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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3308 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (255 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (129 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1576 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (49 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (259 journals)
    - BOTANY (245 journals)
    - CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (30 journals)
    - ENTOMOLOGY (73 journals)
    - GENETICS (169 journals)
    - MICROBIOLOGY (270 journals)
    - MICROSCOPY (10 journals)
    - ORNITHOLOGY (28 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (72 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (143 journals)

BIOLOGY (1576 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Biologica Venezuelica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 80)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 384)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
APOPTOSIS
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.424
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 9  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-675X - ISSN (Online) 1360-8185
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2562 journals]
  • Rotenone protects against β-cell apoptosis and attenuates type 1
           diabetes mellitus
    • Abstract: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is caused by pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis, with consequent severe insulin deficiency. Thus, β-cell protection may be a primary target in the treatment of T1DM. Evidence has demonstrated that defective mitochondrial function plays an important role in pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis; however, the fundamental effect of mitochondrial complex I action on β-cells and T1DM remains unclear. In the current study, the pancreas protective effect of complex I inhibitor rotenone (ROT) and its potential mechanism were assessed in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced mouse model of T1DM and in cultured mouse pancreatic β-cell line, Min6. ROT treatment exerted a hypoglycemic effect, restored the insulin level, and decreased inflammation and cell apoptosis in the pancreas. In vitro experiments also showed that ROT decreased STZ- and inflammatory cytokines-induced β-cell apoptosis. These protective effects were accompanied by attenuation of reactive oxygen species, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, and upregulation of transcriptional coactivator PPARα coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)-controlled mitochondrial biogenesis. These findings suggest that mitochondrial complex I inhibition may represent a promising strategy for β-cell protection in T1DM.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Combination of ERK2 inhibitor VX-11e and voreloxin synergistically
           enhances anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in leukemia cells
    • Abstract: ERK1/2 inhibitors are new promising anticancer drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of ERK2 inhibitor VX-11e and voreloxin on MOLM-14, K562, REH and MOLT-4 leukemia cell lines. We found that VX-11e alone and in combination with voreloxin significantly decreased ERK activation in all cell lines tested. To evaluate the interactions of the drugs, cells were treated for 24 h with VX-11e or voreloxin alone and in combination at fixed ratios based on IC50 values. The combinatorial effects of both drugs were synergistic over a wide range of concentrations in MOLM-14, REH and MOLT-4 cell lines. In K562 cells, three effects were found to be additive, one antagonistic and only one synergistic. The results showed that incubation with both VX-11e and voreloxin inhibited the growth of leukemia cells, affected cell cycle and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of these effects might be attributed to an increased expression of p21 and a decreased expression of survivin and NF-κB in all cell lines tested except from K562 cells. In conclusion, combination of VX-11e and voreloxin can exert a synergistic anticancer effect in leukemia cells.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • TNF-α-elicited miR-29b potentiates resistance to apoptosis in peripheral
           blood monocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis
    • Abstract: CD14-positive monocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are more resistant to apoptosis, which promotes their persistence at the inflammatory site and thereby contributes crucially to immunopathology. We sought to elucidate one mechanism underlying this unique pathogenesis: resistance to apoptosis and the potential involvement of miR-29b in this process. CD14-positive peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) from RA patients were observed to be resistant to spontaneous apoptosis compared to PBMs from healthy volunteers. Intriguingly, expression of miR-29b was significantly upregulated in PBMs from RA patients than those from healthy volunteers, and this upregulation was correlated with RA disease activity. Functionally, forced expression of the exogenous miR-29b in CD14-positive Ctrl PBMs conferred resistance to spontaneous apoptosis and Fas-induced death, thereafter enhancing the production of major proinflammatory cytokines in there cells. Following identification of the potential miR-29b target transcripts using bioinformatic algorithms, we showed that miR-29b could directly bind to the 3′-UTR of the high-mobility group box-containing protein 1 (HBP1) and inhibited its transcription in PBMs. Importantly, stable expression of the exogenous HBP1 in differentiated THP-1 monocytes effectively abolished miR-29b-elicited resistance to Fas-induced apoptosis. Finally, among patients with RA and good clinical responses to immunotherapy, expression levels of miR-29b were significantly compromised in those treated with infliximab (a TNF-α inhibitor) but not in those treated with tocilizumab (a humanized mAb against the IL-6 receptor), pointing to a potential association between miR-29b activation and TNF-α induction. The available data collectively suggest that TNF-α-elicited miR-29b potentiates resistance to apoptosis in PBMs from RA patients via inhibition of HBP1 signaling, and testing patients for miR-29b/HBP1 expression ratios may provide more accurate prognostic information and could influence the recommended course of immunotherapy.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • MAGI1 mediates tumor metastasis through c-Myb/miR-520h/MAGI1 signaling
           pathway in renal cell carcinoma
    • Abstract: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the third most common urological cancer with highly metastatic potential. MAGI1 plays an important role in stabilization of the adherens junctions and has been confirmed to suppress invasiveness and metastasis in multiple cancers in clinic. However, its expression and anti-metastatic ability in RCC are still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that MAGI1 was markedly decreased in the RCC and indicated poor survival. Furthermore, we found that MAGI1 suppressed the invasion and migration of human RCC cells. Mechanistic investigations revealed that MAGI1 stabilized the PTEN/MAGI1/β-catenin complex to inhibit β-catenin signaling pathway. Moreover, MAGI1 was targeted by miR-520h which was transcriptionally activated by c-Myb. Collectively, our findings suggested that MAGI1mediated tumor metastasis through c-Myb/miR-520h/MAGI1 signaling pathway in RCC.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Defining the role of cytoskeletal components in the formation of
           apoptopodia and apoptotic bodies during apoptosis
    • Abstract: During apoptosis, dying cells undergo dynamic morphological changes that ultimately lead to their disassembly into fragments called apoptotic bodies (ApoBDs). Reorganisation of the cytoskeletal structures is key in driving various apoptotic morphologies, including the loss of cell adhesion and membrane bleb formation. However, whether cytoskeletal components are also involved in morphological changes that occur later during apoptosis, such as the recently described generation of thin apoptotic membrane protrusions called apoptopodia and subsequent ApoBD formation, is not well defined. Through monitoring the progression of apoptosis by confocal microscopy, specifically focusing on the apoptopodia formation step, we characterised the presence of F-actin and microtubules in a subset of apoptopodia generated by T cells and monocytes. Interestingly, targeting actin polymerisation and microtubule assembly pharmacologically had no major effect on apoptopodia formation. These data demonstrate apoptopodia as a novel type of membrane protrusion that could be formed in the absence of actin polymerisation and microtubule assembly.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Oroxylin A induces apoptosis of activated hepatic stellate cells through
           endoplasmic reticulum stress
    • Abstract: Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation plays an indispensable role in hepatic fibrosis. Inducing apoptosis of activated HSCs can attenuate or reverse fibrogenesis. In this study, we initially found that oroxylin A (OA) protected CCl4-induced liver injury accompanied by endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) activation of HSCs in mice. In vitro, OA treatment markedly reduced fibrogenesis by modulating extracellular matrix synthesis and degradation. OA inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest of HSCs at S phase. Further, OA was observed to induce HSC apoptosis, as indicated by caspase activation. Using the eIF2α dephosphorylation inhibitor salubrinal, we found that ERS pathway activation was required for OA to induce HSC apoptosis. ERS-related proteins were significantly upregulated by OA treatment, and salubrinal abrogated the effects of OA on HSCs. Thus, we inferred that OA attenuated HSC activation by promoting ERS. In vivo, inhibition of ERS by salubrinal partly abrogated the hepatoprotective effect of OA in CCl4-treated mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest a role for ERS in the mechanism underlying amelioration of hepatic fibrosis by OA.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • M1 macrophage dependent-p53 regulates the intracellular survival of
           mycobacteria
    • Abstract: Tumor suppressor p53 is not only affects immune responses but also contributes to antibacterial activity. However, its bactericidal function during mycobacterial infection remains unclear. In this study, we found that the p53-deficient macrophages failed to control Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), manifested as a lower apoptotic cell death rate and enhanced intracellular survival. The expression levels of p53 during Mtb infection were stronger in M1 macrophages than in M2 macrophages. The TLR2/JNK signaling pathway plays an essential role in the modulation of M1 macrophage polarization upon Mtb infection. It facilitates p53-mediated apoptosis through the production of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and inflammatory cytokines in Mtb-infected M1 macrophages. In addition, nutlin-3 effectively abrogated the intracellular survival of mycobacteria in both TB patients and healthy controls after H37Ra infection for 24 h, indicating that the enhancement of p53 production effectively suppressed the intracellular survival of Mtb in hosts. These results suggest that p53 can be a new therapeutic target for TB therapy.
      PubDate: 2019-11-05
       
  • Influenza A virus-induced apoptosis and virus propagation
    • Abstract: Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are respiratory pathogens that cause severe morbidity and mortality worldwide. They affect cellular processes such as proliferation, protein synthesis, autophagy, and apoptosis. Although apoptosis is considered an innate cellular response to invading infectious pathogens, IAVs have evolved to encode viral proteins that modulate host cellular apoptosis in ways that support efficient viral replication and propagation. An understanding of the modulation of host responses is essential to the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of IAV infections. In this review, we discuss the IAV lifecycle, biology, and strategies employed by the virus to modulate apoptosis to enhance viral survival and establish an infection.
      PubDate: 2019-10-30
       
  • Inhibitors of HSP90 in melanoma
    • Abstract: HSP90 (heat shock protein 90) is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone involved in a proper folding and maturation of hundreds of proteins. HSP90 is abundantly expressed in cancer, including melanoma. HSP90 client proteins are the key oncoproteins of several signaling pathways controlling melanoma development, progression and response to therapy. A number of natural and synthetic compounds of different chemical structures and binding sites within HSP90 have been identified as selective HSP90 inhibitors. The majority of HSP90-targeting agents affect N-terminal ATPase activity of HSP90. In contrast to N-terminal inhibitors, agents interacting with the middle and C-terminal domains of HSP90 do not induce HSP70-dependent cytoprotective response. Several inhibitors of HSP90 were tested against melanoma in pre-clinical studies and clinical trials, providing evidence that these agents can be considered either as single or complementary therapeutic strategy. This review summarizes current knowledge on the role of HSP90 protein in cancer with focus on melanoma, and provides an overview of structurally different HSP90 inhibitors that are considered as potential therapeutics for melanoma treatment.
      PubDate: 2019-10-28
       
  • Accumulation of tissue factor in endothelial cells promotes cellular
           apoptosis through over-activation of Src1 and involves β1-integrin
           signalling
    • Abstract: Accumulation of tissue factor (TF) within cells leads to cellular apoptosis mediated through p38 and p53 pathways. In this study, the involvement of Src1 in the induction of TF-mediated cell apoptosis, and the mechanisms of Src1 activation were investigated. Human coronary artery endothelial cell (HCAEC) were transfected with plasmids to express the wild-type TF (TFWt-tGFP), or a mutant (Ser253 → Ala) which is incapable of being released from cells (TFAla253-tGFP). The cells were then activated with PAR2-agonist peptide (SLIGKV-NH) and the phosphorylation of Src and Rac, and also the kinase activity of Src were assessed. Transfected cells were also pre-incubated with pp60c Src inhibitor, FAK inhibitor-14, or a blocking anti-β1-integrin antibody prior to activation and the phosphorylation of p38 as well as cellular apoptosis was examined. Finally, cells were co-transfected with the plasmids, together with a Src1-specific siRNA, activated as above and the cellular apoptosis measured. Activation of PAR2 lead to the phosphorylation of Src1 and Rac1 proteins at 60 min regardless of TF expression. Moreover, Src phosphorylation and kinase activity was prolonged up to 100 min in the presence of TF, with a significantly higher magnitude when the non-releasable TFAla253-tGFP was expressed in HCAEC. Inhibition of Src with pp60c, or suppression of Src1 expression in cells, reduced p38 phosphorylation and prevented cellular apoptosis. In contrast, inhibition of FAK had no significant influence on Src kinase activity or cellular apoptosis. Finally, pre-incubation of cells with an inhibitory anti-β1-integrin antibody reduced both Src1 activation and cellular apoptosis. Our data show for the first time that the over-activation of Src1 is a mediator of TF-induced cellular apoptosis in endothelial cells through a mechanism that is dependent on its interaction with β1-integrin.
      PubDate: 2019-10-25
       
  • Integrin-EGFR interaction regulates anoikis resistance in colon cancer
           cells
    • Abstract: Anoikis resistance is an essential property of cancer cells that allow the extra-cellular matrix-detached cells to survive in a suspended state in body fluid in order to metastasize and invade to distant organs. It is known that integrins play an important role in anoikis resistance, but detailed mechanisms are not well understood. Here we report that highly metastatic colon cancer cells showed a higher degree of anoikis resistance than the normal intestinal epithelial cells. These anoikis-resistant cancer cells express high-levels of integrin-α2, β1, and activated EGFR in the anchorage-independent state than the anchorage-dependent state. In contrast, normal intestinal epithelial cells failed to elevate these proteins. Interestingly, a higher co-association of EGFR with integrin-α2β1/-α5β1 was observed on the surface of anoikis-resistant cells. Thus, in the absence of extra-cellular matrix, integrins in association with EGFR activates downstream effectors ERK and AKT and suppress Caspase-3 activation to induce anoikis resistance as was confirmed from the gene-ablation and pharmacological inhibitor studies. Interestingly, these anoikis-resistant cancer cells express high-level of cancer stem cell signatures (CD24, CD44, CD133, EpCAM) and pluripotent stem cell markers (OCT-4, SOX-2, Nanog) as well as drug-resistant pumps (ABCG2, MDR1, MRP1). Altogether, our findings unravel the interplay between integrin-α2β1/-α5β1 and EGFR in anoikis resistance and suggest that the resistant cells are cancer initiating or cancer stem cells, which may serve as a promising target to combat metastasis of cancer.
      PubDate: 2019-10-22
       
  • Two-factor specification of apoptosis: TGF-β signaling acts cooperatively
           with ecdysone signaling to induce cell- and stage-specific apoptosis of
           larval neurons during metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster
    • Abstract: Developmentally regulated programmed cell death (PCD) is one of the key cellular events for precise controlling of neuronal population during postembryonic development of the central nervous system. Previously we have shown that a group of corazonin-producing peptidergic neurons (vCrz) undergo apoptosis in response to ecdysone signaling via ecdysone receptor (EcR)-B isoforms and Ultraspiracle during early phase of metamorphosis. Further utilizing genetic, transgenic, and mosaic analyses, we have found that TGF-β signaling mediated by a glia-produced ligand, Myoglianin, type-I receptor Baboon (particularly Babo-A isoform) and dSmad2, is also required autonomously for PCD of the vCrz neurons. Our studies show that TGF-β signaling is not acting epistatically to EcR or vice versa. We also show that ectopic expression of a constitutively active phosphomimetic form of dSmad2 (dSmad2PM) is capable of inducing premature death of vCrz neurons in larva but not other larval neurons. Intriguingly, the dSmad2PM-mediated killing is completely suppressed by coexpression of a dominant-negative form of EcR (EcRDN), suggesting that EcR function is required for the proapoptotic dSmad2PM function. Based on these data, we suggest that TGF-β and ecdysone signaling pathways act cooperatively to induce vCrz neuronal PCD. We propose that this type of two-factor authentication is a key developmental strategy to ensure the timely PCD of specific larval neurons during metamorphosis.
      PubDate: 2019-10-22
       
  • PP2Ac upregulates PI3K-Akt signaling and induces hepatocyte apoptosis in
           liver donor after brain death
    • Abstract: Multiple research groups have demonstrated that the outcome of patients receiving liver grafts from brain death donors (DBD) is poorer when compared with patients receiving grafts from living donors. This might be due to an increased hepatocyte apoptosis induced after brain death (BD). In this work, we found that the activity of PP2A-Akt pathway is significantly increased in clinical donor ex vivo hepatocytes after BD by iTRAQ protein quantification analysis. The same results were confirmed in animal models. A time-dependent promotion of apoptosis was also found in DBD rabbit liver, as demonstrated by the increased levels of cleaved Caspase 3 and the decreased of Bcl-2. To further investigate the roles of PP2A and Akt in regulating apoptosis of hepatocytes after BD, we cultivated human liver cell line L02 with serum deprivation and hypoxia, to simulate the ischemic and hypoxic conditions of hepatocytes in DBD. Increased apoptosis and decreased viability were observed during the time in this model. Meanwhile PP2A activity and Akt activity were respectively increased and decreased. Notably, the proportion of Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 decreased, while other known targets of PP2A (p38, JNK and ERK) were not affected in terms of protein levels or phosphorylation. These results suggested that PP2A is involved in apoptotic induction of hepatocytes after brain death by specific suppression of Akt. This discovery was further confirmed with pharmaceutical and genetic methods. Our work implied potential targets for reducing liver cell apoptosis and improving organ donor quality after BD.
      PubDate: 2019-10-11
       
  • Loss of HMBOX1 promotes LPS-induced apoptosis and inhibits LPS-induced
           autophagy of vascular endothelial cells in mouse
    • Abstract: Our previous study revealed that Homeobox containing 1 (HMBOX1), essential for the survival of vascular endothelial cells (VECs), was involved in the progression of atherosclerosis. Knockdown of HMBOX1 promoted apoptosis and inhibited autophagy through regulating intracellular free zinc level in cultured VECs. In current study, in order to investigate the roles of HMBOX1 in vivo and in endothelium, we generated a knockout (KO) mouse for HMBOX1 by using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) technology. Herein, we reported that the protein level of HMBOX1 was gradually increased during mouse development. The HMBOX1 KO mouse was viable and fertile. There existed no differences in apoptosis and autophagy of aortic endothelial cells between wild type and KO mouse. Whereas, loss of HMBOX1 promoted apoptosis and inhibited autophagy of aortic endothelial cells under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in mouse. We also demonstrated that HMBOX1 deletion had no influence on the secretion of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. Moreover, overexpression or knockdown of HMBOX1 failed to regulate multiple pro-apoptotic genes expression in vitro. In conclusion, HMBOX1 participated in the functional maintenance of mouse aortic endothelial cells, the aortic endothelial cells of HMBOX1 KO mouse showed increased apoptosis and decreased autophagy with LPS treatment.
      PubDate: 2019-10-03
       
  • Liver-specific Bid silencing inhibits APAP-induced cell death in mice
    • Abstract: Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a life-threatening disease with only a few treatment options available. Though extensive research has been conducted for more than 40 years, the underlying pathomechanisms are not completely understood. Here, we studied as to whether APAP-induced ALF can be prevented in mice by silencing the BH3-interacting domain death agonist (Bid) as a potential key player in APAP pathology. For silencing Bid expression in mice, siRNABid was formulated with the liver-specific siRNA delivery system DBTC and administered 48 h prior to APAP exposure. Mice which were pre-treated with HEPES (vehicleHEPES) and siRNALuci served as siRNA controls. Hepatic pathology was assessed by in vivo fluorescence microscopy, molecular biology, histology and laboratory analysis 6 h after APAP or PBS exposure. Application of siRNABid caused a significant decrease of mRNA and protein expression of Bid in APAP-exposed mice. Off-targets, such as cytochrome P450 2E1 and glutathione, which are known to be consumed under APAP intoxication, were comparably reduced in all APAP-exposed mice, underlining the specificity of Bid silencing. In APAP-exposed mice non-sterile inflammation with leukocyte infiltration and perfusion failure remained almost unaffected by Bid silencing. However, the Bid silencing reduced hepatocellular damage, evident by a remarkable decrease of DNA fragmented cells in APAP-exposed mice. In these mice, the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, which recently gained importance in the cell death pathway of regulated necrosis, was also significantly reduced, in line with a decrease in both, necrotic liver tissue and plasma transaminase activities. In addition, plasma levels of HMGB1, a marker of sterile inflammation, were significantly diminished. In conclusion, the liver-specific silencing of Bid expression did not protect APAP-exposed mice from microcirculatory dysfunction, but markedly protected the liver from necrotic cell death and in consequence from sterile inflammation. The study contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of the APAP-induced pathogenic pathway by strengthening the importance of Bid and Bid silencing associated effects.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • SPECT/CT imaging of apoptosis in aortic aneurysm with radiolabeled
           duramycin
    • Abstract: The objective of this research was to estimate whether a [99mTc]duramycin probe can be used for apoptosis imaging in patients with aortic aneurysm (AA). Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) apoptosis has an important influence on AA development. Thus, non-invasive imaging of SMC apoptosis may be able to evaluate AA progress and risk stratification. SMCs were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 200 μΜ) or culture medium as a control. Apoptosis was measured using flow cytometry and [99mTc]duramycin to detect the binding efficiency to apoptotic SMCs. C57/BL6 mice were administered angiotensin-II and beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) subcutaneously to establish an AA model, or saline for controls. Aortic specimens underwent pathological evaluation and their aortic diameters were measured after 6 weeks. Micro-SPECT/CT scanning of [99mTc]duramycin and 18F-FDG PET detection were performed. SMCs treated with H2O2 showed more apoptosis compared with the control group (67.2 ± 3.8% vs. 16.1 ± 0.6%, P < 0.01). The experimental group showed a high rate of AA formation (70%) compared with no AA formation in the control group. The average aorta diameter was higher and [99mTc]duramycin uptake at the AA site was higher in the experimental group compared with the control group. Compared with the normal aorta in the control group, AA in experiment group had more severe medial degeneration, elastic fiber reduction and fracture, and collagen degeneration. TUNEL staining verified the higher apoptosis rate at the AA site in experiment group compared with the control group (63.9 ± 3.7% in ascending AA, 66.4 ± 4.0% in thoracic AA, vs. 3.5 ± 0.3% in normal aorta, P < 0.01). [99mTc]Duramycin may be an effective probe to evaluate apoptosis in AA.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Correction to: Defining the role of cytoskeletal components in the
           formation of apoptopodia and apoptotic bodies during apoptosis
    • Abstract: The original version of the article unfortunately contained a typo in the fourth author name. The author name was incorrectly listed as Rochelle Tixeria. The correct name should be Rochelle Tixeira. The original article has been corrected.
      PubDate: 2019-09-23
       
  • Correction to: SPECT/CT imaging of apoptosis in aortic aneurysm with
           radiolabeled duramycin
    • Abstract: The original version of this article unfortunately contains errors in Figure 4. An incorrect Figure 4D is published which is actually a repetition of Figure 2C (i.e., apoptosis rate in control vs. H2O2-treated group). The correct Figure 4D should be the aortic diameter of control vs. experimental groups. Also, the order of part figures (a\b\c\d) in Figure 4E is incorrect. The correct Figure 4 is given below.
      PubDate: 2019-08-17
       
  • Deubiquitylatinase inhibitor b-AP15 induces c-Myc-Noxa-mediated apoptosis
           in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
    • Abstract: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most malignant tumors in east Asia. However, the molecular mechanism underlying its progression remains unclear. The ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) is a central mechanism for protein degradation and turnover. Accumulating evidence showed that more and more deubiquitinases could serve as attractive anti-cancer target. The expression of USP14 and UCH37 in esophagus squamous cell carcinoma tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot assays. Effect of b-AP15, a USP14 and UCH37 inhibitor, on ESCC cell growth was evaluated by cell viability assay. After cell lines being treated with b-AP15, cell cycle, apoptosis and the expression of related proteins were further explored to investigate the anti-ESCC mechanism of b-AP15. Results showed that deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) USP14 and UCH37 expressed at higher levels in ESCC tissues than in adjacent tissues. b-AP15 could inhibit cell proliferation and induce G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in ESCC cells. Mechanistically, b-AP15 treatment triggered Noxa-dependent apoptosis, which was regulated by c-Myc. Silencing Noxa and c-Myc could reduce b-AP15-induced apoptosis in ESCC cells. Our results revealed a novel mechanism of anti-tumor activity of b-AP15 in ESCC, and b-AP15 could be used as a potential therapeutic agent in ESCC.
      PubDate: 2019-07-24
       
  • Inhibition of SIRT1/2 upregulates HSPA5 acetylation and induces
           pro-survival autophagy via ATF4-DDIT4-mTORC1 axis in human lung cancer
           cells
    • Abstract: Sirtuins have emerged as a promising novel class of anti-cancer drug targets. Inhibition of SIRT1 and SIRT2 induces apoptosis in cancer cells and they play multifaceted roles in regulating autophagy. In the present study, we found that salermide, a SIRT1/2-specific inhibitor or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to block SIRT1/2 expression could induce autophagy in human NSCLC cells. Moreover, SIRT1/2 inhibition increased the expression levels of ATF4 and DDIT4 and downregulated p-RPS6KB1 and p-EIF4EBP1, two downstream molecules of mTORC1. Moreover, ATF4 or DDIT4 knockdown attenuated salermide-induced autophagy, suggesting that SIRT1/2 inhibition induced autophagy through the ATF4-DDIT4-mTORC1 axis. Mechanistically, SIRT1/2 inhibition led to HSPA5 acetylation and dissociation from EIF2AK3, leading to ER stress response and followed by upregulation of ATF4 and DDIT4, triggering autophagy. Silencing of the autophagic gene ATG5 in lung cancer cells resulted in increased apoptotic cell death induced by SIRT1/2 inhibition. Our data show that inhibition of SIRT1/2 induces pro-survival autophagy via acetylation of HSPA5 and subsequent activation of ATF4 and DDIT4 to inhibit the mTOR signaling pathway in NSCLC cells. These findings suggest that combinatorial treatment with SIRT1/2 inhibitors and pharmacological autophagy inhibitors is an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy.
      PubDate: 2019-07-18
       
 
 
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