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BIOLOGY (1453 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 290)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover APOPTOSIS
  [SJR: 1.554]   [H-I: 87]   [8 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-675X - ISSN (Online) 1360-8185
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Dysregulated genes and miRNAs in the apoptosis pathway in colorectal
           cancer patients
    • Authors: Martha L. Slattery; Lila E. Mullany; Lori C. Sakoda; Roger K. Wolff; Wade S. Samowitz; Jennifer S. Herrick
      Abstract: Apoptosis is genetically regulated and involves intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. We examined 133 genes within these pathways to identify whether they are expressed differently in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and normal tissue (N = 217) and if they are associated with similar differential miRNA expression. Gene expression data (RNA-Seq) and miRNA expression data (Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0) were generated. We focused on dysregulated genes with a fold change (FC) of > 1.50 or < 0.67, that were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. miRNA:mRNA seed-region matches were determined. Twenty-three genes were significantly downregulated (FC < 0.67) and 18 were significantly upregulated (FC > 1.50). Of these 41 genes, 11 were significantly associated with miRNA differential expression. BIRC5 had the greatest number of miRNA associations (14) and the most miRNAs with a seed-region match (10). Four of these matches, miR-145-5p, miR-150-5p, miR-195-5p, and miR-650, had a negative beta coefficient. CSF2RB was associated with ten total miRNAs (five with a seed-region match, and one miRNA, miR-92a-3p, with a negative beta coefficient). Of the three miRNAs associated with CTSS, miR-20b-5p, and miR-501-3p, had a seed-region match and a negative beta coefficient between miRNA:mRNA pairs. Several miRNAs that were associated with dysregulated gene expression, seed-region matches, and negative beta coefficients also were associated with CRC-specific survival. Our data suggest that miRNAs could influence several apoptosis-related genes. BIRC5, CTSS, and CSF2R all had seed-region matches with miRNAs that would favor apoptosis. Our study identifies several miRNA associated with apoptosis-related genes, that if validated, could be important therapeutic targets.
      PubDate: 2018-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1451-1
  • Role of p62 in the regulation of cell death induction
    • Authors: Lihong Fan; Shutao Yin; Enxiang Zhang; Hongbo Hu
      Abstract: p62 is a multifunctional adaptor protein implicated in various cellular processes. It has been found to regulate selective autophagy, cell survival, cell death, oxidative stress, DNA repair and inflammation, and to play a role in a number of diseases, such as tumourigenesis, Paget’s disease of bone, neurodegenerative disease, diabetes, and obesity. Cell death induction is an important cellular process. The dysregulation of cell death induction is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases, such as cancer, neurodegeneration diseases, and diabetes. In this review, we discuss the functional role of p62 in inducing cell death in response to multiple stimuli, and we summarize the potential signaling pathways that contribute to this regulation. Given the important role of p62 in regulating cell death, p62 is considered to be a reasonable target for managing cell death dysregulation-related pathogenic conditions. A better understanding of the role of p62 and its related mechanisms in regulating cell death is necessary for the more precise utilization of p62 as a target for treating relevant diseases.
      PubDate: 2018-02-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1445-z
  • Licarin A induces cell death by activation of autophagy and apoptosis in
           non-small cell lung cancer cells
    • Authors: Uma Maheswari; Krishna Ghosh; Sudha Rani Sadras
      Abstract: Lung cancer has a relatively poor prognosis with a low survival rate and drugs that target other cell death mechanism like autophagy may help improving current therapeutic strategy. This study investigated the anti-proliferative effect of Licarin A (LCA) from Myristica fragrans in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines—A549, NCI-H23, NCI-H520 and NCI-H460. LCA inhibited proliferation of all the four cell lines in a dose and time dependent manner with minimum IC50 of 20.03 ± 3.12, 22.19 ± 1.37 µM in NCI-H23 and A549 cells respectively. Hence NCI-H23 and A549 cells were used to assess the ability LCA to induce autophagy and apoptosis. LCA treatment caused G1 arrest, increase in Beclin 1, LC3II levels and degradation of p62 indicating activation of autophagy in both NCI-H23 and A549 cells. In addition, LCA mediated apoptotic cell death was confirmed by MMP loss, increased ROS, cleaved PARP and decreased pro-caspase3. To understand the role of LCA induced autophagy and its association with apoptosis, cells were analysed following treatment with a late autophagy inhibitor-chloroquine and also after Beclin 1 siRNA transfection. Data indicated that inhibition of autophagy resulted in reduced anti-proliferative as well as pro-apoptotic ability of LCA. These findings confirmed that LCA brought about autophagy dependent apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells and hence it may serve as a potential drug candidate for non-small cell lung cancer therapy.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1449-8
  • Epirubicin induces apoptosis in osteoblasts through death-receptor and
           mitochondrial pathways
    • Authors: Tzu-Ching Huang; Pu-Rong Chiu; Wen-Tsan Chang; Bau-Shan Hsieh; Yu-Ci Huang; Hsiao-Ling Cheng; Li-Wen Huang; Yu-Chen Hu; Kee-Lung Chang
      Abstract: Epirubicin is an anthracycline and is widely used in tumor treatment, but has toxic and undesirable side effects on wide range of cells and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Osteoblasts play important roles in bone development and in supporting HSC differentiation and maturation. It remains unknown whether epirubicin-induced bone loss and hematological toxicity are associated with its effect on osteoblasts. In primary osteoblast cell cultures, epirubicin inhibited cell growth and decreased mineralization. Moreover, epirubicin arrested osteoblasts in the G2/M phase, and this arrest was followed by apoptosis in which both the extrinsic (death receptor-mediated) and intrinsic (mitochondrial-mediated) apoptotic pathways were evoked. The factors involved in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway were increased FasL and FADD as well as activated caspase-8. Those involved in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway were decreased Bcl-2; increased reactive oxygen species, Bax, cytochrome c; and activated caspase-9 and caspase-3. These results demonstrate that epirubicin induced osteoblast apoptosis through the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, leading to the destruction of osteoblasts and consequent lessening of their functions in maintaining bone density and supporting hematopoietic stem cell differentiation and maturation.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1450-2
  • Effect of phosphorylation and single nucleotide polymorphisms on caspase
           substrates processing
    • Authors: Sonu Kumar; Piotr Cieplak
      Abstract: Posttranslational modifications that involve either reversible covalent modification of proteins or irreversible proteolysis are central to the regulation of key cellular mechanisms, including apoptosis, cell-cycle regulation and signal transduction. There is mounting evidence suggesting cross-talk between proteases and kinases. For instance: caspases, a class of proteases involved in programmed cell death—apoptosis, cleave a large set of various types of proteins. Simultaneously, kinases restrict caspase activity by phosphorylating their protein substrates in the vicinity of cleavage site. In addition, the caspase cleavage pattern in target proteins may be modified as a result of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding gene. This may either create a novel cleavage site, or increase/decrease the cleavage efficiency of a substrate. Such point mutations are often associated with the onset of disease. In this study, we predicted how phosphorylation and SNPs affect known human caspase proteolytic events collected in the CASBAH and Degrabase databases by applying Random Forest caspases’ substrates prediction method, as implemented in the CaspDB, and the molecular dynamics free energy simulations approach. Our analysis confirms several experimental observations. Phosphorylation could have both positive or negative regulatory effects depending on its position with respect to the caspase cleavage site. For instance, we demonstrate that phosphorylation at P1′ is the most detrimental for proteolytic efficiency of caspases. Phosphorylation at the P2 and P2′ positions also negatively affect the cleavage events. In addition, we uncovered SNPs in 11 caspase substrates capable of completely abolishing the cleavage site due to polymorphism at the P1 position. The findings presented here may be useful for determining the link between aberrant proteolysis and disease.
      PubDate: 2018-02-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1442-2
  • Hypertonicity primes malignant melanoma cells for apoptosis
    • Authors: Diana Nicoleta Calance; Charlotte Steixner; Stefanie Gross; Beatrice Schuler-Thurner; Gertrud Knoll; Martin Ehrenschwender
      Abstract: The tumor environment critically influences responsiveness of cancer cells to chemotherapies, most of which activate the mitochondria-regulated (intrinsic) apoptotic cascade to kill malignant cells. Especially skin tumors encounter an environment with remarkable biophysical properties. Cutaneous accumulation of Na+ locally establishes osmotic pressure gradients in vivo (hypertonicity or hyperosmotic stress), but whether cutaneous hypertonicity is a factor that modulates the responsiveness of skin cancers to therapeutic apoptosis-induction has thus far not been investigated. Here, we show that hyperosmotic stress lowers the threshold for apoptosis induction in malignant melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. Hypertonic conditions enforce addiction to BCL-2-like proteins to prevent initiation of the mitochondria-regulated (intrinsic) apoptotic pathway. Essentially, hyperosmotic stress primes mitochondria for death. Our work identifies osmotic pressure in the tumor microenvironment as a cell extrinsic factor that modulates responsiveness of malignant melanoma cells to therapy.
      PubDate: 2018-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1446-y
  • Dynamic changes and molecular analysis of cell death in the spinal cord of
           SJL mice infected with the BeAn strain of Theiler’s murine
           encephalomyelitis virus
    • Authors: Ingo Gerhauser; Lin Li; Dandan Li; Stephanie Klein; Suliman Ahmed Elmarabet; Ulrich Deschl; Arno Kalkuhl; Wolfgang Baumgärtner; Reiner Ulrich; Andreas Beineke
      Abstract: Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis (TME) is caused by the TME virus (TMEV) and represents an important animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Oligodendroglial apoptosis and reduced apoptotic elimination of encephalitogenic leukocytes seem to participate in autoimmune demyelination in MS. The present study quantified apoptotic cells in BeAn–TMEV-induced spinal cord white matter lesions at 14, 42, 98, and 196 days post infection (dpi) using immunostaining. Apoptotic cells were identified by transmission electron microscopy and double-immunofluorescence. The mRNA expression of apoptosis-related genes was investigated using microarray analysis. Oligodendroglial apoptosis was already detected in the predemyelinating phase at 14 dpi. Apoptotic cell numbers peaked at 42 dpi and decreased until 196 dpi partly due to reduced T cell apoptosis. In addition to genes involved in the classical pathways of apoptosis induction, microarray analysis detected the expression of genes related to alternative mechanisms of cell death such as pyroptosis, necroptosis, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Consequently, oligodendroglial apoptosis is involved in the initiation of the TME demyelination process, whereas the development of apoptosis resistance of T cells potentially favors the maintenance of inflammation and myelin loss.
      PubDate: 2018-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1448-9
  • Plagioneurin B, a potent isolated compound induces apoptotic signalling
           pathways and cell cycle arrest in ovarian cancer cells
    • Authors: Noraziah Nordin; Nazia Abdul Majid; Rozana Othman; Fatima Abdelmutaal Ahmed Omer; Muhammad Nazil Afiq Nasharuddin; Najihah Mohd Hashim
      Abstract: Plagioneurin B belongs to acetogenin group has well-established class of compounds. Acetogenin group has attracted worldwide attention in the past few years due their biological abilities as inhibitors for several types of tumour cells. Plagioneurin B was isolated via conventional chromatography and tested for thorough mechanistic apoptosis activity on human ovarian cancer cells (CAOV-3). Its structure was also docked at several possible targets using Autodock tools software. Our findings showed that plagioneurin B successfully inhibits the growth of CAOV-3 cells at IC50 of 0.62 µM. The existence of apoptotic bodies, cell membrane blebbing and chromatin condensation indicated the hallmark of apoptosis. Increase of Annexin V-FITC bound to phosphatidylserine confirmed the apoptosis induction in the cells. The apoptosis event was triggered through the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways via activation of caspases 8 and 9, respectively. Stimulation of caspase 3 and the presence of DNA ladder suggested downstream apoptotic signalling were initiated. Further confirmation of apoptosis was conducted at the molecular levels where up-regulation in Bax, as well as down-regulation of Bcl-2, Hsp-70 and survivin were observed. Plagioneurin B was also seen to arrest CAOV-3 cells cycle at the G2/M phase. Docking simulation of plagioneurin B with CD95 demonstrated that the high binding affinity and hydrogen bonds formation may explain the capability of plagioneurin B to trigger apoptosis. This study is therefore importance in finding the effective compound that may offer an alternative drug for ovarian cancer treatment.
      PubDate: 2018-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1447-x
  • Synergistic effect of the pro-apoptosis peptide kla-TAT and the cationic
           anticancer peptide HPRP-A1
    • Authors: Cuihua Hu; Xiaolong Chen; Yibing Huang; Yuxin Chen
      Abstract: In this study, a peptide–peptide co-administration therapy between hybrid peptide kla-TAT and cationic anticancer peptide HPRP-A1 was designed to increase the anticancer activity of the combination peptides through synergistic effect. kla is a pro-apoptotic peptide which could induce rapid cancer cell apoptosis by disruption the mitochondrial membrane when internalized the cells. To enhance more kla peptides pass through cell membrane, a double improvement strategy was designed by chemically conjugation with cell penetration peptide TAT as well as co-administration with cationic membrane active peptide HPRP-A1, and the double anticancer mechanism of the kla-TAT peptide and HPRP-A1 including membrane disruption and apoptosis induction was verified through in vitro experiments. The CompuSyn synergism/antagonism analysis showed that kla-TAT acted synergistically with HPRP-A1 against a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell line. The anticancer activities of the two peptides were dramatically increased by co-administration, under the mechanism of cell membrane disruption, caspase-dependent apoptosis induction, as well as cyclin-D1 down-regulation based G1 phase arrest. We believe that the synergic therapeutic strategy would be a meaningful method for the anticancer peptides used in cancer treatment.
      PubDate: 2018-02-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1443-1
  • Baculovirus-based gene silencing of Humanin for the treatment of pituitary
    • Authors: María Florencia Gottardo; Matías L. Pidre; Camila Zuccato; Antonela S. Asad; Mercedes Imsen; Gabriela Jaita; Marianela Candolfi; Víctor Romanowski; Adriana Seilicovich
      Abstract: Pituitary tumors are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms. Humanin (HN) and Rattin (HNr), a rat homolog of HN, are short peptides with a cytoprotective action. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether endogenous HNr plays an antiapoptotic role in pituitary tumor cells. Thus, we used RNA interference based on short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeted to HNr (shHNr). A plasmid including the coding sequences for shHNr and dTomato fluorescent reporter gene was developed (pUC-shHNr). Transfection of somatolactotrope GH3 cells with pUC-shHNr increased apoptosis, suggesting that endogenous HNr plays a cytoprotective role in pituitary tumor cells. In order to evaluate the effect of blockade of endogenous HNr expression in vivo, we constructed a recombinant baculovirus (BV) encoding shHNr (BV-shHNr). In vitro, BV-shRNA was capable of transducing more than 80% of GH3 cells and decreased HNr mRNA. Also, BV-shHNr increased apoptosis in transduced GH3 cells. Intratumor injection of BV-shHNr to nude mice bearing s.c. GH3 tumors increased the number of apoptotic cells, delayed tumor growth and enhanced survival rate, suggesting that endogenous HNr may be involved in pituitary tumor progression. These preclinical data suggests that the silencing of HN expression could have a therapeutic impact on the treatment of pituitary tumors.
      PubDate: 2018-01-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1444-0
  • Piperazine clubbed with 2-azetidinone derivatives suppresses
           proliferation, migration and induces apoptosis in human cervical cancer
           HeLa cells through oxidative stress mediated intrinsic mitochondrial
    • Authors: Rashmin Khanam; Raj Kumar; Iram Iqbal Hejazi; Syed Shahabuddin; Ramovatar Meena; Vikrant Jayant; Prabhat Kumar; Abdul Roouf Bhat; Fareeda Athar
      Abstract: Piperazine scaffolds or 2-azetidinone pharmacophores have been reported to show anti-cancer activities and apoptosis induction in different types of cancer cells. However, the mechanistic studies involve in induction of apoptosis addressing these two moieties for human cervical cancer cells remain uncertain. The present study emphasizes on the anti-proliferating properties and mechanism involved in induction of apoptosis for these structurally related azoles derivatives in HeLa cancer cells. 1-Phenylpiperazine clubbed with 2-azetidione derivatives (5a–5h) were synthesized, characterized using various spectroscopic techniques and evaluated for their in-vitro anti-proliferative activities and induction of apoptosis. Further, we also evaluated oxidative stress generated by these synthetic derivatives (5a–5h). Cell viability studies revealed that among all, the compound N-(3-chloro-2-(3-nitrophenyl)-4-oxoazetidin-1-yl)-2-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl) acetamide 5e remarkably inhibited the growth of HeLa cells in a concentration dependent manner having IC50 value of 29.44 ± 1.46 µg/ml. Morphological changes, colonies suppression and inhibition of migration clearly showed the antineoplasicity in HeLa cells treated with 5e. Simultaneously, phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation and cell-cycle arrest showed ongoing apoptosis in the HeLa cancer cells induced by compound 5e in concentration dependent manner. Additionally, generation of intracellular ROS along with the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential supported that compound 5e caused oxidative stress resulting in apoptosis through mitochondria mediated pathway. Elevation in the level of cytochrome c and upregulation in expression of caspase-3 clearly indicated the involvement of the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death. In brief; compound 5e could serve as a promising lead for the development of an effective antitumor agent. Graphical
      PubDate: 2018-01-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1439-x
  • Negative regulators of cell death pathways in cancer: perspective on
           biomarkers and targeted therapies
    • Authors: Ali Razaghi; Kirsten Heimann; Patrick M. Schaeffer; Spencer B. Gibson
      Abstract: Cancer is a primary cause of human fatality and conventional cancer therapies, e.g., chemotherapy, are often associated with adverse side-effects, tumor drug-resistance, and recurrence. Molecularly targeted therapy, composed of small-molecule inhibitors and immunotherapy (e.g., monoclonal antibody and cancer vaccines), is a less harmful alternative being more effective against cancer cells whilst preserving healthy tissues. Drug-resistance, however, caused by negative regulation of cell death signaling pathways, is still a challenge. Circumvention of negative regulators of cell death pathways or development of predictive and response biomarkers is, therefore, quintessential. This review critically discusses the current state of knowledge on targeting negative regulators of cell death signaling pathways including apoptosis, ferroptosis, necroptosis, autophagy, and anoikis and evaluates the recent advances in clinical and preclinical research on biomarkers of negative regulators. It aims to provide a comprehensive platform for designing efficacious polytherapies including novel agents for restoring cell death signaling pathways or targeting alternative resistance pathways to improve the chances for antitumor responses. Overall, it is concluded that nonapoptotic cell death pathways are a potential research arena for drug discovery, development of novel biomarkers and targeted therapies.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1440-4
  • Caspase cleavage of Mcl-1 impairs its anti-apoptotic activity and
           proteasomal degradation in non-small lung cancer cells
    • Authors: Ting Wang; Zhiwei Yang; Yimeng Zhang; Xiang Zhang; Lei Wang; Shengli Zhang; Lintao Jia
      Abstract: Global cleavage of cellular proteins by activated caspases is a hallmark of apoptosis, which causes biochemical collapse of the cell. Recent studies suggest that, rather than completely destroying a protein, caspase cleavage can confer novel characteristics or functions. In this respect, the post-caspase role of Bcl-2 family proteins remains uncharacterized. Here, we showed that Mcl-1, a pro-survival member of the Bcl-2 family, was cleaved by caspase-3 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells undergoing chemotherapeutic agent-triggered apoptosis. Caspase cleavage partially impaired the anti-apoptotic activity of Mcl-1 by reducing its mitochondrial localization and impeding its association with the permeability transition pore-forming protein Bak. However, the stability of cleaved Mcl-1 was markedly enhanced because it was more refractory to ubiquitination-dependent proteasomal degradation, thereby improving cell viability to a greater extent than full-length Mcl-1 when transiently expressed in NSCLC cells. These findings shed new light on the role of Mcl-1 in apoptosis and suggest potential novel targets for optimizing the tumoricidal capacity of chemotherapy.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1436-5
  • SDF-1 induces TNF-mediated apoptosis in cardiac myocytes
    • Authors: Andrew A. Jarrah; Martina Schwarskopf; Edward R. Wang; Thomas LaRocca; Ashwini Dhume; Shihong Zhang; Lahouria Hadri; Roger J. Hajjar; Alison D. Schecter; Sima T. Tarzami
      Abstract: Chemokines are small secreted proteins with chemoattractant properties that play a key role in inflammation. One such chemokine, Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) also known as CXCL12, and its receptor, CXCR4, are expressed and functional in cardiac myocytes. SDF-1 both stimulates and enhances the cellular signal which attracts potentially beneficial stem cells for tissue repair within the ischemic heart. Paradoxically however, this chemokine is known to act in concert with the inflammatory cytokines of the innate immune response which contributes to cellular injury through the recruitment of inflammatory cells during ischemia. In the present study, we have demonstrated that SDF-1 has dose dependent effects on freshly isolated cardiomyocytes. Using Tunnel and caspase 3-activation assays, we have demonstrated that the treatment of isolated adult rat cardiac myocyte with SDF-1 at higher concentrations (pathological concentrations) induced apoptosis. Furthermore, ELISA data demonstrated that the treatment of isolated adult rat cardiac myocyte with SDF-1 at higher concentrations upregulated TNF-α protein expression which directly correlated with subsequent apoptosis. There was a significant reduction in SDF-1 mediated apoptosis when TNF-α expression was neutralized which suggests that SDF-1 mediated apoptosis is TNF-α-dependent. The fact that certain stimuli are capable of driving cardiomyocytes into apoptosis indicates that these cells are susceptible to clinically relevant apoptotic triggers. Our findings suggest that the elevated SDF-1 levels seen in a variety of clinical conditions, including ischemic myocardial infarction, may either directly or indirectly contribute to cardiac cell death via a TNF-α mediated pathway. This highlights the importance of this receptor/ligand in regulating the cardiomyocyte response to stress conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-12-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1438-3
  • Caspase cleavage of transcription factor Sp1 enhances apoptosis
    • Authors: Behzad Torabi; Samuel Flashner; Kate Beishline; Aislinn Sowash; Kelly Donovan; Garrett Bassett; Jane Azizkhan-Clifford
      Abstract: Sp1 is a ubiquitous transcription factor that regulates many genes involved in apoptosis and senescence. Sp1 also has a role in the DNA damage response; at low levels of DNA damage, Sp1 is phosphorylated by ATM and localizes to double-strand break sites where it facilitates DNA double-strand-break repair. Depletion of Sp1 increases the sensitivity of cells to DNA damage, whereas overexpression of Sp1 can drive cells into apoptosis. In response to a variety of stimuli, Sp1 can be regulated through proteolytic cleavage by caspases and/or degradation. Here, we show that activation of apoptosis through DNA damage or TRAIL-mediated activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway induces caspase-mediated cleavage of Sp1. Cleavage of Sp1 was coincident with the appearance of cleaved caspase 3, and produced a 70 kDa Sp1 product. In vitro analysis revealed a novel caspase cleavage site at aspartic acid 183. Mutation of aspartic acid 183 to alanine conferred resistance to cleavage, and ectopic expression of the Sp1 D183A rendered cells resistant to apoptotic stimuli, indicating that Sp1 cleavage is involved in the induction of apoptosis. The 70 kDa product resulting from caspase cleavage of Sp1 comprises amino acids 184–785. This truncated form, designated Sp1-70C, which retains transcriptional activity, induced apoptosis when overexpressed in normal epithelial cells, whereas Sp1D183A induced significantly less apoptosis. Together, these data reveal a new caspase cleavage site in Sp1 and demonstrate for the first time that caspase cleavage of Sp1 promotes apoptosis.
      PubDate: 2017-12-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1437-4
  • Correction to: Combined gene expression and proteomic analysis of EGF
           induced apoptosis in A431 cells suggests multiple pathways trigger
    • Authors: Ibrahim Alanazi; Esmaeil Ebrahimie; Peter Hoffmann; David L. Adelson
      Abstract: The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The affiliation of first author Dr. Ibrahim Alanazi was incorrect.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1431-x
  • Identifying and monitoring neurons that undergo metamorphosis-regulated
           cell death (metamorphoptosis) by a neuron-specific caspase sensor (Casor)
           in Drosophila melanogaster
    • Authors: Gyunghee Lee; Jaeman Kim; Yujin Kim; Siuk Yoo; Jae H. Park
      Abstract: Activation of caspases is an essential step toward initiating apoptotic cell death. During metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster, many larval neurons are programmed for elimination to establish an adult central nervous system (CNS) as well as peripheral nervous system (PNS). However, their neuronal functions have remained mostly unknown due to the lack of proper tools to identify them. To obtain detailed information about the neurochemical phenotypes of the doomed larval neurons and their timing of death, we generated a new GFP-based caspase sensor (Casor) that is designed to change its subcellular position from the cell membrane to the nucleus following proteolytic cleavage by active caspases. Ectopic expression of Casor in vCrz and bursicon, two different peptidergic neuronal groups that had been well-characterized for their metamorphic programmed cell death, showed clear nuclear translocation of Casor in a caspase-dependent manner before their death. We found similar events in some cholinergic neurons from both CNS and PNS. Moreover, Casor also reported significant caspase activities in the ventral and dorsal common excitatory larval motoneurons shortly after puparium formation. These motoneurons were previously unknown for their apoptotic fate. Unlike the events seen in the neurons, expression of Casor in non-neuronal cell types, such as glial cells and S2 cells, resulted in the formation of cytoplasmic aggregates, preventing its use as a caspase sensor in these cell types. Nonetheless, our results support Casor as a valuable molecular tool not only for identifying novel groups of neurons that become caspase-active during metamorphosis but also for monitoring developmental timing and cytological changes within the dying neurons.
      PubDate: 2017-12-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1435-6
  • Molecular docking studies of bioactive compounds from Annona muricata Linn
    • Authors: Mohamad Norisham Mohamad Rosdi; Shahkila Mohd Arif; Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar; Siti Aisyah Razali; Razauden Mohamed Zulkifli; Harisun Ya’akob
      Abstract: Annona muricata Linn or usually identified as soursop is a potential anticancer plant that has been widely reported to contain valuable chemopreventive agents known as annonaceous acetogenins. The antiproliferative and anticancer activities of this tropical and subtropical plant have been demonstrated in cell culture and animal studies. A. muricata L. exerts inhibition against numerous types of cancer cells, involving multiple mechanism of actions such as apoptosis, a programmed cell death that are mainly regulated by Bcl-2 family of proteins. Nonetheless, the binding mode and the molecular interactions of the plant’s bioactive constituents have not yet been unveiled for most of these mechanisms. In the current study, we aim to elucidate the binding interaction of ten bioactive phytochemicals of A. muricata L. to three Bcl-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins viz. Bcl-2, Bcl-w and Mcl-1 using an in silico molecular docking analysis software, Autodock 4.2. The stability of the complex with highest affinity was evaluated using MD simulation. We compared the docking analysis of these substances with pre-clinical Bcl-2 inhibitor namely obatoclax. The study identified the potential chemopreventive agent among the bioactive compounds. We also characterized the important interacting residues of protein targets which involve in the binding interaction. Results displayed that anonaine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, showed a high affinity towards the Bcl-2, thus indicating that this compound is a potent inhibitor of the Bcl-2 antiapoptotic family of proteins.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1434-7
  • A triazole-conjugated benzoxazone induces reactive oxygen species and
           promotes autophagic apoptosis in human lung cancer cells
    • Authors: Chang-Heng Hsieh; Jing-Ping Wang; Chien-Chih Chiu; Chun-Yen Liu; Ching-Fa Yao; Kang Fang
      Abstract: Numerous approaches suggested that compounds with conjugated triazole moieties or benzoxazone pharmacores are effective to antagonize proliferation of human tumors. The current study reported that a synthetic triazole-conjugated benzoxazone, 4-((5-benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-3-yl)-methyl)-7-methoxy-2H-benzo[b][1,4]-oxazin-3(4H)-one (BTO), inhibited growth rates of human non-small cell lung cancer cells. The cytotoxicity can be enhanced with increasing drug concentrations. More evidence supported that the induced reactive oxygen species lead to ultimate apoptotic cell death by recruiting autophagy. The mechanistic pathway as elucidated involved tumor suppressor p53 activation and LC3-1 conversion followed by PARP and procaspase-3 cleavage. Autophagy inhibition reverted apoptotic death and restored cell viabilities. BTO suppressed the development of A549 cell xenograft tumors by activating autophagy and apoptosis simultaneously. As an efficient tumor growth inhibitor with relatively small molecular weight, BTO is a viable addition to the existing list of lung cancer treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1432-9
  • Linear ubiquitin chain induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth
    • Authors: Zhoushuai Qin; Wandong Jiang; Guifen Wang; Ying Sun; Wei Xiao
      Abstract: Ubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays an important role in DNA damage response. Ectopic expression of PCNA fused at either terminus with ubiquitin (Ub) lacking two C-terminal glycine residues induces translesion DNA synthesis which resembles synthesis mediated by PCNA monoubiquitination. PCNA fused with Ub containing the C-terminal Gly residues at the C-terminus can be further polyubiquitinated in a Gly-dependent manner, which inhibits cell proliferation and induces ATR-dependent replication checkpoint. In this study, we surprisingly found that PCNA fused to a head-to-tail linear Ub chain induces apoptosis in a Ub chain length-dependent manner. Further investigation revealed that the apoptotic effect is actually induced by the linear Ub chain independently from PCNA, as the Ub chain fused to GFP or an epitope tag still efficiently induces apoptosis. It is revealed that the artificial linear Ub chain differs from endogenously encoded linear Ub chains in that its Ubs contain a Ub-G76S substitution, making the Ub chain resistant to cleavage by deubiquitination enzymes. We demonstrated in this study that ectopic expression of the artificial Ub chain alone in cultured human cancer cells is sufficient to inhibit tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model, making the linear Ub chain a putative anti-cancer agent.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1433-8
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