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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2986 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (236 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (108 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1422 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (44 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (215 journals)
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    - ENTOMOLOGY (63 journals)
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    - MICROSCOPY (10 journals)
    - ORNITHOLOGY (25 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (70 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (132 journals)

BIOLOGY (1422 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 308)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover APOPTOSIS
  [SJR: 1.554]   [H-I: 87]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-675X - ISSN (Online) 1360-8185
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • SIRT6 knockout cells resist apoptosis initiation but not progression: a
           computational method to evaluate the progression of apoptosis
    • Authors: Sergii Domanskyi; Justin W. Nicholatos; Joshua E. Schilling; Vladimir Privman; Sergiy Libert
      Pages: 1336 - 1343
      Abstract: Apoptosis is essential for numerous processes, such as development, resistance to infections, and suppression of tumorigenesis. Here, we investigate the influence of the nutrient sensing and longevity-assuring enzyme SIRT6 on the dynamics of apoptosis triggered by serum starvation. Specifically, we characterize the progression of apoptosis in wild type and SIRT6 deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts using time-lapse flow cytometry and computational modelling based on rate-equations and cell distribution analysis. We find that SIRT6 deficient cells resist apoptosis by delaying its initiation. Interestingly, once apoptosis is initiated, the rate of its progression is higher in SIRT6 null cells compared to identically cultured wild type cells. However, SIRT6 null cells succumb to apoptosis more slowly, not only in response to nutrient deprivation but also in response to other stresses. Our data suggest that SIRT6 plays a role in several distinct steps of apoptosis. Overall, we demonstrate the utility of our computational model to describe stages of apoptosis progression and the integrity of the cellular membrane. Such measurements will be useful in a broad range of biological applications.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1412-0
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • The Btk-dependent PIP5K1γ lipid kinase activation by Fas counteracts
           FasL-induced cell death
    • Authors: Aurélie Rossin; Nadia Lounnas; Jérôme Durivault; Giorgia Miloro; Laurent Gagnoux-Palacios; Anne-Odile Hueber
      Pages: 1344 - 1352
      Abstract: The Fas/FasL system plays a critical role in death by apoptosis and immune escape of cancer cells. The Fas receptor being ubiquitously expressed in tissues, its apoptotic-inducing function, initiated upon FasL binding, is tightly regulated by several negative regulatory mechanisms to prevent inappropriate cell death. One of them, involving the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Btk, was reported mainly in B cells and only poorly described. We report here that Btk negatively regulates, through its tyrosine kinase activity, the FasL-mediated cell death in epithelial cell lines from colon cancer origin. More importantly, we show that Btk interacts not only with Fas but also with the phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, PIP5K1γ, which, upon stimulation by Fas ligand, is responsible of a rapid and transient synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2). This production requires both the presence and the tyrosine kinase activity of Btk, and participates in the negative regulation of FasL-mediated cell death since knocking down PIP5K1γ expression significantly strengthens the apoptotic signal upon FasL engagement. Altogether, our data demonstrate the cooperative role of Btk and PIP5K1γ in a FasL-induced PI(4,5)P2 production, both proteins participating to the threshold setting of FasL-induced apoptotic commitment in colorectal cell lines.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1415-x
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Modulation of adenylate cyclase signaling in association with MKK3/6
           stabilization under combination of SAC and berberine to reduce HepG2 cell
           survivability
    • Authors: Dipanwita Sengupta; Kaustav Dutta Chowdhury; Sujan Chatterjee; Avik Sarkar; Soumosish Paul; Pradip Kumar Sur; Gobinda Chandra Sadhukhan
      Pages: 1362 - 1379
      Abstract: Cancer cells often have faulty apoptotic pathways resulting in sustenance of survivability, tumour metastasis and resistance to anticancer drugs. Alternate strategies are sought to improve therapeutic efficacy and therefore HepG2 cells were treated with S-allyl-cysteine (SAC) and berberine (BER) to analyze their mechanistic impact upon necroptosis along with its interacting relationship to apoptosis. In the present study we observed that SAC and BER exposure reduced NFκβ nuclear translocation through adenylate cyclase-cAMP-protein kinaseA axis and eventually evaded c-FLIP inhibition. Effective RIP1 k63-polyubiquitination and persistent MKK3/MKK6 expression during drug treatment potentiated caspase8 activity via p53—DISC conformation. Resultant tBid associated lysosomal protease mediated AIF truncation induced DNA fragmentation and persuaded effector caspase mediated scramblase activation resulting induction of necroptosis in parallel to apoptotic events. SAC+BER effectively reduced Rb-phosphorylation resulting insignificant nuclear E2F presence led to ending of cell proliferation. Therefore necroptosis augmented the drug response and may be targeted alongside cell proliferation inhibition in formation of efficient therapeutics against liver cancer.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1407-x
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Glucotoxicity promotes aberrant activation and mislocalization of
           Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 [Rac1] and metabolic
           dysfunction in pancreatic islet β-cells: reversal of such metabolic
           defects by metformin
    • Authors: Sartaj Baidwan; Anil Chekuri; DiAnna L. Hynds; Anjaneyulu Kowluru
      Pages: 1380 - 1393
      Abstract: Emerging evidence suggests that long-term exposure of insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells to hyperglycemic (HG; glucotoxic) conditions promotes oxidative stress, which, in turn, leads to stress kinase activation, mitochondrial dysfunction, loss of nuclear structure and integrity and cell apoptosis. Original observations from our laboratory have proposed that Rac1 plays a key regulatory role in the generation of oxidative stress and downstream signaling events culminating in the onset of dysfunction of pancreatic β-cells under the duress of metabolic stress. However, precise molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the metabolic roles of hyperactive Rac1 remain less understood. Using pharmacological and molecular biological approaches, we now report mistargetting of biologically-active Rac1 [GTP-bound conformation] to the nuclear compartment in clonal INS-1 cells, normal rat islets and human islets under HG conditions. Our findings also suggest that such a signaling step is independent of post-translational prenylation of Rac1. Evidence is also presented to highlight novel roles for sustained activation of Rac1 in HG-induced expression of Cluster of Differentiation 36 [CD36], a fatty acid transporter protein, which is implicated in cell apoptosis. Finally, our findings suggest that metformin, a biguanide anti-diabetic drug, at a clinically relevant concentration, prevents β-cell defects [Rac1 activation, nuclear association, CD36 expression, stress kinase and caspase-3 activation, and loss in metabolic viability] under the duress of glucotoxicity. Potential implications of these findings in the context of novel and direct regulation of islet β-cell function by metformin are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1409-8
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Novel histone deacetylase 8-selective inhibitor 1,3,4-oxadiazole-alanine
           hybrid induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells
    • Authors: Vijaya Rao Pidugu; Nagendra Sastry Yarla; Anupam Bishayee; Arunasree M. Kalle; Alapati Krishna Satya
      Pages: 1394 - 1403
      Abstract: Identification of isoform-specific histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) is a significant advantage to overcome the adverse side effects of pan-HDACi for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. We have designed, and synthesized novel 1,3,4 oxadiazole with glycine/alanine hybrids as HDAC8-specific inhibitors and preliminary evaluation has indicated that 1,3,4 oxadiazole with alanine hybrid [(R)-2-amino-N-((5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)methyl)propanamide (10b)] to be a potent HDAC8 inhibitor. In the present study, the in vitro efficacy of the molecule in inhibiting the cancer cell proliferation and the underlying molecular mechanism was studied. 10b inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 breast cancer cells, with a lower IC50 of 230 and 1000 nM, respectively, compared to K562, COLO-205 and HepG2 cells and was not cytotoxic to normal breast epithelial cells, MCF10A. 10b was specific to HDAC8 and did not affect the expression of other class I HDACs. Further, a dose-dependent increase in H3K9 acetylation levels demonstrated the HDAC-inhibitory activity of 10b in MDA-MB-231 cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated a dose-dependent increase and decrease in the percent apoptotic cells and mitochondrial membrane potential, respectively, when treated with 10b. Immunoblot analysis showed a modulation of Bax/Bcl2 ratio with a decrease in Bcl2 expression and no change in Bax expression. 10b treatment resulted in induction of p21 and inhibition of CDK1 proteins along with cytochrome c release from mitochondria, activation of caspases-3 and -9 and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase leading to apoptotic death of MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells. In conclusion, our results clearly demonstrated the efficacy of 10b as an anticancer agent against breast cancer.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1410-2
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • 20(S)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3β, 12β, 20-triol negatively regulates
           activation of STAT3 and ERK pathways and exhibits anti-cancer effects in
           HepG2 cells
    • Authors: Hui-Han Ai; Zi-Long Zhou; Lu-Guo Sun; Mei-Ting Yang; Wei Li; Chun-Lei Yu; Zhen-Bo Song; Yan-Xin Huang; Yin Wu; Lei Liu; Xiao-Guang Yang; Yu-Qing Zhao; Yong-Li Bao; Yu-Xin Li
      Pages: 1404 - 1418
      Abstract: The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6), via activating its downstream JAK/STAT3 and Ras/ERK signaling pathways, is involved in cell growth, proliferation and anti-apoptotic activities in various malignancies. To screen inhibitors of IL-6 signaling, we constructed a STAT3 and ERK dual-pathway responsive luciferase reporter vector (Co.RE). Among several candidates, the natural compound 20(S)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3β, 12β, 20-triol (25-OCH3-PPD, GS25) was identified to clearly inhibit the luciferase activity of Co.RE. GS25 was confirmed to indeed inhibit activation of both STAT3 and ERK pathways and expression of downstream target genes of IL-6, and to predominantly decrease the viability of HepG2 cells via induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, GS25 showed preferential inhibition of HepG2 cell viability relative to normal liver L02 cells. Further investigation showed that GS25 could not induce apoptosis and block activation of STAT3 and ERK pathways in L02 cells as efficiently as in HepG2 cells, which may result in differential effects of GS25 on malignant and normal liver cells. In addition, GS25 was found to potently suppress the expression of endogenous STAT3 at a higher concentration and dramatically induce p38 phosphorylation in HepG2 cells, which could mediate its anti-cancer effects. Finally, we demonstrated that GS25 also inhibited tumor growth in HepG2 xenograft mice. Taken together, these findings indicate that GS25 elicits its anti-cancer effects on HepG2 cells through multiple mechanisms and has the potential to be used as an inhibitor of IL-6 signaling. Thus, GS25 may be developed as a treatment for hepatocarcinoma with low toxicity on normal liver tissues as well as other inflammation-associated diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1416-9
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • mPGES-1-derived prostaglandin E2 stimulates Stat3 to promote podocyte
           apoptosis
    • Authors: Jing Yu; Yimei Wu; Lu Wang; Wen Zhang; Man Xu; Jiayu Song; Yu Fu; Yiyun Cui; Wei Gong; Shuzhen Li; Weiwei Xia; Songming Huang; Aihua Zhang; Zhanjun Jia
      Pages: 1431 - 1440
      Abstract: We previously reported that microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) contributed to adriamycin (Adr)-induced podocyte apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we studied the role of mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade in activating Stat3 signaling and the contribution of Stat3 in PGE2- and Adr-induced podocyte apoptosis. In murine podocytes, PGE2 dose- and time-dependently increased the phosphorylation of Stat3 in line with the enhanced cell apoptosis and reduced podocyte protein podocin. In agreement with the increased Stat3 phosphorylation, Stat3-derived cytokines including IL-6, IL-17, MCP-1, and ICAM-1 were significantly upregulated following PGE2 treatment. By application of a specific Stat3 inhibitor S3I-201, PGE2-induced podocyte apoptosis was largely abolished in parallel with a blockade of podocin reduction. Next, we observed that Adr treatment also enhanced p-Stat3 and activated mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade. Blockade of Stat3 by S3I-201 significantly ameliorated Adr-induced cell apoptosis and podocin reduction. More interestingly, silencing mPGES-1 in podocytes by mPGES-1 siRNA blocked Adr-induced increments of Stat-3 phosphorylation, PGE2 production, and Stat3-derived inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, this study suggested that mPGES-1-derived PGE2 could activate Stat3 signaling to promote podocyte apoptosis. Targeting mPGES-1/PGE2/Stat3 signaling might be a potential strategy for the treatment of podocytopathy.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1418-7
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 11 (2017)
       
  • Erratum to: A novel tubulin polymerization inhibitor, MPT0B206,
           downregulates Bcr-Abl expression and induces apoptosis in
           imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant CML cells
    • Authors: Chih-Wei Chen; Yueh-Lun Lee; Jing-Ping Liou; Yu-Hsiu Liu; Chin-Wei Liu; Tsai-Yun Chen; Huei-Mei Huan
      Pages: 1319 - 1319
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1403-1
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Apoptosis turns 21
    • Authors: Arjan W. Griffioen; Patrycja Nowak-Sliwinska
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1430-y
       
  • Bromoethylindole (BEI-9) redirects NF-κB signaling induced by
           camptothecin and TNFα to promote cell death in colon cancer cells
    • Authors: Rupak Chowdhury; Dominique Gales; Paloma Valenzuela; Sonni Miller; Teshome Yehualaeshet; Upender Manne; Giulio Francia; Temesgen Samuel
      Abstract: Chemotherapeutic regimens containing camptothecin (CPT), 5-fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin are used to treat advanced colorectal cancer. We previously reported that an indole derivative, 3-(2-bromoethyl)indole (BEI-9), inhibited the proliferation of colon cancer cells and suppressed NF-κB activation. Here, we show that a combination of BEI-9 with either CPT or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) enhances cell death. Using colorectal cancer cells, we examined the activation of NF-κB by drugs, the potential of BEI-9 for inhibiting drug-induced NF-κB activation, and the enhancement of cell death by combination treatments. Cells were treated with the chemotherapeutic drugs alone or in combination with BEI-9. NF-κB activation, cell cycle profiles, DNA-damage response, markers of cell death signaling and targets of NF-κB were evaluated to determine the effects of single and co-treatments. The combination of BEI-9 with CPT or TNFα inhibited NF-κB activation and reduced the expression of NF-κB-responsive genes, Bcl-xL and COX2. Compared to CPT or BEI-9 alone, sequential treatment of the cells with CPT and BEI-9 significantly enhanced caspase activation and cell death. Co-treatment with TNFα and BEI-9 also caused more cytotoxicity than TNFα or BEI-9 alone. Combined BEI-9 and TNFα enhanced cell death through caspase activation and cleavage of the switch-protein, RIP1 kinase. BEI-9 reduced the expression of COX2 both alone and in combination with CPT or TNF. We postulate that BEI-9 enhances the effects of these drugs on cancer cells by turning off or redirecting NF-κB signaling. Therefore, the combination of BEI-9 with drugs that activate NF-κB needs to be evaluated for clinical applications.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1427-6
       
  • LncRNA MEG3 inhibit endometrial carcinoma tumorigenesis and progression
           through PI3K pathway
    • Authors: Kai-Xuan Sun; Dan-Dan Wu; Shuo Chen; Yang Zhao; Zhi-Hong Zong
      Abstract: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are RNA molecules more than 200 nucleotides in length that do not encode proteins. Recent studies have reported increasing numbers of functional lncRNAs. Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) is a maternally imprinted gene encoding an lncRNA that plays a tumor suppressor role in various tumors. However, there has been rare report on mechanism of tumorigenesis and progression of endometrial carcinoma. In the present study, we found significantly lower MEG3 expression in endometrial carcinoma tissues than in normal endometrial tissues. MEG3 overexpression inhibited endometrial cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis; promoted apoptosis; and inhibited the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/m-TOR signaling pathway. RNA immunoprecipitation assay (RIP) showed that MEG3 can combine directly with PI3K. Tumor xenograft implantation in nude mice showed that MEG3 could significantly suppress tumor growth. These findings provide potential new therapeutic targets for treating endometrial cancer.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1426-7
       
  • Inhibitors of apoptosis: clinical implications in cancer
    • Authors: Mervat S. Mohamed; Mai K. Bishr; Fahad M. Almutairi; Ayat G. Ali
      Abstract: Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family comprises a group of endogenous proteins that function as main regulators of caspase activity and cell death. They are considered the main culprits in evasion of apoptosis, which is a fundamental hallmark of carcinogenesis. Overexpression of IAP proteins has been documented in various solid and hematological malignancies, rendering them resistant to standard chemotherapeutics and radiation therapy and conferring poor prognosis. This observation has urged their exploitation as therapeutic targets in cancer with promising pre-clinical outcomes. This review describes the structural and functional features of IAP proteins to elucidate the mechanism of their anti-apoptotic activity. We also provide an update on patterns of IAP expression in different tumors, their impact on treatment response and prognosis, as well as the emerging investigational drugs targeting them. This aims at shedding the light on the advances in IAP targeting achieved to date, and encourage further development of clinically applicable therapeutic approaches.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1429-4
       
  • Procaspase-activating compound-1 induces apoptosis in Trypanosoma cruzi
    • Authors: Emanuella de Castro; Thamile Luciane Reus; Alessandra Melo de Aguiar; Andrea Rodrigues Ávila; Tatiana de Arruda Campos Brasil de Souza
      Abstract: Some therapeutics for parasitic, cardiac and neurological diseases activate apoptosis. Therefore, the study of apoptotic proteins in pathogenic organisms is relevant. However, the molecular mechanism of apoptosis in unicellular organisms remain elusive, despite morphological evidence of its occurrence. In Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, metacaspase 3 (TcMCA3), seems to have a key role in parasite apoptosis. Accordingly, this work provides data concerning TcMCA3 regulation through its interaction with procaspase-activating compound 1 (PAC-1), a procaspase 3 activator. Indeed, PAC-1 reduced T. cruzi epimastigote viability with an IC50 of 14.12 µM and induced loss of mitochondrial potential and exposure of phosphatidylserine, features of the apoptotic process. Notwithstanding, those PAC-1-inducible effects were not conserved in metacyclic trypomastigotes. Moreover, PAC-1 reduced the viability of mammalian cells with a greater IC50 (25.70 µM) compared to T. cruzi epimastigotes, indicating distinct modes of binding between caspases and metacaspases. To shed light on the selectivity of metacaspases and caspases, we determined the structural features related to the PAC-1 binding sites in both types of proteins. These data are important for improving the understanding of the apoptosis pathway in T. cruzi so that TcMCA3 could be better targeted with future pharmaceuticals.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1428-5
       
  • Remote ischemic preconditioning protects human neural stem cells from
           oxidative stress
    • Authors: Ayako Motomura; Mikiko Shimizu; Akira Kato; Kazuya Motomura; Akane Yamamichi; Hiroko Koyama; Fumiharu Ohka; Tomohide Nishikawa; Yusuke Nishimura; Masahito Hara; Tetsuya Fukuda; Yasuhiko Bando; Toshihide Nishimura; Toshihiko Wakabayashi; Atsushi Natsume
      Abstract: In previous clinical trials, we showed that remote ischemic preconditioning (rIPC) reduced myocardial damage in children undergoing treatment for congenital heart defects and postoperative renal failure in patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. In rabbit experiments, pre-treatment with plasma and plasma dialysate (obtained using 15-kDa cut-off dialysis membrane) from donor rabbits subjected to rIPC similarly protected against cardiac infarction. However, the protective substances containing in rIPC plasma have been unknown. In the present study, we showed that rIPC plasma exerted anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative effects on human neural stem cells under oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) that mimics brain ischemia. Additionally, we applied the sample to the liquid chromatography integrated with mass spectrometry to identify candidate key molecules in the rIPC plasma and determine its role in protecting neural stem cells from OGD-induced cell death. Thioredoxin increased significantly after rIPC compared to pre-IPC. Pretreatment with thioredoxin, the antioxidant protein, markedly protected human neural stem cells from OGD-induced cell death. The effect of thioredoxin on brain ischemia in animals should be further evaluated. However, the present study first evaluated the effect of rIPC in the ischemic cellular model.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1425-8
       
  • Induction of reactive oxygen species: an emerging approach for cancer
           therapy
    • Authors: Zhengzhi Zou; Haocai Chang; Haolong Li; Songmao Wang
      Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a group of ions and molecules, include hydroxyl radicals (·OH), alkoxyl radicals, superoxide anion (O2·−), singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Hydroxyl radicals and alkoxyl radicals are extremely and highly reactive species respectively. Endogenous ROS are mainly formed in mitochondrial respiratory chain. Low levels of ROS play important roles in regulating biological functions in mammalian cells. However, excess production of ROS can induce cell death by oxidative damaging effects to intracellular biomacromolecules. Cancer cell death types induced by ROS include apoptotic, autophagic, ferroptotic and necrotic cell death. Since abnormal metabolism in cancer cells, they have higher ROS content compared to normal cells. The higher endogenous ROS levels in cancer cells endow them more susceptible to the ROS-induction treatment. Indeed, some anticancer drugs currently used in clinic, such as molecular targeted drugs and chemotherapeutic agents, effectively kill cancer cells by inducing ROS generation. In addition, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is mainly based on induction of ROS burst to kill cancer cells. The mechanism of cell death induced by radiotherapy using ionizing radiation also refers to ROS production. Moreover, ROS play an important role in tumor immune therapy. Altogether, combining above traditional treatments with ROS-induced agents will be considered as a promising strategy in cancer therapy. In this review, we focus on our current understanding of the anticancer effects of ROS.
      PubDate: 2017-09-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1424-9
       
  • Protodioscin ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation and histology
           outcome in Complete Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis rats
    • Authors: Jia-Yu Liu; Ya-Ling Hou; Rong Cao; Hong Xia Qiu; Guo-Hua Cheng; Ran Tu; Li Wang; Jun-Li Zhang; Dan Liu
      Abstract: Protective effect of protodioscin or methyl protodioscin against inflammation had been reported in various inflammation diseases. This study aimed to investigate the effect of protodioscin against Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis rats. Rats randomly divided into model groups were injected with CFA, companied with different dose of protodioscin (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight). The histology, changes in biochemical parameters and inflammatory cytokines expression were detected for anti-inflammation effect evaluation of protodioscin. CFA treatment induced arthritic rats with swelling paw, ankle inflammation, and area of lymphocyte infiltration, upregulated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, cyclo-oxygenase 2, and IL-6 as well as prostaglandin E2), articular elastase, myeloperoxidase, lipid peroxidase and nitrite oxide levels, downregulated glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. In contrast, protodioscin ameliorated all the changes induced by CFA in rats, suggesting the anti-inflammatory effect of protodioscin. We concluded that protodioscin administration into CFA-induced arthritis rats protected against CFA-induced oxidative stress, neutrophil infiltration, and inflammation, suggesting the anti-inflammatory effect and the therapeutic potential of protodioscin for arthritis.
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1420-0
       
  • Piperlongumine induces G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in
           cholangiocarcinoma cells through the ROS-JNK-ERK signaling pathway
    • Authors: Sunisa Thongsom; Wipa Suginta; Kyung Jin Lee; Han Choe; Chutima Talabnin
      Abstract: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive, metastatic bile duct cancer. CCA is difficult to diagnose, and responds poorly to current radio- and chemo-therapy. Piperlongumine (PL) is a naturally-occurring small molecule selectively toxic to cancer cells by targeting reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we demonstrated the potential anticancer activity of PL in CCA. PL markedly induced death in CCA cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner through the activation of caspase-3 and PARP. PL also stimulated ROS accumulation in CCA. Co-exposure of PL with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine or GSH completely blocked PL-induced apoptosis in CCA cell lines. Increased p21 via the p53-independent pathway in PL-treated CCA cells led to G2/M phase arrest and cell apoptosis. In addition, the study showed that PL trigger CCA cell lines death through JNK-ERK activation. Furthermore, the different antioxidant capacity of CCA cell lines also indicates the susceptibility of the cells to PL treatment. Our findings reveal that PL exhibits anti-tumor activity and has potential to be used as a chemotherapeutic agent against CCA.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1422-y
       
  • Peroxynitrite induces apoptosis of mouse cochlear hair cells via a
           Caspase-independent pathway in vitro
    • Authors: Zhixin Cao; Qianqian Yang; Haiyan Yin; Qi Qi; Hongrui Li; Gaoying Sun; Hongliang Wang; Wenwen Liu; Jianfeng Li
      Abstract: Peroxynitrite (ONOO−) is a potent and versatile oxidant implicated in a number of pathophysiological processes. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of ONOO− on the cultured cochlear hair cells (HCs) of C57BL/6 mice in vitro as well as the possible mechanism underlying the action of such an oxidative stress. The in vitro primary cultured cochlear HCs were subjected to different concentrations of ONOO−, then, the cell survival and morphological changes were examined by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the apoptosis was determined by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUNT nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, the mRNA expressions of Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Caspase-9, Apaf1, Bcl-2, and Bax were analyzed by RT-PCR, and the protein expressions of Caspase-3 and AIF were assessed by immunofluorescence. This work demonstrated that direct exposure of primary cultured cochlear HCs to ONOO− could result in a base-to-apex gradient injury of HCs in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, ONOO− led to much more losses of outer hair cells than inner hair cells mainly through the induction of apoptosis of HCs as evidenced by TEM and TUNEL assays. The mRNA expressions of Caspase-8, Caspase-9, Apaf1, and Bax were increased and, meanwhile, the mRNA expression of Bcl-2 was decreased in response to ONOO− treatment. Of interesting, the expression of Caspase-3 had no significant change, whereas, the expression alteration of AIF was observed. These results suggested that ONOO− can effectively damage the survival of cochlear HCs via triggering the apoptotic pathway. The findings from this work suggest that ONOO−-induced apoptosis is mediated, at least in part, via a Caspase-independent pathway in cochlear HCs.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1417-8
       
  • The induction of apoptosis and autophagy in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells
           by combined treatment with vitamin C and polysaccharides extracted from
           Grifola frondosa
    • Authors: Fei Zhao; Jin Zhao; Lei Song; Ya-Qing Zhang; Zhong Guo; Ke-Hu Yang
      Abstract: Polysaccharides extracted from the mushroom Grifola frondosa (GFP) are a potential anticancer agent. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of GFP and vitamin C (VC) alone and in combination on the viability of human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells. Studies designed to detect cell apoptosis and autophagy were also conducted to investigate the mechanism. Results from the cell viability assay indicated that a combination of GFP (0.2 or 0.25 mg/mL) and VC (0.3 mmol/L) (GFP/VC) led to 52.73 and 53.93% reduction in cell viability of SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells separately after 24 h. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that GFP/VC treatment induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, and apoptosis occurred in approximately 43.62 and 42.46% of the SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells separately. Moreover, results of Hoechst33258 and monodansylcadaverine staining, and transmission electron microscopy, showed that GFP/VC induced apoptosis and autophagy in SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells. Western blot analysis showed changes in the expression of apoptosis-related proteins [upregulation of BAX and caspase-3, downregulation of Bcl-2, and activation of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase] and autophagy protein markers (upregulation of beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B light chain-3). We also demonstrated that the expression of both Akt and p-Akt was enhanced, suggesting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway might not be involved in this process. Our study shows that the combined application of GFP and VC induced cell apoptosis and autophagy in vitro, and might have antitumor activity in vivo.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1421-z
       
  • Protective effects of carbenoxolone, an 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, against
           chemical induced dry eye syndrome
    • Authors: Yoon-Ju Na; Kyoung-Jin Choi; Sung Bum Park; Hye-Rim Sung; Won Hoon Jung; Hee Youn Kim; Sang Dal Rhee; Ki Young Kim
      Abstract: Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a disorder of the eye due to tear deficiency or excessive evaporation that causes damage to the eye and is associated with discomfort and dryness. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that converts inactive cortisone to active cortisol. Recently, 11β-HSD1 has been expressed in human and rodent eyes and has been recognized as a target of glaucoma. In this study, the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of topical carbenoxolone, an 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, were investigated in benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-treated human conjunctival epithelial cells and a rat DES model. In the in vitro study, carbenoxolone dose-dependently inhibited cell death and 11β-HSD1 activity in BAC-treated human conjunctival epithelial cells. For the in vivo study, carbenoxolone or a solvent was administered to the BAC-induced DES model twice daily. BAC-treated rat eyes showed significant increases in ocular surface damage, a reduction of tears, decrease corneal thickness, corneal basement membrane destruction, apoptosis in the conjunctival epithelium, and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and 11β-HSD1. These effects of BAC were reversed by topical carbenoxolone treatment. These results demonstrate that carbenoxolone can prevent DES by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and cell death of the corneal and conjunctival epithelium via inhibition of both 11β-HSD1 activity and expression in the eyes of BAC-treated rats. It is suggested that topical 11β-HSD1 inhibitors may provide a new therapeutic window in the prevention and/or treatment of DES. Graphical
      PubDate: 2017-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1419-6
       
 
 
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