale training efforts, suggests some unique challenges that occur in schools, and highlights the importance of engaging in particular implementation activities (i.e., readiness planning, stakeholder consensus and planning meetings) as part of program start-up. Findings indicate that pre-implementation and readiness-related consultation should be employed as part of broad-scale implementation and training efforts.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T11:29:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.12.004
  • Homework Completion, Patient Characteristics, and Symptom Change in
           Cognitive Processing Therapy for PTSD
    • Authors: Shannon Wiltsey Stirman; Cassidy A. Gutner; Michael Suvak; Abby Adler; Amber Calloway; Patricia Resick
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Shannon Wiltsey Stirman, Cassidy A. Gutner, Michael Suvak, Abby Adler, Amber Calloway, Patricia Resick
      We evaluated the impact of homework completion on change in PTSD symptoms in the context of two randomized controlled trials of Cognitive Processing Therapy for PTSD (CPT). Female participants (n=140) diagnosed with PTSD attended at least one CPT session and were assigned homework at each session. The frequency of homework completion was assessed at the beginning of each session and PTSD symptoms were assessed every other session. Piecewise growth models were used to examine the relationship between homework completion and symptom change. CPT version (with vs without the written trauma account) did not moderate associations between homework engagement and outcomes. Greater pre-treatment PTSD symptoms predicted more Session 1 homework completion, but PTSD symptoms did not predict homework completion at other timepoints. More homework completion after Sessions 2 and 3 was associated with less change in PTSD from Session 2 to Session 4, but larger pre-to-post treatment changes in PTSD. Homework completion after Sessions 2 and 3 was associated with greater symptom change among patients who had fewer years of education. More homework completion after Sessions 8 and 9 was associated with larger subsequent decreases in PTSD. Average homework completion was not associated with client characteristics. In the second half of treatment, homework engagement was associated with less dropout. The results suggest that efforts to increase engagement in homework may facilitate symptom change. Homework; cognitive behavioral therapy; cognitive processing therapy; posttraumatic stress disorder Homework Completion and Symptom Change in Cognitive Processing Therapy for PTSD Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) have received extensive empirical support for a variety of mental health disorders (Beck 2005). Because CBT emphasizes the development of strategies to modify problematic cognitions and behaviors, most CBT protocols emphasize the use of between-session homework as a means of practicing and solidifying new skills. Despite the central role of homework in these treatments, the nature of the relationship between homework completion and symptom change is still not well understood. Theoretically, CBT homework assignments provide clients the opportunity to practice the skills they learn in session so that they can begin to apply CBT skills in their daily lives and experience more rapid and sustained symptom relief (Beck, 1979). Research on the clinical impact of homework completion has demonstrated some support for this theory, though there have been some methodological limitations to consider. In previous research, studies comparing protocols that included homework with those that did not include homework have demonstrated larger effect sizes for protocols that included homework (Kazantzis, Whittington, & Dattilio, 2010; Neimeyer & Feixas, 1990). Other studies on CBT for depression and anxiety have identified a relationship between homework completion and symptom reduction (Bryant, Simons, & Thase, 1999; Burns & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991; Busch, Uebelacker, Kalibatseva, & Miller, 2010; Conklin & Strunk, 2015; Kazantzis, Deane, & Ronan, 2000). However, some of the research on homework has been conducted with small samples that may be insufficient to detect moderation (e.g., Bryant, Simons, & Thase, 1999, n= 26;. Busch et al., n= 12; Olatunji et al., n =27). Additionally, while some larger studies (e.g., Burns & Spangler, 2000; Burns & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) have identified a positive association between homework completion and symptom improvement, most previous studies have lacked the precision required to understand the temporal relationship between homework completion and symptom change. Burns and Spangler (2000) employed structural equation modeling to examine whether CBT homework completion increased as a result of symptom change among 399 depressed clients. While this methodology represented an advance in identifying the structure of the correlation that has been observed between homework completion and symptom change, the measure used for homework completion was a single retrospective rating of overall compliance, which was assigned by clinicians towards the end of treatment. Other studies on CBT for cocaine dependence improved upon this methodology by using repeated therapist-rated assessments of the degree of homework completion for 60 patients, which was validated in some studies by observer ratings of their review of the homework in session (Carroll, Nich, & Ball, 2005). However, as with previous studies, homework completion scores were aggregated across sessions, and the potential impact of prior symptom change on homework completion was not assessed. Thus, while the findings of these previous studies suggest that homework completion may precede symptom change, relatively little is known about the temporal relationship between homework completion and symptom change. Establishing temporal precedence of a process variable is critical to understanding the nature of the relationship between tha...
      PubDate: 2017-12-24T11:29:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.12.001
  • Economic Impact of the Statewide Implementation of an Evidence-Based
           Treatment: Multisystemic Therapy in New Mexico
    • Authors: Alex R. Dopp; Anita Saranga Coen; Allison B. Smith; Jessica Reno; David H. Bernstein; Suzanne E.U. Kerns; Deborah Altschul
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Alex R. Dopp, Anita Saranga Coen, Allison B. Smith, Jessica Reno, David H. Bernstein, Suzanne E.U. Kerns, Deborah Altschul
      Several states have made considerable investments into large-scale implementation of evidence-based treatments (EBTs), yet little is known about key success indicators for these implementation efforts such as cost and sustainability. To that end, the present study examined the economic impact of statewide implementation of multisystemic therapy (MST; Henggeler et al., 2009), a family- and community-based behavioral EBT for serious juvenile offenders, in New Mexico. Participants were 1,869 youth who received MST across 23 teams during the study period. We conducted a cost-benefit analysis using metrics from state data sources that compared the cost of MST to its benefits (i.e., avoided expenses from pre- to post-treatment) in two domains: (1) behavioral health services (i.e., Medicaid claims) and (2) juvenile crime (i.e., taxpayer expenses, tangible and intangible expenses to crime victims). MST costs were based on Medicaid claims, which were reimbursed at an enhanced billing rate that was intended to cover expenses for both clinical and implementation (e.g., training, quality assurance) activities. Results suggest that implementation of MST in New Mexico over the seven-year study period may have produced net benefits, through two years posttreatment, of more than $4,643 per youth in avoided behavioral health claims and $15,019 per youth through reductions in juvenile crime. Stated differently, every dollar that New Mexico spent on MST appeared to have returned $3.34 for a total benefit of $64.2 million over the course of the study. We discuss implications of these findings for policymakers, administrators, and researchers who are interested in increasing the sustainability of complex EBTs in community settings.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T11:10:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.12.003
  • Exploring Relationships between Negative Cognitions and Anxiety Symptoms
           in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder
    • Authors: Amy Keefer; Nicole L. Kreiser; Vini Singh; Audrey Blakeley-Smith; Judy Reaven; Roma A. Vasa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Amy Keefer, Nicole L. Kreiser, Vini Singh, Audrey Blakeley-Smith, Judy Reaven, Roma A. Vasa
      Although cognitions are central to the conceptualization and treatment of anxiety in typically developing (TD) youth, there is scant research investigating automatic thoughts and their relationship with anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We sought to examine the types of automatic thoughts experienced by youth with ASD and co-occurring anxiety as well as the predictive relationship of anxiety to different types of automatic thoughts in 97 children, ages 8-14 years. We also explored the relationship of automatic thoughts and intolerance of uncertainty. Consistent with prior data, there was a strong relationship between anxiety and automatic thoughts pertaining to social and physical threat. Anxiety and IU were independently associated with thoughts pertaining to personal failure which raises the hypothesis that personal failure may serve as a common pathway between anxiety, IU, and depression in ASD youth. These findings highlight the importance of assessing and treating negative cognitions in youth with ASD and anxiety.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T11:04:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.12.002
  • Computer-Guided Problem-solving Treatment for Depression, PTSD, and
           Insomnia Symptoms in Student Veterans: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
    • Authors: Lee A. Bedford; Jessica R. Dietch; Daniel J. Taylor; Adriel Boals; Claudia Zayfert
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Lee A. Bedford, Jessica R. Dietch, Daniel J. Taylor, Adriel Boals, Claudia Zayfert
      Depression is a highly prevalent psychological disorder experienced disproportionately by college student military veterans with many deleterious effects including risk for suicide. Treatment can help, but the debilitating nature of depression often makes seeking in-person treatment difficult and many are deterred by stigma, inconvenience, concerns about privacy, or a preference to manage problems themselves. The current study examines the efficacy of a computer-guided Problem-Solving Treatment (ePST ®) for reducing symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and insomnia in student military veterans. Twenty-four student veterans (Meanage = 32.7) with symptoms of depression were randomly assigned either to a treatment group receiving six weekly sessions of ePST or to a minimal contact control group (MCC). Participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression scale at baseline and then weekly through post-ePST or post-MCC. PTSD and insomnia questionnaires were also completed at baseline and posttreatment. A linear mixed model regression showed a statistically significant Group (ePST vs. MCC) x Time (pretreatment through posttreatment) interaction for depression, with the ePST showing substantial improvements in depressive symptoms over the 6-week period. Significant improvements were also seen in PTSD and insomnia symptoms. Results suggest that ePST can effectively treat depression, PTSD, and insomnia symptoms in student military veterans and may be a viable alternative for those who are not able to access live therapy. Future work should examine the durability of treatment effects and utility for more severe depression and suicide prevention.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T11:04:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.11.010
  • Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors May Be More Common and Severe among
           People Identifying as a Sexual Minority
    • Authors: Kathryn R. Fox; Jill M. Hooley; Diana M.Y. Smith; Jessica D. Ribeiro; Xieyining Huang; Matthew K. Nock; Joseph C. Franklin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Kathryn R. Fox, Jill M. Hooley, Diana M.Y. Smith, Jessica D. Ribeiro, Xieyining Huang, Matthew K. Nock, Joseph C. Franklin
      Research indicates that people who identify as a sexual minority are at higher risk of numerous negative outcomes, including self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs). The minority stress model proposes that people identifying as a sexual minority are at higher risk of these behaviors due to sexual orientation specific stressors; however, it does not clarify whether SITBs will be more severe among these individuals. The present study tested whether SITBs are more common and more severe among people identifying as a sexual minority using several metrics, including: frequency of SITB engagement, age of onset of SITB, desire to discontinue SITB engagement, and likelihood of future SITBs. Four independent research samples were used to test this model. Results were then combined and tested in an internal meta-analysis. Findings converge to indicate a longer and more severe course of SITB engagement among people identifying as a sexual minority. Future research is needed to replicate these findings and to advance the understanding of why this imbalance in risk and severity might exist, and how it can be prevented.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T11:04:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.11.009
  • Improved parent cognitions relate to immediate and follow-up treatment
           outcomes for children with ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive Presentation
    • Authors: Yuanyuan Jiang; Lauren M. Haack; Kevin Delucchi; Mary Rooney; Stephen P. Hinshaw; Keith McBurnett; Linda J. Pfiffner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Yuanyuan Jiang, Lauren M. Haack, Kevin Delucchi, Mary Rooney, Stephen P. Hinshaw, Keith McBurnett, Linda J. Pfiffner
      We investigated treatment effects on parenting self-efficacy and parent cognitive errors, and whether these parent cognitions are related to short- and long-term outcomes in parenting behaviors in psychosocial treatment for youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Presentation (ADHD-I). In a randomized controlled trial across 2 sites (University of California, San Francisco and University of California, Berkeley), 199 children between the ages of 7 and 11 were randomized to the Child Life and Attention Skills program (CLAS, n = 74), Parent-Focused Treatment (PFT, n = 74), or Treatment as Usual (TAU, n = 51). Parents reported on self-efficacy, cognitive errors, positive parenting, and negative parenting prior to treatment, immediately after treatment, and in the next school year at follow-up. Compared to TAU, CLAS and PFT had higher post-treatment parenting self-efficacy, and CLAS alone had lower post-treatment parent cognitive errors. At follow-up, only CLAS had improved parent cognitive errors compared to TAU. No other between-group differences were found in parenting self-efficacy or cognitive errors. Improved parenting self-efficacy was associated with improved post-treatment negative parenting outcomes for PFT and CLAS, and improved parent cognitive errors were also related to improvements in positive and negative post-treatment parenting outcomes for CLAS. Post-treatment parenting self-efficacy mediated follow-up negative parenting outcomes for CLAS and post-treatment parent cognitive errors mediated improved follow-up positive and negative parenting outcomes for CLAS. PFT and CLAS led to enhanced parenting self-efficacy, and CLAS appears especially robust in improving parent cognitive errors both in the short- and long-term. Pathways provide support for the possibility of parent cognitions as mediators of treatment effects on parenting; clinical focus on such cognitions may be useful.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T11:04:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.11.007
  • Combined Audience and Video Feedback with Cognitive Review Improves State
           Anxiety and Self-perceptions during Speech Tasks in Socially Anxious
    • Authors: Junwen Chen; Jordan E. McLean; Eva Kemps
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Junwen Chen, Jordan E. McLean, Eva Kemps
      This study investigated the effects of combined audience feedback with video feedback plus cognitive preparation, and cognitive review (enabling deeper processing of feedback) on state anxiety and self-perceptions including perception of performance and perceived probability of negative evaluation in socially anxious individuals during a speech performance. One hundred and forty socially anxious students were randomly assigned to four conditions, namely Cognitive Preparation + Video Feedback + Audience Feedback + Cognitive Review (CP+VF+AF+CR), Cognitive Preparation + Video Feedback + Cognitive Review (CP+VF+CR), Cognitive Preparation + Video Feedback only (CP+VF), and Control. They were asked to deliver two impromptu speeches that were evaluated by confederates. Participants’ levels of anxiety and self-perceptions pertaining to the speech task were assessed before and after feedback, and after the second speech. Compared to participants in the other conditions, participants in the CP+VF+AF+CR condition reported a significant decrease in their state anxiety and perceived probability of negative evaluation scores, and a significant increase in their positive perception of speech performance from before to after the feedback. These effects generalised to the second speech. Our results suggest that adding audience feedback to video feedback plus cognitive preparation and cognitive review may improve the effects of existing video feedback procedures in reducing anxiety symptoms and distorted self-representations in socially anxious individuals.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T11:04:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.11.006
  • Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Positive Emotion Regulation
           Augmentation Module for Anxiety and Depression
    • Authors: Jenna R. Carl; Matthew W. Gallagher; David H. Barlow
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Jenna R. Carl, Matthew W. Gallagher, David H. Barlow
      Research has shown that positive emotions are important to optimal health, functioning, and well-being, and contribute to resilience against psychological dysfunction. Many clinical disorders, particularly anxiety and mood disorders, are associated with deficits in positive emotion that may contribute to disorder severity and prevent full recovery, and these deficits have received insufficient attention in treatment. The present study represents a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility and utility of adding a novel brief intervention module for enhancing positive emotion in anxiety and depressive disorders to existing evidence-based treatment. This intervention was evaluated in nine patients with a range of principal anxiety disorders who had previously completed an initial course of cognitive-behavioral treatment, utilizing a multiple baseline experimental across participants design. Results indicated that the intervention was effective in improving positive emotion regulation skills for 5 of 9 participants. The intervention was also associated with further improvements in anxiety and depressive symptoms, positive and negative emotion, functioning, quality of life, and well-being. Participants reported high acceptability and satisfaction with the study intervention. Future research is needed to confirm the validity of these findings and evaluate the generalizability of these effects across patients and settings.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T11:04:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.11.008
  • The Long-Term Effects of Group-Based Psychological Interventions for
           Children With Tourette Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    • Authors: Julia Dabrowski; John King; Katie Edwards; Rachel Yates; Isobel Heyman; Sharon Zimmerman-Brenner; Tara Murphy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Julia Dabrowski, John King, Katie Edwards, Rachel Yates, Isobel Heyman, Sharon Zimmerman-Brenner, Tara Murphy
      This randomized controlled trial examined the long-term effects of group-based psychological interventions on measures of tic severity, self-reported quality of life (QOL), and school attendance. Children (n = 28) with Tourette syndrome (TS) were assessed 12 months after completing a course of either group-based Habit Reversal Training (HRT) or Education. Both groups demonstrated long-term improvement in tic severity and QOL, which included significant continued improvement during the follow-up (FU) period. Both groups also showed significant posttreatment improvement in school attendance. Further research is required to explore potential therapeutic mechanisms, independent or mutual, which may underlie long-term symptom improvements.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T11:04:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.10.005
  • Have Phobias, will Travel: Addressing One Barrier to the Delivery of an
           Evidence-Based Treatment
    • Authors: Thomas H. Ollendick; Sarah M. Ryan; Nicole N. Capriola-Hall; Kristin E. Austin; Maria Fraire
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Thomas H. Ollendick, Sarah M. Ryan, Nicole N. Capriola-Hall, Kristin E. Austin, Maria Fraire
      Although a host of evidence-based treatments exist for youth with anxiety disorders, less than 30% of youth and their families receive these treatments. One of the main barriers to receiving these treatments is the lack of access to care - due largely to the absence of mental health professionals who have expertise in the delivery of these treatments in certain geographic locales. The current study examined whether a brief intensive treatment for specific phobias (SPs), Augmented One Session Treatment (OST-A), would result in comparable treatment gains for families who traveled a considerable distance to receive this treatment when compared to families who resided in our local community. Participants included 76 youth with a clinically confirmed diagnosis of SP (38 local families and an age and sex matched sample of 38 non-local families). Although SP severity at pre-treatment was significantly greater for the non-local youth than the local youth, both non-local and local youth showed commensurate improvement and maintenance of treatment gains over a 6-month period across several clinical outcome measures. Findings from this study show that OST-A is effective when families choose to travel for treatment, addressing at least one of the barriers to use of this evidence-based treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-12-01T10:36:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.11.003
  • Predictive Relationship Between Parental Beliefs and Accommodation of
           Pediatric Anxiety
    • Authors: Johanna M. Meyer; Joshua D. Clapp; Stephen P. Whiteside; Julie Dammann; Kathryn D. Kriegshauser; Lisa R. Hale; David M. Jacobi; Bradley C. Riemann; Brett J. Deacon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Johanna M. Meyer, Joshua D. Clapp, Stephen P. Whiteside, Julie Dammann, Kathryn D. Kriegshauser, Lisa R. Hale, David M. Jacobi, Bradley C. Riemann, Brett J. Deacon
      Behavior performed by parents to assist a youth in avoiding or alleviating anxiety, known as accommodation, is ubiquitous among pediatric anxiety disorders and strongly related to poor treatment outcome. According to cognitive-behavioral theory, the beliefs parents hold regarding accommodation should predict parental accommodating behavior. Unfortunately, little is known about the beliefs parents hold regarding accommodation, as there exists no validated measure of this construct. Firstly, the psychometric properties were examined for the Parental Accommodation Scale (PAS), a novel measure of parental accommodating behavior frequency (PAS-Behavior scale) and parental beliefs about accommodation (PAS-Belief scale). Secondly, the relationship between parental beliefs about accommodation and accommodation frequency was examined. Results provide preliminary evidence of the internal consistency and convergent validity of the PAS. Stronger positive beliefs about accommodation significantly predicted accommodation frequency, even after controlling for youth anxiety severity. Specifically, beliefs that accommodation prevents youth from losing behavioral and emotional control significantly predicted accommodation frequency. Therefore, efforts to decrease accommodation in clinical settings should involve correcting maladaptive parental beliefs about accommodation, with a particular emphasis on beliefs regarding the necessity of accommodation in preventing a youth from losing behavioral and emotional control.

      PubDate: 2017-12-01T10:36:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.11.004
  • Emotion Regulation of Events Central to Identity and their Relationship
           with Concurrent and Prospective Depressive Symptoms
    • Authors: Adriana del Palacio-Gonzalez; Dorthe Berntsen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Adriana del Palacio-Gonzalez, Dorthe Berntsen
      Dispositional emotion regulation is related to the severity and maintenance of depressive symptoms. However, whether emotion regulation specific to an event highly central for an individual’s identity is predictive of depressive symptoms has not been examined. Non-clinical participants (N = 220) reported the extent to which they employed a selection of emotion regulation strategies when recalling low and high-centrality events. Dispositional emotion regulation and depressive symptoms were also assessed. A seven-week follow-up was conducted. High-centrality events were associated with more emotion regulation efforts. Greater brooding and expressive suppression in relation to high-centrality memories predicted concurrent depressive symptoms after controlling for event valence and dispostional emotion regulation. Effects were abscent for low-centrality memories. Emotion regulation in response to high-centrality memories did not predict depressive symptoms at follow up beyond baseline depressive symptoms. Overall the findings showed that maladaptive emotion regulation in response to memories of high-centrality events is important for explaining depressive symptomatology.

      PubDate: 2017-12-01T10:36:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.11.002
  • A Multimethod Examination of the Effect of Insomnia Symptoms on Anxious
           Responding to a Social Stressor
    • Authors: Nicole A. Short; Norman B. Schmidt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Nicole A. Short, Norman B. Schmidt
      A growing number of studies identify insomnia symptoms as a potential risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders. However, little research has examined potential mechanisms through which insomnia could confer increased risk for anxiety. A separate line of literature suggests sleep is necessary for adaptive emotional and behavior responding to stressors, a potential mechanism linking insomnia symptoms to anxiety risk. To test whether insomnia symptoms affect emotional and behavioral responding to an anxiety-relevant stressor, the current study recruited a sample of 99 undergraduates with varying levels of insomnia symptoms. Participants completed self-report measures and psychophysiological before, during, and after an impromptu speech task. Results indicated that, after covarying for negative affectivity, increased insomnia symptoms were significantly associated with elevated anticipatory anxiety and skin conductance response prior to the speech, and increased skin conductance response, emotion regulation difficulties, and safety aid use during the speech. Taken together, results provide evidence for the notion that insomnia symptoms are associated with maladaptive emotional and behavioral responding to an anxiety-relevant stressor.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T19:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.11.001
  • The Use of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Promote Mental Health and
           School Engagement in University Students: A Multi-Site Randomized
           Controlled Trial
    • Authors: Simon Grégoire; Lise Lachance; Thérèse Bouffard; Frédérick Dionne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Simon Grégoire, Lise Lachance, Thérèse Bouffard, Frédérick Dionne
      The aim of this multi-site randomized controlled trial was to determine whether an intervention based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) was efficacious in improving university students’ psychological flexibility, mental health and school engagement. Students were recruited in four Canadian universities and randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 72) or a wait-list control group (n = 72). Students in the intervention group took part in four 2.5-hour workshops during a four-week period and were asked to do exercises at home (e.g., meditation, observation grids). Wait-list students received the intervention soon after the post measurements. MANCOVAs and ANCOVAs revealed that students in the intervention group showed greater psychological flexibility at post-intervention than those in the control group. They also reported greater well-being and school engagement, and lower stress, anxiety and depression symptoms. Taken together, results of this study suggest that an ACT based intervention offers a valuable way to promote mental health and school engagement in post-secondary settings.

      PubDate: 2017-11-04T19:00:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.10.003
  • Can a mediator moderate' Considering the role of time and change in
           the mediator-moderator distinction
    • Authors: Bryan T. Karazsia; Kristoffer S. Berlin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Bryan T. Karazsia, Kristoffer S. Berlin
      The concepts of mediation and moderation are important for specifying ways in which psychological treatments work and for whom they are most beneficial. Historically, the terms were confused and used interchangeably, so a rich body of scholarly literature makes clear their distinction. Researchers are also becoming increasingly aware that mediation and moderation can be integrated and that such integration can advance theory development and testing. One question that has not received sufficient attention is whether a mediator can simultaneously moderate. We tackle this question in this paper, and in doing so we expand on the MacArthur conceptualizations of mediation and moderation. The result is a presentation of a meta-theoretical model that illustrates how a construct that is initially a mediator can, not simultaneously but over time, evolve into a construct that moderates. When this occurs, a construct that changed for the better as a result of an intervention can later promote more positive change during a later intervention. Various implications of this novel paradigm for future research are discussed, including the importance of this model in the emerging context of managed healthcare.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:35:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.10.001
  • Do Self-Incentives Change Behavior' A Systematic Review and
    • Authors: Emma M. Brown; Debbie M. Smith; Tracy Epton; Christopher J. Armitage
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Emma M. Brown, Debbie M. Smith, Tracy Epton, Christopher J. Armitage
      Encouraging people to self-incentivize (i.e., to reward themselves in the future if they are successful in changing their behavior) or self-reward (i.e., prompt people to reward themselves once they have successfully changed their behavior) are techniques that are frequently embedded within complex behavior change interventions. However, it is not clear whether self-incentives or self-rewards per se are effective at bringing about behavior change. Nine databases were searched alongside manual searching of systematic reviews and online research registers. One thousand four hundred papers were retrieved, spanning a range of behaviors, though the majority of included papers were in the domain of “health psychology”. Ten studies matched the inclusion criteria for self-incentive but no studies were retrieved for self-reward. The present systematic review and meta-analysis is therefore the first to evaluate the unique effect of self-incentives on behavior change. Effect sizes were retrieved from seven of the ten studies. Analysis of the seven studies produced a very small pooled effect size for self-incentives (k =7; N =1,161), which was statistically significant, d + =0.17, CI =0.06 to 0.29. The weak effect size and dearth of studies raises the question of why self-incentivizing is such a widely employed component of behavior change interventions. The present research opens up a new field of inquiry to establish: (a) whether or not self-incentivizing and self-rewarding are effective behavior change techniques, (b) if self-incentives and self-rewards need to be deployed alongside other behavior change techniques, and (c) when and for whom self-incentives and self-rewards could support effective behavior change.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T14:12:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.09.004
  • Parameters of Time-out: Research Update and Comparison to Parenting
           Programs, Books and Online Recommendations
    • Authors: Samantha M. Corralejo; Scott A. Jensen; Ashley D. Greathouse; Leah E. Ward
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Samantha M. Corralejo, Scott A. Jensen, Ashley D. Greathouse, Leah E. Ward
      In reviews published more than 30 years ago, eight parameters important to the use of time-out were identified and available research was summarized. The purpose of the current paper is to provide an updated summary of existing research for each parameter of time-out. Within each parameter, we conducted a thorough review of the published literature and identified all peer reviewed articles addressing each parameter. We identified and summarized a total of 46 articles across the eight parameters, including 32 not cited in previous reviews. Sufficient findings were available to draw conclusions regarding time-out warning, schedule of time-out, contingent versus non-contingent release, and duration. Tentative conclusions based on only a few studies could be drawn in regards to instructional versus physical administration and verbalized reason for time-out. No conclusions could be drawn regarding time-out signal and specific time-out location. While we know much more today regarding effective implementation of time-out, there is a clear need for further exploration within these identified parameters. In addition to summarizing the literature, we reviewed recommendations made by behavioral parent training programs, parenting books, and parenting websites and compared how well their recommendations matched current research based on the conclusions drawn from our review. We found that parenting sources made strong and specific recommendations on several of the parameters that were either not consistent with available research or simply lacked a sufficient research base.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T14:12:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.09.005
  • Presidential Address: Embracing the Repulsive: The Case for Disgust as a
           Functionally Central Emotional State in the Theory, Practice, and
           Dissemination of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy
    • Authors: Dean McKay
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Dean McKay
      Disgust is a primary emotion, but it is also understudied in general, and in psychopathology in particular. Disgust plays a potential role in the reluctance of many non-scientifically minded practitioners from adopting evidence-based methods of treatment. This article summarizes findings from psychopathology research and treatment, and highlights basic science that potentially accounts for the hesitancy for some therapists to adopt evidence-based methods. Several recommendations are provided for future research in disgust related to both psychopathology and dissemination research.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T13:47:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.08.006
  • Patterns of anxious arousal during a speech task between non-anxious
           controls and individuals with social anxiety disorder pre- and post-
    • Authors: Carol S. Lee; Lauren P. Wadsworth; Sarah A. Hayes-Skelton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2017
      Source:Behavior Therapy
      Author(s): Carol S. Lee, Lauren P. Wadsworth, Sarah A. Hayes-Skelton
      Although research indicates that anxious arousal in response to feared stimuli is related to treatment outcome (Heimberg et al., 1990), less is known about the patterns of anxious arousal. We identified patterns of anxious arousal in individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) at pre- (n = 61) and post-treatment (n = 40; 12-session CBGT, Heimberg & Becker, 2002), and in non-anxious controls (NACs; n = 31) using an assessment speech task administered at pre-treatment (SAD) or the pre-treatment equivalent (NACs), as well as at post-treatment (SAD only). We identified nine patterns of anxious arousal across groups that we further clustered into three groups: fear habituation, fear plateau, and fear increase. Chi-Square and adjusted standardized residual analyses revealed that individuals in the pre-treatment SAD group displayed the fear habituation patterns significantly more than chance and the fear plateau patterns significantly less than chance. In contrast, NACs displayed the fear plateau patterns significantly more than chance and the fear habituation patterns significantly less than chance. At post-treatment, treatment non-responders displayed fear habituation patterns significantly more than chance, whereas treatment responders displayed the fear habituation patterns significantly less than chance. Findings indicate that fear habituation during an anxiety-provoking assessment task is not necessary for treatment response.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T11:14:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.07.006
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