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BIOLOGY (1422 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 308)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
  [SJR: 0.992]   [H-I: 87]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1572-9699 - ISSN (Online) 0003-6072
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Genetic recombinational events in prokaryotes and their viruses: insight
           into the study of evolution and biodiversity
    • Authors: Jean-Pierre Gratia
      Pages: 1493 - 1514
      Abstract: The exact meaning of sexual reproduction and the precise evolutionary period at which recombination first took place remains the subject of intense debates. Despite some unity in biochemical organisation of genetic recombination, a plethora of mechanisms are found to exist in microbes and their viruses. Some routes used by viruses bypass barriers to genetic heterology and provide bacteria with genes conferring a selective advantage, and some contribute to genome enlargement. The present review aims at highlighting the diversity of such mechanisms with a particular focus on spontaneous zygogenesis (or Z-mating). The latter mode of genetic recombination, which was recently discovered in Escherichia coli, resembles gamete fusion in eukaryotes in that it involves complete genetic mixing. Vertical and horizontal evolution through mutations and homo- or heterospecific Z-mating can be monitored to some extent, providing a mean to interrogate the mechanisms of evolution in a way similar to introgression and symbiogenesis. The question arises as to whether Z-mating might represent a remainder of what happened in the very first organisms appearing on earth, as well as recombination events among viruses.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0916-5
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 12 (2017)
  • A gyrB oligonucleotide microarray for the specific detection of pathogenic
           Legionella and three Legionella pneumophila subsp.
    • Authors: Daoyi Xi; Yan Dou; Wei Ren; Shuang Yang; Lu Feng; Boyang Cao; Lei Wang
      Pages: 1515 - 1525
      Abstract: Among the 50 species and 70 serogroups of Legionella identified, Legionella pneumophila, comprising three subsp. (subsp. pneumophila, subsp. fraseri, and subsp. pasculleii), is recognized as the major cause of epidemic legionellosis. Rapid and reliable assays to identify pathogenic Legionella spp., and the three L. pneumophila subsp. in particular, are in great demand. In this study, we analyzed the gyrB genes of eleven Legionella spp. and subsp., comprising L. anisa, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. feeleii, L. gormanii, L. longbeachae, L. micdadei, L. waltersii, L. pneumophila subsp. pneumophila, L. pneumophila subsp. fraseri, and L. pneumophila subsp. pasculleii. We developed a rapid oligonucleotide microarray detection technique to identify accurately these common pathogenic Legionella spp. and L. pneumophila subsp. To detect multiple Legionella species with high specificity, 31 reproducible probes were designed in the array. Sixty-one strains were analyzed in total, including 37 target pathogens and 24 non-target bacterial species used to validate the microarray. The sensitivity of the detection was 1.0 ng using genomic DNA of three Legionella spp., L. anisa, L. dumoffii, and L. waltersii, or 13 CFU/100 mL using the cultured L. pneumophila subsp. pneumophila. Eight isolated strains were tested using the microarray with 100% accuracy. The data indicated that the technique is an efficient method to diagnose and detect Legionella spp. and subsp. in basic microbiology, clinical diagnosis, epidemiological surveillance, and food safety applications. In addition, a phylogenetic study based on the gyrB gene revealed the genetic relationship among the different Legionella spp. and subsp.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0903-x
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 12 (2017)
  • A simple and efficient method for successful gene silencing of HspA1 in
           Trametes hirsuta AH28-2
    • Authors: Jingjing Wang; Yanyan Chen; Yanqun Dong; Wei Fang; Zemin Fang; Yazhong Xiao
      Pages: 1527 - 1535
      Abstract: Trametes sp. are among the most extensively studied basidiomycetes due to their importance in biotechnology. However, they are difficult to genetically modify. For instance, the low incidence of homologous integration hampers gene inactivation. To overcome this, we here constructed two post-transcriptional gene-silencing vectors that contain an antisense and a RNA interference mediating hairpin sequence, respectively. These vectors were used to knock down transcription of the heat shock protein 70 family gene HspA1. The two vectors were transformed into Trametes hirsuta AH28-2 by using a PEG/CaCl2 mediated transformation method. Based on Southern blot analysis, target sequences were integrated into the genome as multi-copies. Transcription analysis revealed that the antisense and hairpin sequences reduced the transcript number of HspA1 when compared to the wild type strain. Moreover, the antisense sequence resulted in a higher gene silencing efficiency when compared to the RNA interference vector. Together, antisense methodology provides a simple method for gene silencing in Trametes sp.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0904-9
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 12 (2017)
  • Two new Leptographium spp. reveal an emerging complex of
           hardwood-infecting species in the Ophiostomatales
    • Authors: Robert Jankowiak; Beata Strzałka; Piotr Bilański; Riikka Linnakoski; Truls Aas; Halvor Solheim; Małgorzata Groszek; Z. Wilhelm de Beer
      Pages: 1537 - 1553
      Abstract: Species of Leptographium are generally characterized by mononematous conidiophores and are commonly associated with bark beetles and weevils. These species are responsible for sapstain and in some cases serious diseases on a range of primarily coniferous trees. In comparison with coniferous trees, the occurrence of Leptographium species on hardwood trees has been poorly studied in Europe. During a survey of ophiostomatoid fungi on various tree species in Norway and Poland, three unusual species, which fit the broader morphological description of Leptographium spp., were found in association with Scolytus ratzeburgi, Dryocoetes alni and Trypodendron domesticum on a variety of hardwoods, and from wounds on Tilia cordata. Phylogenetic analyses of sequence data for three gene regions (ITS2-LSU, β-tubulin, and TEF1-α) showed that these Leptographium species are phylogenetically closely related to each other and form a well-supported lineage that included Grosmannia grandifoliae and Leptographium pruni. The first species could be distinguished from the other Leptographium species based on conidiophores arising from spiral hyphae, chlamydospore-like structures and a hyalorhinocladiella-like synanamorph in culture. The second species differs from the previous one by having distinctly shorter conidiophores and smaller conidia. This species also produces a well-developed sporothrix-like synanamorph with denticulate conidiogenous cells. Based on these unusual morphological characteristics and distinct DNA sequences, these fungi were recognised as new taxa for which the names Leptographium trypodendri sp. nov. and L. betulae sp. nov. are provided. The third group of isolates belonged to Grosmannia grandifoliae, representing the first report of this species outside of the USA. The newly defined G. grandifoliae complex is the first species complex in Leptographium s.l. consisting of only hardwood-infecting species.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0905-8
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 12 (2017)
  • Selection and validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR indicates that
           juice of sugarcane varieties modulate the expression of C metabolism genes
           in the endophytic diazotrophic Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans strain
    • Authors: Valéria Polese; Cleiton de Paula Soares; Paula Renata Alves da Silva; Jean Luiz Simões-Araújo; José Ivo Baldani; Marcia Soares Vidal
      Pages: 1555 - 1568
      Abstract: Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is an important tool for evaluating gene expression. However, this technique requires that specific internal normalizing genes be identified for different experimental conditions. To date, no internal normalizing genes are available for validation of data analyses for Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans strain HCC103, an endophyte that is part of the sugarcane consortium inoculant. This work seeks to identify and evaluate suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in HCC103 grown until middle log phase in sugarcane juice obtained from four sugarcane varieties or media with three different carbon sources. The mRNA levels of five candidate genes (rpoA, gyrA, dnaG, recA and gmK) and seven target genes involved in carbon metabolism (acnA, fbp, galE, suhB, wcaA, ORF_0127.0101 and _0127.0123) were quantified by RT-qPCR. Analysis of expression stability of these genes was carried out using geNorm and Normfinder software. The results indicated that the HCC103 dnaG and gyrA genes are the most stable and showed adequate relative expression level changes among the different sugarcane juices. The highest expression level was seen for ORF_0127.0101, which encodes a sugar transporter, in juice from sugarcane variety RB867515 and glucose as the carbon source. The suhB gene, encoding SuhB inositol monophosphatase, had a higher relative expression level on 0.5% glucose, 100% sugarcane juice from variety RB867515 and 0.5% aconitate. Together the results suggest that dnaG and gyrA genes are suitable as reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of strain HCC103 and that juice from different sugarcane varieties modulates the expression of key genes involved in carbon metabolism.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0906-7
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 12 (2017)
  • Partial structure and immunological properties of lipopolysaccharide from
           marine-derived Pseudomonas stutzeri KMM 226
    • Authors: Maxim S. Kokoulin; Ekaterina V. Sokolova; Yuriy N. Elkin; Lyudmila A. Romanenko; Valery V. Mikhailov; Nadezhda A. Komandrova
      Pages: 1569 - 1580
      Abstract: The partial structure and immunology of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Pseudomonas stutzeri KMM 226, a bacterium isolated from a seawater sample collected at a depth of 2000 m, was characterised. The O-polysaccharide was built up of disaccharide repeating units constituted by l-Rhap and d-GlcpNAc: →2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→3)-α-d-GlcpNAc-(1→. The structural analysis of the lipid A showed a mixture of different species. The major species were hexa-acylated and penta-acylated lipids A, bearing the 12:0(3-OH) in amide linkage and 10:0(3-OH) in ester linkage, while the secondary fatty acids were present only as 12:0. The presence of 12:0(2-OH) was not detected. The immunology experiments demonstrated that P. stutzeri KMM 226 LPS displayed a low ability to induce TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 cytokine production and acted as an antagonist of hexa-acylated Escherichia coli LPS in human blood in vitro.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0907-6
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 12 (2017)
  • Idiomarina andamanensis sp. nov., an alkalitolerant bacterium isolated
           from Andaman Sea water
    • Authors: Sherin Zachariah; Subrata K. Das
      Pages: 1581 - 1592
      Abstract: Two closely related aerobic, Gram-negative rod shaped bacteria (strain W5T and W3) were isolated from Andaman Sea. Heterotrophic growth on marine agar was observed at 15–45 °C and pH 6–10. Strain W5T showed maximum 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 99.58% with Idiomarina marina JCM 15083T. DNA fingerprinting analysis by ERIC-REP PCR, PFGE and MLSA revealed differences in banding patterns, also DNA–DNA hybridization values were well below 70% confirming W5T to be a new species. DNA G+C content was 46.7 mol%. Major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0, iso-C17:1 ω9c, iso-C13:0 3OH, iso-C11:0 3OH and C16:0. Polar lipids included phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG) phospholipid (PL) two aminolipids (AL) and two unidentified lipids (L1-2). Q-8 is the predominant ubiquinone. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic study, strain W5T is considered to be representative of a new species of the genus Idiomarina, for which the name Idiomarina andamanensis sp. nov. is being proposed. The type strain W5T (= LMG 29773T = JCM 31645T) was isolated from Andaman Sea.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0908-5
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 12 (2017)
  • The diversity and antibiotic properties of actinobacteria associated with
           endemic deepwater amphipods of Lake Baikal
    • Authors: Eugenii S. Protasov; Denis V. Axenov-Gribanov; Yuriy V. Rebets; Irina V. Voytsekhovskaya; Bogdan T. Tokovenko; Zhanna M. Shatilina; Andriy N. Luzhetskyy; Maxim A. Timofeyev
      Pages: 1593 - 1611
      Abstract: The emergence of pathogenic bacteria resistant to antibiotics increases the need for discovery of new effective antimicrobials. Unique habitats such as marine deposits, wetlands and caves or unexplored biological communities are promising sources for the isolation of actinobacteria, which are among the major antibiotic producers. The present study aimed at examining cultivated actinobacteria strains associated with endemic Lake Baikal deepwater amphipods and estimating their antibiotic activity. We isolated 42 actinobacterial strains from crustaceans belonging to Ommatogammarus albinus and Ommatogammarus flavus. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the isolation and initial characterization of representatives of Micromonospora and Pseudonocardia genera from Baikal deepwater invertebrates. Also, as expected, representatives of the genus Streptomyces were the dominant group among the isolated species. Some correlations could be observed between the number of actinobacterial isolates, the depth of sampling and the source of the strains. Nevertheless, >70% of isolated strains demonstrated antifungal activity. The dereplication analysis of extract of one of the isolated strains resulted in annotation of several known compounds that can help to explain the observed biological activities. The characteristics of ecological niche and lifestyle of deepwater amphipods suggests that the observed associations between crustaceans and isolated actinobacteria are not random and might represent long-term symbiotic interactions.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0910-y
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 12 (2017)
  • Nitrogen assimilation in denitrifier Bacillus azotoformans LMG 9581 T
    • Authors: Yihua Sun; Paul De Vos; Anne Willems
      Pages: 1613 - 1626
      Abstract: Until recently, it has not been generally known that some bacteria can contain the gene inventory for both denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate (NO3 −)/nitrite (NO2 −) reduction to ammonium (NH4 +) (DNRA). Detailed studies of these microorganisms could shed light on the differentiating environmental drivers of both processes without interference of organism-specific variation. Genome analysis of Bacillus azotoformans LMG 9581T shows a remarkable redundancy of dissimilatory nitrogen reduction, with multiple copies of each denitrification gene as well as DNRA genes nrfAH, but a reduced capacity for nitrogen assimilation, with no nas operon nor amtB gene. Here, we explored nitrogen assimilation in detail using growth experiments in media with different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources at different concentrations. Monitoring of growth, NO3 − NO2 −, NH4 + concentration and N2O production revealed that B. azotoformans LMG 9581T could not grow with NH4 + as sole nitrogen source and confirmed the hypothesis of reduced nitrogen assimilation pathways. However, NH4 + could be assimilated and contributed up to 50% of biomass if yeast extract was also provided. NH4 + also had a significant but concentration-dependent influence on growth rate. The mechanisms behind these observations remain to be resolved but hypotheses for this deficiency in nitrogen assimilation are discussed. In addition, in all growth conditions tested a denitrification phenotype was observed, with all supplied NO3 − converted to nitrous oxide (N2O).
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0911-x
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 12 (2017)
  • The N-terminal and central domain of colicin A enables phage lysin to lyse
           Escherichia coli extracellularly
    • Authors: Guangmou Yan; Jianfang Liu; Qiang Ma; Rining Zhu; Zhimin Guo; Chencheng Gao; Shuang Wang; Ling Yu; Jingmin Gu; Dongliang Hu; Wenyu Han; Rui Du; Junling Yang; Liancheng Lei
      Pages: 1627 - 1635
      Abstract: Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli has seriously threatened antibiotic resources and international public health. Bacteriophage lysin preparations have been widely considered as valid agents for solving multidrug resistances. Many lysins have been derived to treat diseases caused by Gram-positive bacteria, but only a few lysin preparations have been found that successively treat diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria effectively blocks the interactions between peptidoglycan in the periplasmic space and bacteriophage lysins, which therefore hampers the antimicrobial effects of bacteriophage lysins. In this study, a new fusion protein (Colicin-Lysep3) was constructed by fusing the translocation and receptor binding domains of colicin A with an E. coli phage lysin, which endows Colicin-Lysep3 bactericidal activity against E. coli from outside of Gram-negative bacteria. These results show that Colicin-Lysep3 could lyse the E. coli broadly in vitro and significantly reduce the number of E. coli in an intestinal infection mouse model. Overall, our findings first demonstrated that a colicin A fragment could enable a bacteriophage lysin to lyse E. coli from the outside, promoting the application of phage lysin preparations in control of Gram-negative bacteria.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0912-9
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 12 (2017)
  • Talaromyces sayulitensis, Acidiella bohemica and Penicillium citrinum in
           Brazilian oil shale by-products
    • Authors: Kelly C. G. P. de Goes; Josué J. da Silva; Gisele M. Lovato; Beatriz T. Iamanaka; Fernanda P. Massi; Diva S. Andrade
      Pages: 1637 - 1646
      Abstract: Fine shale particles and retorted shale are waste products generated during the oil shale retorting process. These by-products are small fragments of mined shale rock, are high in silicon and also contain organic matter, micronutrients, hydrocarbons and other elements. The aims of this study were to isolate and to evaluate fungal diversity present in fine shale particles and retorted shale samples collected at the Schist Industrialization Business Unit (Six)—Petrobras in São Mateus do Sul, State of Paraná, Brazil. Combining morphology and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence, a total of seven fungal genera were identified, including Acidiella, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Ochroconis, Penicillium, Talaromyces and Trichoderma. Acidiella was the most predominant genus found in the samples of fine shale particles, which are a highly acidic substrate (pH 2.4–3.6), while Talaromyces was the main genus in retorted shale (pH 5.20–6.20). Talaromyces sayulitensis was the species most frequently found in retorted shale, and Acidiella bohemica in fine shale particles. The presence of T. sayulitensis, T. diversus and T. stolli in oil shale is described herein for the first time. In conclusion, we have described for the first time a snapshot of the diversity of filamentous fungi colonizing solid oil shale by-products from the Irati Formation in Brazil.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0913-8
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 12 (2017)
  • Polyamine-binding protein PotD2 is required for stress tolerance and
           virulence in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
    • Authors: Zhuang Zhu; Qin Zhao; Yu Zhao; Fei Zhang; Xintian Wen; Xiaobo Huang; Yiping Wen; Rui Wu; Qigui Yan; Yong Huang; Xiaoping Ma; Xinfeng Han; Sanjie Cao
      Pages: 1647 - 1657
      Abstract: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the cause of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, which is one of the most important respiratory diseases in swine and causes huge economic losses in the swine industry. PotD, a polyamine-binding protein, has been well characterised in many pathogens of humans and animals. In this study, a ΔpotD2 mutant of A. pleuropneumoniae strain MS71 (serovar 1) was constructed successfully by homologous recombination. Growth curves of different strains showed that the growth of the ΔpotD2 mutant was affected greatly in the logarithmic phase compared with that of parental strain. In vitro stress assays revealed that the viability of ΔpotD2 mutant strain was significantly impaired under multiple environmental stresses, including high temperature, oxidation and hyperosmosis. Additionally, the ΔpotD2 mutant caused significantly decreased mortality in a mouse model. Taken together, the findings in this study suggest an important role of PotD2 in the growth, stress tolerance and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0914-7
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 12 (2017)
  • Sphingomonas montana sp. nov., isolated from a soil sample from the
           Tanggula Mountain in the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau
    • Authors: Pooja Manandhar; Gengxin Zhang; Arun Lama; Fei Liu; Yilun Hu
      Pages: 1659 - 1668
      Abstract: An orange pigmented, Gram-staining negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from a soil from the Tanggula Mountain, China was studied using a polyphasic approach. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain W16RDT was found to be closely related to Sphingomonas prati DSM 103336T (99%), Sphingomonas fennica DSM 13665T (97.21%), followed by Sphingomonas laterariae DSM 25432T (96.44%), Sphingomonas haloaromaticamans CGMCC 1.10206 T (96.36%) and Sphingomonas formosensis DSM 24164T (96.06%). The strain was found to be catalase and oxidase positive and was found to grow optimally at temperatures of 20–25 °C, pH 8 and tolerated NaCl concentration up to 1% (w/v). The major fatty acids identified were summed feature eight comprising C18:1 ω 7c and/or C18:1 ω 6c (39.2%), summed feature three comprising of C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c (36.7%) and C16:0 (7.0%). The polar lipids detected were phosphatidylcholine, sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, and three unidentified lipids. The strain possessed ubiquinone-10 (Q-10) as the predominant respiratory quinone. Along with other distinguishing characteristics, we also describe the draft genome of strain W16RDT. The final assembled draft genome sequence is 3,722,743 bp with 3390 coding and 48 RNA (45 tRNA and 3 rRNA) genes. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 67%. The DNA–DNA relatedness value between the strain W16RDT and its closest phylogenetic relatives S. prati DSM 103336T, S. fennica DSM 13665T, S. laterariae DSM 25432T, and S. haloaromaticamans CGMCC 1.10206T were 52.17, 47.60, 20.93 and 17.09% respectively. The strain W16RDT could be distinguished genotypically and phenotypically from the recognized species belonging to the genus Sphingomonas and thus represents a novel species, for which the name Sphingomonas montana sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is W16RDT (=CGMCC 1.15646T = DSM 103337T).
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0915-6
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 12 (2017)
  • Selection for novel, acid-tolerant Desulfovibrio spp. from a closed
           Transbaikal mine site in a temporal pH-gradient bioreactor
    • Authors: Dmitry V. Antsiferov; Tatiana S. Fyodorova; Anastasia A. Kovalyova; Anastasia Lukina; Yulia A. Frank; Marat R. Avakyan; David Banks; Olli H. Tuovinen; Olga V. Karnachuk
      Pages: 1669 - 1679
      Abstract: Almost all the known isolates of acidophilic or acid-tolerant sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) belong to the spore-forming genus Desulfosporosinus in the Firmicutes. The objective of this study was to isolate acidophilic/acid-tolerant members of the genus Desulfovibrio belonging to deltaproteobacterial SRB. The sample material originated from microbial mat biomass submerged in mine water and was enriched for sulphate reducers by cultivation in anaerobic medium with lactate as an electron donor. A stirred tank bioreactor with the same medium composition was inoculated with the sulphidogenic enrichment. The bioreactor was operated with a temporal pH gradient, changing daily, from an initial pH of 7.3 to a final pH of 3.7. Among the bacteria in the bioreactor culture, Desulfovibrio was the only SRB group retrieved from the bioreactor consortium as observed by 16S rRNA-targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Moderately acidophilic/acid-tolerant isolates belonged to Desulfovibrio aerotolerans-Desulfovibrio carbinophilus-Desulfovibrio magneticus and Desulfovibrio idahonensis-Desulfovibrio mexicanus clades within the genus Desulfovibrio. A moderately acidophilic strain, Desulfovibrio sp. VK (pH optimum 5.7) and acid-tolerant Desulfovibrio sp. ED (pH optimum 6.6) dominated in the bioreactor consortium at different time points and were isolated in pure culture.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0917-4
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 12 (2017)
  • Thauera phenolivorans sp. nov., a phenol degrading bacterium isolated from
           activated sludge
    • Authors: Yajie Yin; Yanan Wang; Wei Tang; Liyan Song
      Pages: 1681 - 1690
      Abstract: A Gram-stain negative, short rod-shaped and non-motile bacterial strain ZV1CT capable of degrading phenol was isolated from a wastewater treatment system of Huafu mustard tuber salinity preservation factory in Chongqing, China. Aerobic growth was observed at 20–42 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and at pH 5–10 (optimum, pH 8). Cells tolerated NaCl concentrations of 0–2% (w/v) (optimum, 0%). The major respiratory quinone is ubiquinone Q-8 and the major cellular fatty acids are C16:1 ω7c /C16:1 ω6c and C16:0. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of stain ZV1CT is phylogenetically related to the 16S rRNA genes of the type strains of Thauera species (similarity: 96.6–97.7%). The genome of strain ZV1CT was sequenced and the size of the genome is 3.68 Mb. The genomic DNA G+C content is 68.2 mol %. Strain ZV1CT exhibited whole-genome average nucleotide identity values of 82.3, 81.5 and 80.9% with respect to Thauera phenylacetica B4PT, Thauera aminoaromatica S2T and Thauera selenatis AXT, respectively. Accordingly, the genome-to-genome distances between strain ZV1CT and the type strains ranged from 21.5 to 31.3%. Based on the results of this study, it is proposed that strain ZV1CT represents a novel species of the genus Thauera, for which the name Thauera phenolivorans is proposed. The type strain is ZV1CT (=CGMCC 1.15497 = NCBR 112379).
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0918-3
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 12 (2017)
  • Biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility in dispersed cells versus
           planktonic cells from clinical, industry and environmental origins
    • Authors: Mercedes Berlanga; Laura Gomez-Perez; Ricardo Guerrero
      Pages: 1691 - 1704
      Abstract: We examined the cell-surface physicochemical properties, the biofilm formation capability and the antibiotic susceptibility in dispersed cells (from an artificial biofilm of alginate beads) and compared with their planktonic (free-swimming) counterparts. The strains used were from different origins, such as clinical (Acinetobacter baumannii AB4), cosmetic industry (Klebsiella oxytoca EU213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa EU190), and environmental (Halomonas venusta MAT28). In general, dispersed cells adhered better to surfaces (measured as the “biofilm index”) and had a greater hydrophobicity [measured as the microbial affinity to solvents (MATS)] than planktonic cells. The susceptibility to two antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and tetracycline) of dispersed cells was higher compared with that of their planktonic counterparts (tested by the “bactericidal index”). Dispersed and planktonic cells exhibited differences in cell permeability, especially in efflux pump activity, which could be related to the differences observed in susceptibility to antibiotics. At 1 h of biofilm formation in microtiter plates, dispersed cells treated with therapeutic concentration of ciprofloxacin yielded a lower biofilm index than the control dispersed cells without ciprofloxacin. With respect to the planktonic cells, the biofilm index was similar with and without the ciprofloxacin treatment. In both cases there were a reduction of the number of bacteria measured as viable count of the supernatant. The lower biofilm formation in dispersed cells with ciprofloxacin treatment may be due to a significant increase of biofilm disruption with respect to the biofilm from planktonic cells. From a clinical point of view, biofilms formed on medical devices such as catheters, cells that can be related to an infection were the dispersed cells. Our results showed that early treatment with ciprofloxacin of dispersed cells could diminishe bacterial dispersion and facilitate the partial elimination of the new biofilm formed.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0919-2
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 12 (2017)
  • Actinoalloteichus fjordicus sp. nov. isolated from marine sponges:
           phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genomic characterisation
    • Authors: Imen Nouioui; Christian Rückert; Joost Willemse; Gilles P. van Wezel; Hans-Peter Klenk; Tobias Busche; Jörn Kalinowski; Harald Bredholt; Sergey B. Zotchev
      Pages: 1705 - 1717
      Abstract: Two actinobacterial strains, ADI 127-17T and GBA 129-24, isolated from marine sponges Antho dichotoma and Geodia barretti, respectively, collected at the Trondheim fjord in Norway, were the subjects of a polyphasic study. According to their 16S rRNA gene sequences, the new isolates were preliminarily classified as belonging to the genus Actinoalloteichus. Both strains formed a distinct branch, closely related to the type strains of Actinoalloteichus hoggarensis and Actinoalloteichus hymeniacidonis, within the evolutionary radiation of the genus Actinoalloteichus in the 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic tree. Isolates ADI 127-17T and GBA 129-24 exhibited morphological, chemotaxonomic and genotypic features distinguishable from their close phylogenetic neighbours. Digital DNA: DNA hybridization and ANI values between strains ADI 127-17T and GBA 129-24 were 97.6 and 99.7%, respectively, whereas the corresponding values between both tested strains and type strains of their closely related phylogenetic neighbours, A. hoggarensis and A. hymeniacidonis, were well below the threshold for delineation of prokaryotic species. Therefore, strains ADI 127-17T (= DSM 46855T) and GBA 129-24 (= DSM 46856) are concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Actinoalloteichus for which the name of Actinoalloteichus fjordicus sp. nov. (type strain ADI 127-17T = DSM 46855T = CECT 9355T) is proposed. The complete genome sequences of the new strains were obtained and compared to that of A. hymeniacidonis DSM 45092T and A. hoggarensis DSM 45943T to unravel unique genome features and biosynthetic potential of the new isolates.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0920-9
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 12 (2017)
  • Saccharopolyspora hattusasensis sp. nov., isolated from soil
    • Authors: Aysel Veyisoglu; Hayrettin Saygin; Demet Tatar; Kadriye Inan Bektas; Nevzat Sahin
      Pages: 1719 - 1727
      Abstract: A Saccharopolyspora strain, designated CR3506T, isolated from a soil sample collected from Sungurlu, Corum, Turkey, was examinated using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on an almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strain is closely related to the type strains of Saccharopolyspora spinosa NRRL 18395T (99.1%), Saccharopolyspora phatthalungensis NRRL B-24798T (98.4%) and Saccharopolyspora shandongensis 88T (98.1%); low levels of DNA–DNA relatedness were found between the isolate and S. spinosa and S. phatthalungensis (<50%). Strain CR3506T was found to have chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties consistent with its classification in the genus Saccharopolyspora. The strain contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained arabinose and galactose. The polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The predominant menaquinones (>10%) were MK-9(H4) and MK-8(H4). Major fatty acids were (>10%) iso-C16:0, C15:03OH, C18:0 and iso-C15:0. Further, the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of strain CR3506T are distinct from S. spinosa and other species of the genus Saccharopolyspora with which this strain has high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (98.0–98.5%). Strain CR3506T has antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis NRRL B-209, Citrobacter freundi NRRL B-2643 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. Consequently, it is proposed that strain CR3506T represents a novel Saccharopolyspora species for which the name Saccharopolyspora hattusasensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CR3506T (=KCTC 29104T = DSM 45715T).
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0921-8
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 12 (2017)
  • Host-dependent symbiotic efficiency of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv.
           trifolii strains isolated from nodules of Trifolium rubens
    • Authors: Monika Marek-Kozaczuk; Sylwia Wdowiak-Wróbel; Michał Kalita; Mykhaylo Chernetskyy; Kamil Deryło; Marek Tchórzewski; Anna Skorupska
      Pages: 1729 - 1744
      Abstract: Trifolium rubens L., commonly known as the red feather clover, is capable of symbiotic interactions with rhizobia. Up to now, no specific symbionts of T. rubens and their symbiotic compatibility with Trifolium spp. have been described. We characterized the genomic diversity of T. rubens symbionts by analyses of plasmid profiles and BOX–PCR. The phylogeny of T. rubens isolates was inferred based on the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA and two core genes (atpD, recA). The nodC phylogeny allowed classification of rhizobia nodulating T. rubens as Rhizobium leguminosarum symbiovar trifolii (Rlt). The symbiotic efficiency of the Rlt isolates was determined on four clover species: T. rubens, T. pratense, T. repens and T. resupinatum. We determined that Rlt strains formed mostly inefficient symbiosis with their native host plant T. rubens and weakly effective (sub-optimal) symbiosis with T. repens and T. pratense. The same Rlt strains were fully compatible in the symbiosis with T. resupinatum. T. rubens did not exhibit strict selectivity in regard to the symbionts and rhizobia closely related to Rhizobium grahamii, Rhizobium galegae and Agrobacterium radiobacter, which did not nodulate Trifolium spp., were found amongst T. rubens nodule isolates.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0922-7
      Issue No: Vol. 110, No. 12 (2017)
  • Metatranscriptomics reveals the hydrolytic potential of peat-inhabiting
    • Authors: Anastasia A. Ivanova; Carl-Eric Wegner; Yongkyu Kim; Werner Liesack; Svetlana N. Dedysh
      Abstract: Members of the phylum Planctomycetes are common inhabitants of northern Sphagnum-dominated wetlands. Evidence is accumulating that, in these environments, some planctomycetes may be involved in degrading polymeric organic matter. The experimental data, however, remain scarce due to the low number of characterized representatives of this phylum. In a previous study, we used metatranscriptomics to assess the activity response of peat-inhabiting microorganisms to biopolymers abundantly present in native peat. The community responses to cellulose, xylan, pectin, and chitin availability were analysed relative to unamended controls. Here, we re-analysed these metatranscriptomes and retrieved a total of 1,602,783 rRNA and 35,522 mRNA sequences affiliated with the Planctomycetes. Each of the four polymers induced specific planctomycete responses. These were most pronounced on chitin. The two groups with increased 16S rRNA transcript pools were Gemmata- and Phycisphaera-like planctomycetes. Among uncultivated members of the Planctomycetaceae, two increased transcript pools were detected in pectin-amended samples and belonged to Pirellula-like bacteria. The analysis of taxonomically assigned mRNA reads confirmed the specific response of Gemmata-related planctomycetes to chitin amendment suggesting the presence of chitinolytic capabilities in these bacteria.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0973-9
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