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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3149 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (247 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (116 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1495 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (47 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (237 journals)
    - BOTANY (231 journals)
    - CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (29 journals)
    - ENTOMOLOGY (68 journals)
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    - MICROBIOLOGY (266 journals)
    - MICROSCOPY (11 journals)
    - ORNITHOLOGY (26 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (73 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (137 journals)

BIOLOGY (1495 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 293)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
APOPTOSIS
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.424
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 8  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-675X - ISSN (Online) 1360-8185
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Treating metastatic prostate cancer with microRNA-145
    • Authors: Alexandre Iscaife; Sabrina Thalita Reis; Denis Reis Morais; Nayara Izabel Viana; Iran Amorim da Silva; Ruan Pimenta; Andre Bordini; Nelson Dip; Miguel Srougi; Katia Ramos Moreira Leite
      Abstract: Prostate cancer (PCa) is an incurable disease at the metastatic stage. Although there are different options for treatment, the results are limited. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small, noncoding, regulatory RNAs with important roles in regulating gene expression. miR-145 is reported to be a key tumor suppressor miRNA (tsmiR) that controls important oncogenes, such as MYC and RAS. In this study, in vitro studies were performed to show the control of MYC and RAS by miR-145. Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell proliferation and apoptosis. The efficacy of miR-145 in treating metastatic PCa was tested in nude mice using a model of bone metastasis promoted by intraventricular injection of PC-3MLuc-C6 cells. Tumor growth was evaluated by an in vivo bioluminescence system. After the full establishment of metastases on day 21, six animals were treated with three intravenous doses of miR-145 (on days 21, 24 and 27), and six were injected with scramble miRNA as controls. Compared to the controls, tumor growth was significantly reduced in animals receiving miR-145, most importantly on day 7 after the third and last dose of miRNA. After discontinuing the treatment, tumor growth resumed, becoming similar to the group of non-treated animals. A decrease in MYC and RAS expression was observed in all cell lines after treatment with miR-145, although statistical significance was achieved only in experiments with LNCaP and PC3 cell lines, with a decrease in 56% (p = 0.012) and 31% (p = 0.013) of RAS expression, respectively. Our results suggest that miR-145 is a potential molecule to be tested for treatment of metastatic, castration-resistant PCa.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1461-z
       
  • Apoptosis on the move
    • Authors: Patrycja Nowak-Sliwinska; Arjan W. Griffioen
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1462-y
       
  • Down-regulating IL-6/GP130 targets improved the anti-tumor effects of
           5-fluorouracil in colon cancer
    • Authors: Sanhong Li; Jilai Tian; Hongming Zhang; Shoubing Zhou; Xiyong Wang; Lei Zhang; Jiapeng Yang; Zhigang Zhang; Zhenling Ji
      Abstract: Recent studies have confirmed that IL-6/GP130 targets are closely associated with tumor growth, metastasis and drug resistance. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the most common chemotherapeutic agent for colon cancer but is limited due to chemoresistance and high cytotoxicity. Bazedoxifene (BZA), a third-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator, was discovered by multiple ligand simultaneous docking and drug repositioning approaches to have a novel function as an IL-6/GP130 target inhibitor. Thus, we speculated that in colon cancer, the anti-tumor efficacy of 5-FU might be increased in combination with IL-6/GP130 inhibitors. CCK8 assay and colony formation assay were used to detect the cell proliferation and colony formation. We measured the IC50 value of 5-FU alone and in combination with BZA by cell viability inhibition. Cell migration and invasion ability were tested by scratch migration assays and transwell invasion assays. Flow cytometric analysis for cell apoptosis and cell cycle. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect Bad, Bcl-2 and Ki-67 mRNA expression and western blotting (WB) assay analyzed protein expression of Bad/Bcl-2 signaling pathway. Further mechanism study, WB analysis detected the key proteins level in IL-6/GP130 targets and JAK/STAT3, Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. A colon cancer xenograft model was used to further confirm the efficacy of 5-FU and BZA in vivo. The GP130, P-STAT3, P-AKT, and P-ERK expression levels were detected by immunohistochemistry in the xenograft tumor. BZA markedly potentiates the anti-tumor function of 5-FU in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, 5-FU activation is reduced following exogenous IL-6 treatment in cells. Further mechanistic studies determined that BZA treatment enhanced 5-FU anti-tumor activation by inhibiting the IL-6/GP130 signaling pathway and the phosphorylation status of the downstream effectors AKT, ERK and STAT3. In contrast, IL-6 can attenuate 5-FU function via activating IL-6R/GP130 signaling and the P-AKT, P-ERK and P-STAT3 levels. This study firstly verifies that targeting IL-6/GP130 signaling can increase the anti-tumor function of 5-FU; in addition, this strategy can sensitize cancer cell drug sensitivity, implying that blocking IL-6/GP130 targets can reverse chemoresistance. Therefore, combining 5-FU and IL-6/GP130 target inhibitors may be a promising approach for cancer treatment.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1460-0
       
  • Dying to communicate: apoptotic functions of Eph/Ephrin proteins
    • Authors: Mustapha Kandouz
      Abstract: The Erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma (Eph) receptors constitute the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases and interact with a group of ligands called Ephrins. An essential feature of the Eph receptors and Ephrin ligands is that both are membrane-bound and, upon cell–cell interaction, initiate a bidirectional signaling involving both the receptor (forward signaling) and the ligand (reverse signaling). They regulate a large set of pleiotropic functions in virtually every tissue and physiological system. In vitro as well as in vivo data support a role for Eph and Ephrin molecules in cellular processes such as proliferation, cell–cell attraction and repulsion, motility and sorting. An increasing amount of evidence supports a role for these molecules in apoptosis and, although this function in cell death has been barely examined, the available information warrants a global consideration, to identify unmet needs and potential research avenues. Here we propose a comprehensive analysis of the data available regarding the importance of Ephs and Ephrins in cell death mechanisms throughout a large array of physiological systems.
      PubDate: 2018-05-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1458-7
       
  • Resveratrol analogue, (E)- N -(2-(4-methoxystyryl) phenyl)
           furan-2-carboxamide induces G 2 /M cell cycle arrest through the
           activation of p53–p21 CIP1/WAF1 in human colorectal HCT116 cells
    • Authors: Foo Kit Cheah; Kok Hoong Leong; Noel Francis Thomas; Hui Kee Chin; Azhar Ariffin; Khalijah Awang
      Abstract: Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenolic antioxidant, is a potential chemoprophylactic agent for various cancers, including colorectal cancer. Although emerging evidence continually suggests that a number of resveratrol derivatives may be better cancer chemopreventive candidates than resveratrol, studies on the mechanism of action of these derivatives are limited. This is the first study which investigates the mechanism underlying the cytotoxic effect of a synthesized resveratrol analogue, (E)-N-(2-(4-methoxystyryl) phenyl) furan-2-carboxamide (CS) on colorectal cancer. Previously, our group reported a series of synthesized resveratrol analogues, which showed cytotoxicity against a panel of cancer cell lines, in particular on colon cancer cells. In this study, we further discovered that CS also exerts a potent suppressive effect on HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. In contrast, normal colon cells (CCD-112 Con) were not sensitive to CS up to 72 h post treatment. CS caused cytotoxicity in HCT116 cells through several apoptotic events including activation of the Fas death receptor, FADD, caspase 8, caspase 3, caspase 9, and cleaved PARP, which occurred alongside cell cycle arrest from the up-regulation of p53 and p21. The results show that CS causes apoptosis via the activation of an extrinsic pathway leading to caspase activation and cell cycle arrest from activated p53. These findings suggest that CS may be a potential candidate for development as an anti-tumor agent in the future.
      PubDate: 2018-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1457-8
       
  • Identification of inhibitors synergizing gemcitabine sensitivity in the
           squamous subtype of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC)
    • Authors: Jia Lin Er; Pei Ni Goh; Chen Yuan Lee; Ying Jie Tan; Ling-Wei Hii; Chun Wai Mai; Felicia Fei-Lei Chung; Chee-Onn Leong
      Abstract: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly aggressive cancer with a high chance of recurrence, limited treatment options, and poor prognosis. A recent study has classified pancreatic cancers into four molecular subtypes: (1) squamous, (2) immunogenic, (3) pancreatic progenitor and (4) aberrantly differentiated endocrine exocrine. Among all the subtypes, the squamous subtype has the worst prognosis. This study aims to utilize large scale genomic datasets and computational systems biology to identify potential drugs targeting the squamous subtype of PDAC through combination therapy. Using the transcriptomic data available from the International Cancer Genome Consortium, Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and Connectivity Map, we identified 26 small molecules that could target the squamous subtype of PDAC. Among them include inhibitors targeting the SRC proto-oncogene (SRC) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2). Further analyses demonstrated that the SRC inhibitors (dasatinib and PP2) and MEK1/2 inhibitor (pimasertib) synergized gemcitabine sensitivity specifically in the squamous subtype of PDAC cells (SW1990 and BxPC3), but not in the PDAC progenitor cells (AsPC1). Further analysis revealed that the synergistic effects are dependent on SRC or MEK1/2 activities, as overexpression of SRC or MEK1/2 completely abrogated the synergistic effects SRC inhibitors (dasatinib and PP2) and MEK1/2 inhibitor (pimasertib). In contrast, no significant toxicity was observed in the MRC5 human lung fibroblast and ARPE-19 human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Together, our findings suggest that combinations of SRC or MEK inhibitors with gemcitabine possess synergistic effects on the squamous subtype of PDAC cells and warrant further investigation.
      PubDate: 2018-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1459-6
       
  • Prodigiosin stimulates endoplasmic reticulum stress and induces autophagic
           cell death in glioblastoma cells
    • Authors: Shu-Yu Cheng; Nan-Fu Chen; Hsiao-Mei Kuo; San-Nan Yang; Chun-Sung Sung; Ping-Jyun Sung; Zhi-Hong Wen; Wu-Fu Chen
      Abstract: Prodigiosin, a secondary metabolite isolated from marine Vibrio sp., has antimicrobial and anticancer properties. This study investigated the cell death mechanism of prodigiosin in glioblastoma. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive primary cancer of the central nervous system. Despite treatment, or standard therapy, the median survival of glioblastoma patients is about 14.6 month. The results of the present study clearly showed that prodigiosin significantly reduced the cell viability and neurosphere formation ability of U87MG and GBM8401 human glioblastoma cell lines. Moreover, prodigiosin with fluorescence signals was detected in the endoplasmic reticulum and found to induce excessive levels of autophagy. These findings were confirmed by observation of LC3 puncta formation and acridine orange staining. Furthermore, prodigiosin caused cell death by activating the JNK pathway and decreasing the AKT/mTOR pathway in glioblastoma cells. Moreover, we found that the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine reversed prodigiosin induced autophagic cell death. These findings of this study suggest that prodigiosin induces autophagic cell death and apoptosis in glioblastoma cells.
      PubDate: 2018-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1456-9
       
  • Critical contribution of RIPK1 mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and
           oxidative stress to compression-induced rat nucleus pulposus cells
           necroptosis and apoptosis
    • Authors: Songfeng Chen; Xiao Lv; Binwu Hu; Lei Zhao; Shuai Li; Zhiliang Li; Xiangcheng Qing; Hongjian Liu; Jianzhong Xu; Zengwu Shao
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate whether RIPK1 mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress contributed to compression-induced nucleus pulposus (NP) cells necroptosis and apoptosis, together with the interplay relationship between necroptosis and apoptosis in vitro. Rat NP cells underwent various periods of 1.0 MPa compression. To determine whether compression affected mitochondrial function, we evaluated the mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), mitochondrial ultrastructure and ATP content. Oxidative stress-related indicators reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were also assessed. To verify the relevance between oxidative stress and necroptosis together with apoptosis, RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1(Nec-1), mPTP inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA), antioxidants and small interfering RNA technology were utilized. The results established that compression elicited a time-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and elevated oxidative stress. Nec-1 and CsA restored mitochondrial function and reduced oxidative stress, which corresponded to decreased necroptosis and apoptosis. CsA down-regulated mitochondrial cyclophilin D expression, but had little effects on RIPK1 expression and pRIPK1 activation. Additionally, we found that Nec-1 largely blocked apoptosis; whereas, the apoptosis inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK increased RIPK1 expression and pRIPK1 activation, and coordinated regulation of necroptosis and apoptosis enabled NP cells survival more efficiently. In contrast to Nec-1, SiRIPK1 exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. In summary, RIPK1-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a crucial role in NP cells necroptosis and apoptosis during compression injury. The synergistic regulation of necroptosis and apoptosis may exert more beneficial effects on NP cells survival, and ultimately delaying or even retarding intervertebral disc degeneration.
      PubDate: 2018-04-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1455-x
       
  • Feasibility study of stain-free classification of cell apoptosis based on
           diffraction imaging flow cytometry and supervised machine learning
           techniques
    • Authors: Jingwen Feng; Tong Feng; Chengwen Yang; Wei Wang; Yu Sa; Yuanming Feng
      Abstract: This study was to explore the feasibility of prediction and classification of cells in different stages of apoptosis with a stain-free method based on diffraction images and supervised machine learning. Apoptosis was induced in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells by cis-platinum (DDP). A newly developed technique of polarization diffraction imaging flow cytometry (p-DIFC) was performed to acquire diffraction images of the cells in three different statuses (viable, early apoptotic and late apoptotic/necrotic) after cell separation through fluorescence activated cell sorting with Annexin V-PE and SYTOX® Green double staining. The texture features of the diffraction images were extracted with in-house software based on the Gray-level co-occurrence matrix algorithm to generate datasets for cell classification with supervised machine learning method. Therefore, this new method has been verified in hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis model of HL-60. Results show that accuracy of higher than 90% was achieved respectively in independent test datasets from each cell type based on logistic regression with ridge estimators, which indicated that p-DIFC system has a great potential in predicting and classifying cells in different stages of apoptosis.
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1454-y
       
  • Long noncoding RNAs in the mTOR signaling network: biomarkers and
           therapeutic targets
    • Authors: Tinglei Huang; Meiling Wang; Bo Huang; Augustus Chang; Feng Liu; Yanjie Zhang; Bin Jiang
      Abstract: As an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) related kinase family, the mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays vital roles in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, participating in different cellular processes including cell survival, metabolism and proliferation. Aberrant activity of this signaling pathway may lead to oncogenesis. Over the last two decades, great progress has been made in the understanding of mTOR activation and how its response is counteracted for maintaining tissue homeostasis. Besides regulatory proteins and microRNAs, long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is another emerging critical layer of the intricate modulatory architecture for the control of the mTOR signaling circuit. Also, the production of numerous lncRNAs is induced by mTOR treatment. These findings offer new perspectives for designing novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. In this review, we summarize the interactions between the mTOR signaling pathway and lncRNAs in the development and progression of various types of tumors, focusing on the mechanisms of these interactions, and also discuss the potential use of lncRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for malignancies.
      PubDate: 2018-03-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1453-z
       
  • Correction to: Licarin A induces cell death by activation of autophagy and
           apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells
    • Authors: Uma Maheswari; Krishna Ghosh; Sudha Rani Sadras
      Abstract: The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake.
      PubDate: 2018-03-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1452-0
       
  • Dysregulated genes and miRNAs in the apoptosis pathway in colorectal
           cancer patients
    • Authors: Martha L. Slattery; Lila E. Mullany; Lori C. Sakoda; Roger K. Wolff; Wade S. Samowitz; Jennifer S. Herrick
      Abstract: Apoptosis is genetically regulated and involves intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. We examined 133 genes within these pathways to identify whether they are expressed differently in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and normal tissue (N = 217) and if they are associated with similar differential miRNA expression. Gene expression data (RNA-Seq) and miRNA expression data (Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0) were generated. We focused on dysregulated genes with a fold change (FC) of > 1.50 or < 0.67, that were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. miRNA:mRNA seed-region matches were determined. Twenty-three genes were significantly downregulated (FC < 0.67) and 18 were significantly upregulated (FC > 1.50). Of these 41 genes, 11 were significantly associated with miRNA differential expression. BIRC5 had the greatest number of miRNA associations (14) and the most miRNAs with a seed-region match (10). Four of these matches, miR-145-5p, miR-150-5p, miR-195-5p, and miR-650, had a negative beta coefficient. CSF2RB was associated with ten total miRNAs (five with a seed-region match, and one miRNA, miR-92a-3p, with a negative beta coefficient). Of the three miRNAs associated with CTSS, miR-20b-5p, and miR-501-3p, had a seed-region match and a negative beta coefficient between miRNA:mRNA pairs. Several miRNAs that were associated with dysregulated gene expression, seed-region matches, and negative beta coefficients also were associated with CRC-specific survival. Our data suggest that miRNAs could influence several apoptosis-related genes. BIRC5, CTSS, and CSF2R all had seed-region matches with miRNAs that would favor apoptosis. Our study identifies several miRNA associated with apoptosis-related genes, that if validated, could be important therapeutic targets.
      PubDate: 2018-03-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1451-1
       
  • Role of p62 in the regulation of cell death induction
    • Authors: Lihong Fan; Shutao Yin; Enxiang Zhang; Hongbo Hu
      Abstract: p62 is a multifunctional adaptor protein implicated in various cellular processes. It has been found to regulate selective autophagy, cell survival, cell death, oxidative stress, DNA repair and inflammation, and to play a role in a number of diseases, such as tumourigenesis, Paget’s disease of bone, neurodegenerative disease, diabetes, and obesity. Cell death induction is an important cellular process. The dysregulation of cell death induction is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases, such as cancer, neurodegeneration diseases, and diabetes. In this review, we discuss the functional role of p62 in inducing cell death in response to multiple stimuli, and we summarize the potential signaling pathways that contribute to this regulation. Given the important role of p62 in regulating cell death, p62 is considered to be a reasonable target for managing cell death dysregulation-related pathogenic conditions. A better understanding of the role of p62 and its related mechanisms in regulating cell death is necessary for the more precise utilization of p62 as a target for treating relevant diseases.
      PubDate: 2018-02-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1445-z
       
  • Licarin A induces cell death by activation of autophagy and apoptosis in
           non-small cell lung cancer cells
    • Authors: Uma Maheswari; Krishna Ghosh; Sudha Rani Sadras
      Abstract: Lung cancer has a relatively poor prognosis with a low survival rate and drugs that target other cell death mechanism like autophagy may help improving current therapeutic strategy. This study investigated the anti-proliferative effect of Licarin A (LCA) from Myristica fragrans in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines—A549, NCI-H23, NCI-H520 and NCI-H460. LCA inhibited proliferation of all the four cell lines in a dose and time dependent manner with minimum IC50 of 20.03 ± 3.12, 22.19 ± 1.37 µM in NCI-H23 and A549 cells respectively. Hence NCI-H23 and A549 cells were used to assess the ability LCA to induce autophagy and apoptosis. LCA treatment caused G1 arrest, increase in Beclin 1, LC3II levels and degradation of p62 indicating activation of autophagy in both NCI-H23 and A549 cells. In addition, LCA mediated apoptotic cell death was confirmed by MMP loss, increased ROS, cleaved PARP and decreased pro-caspase3. To understand the role of LCA induced autophagy and its association with apoptosis, cells were analysed following treatment with a late autophagy inhibitor-chloroquine and also after Beclin 1 siRNA transfection. Data indicated that inhibition of autophagy resulted in reduced anti-proliferative as well as pro-apoptotic ability of LCA. These findings confirmed that LCA brought about autophagy dependent apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells and hence it may serve as a potential drug candidate for non-small cell lung cancer therapy.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1449-8
       
  • Epirubicin induces apoptosis in osteoblasts through death-receptor and
           mitochondrial pathways
    • Authors: Tzu-Ching Huang; Pu-Rong Chiu; Wen-Tsan Chang; Bau-Shan Hsieh; Yu-Ci Huang; Hsiao-Ling Cheng; Li-Wen Huang; Yu-Chen Hu; Kee-Lung Chang
      Abstract: Epirubicin is an anthracycline and is widely used in tumor treatment, but has toxic and undesirable side effects on wide range of cells and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Osteoblasts play important roles in bone development and in supporting HSC differentiation and maturation. It remains unknown whether epirubicin-induced bone loss and hematological toxicity are associated with its effect on osteoblasts. In primary osteoblast cell cultures, epirubicin inhibited cell growth and decreased mineralization. Moreover, epirubicin arrested osteoblasts in the G2/M phase, and this arrest was followed by apoptosis in which both the extrinsic (death receptor-mediated) and intrinsic (mitochondrial-mediated) apoptotic pathways were evoked. The factors involved in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway were increased FasL and FADD as well as activated caspase-8. Those involved in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway were decreased Bcl-2; increased reactive oxygen species, Bax, cytochrome c; and activated caspase-9 and caspase-3. These results demonstrate that epirubicin induced osteoblast apoptosis through the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, leading to the destruction of osteoblasts and consequent lessening of their functions in maintaining bone density and supporting hematopoietic stem cell differentiation and maturation.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1450-2
       
  • Effect of phosphorylation and single nucleotide polymorphisms on caspase
           substrates processing
    • Authors: Sonu Kumar; Piotr Cieplak
      Abstract: Posttranslational modifications that involve either reversible covalent modification of proteins or irreversible proteolysis are central to the regulation of key cellular mechanisms, including apoptosis, cell-cycle regulation and signal transduction. There is mounting evidence suggesting cross-talk between proteases and kinases. For instance: caspases, a class of proteases involved in programmed cell death—apoptosis, cleave a large set of various types of proteins. Simultaneously, kinases restrict caspase activity by phosphorylating their protein substrates in the vicinity of cleavage site. In addition, the caspase cleavage pattern in target proteins may be modified as a result of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding gene. This may either create a novel cleavage site, or increase/decrease the cleavage efficiency of a substrate. Such point mutations are often associated with the onset of disease. In this study, we predicted how phosphorylation and SNPs affect known human caspase proteolytic events collected in the CASBAH and Degrabase databases by applying Random Forest caspases’ substrates prediction method, as implemented in the CaspDB, and the molecular dynamics free energy simulations approach. Our analysis confirms several experimental observations. Phosphorylation could have both positive or negative regulatory effects depending on its position with respect to the caspase cleavage site. For instance, we demonstrate that phosphorylation at P1′ is the most detrimental for proteolytic efficiency of caspases. Phosphorylation at the P2 and P2′ positions also negatively affect the cleavage events. In addition, we uncovered SNPs in 11 caspase substrates capable of completely abolishing the cleavage site due to polymorphism at the P1 position. The findings presented here may be useful for determining the link between aberrant proteolysis and disease.
      PubDate: 2018-02-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1442-2
       
  • Hypertonicity primes malignant melanoma cells for apoptosis
    • Authors: Diana Nicoleta Calance; Charlotte Steixner; Stefanie Gross; Beatrice Schuler-Thurner; Gertrud Knoll; Martin Ehrenschwender
      Abstract: The tumor environment critically influences responsiveness of cancer cells to chemotherapies, most of which activate the mitochondria-regulated (intrinsic) apoptotic cascade to kill malignant cells. Especially skin tumors encounter an environment with remarkable biophysical properties. Cutaneous accumulation of Na+ locally establishes osmotic pressure gradients in vivo (hypertonicity or hyperosmotic stress), but whether cutaneous hypertonicity is a factor that modulates the responsiveness of skin cancers to therapeutic apoptosis-induction has thus far not been investigated. Here, we show that hyperosmotic stress lowers the threshold for apoptosis induction in malignant melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. Hypertonic conditions enforce addiction to BCL-2-like proteins to prevent initiation of the mitochondria-regulated (intrinsic) apoptotic pathway. Essentially, hyperosmotic stress primes mitochondria for death. Our work identifies osmotic pressure in the tumor microenvironment as a cell extrinsic factor that modulates responsiveness of malignant melanoma cells to therapy.
      PubDate: 2018-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1446-y
       
  • Dynamic changes and molecular analysis of cell death in the spinal cord of
           SJL mice infected with the BeAn strain of Theiler’s murine
           encephalomyelitis virus
    • Authors: Ingo Gerhauser; Lin Li; Dandan Li; Stephanie Klein; Suliman Ahmed Elmarabet; Ulrich Deschl; Arno Kalkuhl; Wolfgang Baumgärtner; Reiner Ulrich; Andreas Beineke
      Abstract: Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis (TME) is caused by the TME virus (TMEV) and represents an important animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Oligodendroglial apoptosis and reduced apoptotic elimination of encephalitogenic leukocytes seem to participate in autoimmune demyelination in MS. The present study quantified apoptotic cells in BeAn–TMEV-induced spinal cord white matter lesions at 14, 42, 98, and 196 days post infection (dpi) using immunostaining. Apoptotic cells were identified by transmission electron microscopy and double-immunofluorescence. The mRNA expression of apoptosis-related genes was investigated using microarray analysis. Oligodendroglial apoptosis was already detected in the predemyelinating phase at 14 dpi. Apoptotic cell numbers peaked at 42 dpi and decreased until 196 dpi partly due to reduced T cell apoptosis. In addition to genes involved in the classical pathways of apoptosis induction, microarray analysis detected the expression of genes related to alternative mechanisms of cell death such as pyroptosis, necroptosis, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Consequently, oligodendroglial apoptosis is involved in the initiation of the TME demyelination process, whereas the development of apoptosis resistance of T cells potentially favors the maintenance of inflammation and myelin loss.
      PubDate: 2018-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1448-9
       
  • Plagioneurin B, a potent isolated compound induces apoptotic signalling
           pathways and cell cycle arrest in ovarian cancer cells
    • Authors: Noraziah Nordin; Nazia Abdul Majid; Rozana Othman; Fatima Abdelmutaal Ahmed Omer; Muhammad Nazil Afiq Nasharuddin; Najihah Mohd Hashim
      Abstract: Plagioneurin B belongs to acetogenin group has well-established class of compounds. Acetogenin group has attracted worldwide attention in the past few years due their biological abilities as inhibitors for several types of tumour cells. Plagioneurin B was isolated via conventional chromatography and tested for thorough mechanistic apoptosis activity on human ovarian cancer cells (CAOV-3). Its structure was also docked at several possible targets using Autodock tools software. Our findings showed that plagioneurin B successfully inhibits the growth of CAOV-3 cells at IC50 of 0.62 µM. The existence of apoptotic bodies, cell membrane blebbing and chromatin condensation indicated the hallmark of apoptosis. Increase of Annexin V-FITC bound to phosphatidylserine confirmed the apoptosis induction in the cells. The apoptosis event was triggered through the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways via activation of caspases 8 and 9, respectively. Stimulation of caspase 3 and the presence of DNA ladder suggested downstream apoptotic signalling were initiated. Further confirmation of apoptosis was conducted at the molecular levels where up-regulation in Bax, as well as down-regulation of Bcl-2, Hsp-70 and survivin were observed. Plagioneurin B was also seen to arrest CAOV-3 cells cycle at the G2/M phase. Docking simulation of plagioneurin B with CD95 demonstrated that the high binding affinity and hydrogen bonds formation may explain the capability of plagioneurin B to trigger apoptosis. This study is therefore importance in finding the effective compound that may offer an alternative drug for ovarian cancer treatment.
      PubDate: 2018-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1447-x
       
  • Negative regulators of cell death pathways in cancer: perspective on
           biomarkers and targeted therapies
    • Authors: Ali Razaghi; Kirsten Heimann; Patrick M. Schaeffer; Spencer B. Gibson
      Abstract: Cancer is a primary cause of human fatality and conventional cancer therapies, e.g., chemotherapy, are often associated with adverse side-effects, tumor drug-resistance, and recurrence. Molecularly targeted therapy, composed of small-molecule inhibitors and immunotherapy (e.g., monoclonal antibody and cancer vaccines), is a less harmful alternative being more effective against cancer cells whilst preserving healthy tissues. Drug-resistance, however, caused by negative regulation of cell death signaling pathways, is still a challenge. Circumvention of negative regulators of cell death pathways or development of predictive and response biomarkers is, therefore, quintessential. This review critically discusses the current state of knowledge on targeting negative regulators of cell death signaling pathways including apoptosis, ferroptosis, necroptosis, autophagy, and anoikis and evaluates the recent advances in clinical and preclinical research on biomarkers of negative regulators. It aims to provide a comprehensive platform for designing efficacious polytherapies including novel agents for restoring cell death signaling pathways or targeting alternative resistance pathways to improve the chances for antitumor responses. Overall, it is concluded that nonapoptotic cell death pathways are a potential research arena for drug discovery, development of novel biomarkers and targeted therapies.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1440-4
       
 
 
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