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BIOLOGY (1422 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 311)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Apidologie
  [SJR: 1.14]   [H-I: 57]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0044-8435 - ISSN (Online) 1297-9678
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides to the stingless bees
           Scaptotrigona bipunctata and Tetragonisca fiebrigi
    • Authors: Andressa Linhares Dorneles; Annelise de Souza Rosa; Betina Blochtein
      Pages: 612 - 620
      Abstract: This study estimated the toxicity of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and phosmet to the stingless bees Scaptotrigona bipunctata and Tetragonisca fiebrigi. The results showed significant differences in susceptibility between the tested species, indicating that S. bipunctata are more tolerant to chlorpyrifos than T. fiebrigi in both assays. In contrast, the two tested stingless bee species showed no significant differences in susceptibility to phosmet. Our findings indicated that the insecticides chlorpyrifos and phosmet are potentially dangerous to S. bipunctata and T. fiebrigi both topically and by ingestion. It is essential to propose measures to minimize the impact of these products on pollinators. This study is the first evaluation of the lethal effects of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and phosmet to S. bipunctata and T. fiebrigi, and it provides important support for future studies on pesticide toxicity in stingless bees.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0502-x
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2017)
  • Toxicity of thiametoxam on in vitro reared honey bee brood
    • Authors: Giacomo Grillone; Daniela Laurino; Aulo Manino; Marco Porporato
      Pages: 635 - 643
      Abstract: Pesticides are a possible cause of pollinator decline and honey bee colony losses experienced in several countries in recent years. In the past years, many north-west Italian beekeepers reported the presence of dead brood in field apiaries during neonicotinoid-coated maize sowing; therefore, a possible role of these insecticides was suspected. The objective of this study was to test this hypothesis. Laboratory repeated dose toxicity tests on in vitro reared larvae were carried out using thiamethoxam. The repeated treatment median lethal concentration (LC50) and the median lethal dose (LD50) 14 and 19 days after grafting were calculated and resulted of the same order of magnitude of realistic brood exposure under a worst-case scenario. Various sublethal effects, like brownish larvae, duplication of the pupal integument, delay in development, and deformed adults were also observed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0506-6
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2017)
  • Genetic diversity of Varroa destructor parasitizing Apis mellifera
           unicolor in Madagascar
    • Authors: Henriette RASOLOFOARIVAO; Johanna CLÉMENCET; Adrien SPECK; Lala Harivelo RAVELOSON-RAVAOMANARIVO; Bernard REYNAUD; Hélène DELATTE
      Pages: 648 - 656
      Abstract: Varroa destructor is an invasive alien species that has been reported parasitizing the endemic honey bee of Madagascar, Apis mellifera unicolor, since 2010. Studying its nuclear genetic diversity and structure was our main goal. Using 11 microsatellite loci and 344 mites collected from 12 apiaries, we observed a low genetic diversity, with only 8 multilocus genotypes (MLG) identified. V. destructor populations form a single genetic cluster, clonal richness ranged from 0.02 to 0.20, and number of MLG within apiaries varied between one and six MLGs. About 69.5% of the mites analyzed harbored the same genotype (100%, homozygous), and 23.3% had a genotype differing by a single allele. The overall low diversity observed suggests one or multiple introductions of similar genotypes. The greater abundance of MLGs in High Land apiaries (eight MLGs) than on the east coast (two MLGs) and the presence of particular MLGs in High Land apiaries favor the hypothesis that V. destructor has been first introduced close to the international airport, and then spread to other regions by commercial exchanges.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0509-3
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2017)
  • Auxiliary brood cell construction in nests of the stingless bee Plebeia
           lucii (Apidae: Meliponini)
    • Authors: Geisyane Franco da Luz; Lúcio Antônio de Oliveira Campos; José Cola Zanuncio; José Eduardo Serrão
      Pages: 681 - 691
      Abstract: Queen production in stingless bees with fusion of neighboring brood cells occurs by the perforation of the adjacent brood cell or construction of an auxiliary one. This study describes the auxiliary brood cell building behavior in queenless colonies of Plebeia lucii. Queenright and queenless (orphan) colonies were monitored, and auxiliary cell construction was video-recorded in orphan colonies. Brood cells with auxiliary cells added were analyzed with X-rays to identify the amount of food and the larval behavior into the brood cells. Plebeia lucii had specific behavioral sequence in auxiliary cell building. The addition of auxiliary cells is the main strategy to produce queens in P. lucii, mainly for the production of emergency queens in orphan colonies because queen absence triggered a high production of auxiliary cells. X-ray analyses showed that auxiliary cell addition occurred when the food in the larval brood cells had been completely eaten and showed changes in dorsoventral position of the larvae. Larvae of males did not perforate auxiliary cells, indicating that sex-related factors affect this behavior. The wax handling by workers and the fused thin and concave-shaped wall between the auxiliary and larval brood cells seems to facilitate wall perforation by the larvae.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0513-7
      Issue No: Vol. 48, No. 5 (2017)
  • Body size and wing asymmetry in bees along an urbanization gradient
    • Authors: Weronika Banaszak-Cibicka; Monika Fliszkiewicz; Aleksandra Langowska; Michał Żmihorski
      Abstract: The global loss of bee diversity and abundance is a central issue in conservation biology. There is increasing evidence that cities may play an important role in bee conservation, although urbanization may also have negative impacts. Here, we investigate individual body size variation and wing asymmetry (based on 11 traits) in the solitary bee Anthophora plumipes along a rural-urban gradient in Poland. The body size of captured individuals did not show any changes along the gradient. Directional asymmetry was present, since differences between sides in 10 out of 11 traits deviated significantly from zero, with the right-side wing traits being generally larger. In contrast to our expectations, the forewing was more asymmetric in rural than in suburban and urban areas. Similarly, the absolute asymmetry of 11 wing traits (i.e. pooling differences but ignoring direction) was also significantly greater in rural than in suburban and urban landscapes. Since asymmetry may be attributed to environmental pollution and food shortages, we conclude that the urban landscape provides bees with habitats of higher quality and thus should be considered as an important habitat for bee conservation.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0554-y
  • The impact of winter feed type on intestinal microbiota and parasites in
           honey bees
    • Authors: Paul D’Alvise; Franziska Böhme; Marius Cosmin Codrea; Alexander Seitz; Sven Nahnsen; Mieke Binzer; Peter Rosenkranz; Martin Hasselmann
      Abstract: The intestinal microbiota of honey bees consists of only few bacterial species and may have effects on health and pathogen resilience. Honey is usually harvested and replaced by sugar syrup. We hypothesized that replacing honey may change the composition of the intestinal microbiota, and therefore compromise pathogen resilience. Fifteen colonies were fed with wheat starch syrup, sucrose syrup, or blossom honey. 16S-based bacterial community analysis was performed on three individuals per hive in summer and winter, and Nosema ceranae and Crithidia/Lotmaria levels were assessed by qPCR. Seasonal differences in the intestinal microbiota and N. ceranae were found; however, microbiota and parasite levels were very similar between the feed types. Rhizobiales and Bifidobacteria were found to be increased in the bees that had received honey or wheat starch syrup, as compared to sucrose syrup. In conclusion, intestinal microbiota and parasites were found to be largely unaffected by the winter feed type.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0551-1
  • Propolis consumption ramps up the immune response in honey bees infected
           with bacteria
    • Authors: Aline Patricia Turcatto; Anete Pedro Lourenço; David De Jong
      Abstract: Among their natural defenses against pathogens and parasites, honey bees coat nest cavity surfaces with propolis. Consequently, they are able to economize on immune system activation, lowering energetic costs and improving longevity. However, the mechanisms through which propolis acts to protect bees are unknown. Here we show that 0.1% propolis fed in a pollen substitute diet greatly increases activation of antimicrobial peptide genes (defensin-1, abaecin, hymenoptaecin, and apidaecin) in bees injected with Escherichia coli, compared to infected bees fed the same diets without propolis. This increase was not seen in uninfected bees fed propolis. In addition to its protective role in the hive, propolis stimulates high-level expression of the immune system response in bees challenged with microorganisms. Whether this increase translates into improved disease control will require laboratory and field tests with pathogens.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0553-z
  • Constant flower damage caused by a common stingless bee puts survival of a
           threatened buzz-pollinated species at risk
    • Authors: Juliana Ordones Rego; Reisla Oliveira; Claudia Maria Jacobi; Clemens Schlindwein
      Abstract: Illegitimate flower visitors may reduce the reproductive success of their host plants. Eriocnema fulva, a threatened Melastomataceae of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil, has pollen flowers with poricidal anthers that show frequent damage of floral parts. We identified the flower-damaging bees and determined their impact on fruit set. Bees of seven species visited their flowers, but only three species collected pollen by vibration. With only one visit to a flower patch per 12 h, the frequency of effective buzz pollinating bees was negligible, while flower-damaging workers of the stingless bee Trigona fulviventris (Apidae) accounted for 70% of the visits. During their lengthy visits, they cut anthers to access pollen, and often styles as well. We conclude that the direct negative consequence of flower damage by Trigona bees, as well as their indirect impact by making the flowers unattractive for effective pollinators is a major reason for the low fruit set (6.9%) of E. fulva. Considering the rareness of the plant species, these negative effects put the survival of E. fulva at risk.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0552-0
  • Co-occurrence of RNA viruses in Tasmanian-introduced bumble bees ( Bombus
           terrestris ) and honey bees ( Apis mellifera )
    • Authors: Elisabeth Fung; Kelly Hill; Katja Hogendoorn; Andrew B. Hingston; Richard V. Glatz
      Abstract: A number of bee RNA viruses, including Deformed wing virus (DWV), are so far unreported from Australia. These viruses can be introduced together with imported live honey bees (Apis mellifera) and their products, with other bee species, and bee parasites. Given that bee viruses have a profound impact on bee health, it is surprising that since the introduction of bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) onto Tasmania in 1992 from New Zealand, no work has been done to investigate which RNA viruses are associated with these bees. Consequently, we investigate the current prevalence of RNA viruses in B. terrestris and A. mellifera collected in south-eastern Tasmania. We did not find DWV in either A. mellifera and B. terrestris. However, both bee species shared Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Sacbrood virus (SBV), but Black queen cell virus (BQCV) was detected only in A. mellifera. This reinforces the importance of ongoing strong regulation of the anthropogenic movement of live bees and their products.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0549-8
  • Casteless behaviour in social groups of the bee Exoneurella eremophila
    • Authors: Rebecca Dew; Simon Tierney; Michael Gardner; Michael Schwarz
      Abstract: The comparison of social systems, particularly in closely related taxa, can be highly valuable to the understanding of social evolution. While much research has focused on the formation of hierarchies and eusocial organisation, it needs to be remembered that not all social systems are necessarily based on hierarchies. The allodapine bee Exoneurella tridentata is the only eusocial species within the entire subfamily Xylocopinae (Apidae) with discrete queen and worker morphology. Here, we show that a non-eusocial congener, Exoneurella eremophila, is casteless. Nest collection and dissection data show no evidence of hierarchies, and there were no per capita benefits to group nesting in terms of brood production in any collection period. The casteless behaviour exhibited by E. eremophila appears to be common among very diverse lineages of the bee tribe Allodapini, and as such represents an evolutionarily persistent behavioural strategy. We discuss likely ecological factors that may have driven the evolution of species lacking castes and a species with morphologically distinct castes from within a small monophyletic group—genus Exoneurella.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0550-2
  • Effect of pollen traps on the relapse of chronic bee paralysis virus in
           honeybee ( Apis mellifera ) colonies
    • Authors: Eric Dubois; Caroline Reis; Frank Schurr; Nicolas Cougoule; Magali Ribière-Chabert
      Abstract: Pollen traps are used by beekeepers to collect pollen harvested by honeybees. Here, we set up an experiment to evaluate whether pollen traps are a risk factor involved in the development of the chronic bee paralysis, a viral honeybee disease affecting adult bees and transmitted by contact. After a recent episode of chronic bee paralysis in an apiary, pollen traps were installed on three hives while two hives without pollen traps were used as control. During the experiment, the chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) loads in foragers from the control hives remained lower than 108 equivalent copies of CBPV genome per bee but were higher than 1010 equivalent copies of CBPV genome per bee in the many symptomatic bees and in the hundreds of dead bees found in front of trap hives. Clinical signs of the disease persisted for 3 weeks at the entrance of the trap hives. These signs disappeared after the pollen traps were removed, accompanied by a decrease in the viral loads in foragers. Despite the small number of colonies examined, the results of this study suggest the impact of pollen traps on the relapse of chronic paralysis outbreaks in colonies infected by CBPV.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0547-x
  • The ovary and its genes—developmental processes underlying the
           establishment and function of a highly divergent reproductive system in
           the female castes of the honey bee, Apis mellifera
    • Authors: Klaus Hartfelder; Gustavo Jacomini Tiberio; Denyse Cavalcante Lago; Rodrigo Pires Dallacqua; Marcia Maria Gentile Bitondi
      Abstract: The strong dimorphism in ovary phenotype seen between honey bee queens and workers represents the anatomical fixation of reproductive division of labor. We review the developmental processes by which the divergent ovary phenotypes become established, mainly focusing on the massive programmed cell death (PCD) that destroys most of the ovariole primordia in the worker ovary during larval development. Ovary-specific transcriptome analyses revealed a set of differentially expressed genes associated with PCD, including two long noncoding RNAs. PCD also plays a major role regulating ovarian activity in adult honey bee workers, and a major effect candidate gene mediating this process is Anarchy, previously identified through classical genetics in a rebel worker strain. Finally, we ask how the strong ovary phenotype dimorphism in the genus Apis may have evolved, and we discuss this by contrasting honey bees with the equally eusocial stingless bees. Through a comparison of their mating systems (polyandry versus monandry), as well as comparative data on female and male gonad structure across several families of bees, we propose the hypothesis that the exceptional gonad structure in Apis queens and drones evolved via shared developmental pathways. Furthermore, we suggest that selection on massive sperm production in Apis drones may have been a driving force leading to this exaggerated gonad morphology.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0548-9
  • Effects of neonicotinoid exposure on molecular and physiological
           indicators of honey bee immunocompetence
    • Authors: Elizabeth J. Collison; Heather Hird; Charles R. Tyler; James E. Cresswell
      Abstract: Bee declines have been associated with various stressors including pesticides and pathogens. We separately exposed immune-challenged adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to two neonicotinoid pesticides, thiamethoxam (10 ppb) and imidacloprid (102 ppb), by dietary delivery. We found that whereas neonicotinoid exposure weakly affected transcriptional responses of antimicrobial genes, it did not detectably affect the physiological antimicrobial response as measured by a lytic clearance assay of haemolymph. Our findings add to the evidence that transcriptional responses in immune-related genes are not yet reliable indicators of pesticide impacts on bee health, which suggests caution in their future use as biomarkers in pesticide risk assessment.
      PubDate: 2017-10-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0541-3
  • Upregulation of antioxidant genes in the spermathecae of honey bee ( Apis
           mellifera ) queens after mating
    • Authors: Alejandra N. Gonzalez; Nancy Ing; Juliana Rangel
      Abstract: During storage, the viability of sperm in a honey bee (Apis mellifera) queen’s spermatheca can be decreased by reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that the expression of antioxidant genes would increase in queen spermathecae after mating. We measured queen morphometric characteristics and expression levels of seven antioxidant-encoding genes in virgin and mated queen spermathecae. We identified a 12% increase in body weight and a fourfold increase in ovary weight in mated queens. There was a twofold higher expression of catalase, thioredoxin 2, and thioredoxin reductase 1 in the spermathecae of mated vs. virgin queens. Expression of the other antioxidant genes (glutathione S-transferase D1, superoxide dismutase 1, vitellogenin, and glyoxalase domain-containing 4-like (GLOD4L) in spermathecae was not different between mated and virgin queens. In drone semen, expression of antioxidant genes was overall low compared to queens except for GLOD4L, which was equivalent to that in queen spermathecae. Increased expression of antioxidant genes may assist in maintaining sperm viability inside the spermathecae of mated queens.
      PubDate: 2017-10-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0546-y
  • A scientific note on first detection of Kashmir bee virus in Apis
           mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in South America
    • Authors: Gustavo Riveros; Nolberto Arismendi; Nelson Zapata; Guy Smagghe; Marta Rodríguez; Marcos Gerding; Marisol Vargas
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0545-z
  • Effect of the own colony odor on olfactory and thermal preferences of the
           honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers
    • Authors: Przemysław Grodzicki; Michał Caputa; Bartosz Piechowicz
      Abstract: Honeybee foragers were tested on their preference for the own colony odor either separately, in an olfactometer, or in combination with their temperature preference, in thermal gradient chambers, where their motor activity was also recorded. The bees in the gradient chambers were either deprived of their colony odor for 9 days or exposed to the odor during the experimental days 4–9. The source of odor was wax from the own colony. Bees were attracted by the odor, and this attraction culminated at night. Thermal preference and motor activity fluctuated in a circadian rhythm both in absence and in combination with the own colony odor but there was an upward drift of both variables in bees deprived of the odor. The data are discussed on the background of detrimental effects of isolation from the own colony odor possibly indicating an age related phenomenon.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0543-1
  • Erratum to: Behavioral and genetic mechanisms of social evolution:
           insights from incipiently and facultatively social bees
    • Authors: Wyatt A. Shell; Sandra M. Rehan
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0544-0
  • Morphological similarity of widely separated populations of two Euglossini
           (Hymenoptera; Apidae) species based on geometric morphometrics of wings
    • Authors: Marina Lopes Grassi-Sella; Carlos Alberto Garófalo; Tiago Mauricio Francoy
      Abstract: Euglossini bees are able to fly long distances, which could help to maintain gene flow among widely separated populations. In order to investigate if different environmental conditions affect morphological variation in Euglossa annectans and Euglossa truncata, we analyzed the patterns of venation of the forewings of 310 individuals, sampled in the same six locations for the two species. Populations from the two species clustered in a similar way, following the phytophysiognomy of the sampling sites. These populations also presented little or no population structure. Based on our results, we suggest that the forest fragmentation is not a problem for these species. The tendency of samples to group based on site phytophysiognomy can be explained by phenotypic plasticity or local adaptations.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0536-0
  • RNA-Seq reveals that mitochondrial genes and long non-coding RNAs may play
           important roles in the bivoltine generations of the non-social Neotropical
           bee Tetrapedia diversipes
    • Authors: Natalia S. Araujo; Priscila Karla F. Santos; Maria Cristina Arias
      Abstract: In animals, voltinism is a result of evolutionary adaptations to environmental conditions. These evolutionary adaptations may profoundly affect the population structure and social organization level. To study the bivoltinism of the solitary bee Tetrapedia diversipes, we performed comparative transcriptomics analyses of foundresses and larvae from the two reproductive generations (G1 and G2) produced per year by this bee. Most of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found between foundresses: 52 DEGs between adults, but only one between the larvae. Among the DEGs in foundresses, 46 were higher expressed in G1 and most of them (38) have no functional annotation defined in the database. Interestingly, mitochondrial genes and long non-coding RNAs were the only type of identified transcripts in the set of upregulated genes. These results highlight the importance of developing studies on non-model species and suggest that maternal genes may be of importance for determining larval diapause in T. diversipes.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0542-2
  • The ontogenetic saga of a social brain
    • Authors: Angel Roberto Barchuk; Gabriele David dos Santos; Ricardo Dias Caneschi; Delcio Eustaquio de Paula Junior; Lívia Maria Rosatto Moda
      Abstract: Queen and worker honeybees differ in a number of life-history traits, including the size of certain brain regions, such as the mushroom bodies (MBs), which are larger in workers. However, during the larval period, the differential feeding offered to queens promotes faster brain development. As a result, members of this caste have larger brains than workers. This developmental process is accompanied by the higher expression of several neurogenic genes. Nonetheless, a caste-specific shift in relative brain growth occurs during the next developmental stage. The suggested molecular underpinnings of this phenomenon are variations in hormonal environments, which may mediate higher cell death rates in the queen’s brain than in the workers’. The brain development of this highly eusocial bee is thus a paradoxical case that may represent an evolutionary by-product of the reproductive division of labour in species with female size diphenism.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0540-4
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