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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3211 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (242 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (119 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1536 journals)
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    - ORNITHOLOGY (28 journals)
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    - ZOOLOGY (142 journals)

BIOLOGY (1536 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access  
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 330)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
APOPTOSIS
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.424
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 9  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-675X - ISSN (Online) 1360-8185
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • TAK1 mediates convergence of cellular signals for death and survival
    • Authors: Sabreena Aashaq; Asiya Batool; Khurshid I. Andrabi
      Pages: 3 - 20
      Abstract: TGF-β activated kinase 1, a MAPK kinase kinase family serine threonine kinase has been implicated in regulating diverse range of cellular processes that include embryonic development, differentiation, autophagy, apoptosis and cell survival. TAK1 along with its binding partners TAB1, TAB2 and TAB3 displays a complex pattern of regulation that includes serious crosstalk with major signaling pathways including the C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 MAPK, and I-kappa B kinase complex (IKK) involved in establishing cellular commitments for death and survival. This review also highlights how TAK1 orchestrates regulation of energy homeostasis via AMPK and its emerging role in influencing mTORC1 pathway to regulate death or survival in tandem.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1490-7
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1-2 (2019)
       
  • Correction to: Apicidin induces endoplasmic reticulum stress- and
           mitochondrial dysfunction-associated apoptosis via phospholipase Cγ1- and
           Ca 2+ -dependent pathway in mouse Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells
    • Authors: Ji Hyun Choi; Jung Yeon Lee; A-Young Choi; Keun-Young Hwang; Wonchae Choe; Kyung-Sik Yoon; Joohun Ha; Eui-Ju Yeo; Insug Kang
      Pages: 198 - 199
      Abstract: The original version of this article contained a mistake in the figure. The Ca2 + confocal image for the 2-APB/Apicidin-120 min in Fig. 5d is incorrect. The correction does not influence either the validity of the published data or the conclusion described in the article. The corrected Fig. 5d is given below.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1492-5
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1-2 (2019)
       
  • Correction to: Licochalcone A induces apoptosis through endoplasmic
           reticulum stress via a phospholipase Cγ1-, Ca 2+ -, and reactive oxygen
           species-dependent pathway in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells
    • Authors: A-Young Choi; Ji Hyun Choi; Keun-Young Hwang; Yeon Ju Jeong; Wonchae Choe; Kyung-Sik Yoon; Joohun Ha; Sung Soo Kim; Jang Hyun Youn; Eui-Ju Yeo; Insug Kang
      Pages: 200 - 203
      Abstract: The original version of this article contained mistakes in figures. The western blot data for pro-caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3 (Fig. 1d), β-actin (Fig. 1d), PLCγ1 (Fig. 5d), and eIF2α (Fig. 7d) are incorrect. The corrected Figs. 1d, 5d, and 7d are shown below. The corrections do not influence either the validity of the published data or the conclusion described in the article.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1493-4
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1-2 (2019)
       
  • Correction to: Ready player one' Autophagy shapes resistance to
           photodynamic therapy in cancers
    • Authors: Xian Duan; Bo Chen; Yanan Cui; Lin Zhou; Chenkai Wu; Zhulin Yang; Yu Wen; Xiongying Miao; Qinglong Li; Li Xiong; Jun He
      Pages: 204 - 204
      Abstract: The below funding information was not submitted and hence not included in the original publication. The funding information is given below.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1494-3
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 1-2 (2019)
       
  • Improved in vivo targeting of BCL-2 phenotypic conversion through hollow
           gold nanoshell delivery
    • Abstract: Although new cancer therapeutics are discovered at a rapid pace, lack of effective means of delivery and cancer chemoresistance thwart many of the promising therapeutics. We demonstrate a method that confronts both of these issues with the light-activated delivery of a Bcl-2 functional converting peptide, NuBCP-9, using hollow gold nanoshells. This approach has shown not only to increase the efficacy of the peptide 30-fold in vitro but also has shown to reduce paclitaxel resistant H460 lung xenograft tumor growth by 56.4%.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
       
  • Activator protein-1 and caspase 8 mediate p38α MAPK-dependent
           cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by palmitic acid
    • Abstract: Lipoapoptosis of cardiomyocytes may underlie diabetic cardiomyopathy. Numerous forms of cardiomyopathies share a common end-pathway in which apoptotic loss of cardiomyocytes is mediated by p38α mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). Although we have previously shown that palmitic acid (PA), a saturated fatty acid (SFA) elevated in plasma of type 2 diabetes mellitus and morbid obesity, induces apoptosis in cardiomyocytes via p38α MAPK-dependent signaling, the downstream cascade events that cause cell death remain unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate mechanisms involved in palmitic acid-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Human adult ventricular cardiomyocyte line (AC16 cells) exposed to high physiological levels of PA for 16 h showed enhanced transcription and phosphorylation of c-fos and c-jun subunits of AP-1 and transcription of caspase 8. When AC16 cells were transfected with small interfering RNA specific against p38α MAPK (si-p38α) for 24 or 48 h, the amplified phosphorylation of c-fos was dose-dependently attenuated, and procaspase 8 was dose-dependently reduced. With translational knockdown of c-fos, PA-induced apoptosis was diminished. Inhibition of caspase 8 for 24 h reduced apoptosis in PA-treated cardiomyocytes. These findings provide evidence for induction of apoptosis in cardiomyocytes exposed to high SFA by a novel pathway requiring activation of c-fos/AP-1 and caspase 8. These results demonstrate how elevated plasma SFA may lead to continual and cumulative loss of cardiomyocytes and potentially contribute to the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
       
  • BDNF-mediated mitophagy alleviates high-glucose-induced brain
           microvascular endothelial cell injury
    • Abstract: Endothelial cell dysfunction and diabetic vascular complications are intrinsically linked. Although BDNF plays a protective role in cerebral microvascular complications caused by diabetes, the mechanisms of this activity are not fully clear. In this study, we investigated the role of BDNF in the hyperglycemic injury of BMECs and its associated intracellular signal transduction pathways. BMECs were treated with 33 mM glucose to imitate the endothelium under hyperglycemic conditions. The high-glucose treatment caused cell dysfunction, as evaluated by oxidative stress and cell apoptosis, which could be alleviated by BDNF. In addition, BDNF preserved mitochondrial function as assessed by mPTP opening, mitochondrial membrane potential, calcium content, and mitochondrial biogenesis markers. Western blot analysis of LC3-II, p62, and TOMM20 and the detection of mRFP-GFP-LC3 adenovirus for autophagy flux revealed that BDNF enhanced autophagy flux. Furthermore, BDNF activated mitophagy, which was confirmed by the observed colocalization of LC3-II with BNIP3 and from transmission electron microscopy observations. The HIF-1α/BNIP3 signaling pathway was associated with BDNF/TrkB-induced mitophagy. In addition, BDNF-induced mitophagy played a protective role against BMEC damage under hyperglycemia. Thus, the results of this study suggest that BDNF/TrkB/HIF-1α/BNIP3-mediated mitophagy protects BMECs from hyperglycemia.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
       
  • Fibroblasts from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are resistant
           
    • Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a deadly and progressive fibrotic lung disease, but the precise etiology remains elusive. IPF is characterized by the presence of apoptosis-resistant (myo)fibroblasts that relentlessly produce a collagen-rich extracellular matrix (ECM). Recent studies showed that an anti-cancer chemotherapy drug cisplatin is implicated in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, suggesting that the treatment of cancer patients with cisplatin may alter fibroblast viability. To address this possibility, we investigated the cisplatin-induced cell death mechanism in lung fibroblasts derived from IPF and non-IPF patients in response to a collagen matrix. IPF fibroblasts showed enhanced resistance to cisplatin-induced cell death compared to non-IPF fibroblasts in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Molecular study showed that the expression of γH2AX, PUMA and caspase-3/7 activity was abnormally reduced in IPF fibroblasts, suggesting that DNA damage-induced apoptosis caused by cisplatin was suppressed in IPF fibroblasts. Our study further revealed that DNA repair protein XRCC1 activity was aberrantly increased as a result of CK2 hyper-activation in cisplatin-treated IPF fibroblasts, and this alteration protected IPF fibroblasts from cisplatin-induced cell death. Our results showed that IPF fibroblasts residing in a collagen rich matrix are resistance to cisplatin-induced cell death due to the aberrantly high CK2/XRCC1-dependent DNA repair activity. This finding suggests that pulmonary fibrosis may develop and worsen due to the presence of apoptosis-resistant lung fibroblasts in cisplatin-treated cancer patients.
      PubDate: 2019-03-08
       
  • Inhibition of TNF-α-induced neuronal apoptosis by antidepressants acting
           through the lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA 1
    • Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a pro-inflammatory cytokine considered to be implicated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder, is a critical regulator of neuronal cell fate. In the present study we found that TNF-α-induced apoptosis of HT22 hippocampal cells, a neuroblast-like cell line, was markedly attenuated by the antidepressants mianserin, mirtazapine and amitriptyline. The anti-apoptotic effect of the antidepressants was blocked by either pharmacological inhibition or gene silencing of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA1. Mianserin failed to affect TNF-α-induced caspase 8 activation, but inhibited the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, procaspase 9 cleavage and downstream activation of caspase 3 in response to the cytokine. By acting through LPA1, mianserin also attenuated the enhanced pro-apoptotic response induced by the combination of TNF-α with other pro-inflammatory cytokines. TNF-α appeared to counterbalance its own pro-apoptotic response by activating NF-kB, ERK1/2 and JNK. Antidepressants had no significant effects on NF-kB activation, but potentiated the TAK-1-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK elicited by the cytokine. This synergistic interaction was associated with enhanced JNK-mediated phosphorylation of Bcl-2 at Ser70 and increased ERK1/2-dependent mitochondrial accumulation of Mcl-1, two anti-apoptotic proteins that promote mitochondrial outer membrane stability. These results indicate that certain antidepressants, by activating LPA1 signalling, protect HT22 hippocampal cells from TNF-α-induced apoptosis through a mechanism involving, at least in part, the potentiation of the pro-survival pathways activated by the cytokine.
      PubDate: 2019-03-06
       
  • Drosophila jumu modulates apoptosis via a JNK-dependent pathway and is
           required for other processes in wing development
    • Authors: Xiao Chun Wang; Ziguang Liu; Li Hua Jin
      Abstract: Previous studies in several model organisms have revealed that members of the Forkhead (Fkh) transcription factor family have multiple functions. Drosophila Jumeau (Jumu), a member of this family, participates in cardiogenesis, hematopoiesis and immune system homeostasis. Here, we show that loss of jumu function positively regulates or triggers apoptosis via a JNK-dependent pathway in wing development. jumu mutants showed reduced wing size and increased apoptosis. Moreover, we observed a loss of the anterior cross vein (ACV) phenotype that was similar to that observed in wings in which JNK signaling has been ectopically activated. The JNK signaling markers puckered (puc) and p-JNK were also significantly increased in the wing discs of jumu mutants. In addition, apoptosis induced by the loss of jumu was rescued by knocking down JNK, indicating a role for JNK in reducing jumu-induced apoptosis. Jumu could also control wing margin development via the positive regulation of cut expression, and the observed wing margin defect did not result from a loss of jumu-induced apoptosis. Further, jumu deficiency in the pupal wing could induce multiple wing hairs via a Rho1-mediated planar cell polarity pathway, but abnormal Rho1 expression was not why jumu loss induced apoptosis via a JNK-dependent pathway in wing discs.
      PubDate: 2019-02-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-019-01527-x
       
  • Simultaneous polychromatic flow cytometric detection of multiple forms of
           regulated cell death
    • Authors: D. Bergamaschi; A. Vossenkamper; W. Y. J. Lee; P. Wang; E. Bochukova; G. Warnes
      Abstract: Currently the study of Regulated Cell Death (RCD) processes is limited to the use of lysed cell populations for Western blot analysis of each separate RCD process. We have previously shown that intracellular antigen flow cytometric analysis of RIP3, Caspase-3 and cell viability dye allowed the determination of levels of apoptosis (Caspase-3+ ve/RIP3− ve), necroptosis (RIP3Hi + ve/Caspase-3− ve) and RIP1-dependent apoptosis (Caspase-3+ ve/RIP3+ ve) in a single Jurkat cell population. The addition of more intracellular markers allows the determination of the incidence of parthanatos (PARP), DNA Damage Response (DDR, H2AX), H2AX hyper-activation of PARP (H2AX/PARP) autophagy (LC3B) and ER stress (PERK), thus allowing the identification of 124 sub-populations both within live and dead cell populations. Shikonin simultaneously induced Jurkat cell apoptosis and necroptosis the degree of which can be shown flow cytometrically together with the effects of blockade of these forms of cell death by zVAD and necrostatin-1 have on specific RCD populations including necroptosis, early and late apoptosis and RIP1-dependent apoptosis phenotypes in live and dead cells. Necrostatin-1 and zVAD was shown to modulate levels of shikonin induced DDR, hyper-action of PARP and parthanatos in the four forms of RCD processes analysed. LC3B was up-regulated by combined treatment of zVAD with chloroquine which also revealed that DNA damage was reduced in live cells but enhanced in dead cells indicating the role of autophagy in maintaining cell health. This approach to RCD research should be a great advance to understanding the mechanisms of drugs and their effects upon RCD populations.
      PubDate: 2019-02-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-019-01528-w
       
  • The neuroprotective action of 3,3′-diindolylmethane against ischemia
           involves an inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy that depends on HDAC and
           AhR/CYP1A1 but not ERα/CYP19A1 signaling
    • Authors: J. Rzemieniec; A. Wnuk; W. Lasoń; W. Bilecki; M. Kajta
      Abstract: There are no studies examining the effects of 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) in neuronal cells subjected to ischemia. Little is also known about the roles of apoptosis and autophagy as well as AhR and ERα signaling and HDACs in DIM action. We demonstrated for the first time the strong neuroprotective capacity of DIM in mouse primary hippocampal cell cultures exposed to ischemia at early and later stages of neuronal development. The protective effects of DIM were mediated via inhibition of ischemia-induced apoptosis and autophagy that was accompanied by a decrease in AhR/CYP1A1 signaling and an increase in HDAC activity. DIM decreased the levels of pro-apoptotic factors, i.e., Fas, Caspase-3, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). DIM also reduced the protein levels of autophagy-related Beclin-1 (BECN1) and microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain (LC3), partially reversed the ischemia-induced decrease in Nucleoporin 62 (NUP62) and inhibited autophagosome formation. In addition, DIM completely reversed the ischemia-induced decrease in histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in hippocampal neurons. Although DIM inhibited AhR/CYP1A1 signaling, it did not influence the protein expression levels of ERα and ERα-regulated CYP19A1 which are known to be controlled by AhR. This study demonstrated for the first time, that the neuroprotective action of 3,3′-diindolylmethane against ischemia involves an inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy and depends on AhR/CYP1A1 signaling and HDAC activity, thus creating the possibility of developing new therapeutic strategies that target neuronal degeneration at specific molecular levels.
      PubDate: 2019-02-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-019-01522-2
       
  • Autophagy inhibition with chloroquine reverts paclitaxel resistance and
           attenuates metastatic potential in human nonsmall lung adenocarcinoma A549
           cells via ROS mediated modulation of β-catenin pathway
    • Authors: Satabdi Datta; Diptiman Choudhury; Amlan Das; Dipanwita Das Mukherjee; Moumita Dasgupta; Shreya Bandopadhyay; Gopal Chakrabarti
      Abstract: Paclitaxel is one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However acquired resistance to paclitaxel, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell formation are the major obstacles for successful chemotherapy with this drug. Some of the major reasons behind chemoresistance development include increased ability of the cancer cells to survive under stress conditions by autophagy, increased expression of drug efflux pumps, tubulin mutations etc. In this study we found that inhibition of autophagy with chloroquine prevented development of paclitaxel resistance in A549 cells with time and potentiated the effect of paclitaxel by increased accumulation of superoxide-producing damaged mitochondria, with elevated ROS generation, it also increased the apoptotic rate and sub G0/ G1 phase arrest with time in A549 cells treated with paclitaxel and attenuated the metastatic potential and cancer stem cell population of the paclitaxel-resistant cells by ROS mediated modulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, thereby increasing paclitaxel sensitivity. ROS here played a crucial role in modulating Akt activity when autophagy process was hindered by chloroquine, excessive ROS accumulation in the cell inhibited Akt activity. In addition, chloroquine pre-treatment followed by taxol (10 nM) treatment did not show significant toxicity towards non-carcinomas WI38 cells (lung fibroblast cells). Thus autophagy inhibition by CQ pre-treatment can be used as a fruitful strategy to combat the phenomenon of paclitaxel resistance development as well as metastasis in lung cancer.
      PubDate: 2019-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-019-01526-y
       
  • Minocycline promotes cardiomyocyte mitochondrial autophagy and
           cardiomyocyte autophagy to prevent sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction by
           Akt/mTOR signaling
    • Authors: Erfei Zhang; Xiaoying Zhao; Li Zhang; Nan Li; Jinqi Yan; Ke Tu; Ruhu Yan; Jianqiang Hu; Mingming Zhang; Dongdong Sun; Lichao Hou
      Abstract: Myocardial damage is responsible for the high mortality of sepsis. However, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Cardiomyocyte autophagy alleviates the cardiac injury caused by myocardial infarction. Enhanced cardiomyocyte autophagy also has protective effects against cardiomyocyte mitochondrial injury. Minocycline enhances autophagy in many types of cells under different types of pathological stress and can be easily taken up by cardiomyocytes. The present study investigated whether minocycline prevented myocardial injury caused by sepsis and whether cardiomyocyte autophagy participated in this process. The results indicated that minocycline enhanced cardiomyocyte mitochondrial autophagy and cardiomyocyte autophagy and improved myocardial mitochondrial and cardiac function. Minocycline upregulated protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation, inhibited mTORC1 expression and enhanced mTORC2 expression. In conclusion, minocycline enhanced cardiomyocyte mitochondrial autophagy and cardiomyocyte autophagy and improved cardiac function. The underlying mechanisms were associated with mTORC1 inhibition and mTORC2 activation. Thus, our findings suggest that minocycline may represent a potential approach for treating myocardial injury and provide novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of myocardial injury and dysfunction after sepsis.
      PubDate: 2019-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-019-01521-3
       
  • Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinase/eEF2 plays protective roles
           against glucose deprivation-induced cell death in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts
    • Authors: Satoshi Kameshima; Muneyoshi Okada; Hideyuki Yamawaki
      Abstract: During the development of cardiac hypertrophy, glucose deprivation (GD) associated with coronary microvascular rarefaction is caused, leading to cardiomyocyte death. Phosphorylation (inactivation) of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) by eEF2 kinase (eEF2K) inhibits protein translation, a highly energy consuming process, which plays protective roles against nutrient deprivation-induced cell death. We previously showed that eEF2 phosphorylation was increased in isolated heart from several cardiac hypertrophy models. In this study, we investigated whether eEF2K/eEF2 mediates the inhibition of cardiomyocyte death under GD condition. In H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts cultured with serum-free medium, GD significantly augmented eEF2 phosphorylation and signals related to autophagy [increase of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II to LC3-I ratio] and apoptosis (cleavage of caspase-3) as determined by Western blotting. GD induced cell death, which was augmented by eEF2K gene knockdown using a small interfering RNA. eEF2K gene knockdown significantly augmented GD-induced cleavage of caspase-3 and apoptotic nuclear condensation as determined by 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. In contrast, eEF2K gene knockdown significantly inhibited GD-induced increase of LC3-II to LC3-I ratio and autophagosome formation as determined by an immunofluorescence staining. An inhibitor of autophagy, 3-methyladenine or bafilomycin A1 significantly augmented GD-induced cleavage of caspase-3. Further, eEF2K gene knockdown significantly inhibited GD-induced phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α and its downstream substrate, unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase (ULK)1. An inhibitor of AMPK, dorsomorphin significantly inhibited GD-induced increase of LC3-II to LC3-I ratio. In conclusion, we for the first time revealed that eEF2K/eEF2 axis under GD condition mediates the inhibition of apoptotic H9c2 cell death at least in part via promotion of autophagy through AMPKα/ULK1 signaling pathway.
      PubDate: 2019-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-019-01525-z
       
  • Combination treatment of podophyllotoxin and rutin promotes mouse Lgr5
           + ve intestinal stem cells survival against lethal radiation injury
           through Wnt signaling
    • Authors: Bhargab Kalita; Rajiv Ranjan; Manju Lata Gupta
      Abstract: It has been well established that radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury is manifested through loss of intestinal crypt stem cells and disruption of the mucosal layers, resulting in diarrhoea, weight loss, electrolyte imbalance, infection and mortality. Podophyllotoxin and rutin in combination (G-003M) has been reported to regulate endogenous cellular antioxidant defense systems and inflammatory response. However, the mechanism by which G-003M ameliorates radiation-induced intestinal stem cell (ISC) injury remains unclear. Here, we hypothesize the radioprotective potential of G-003M would amplify the intestinal crypt stem cells through upregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and accelerate the reconstitution of the irradiated intestine. Our results showed significant functional and structural intestine regeneration in irradiated animals following G-003M treatment which resulted in improved animal survival. Immunohistochemical examination revealed an enhancement in Lgr5+ ve crypt stem cells. Increased β-catenin nuclear translocation resulted in upregulation of β-catenin target genes that supported ISC renewal and expansion in G-003M-treated mice, as compared to IR-treated mice. However, G-003M could not rescue the Wnt knockdown cohorts (XAV939 treated) which exhibited greater incidence of intestinal apoptosis, DNA damage and crypt depopulation upon radiation exposure. These findings suggest the involvement of Wnt pathway during G-003M mediated amelioration of IR-induced ISC injury. G-003M also minimised acute inflammation by restricting the infiltration of immune cells into the intestinal venules. Furthermore, G-003M treated animals showed improved anti-tumor response compared to FDA approved Amifostine. Taken together, our findings suggest that G-003M may be used as a potential countermeasure for radiation injuries as well as an adjuvant during anti-cancer therapy.
      PubDate: 2019-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-019-01519-x
       
  • Excess active P13K rescues huntingtin-mediated neuronal cell death but has
           no effect on axonal transport defects
    • Authors: Timothy Hansen; Claire Thant; Joseph A. White; Rupkatha Banerjee; Bhasirie Thuamsang; Shermali Gunawardena
      Abstract: High levels of oxidative stress is detected in neurons affected by many neurodegenerative diseases, including huntington’s disease. Many of these diseases also show neuronal cell death and axonal transport defects. While nuclear inclusions/accumulations likely cause cell death, we previously showed that cytoplasmic axonal accumulations can also contribute to neuronal death. However, the cellular mechanisms responsible for activating cell death is unclear. One possibility is that perturbations in normal axonal transport alter the function of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (AKT)-pathway, a signal transduction pathway that promotes survival/growth in response to extracellular signals. To test this proposal in vivo, we expressed active PI3K in the context of pathogenic huntingtin (HTT-138Q) in Drosophila larval nerves, which show axonal transport defects and neuronal cell death. We found that excess expression of active P13K significantly suppressed HTT-138Q-mediated neuronal cell death, but had no effect on HTT-138Q-mediated axonal transport defects. Expression of active PI3K also rescued Paraquat-mediated cell death. Further, increased levels of pSer9 (inactive) glycogen synthase kinase 3β was seen in HTT-138Q-mediated larval brains, and in dynein loss of function mutants, indicating the modulation of the pro-survival pathway. Intriguingly, proteins in the PI3K/AKT-pathway showed functional interactions with motor proteins. Taken together our observations suggest that proper axonal transport is likely essential for the normal function of the pro-survival PI3K/AKT-signaling pathway and for neuronal survival in vivo. These results have important implications for targeting therapeutics to early insults during neurodegeneration and death.
      PubDate: 2019-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-019-01520-4
       
  • Cancer therapeutics based on BCL-2 functional conversion
    • Authors: Martin C. Pearce; Arnold C. Satterthwait; Xiao-kun Zhang; Siva Kumar Kolluri
      PubDate: 2019-01-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1504-5
       
  • MicroRNA-663 antagonizes apoptosis antagonizing transcription factor to
           induce apoptosis in epithelial cells
    • Authors: M. R. Benakanakere; J. Zhao; L. Finoti; R. Schattner; M. Odabas-Yigit; D. F. Kinane
      Abstract: MicroRNAs are small functional RNAs that modulate various biological processes in cells by interfering with gene translation. We have previously demonstrated that certain miRNAs play a crucial role in the innate immune responses of human oral epithelial cells to Porphyromonas gingivalis. While addressing the mechanisms of P. gingivalis induced apoptosis in these cells, we discovered that certain miRNAs are upregulated upon stimulation with live bacteria. These upregulated miRNAs include hsa-miR-584, hsa-miR-572, hsa-miR-210, hsa-miR-492, hsa-miR-623 and hsa-miR-663. Further analysis revealed an unexpected role for hsa-miR-663 (miR-663). To further evaluate miR-663 function, we overexpressed miR-663 in epithelial cells which resulted in cellular apoptosis. The bioinformatics analysis of the miR-663 target prediction, revealed a strong binding affinity to a 3′ UTR region of Apoptosis Antagonizing Transcription Factor (AATF) mRNA. To demonstrate the binding of miR-663 to AATF mRNA, the putative miR-663 target site within the 3′-UTR region of AATF was cloned in luciferase vector and transfected to HEK293T cells. Luminescence data showed the downregulation of luciferase activity in cells that had the full length target region of the putative binding site, confirming that AATF is one of the targets for miR-663. This prompted us to further evaluate its role in a cancer cell line (MCF-7) to determine miR-663s’ apoptotic function. The overexpression of miR-663 led to a significant increase in apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. Taken together, miR-663 may function as an ‘apoptomiR’ by inhibiting the anti-apoptotic gene AATF to induce apoptosis. These findings could have therapeutic implications for epithelial cell targeting in cancer therapy.
      PubDate: 2019-01-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-01513-9
       
  • Mechanisms of cell death induced by arginase and asparaginase in precursor
           B-cell lymphoblasts
    • Authors: Lucy E. Métayer; Richard D. Brown; Saskia Carlebur; G. A. Amos Burke; Guy C. Brown
      Abstract: Arginase has therapeutic potential as a cytotoxic agent in some cancers, but this is unclear for precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (pre-B ALL), the commonest form of childhood leukaemia. We compared arginase cytotoxicity with asparaginase, currently used in pre-B ALL treatment, and characterised the forms of cell death induced in a pre-B ALL cell line 697. Arginase and asparaginase both efficiently killed 697 cells and mature B lymphoma cell line Ramos, but neither enzyme killed normal lymphocytes. Arginase depleted cellular arginine, and arginase-treated media induced cell death, blocked by addition of arginine or arginine-precursor citrulline. Asparaginase depleted both asparagine and glutamine, and asparaginase-treated media induced cell death, blocked by asparagine, but not glutamine. Both enzymes induced caspase cleavage and activation, chromatin condensation and phosphatidylserine exposure, indicating apoptosis. Both arginase- and asparaginase-induced death were blocked by caspase inhibitors, but with different sensitivities. BCL-2 overexpression inhibited arginase- and asparaginase-induced cell death, but did not prevent arginase-induced cytostasis, indicating a different mechanism of growth arrest. An autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine, had no effect on the cell death induced by arginase, but doubled the cell death induced by asparaginase. In conclusion, arginase causes death of lymphoblasts by arginine-depletion induced apoptosis, via mechanism distinct from asparaginase. Therapeutic implications for childhood ALL include: arginase might be used as treatment (but antagonised by dietary arginine and citrulline), chloroquine may enhance efficacy of asparaginase treatment, and partial resistance to arginase and asparaginase may develop by BCL-2 expression. Arginase or asparaginase might potentially be used to treat Burkitt lymphoma.
      PubDate: 2018-12-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1506-3
       
 
 
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