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BIOLOGY (1424 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Annals of Biomedical Engineering
  [SJR: 1.182]   [H-I: 94]   [18 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1573-9686 - ISSN (Online) 0090-6964
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Systematic Review of fMRI Compatible Devices: Design and Testing Criteria
    • Authors: V. Hartwig; N. Carbonaro; A. Tognetti; N. Vanello
      Pages: 1819 - 1835
      Abstract: Abstract Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is at present one of the most used methodologies for functional brain exploration, both in clinical and research settings. fMRI can noninvasively measure neural activity by using specific experimental paradigms. Often, these paradigms require the stimulation of the subject to perform sensorimotor tasks: in the past, the stimuli have been administered manually for investigating fundamental aspects of tactile perception and somatosensory processing. Nowadays, the use of mechatronic devices to stimulate the subject during fMRI studies is growing, also to assure reproducibility, control, and monitoring of task performances. For these reasons, researchers are interested in designing interfaces to be used inside the MRI environment during fMRI studies. For the design of every new device safety and compatibility constraints, imposed by the presence of high static magnetic field, switching magnetic gradients and radiofrequency electromagnetic pulses, must be satisfied. Moreover, it should be considered that functional imaging sequences are even more sensitive to perturbations of the magnetic field than MRI standard diagnostic sequences. Despite several existing devices for use in fMRI studies, an extensive review is still lacking. Our survey aims to introduce into the challenges imposed on the development of fMRI-compatible devices. The current state of the art of compatible devices in fMRI will be presented, pointing out the functionalities and peculiarities of various kinds of device. A particular emphasis will be placed on the tests for the evaluation of fMRI compatibility. This review will be useful both for designers of devices to be used in fMRI studies and for neuroscientists that are having to design fMRI experimental paradigm, and therefore require an overview of existing instruments, but also a knowledge of the benefits and criticism arising from their use.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1853-1
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • Design, Analysis and Testing of a Novel Mitral Valve for Transcatheter
    • Authors: Selim Bozkurt; Georgia L. Preston-Maher; Ryo Torii; Gaetano Burriesci
      Pages: 1852 - 1864
      Abstract: Abstract Mitral regurgitation is a common mitral valve dysfunction which may lead to heart failure. Because of the rapid aging of the population, conventional surgical repair and replacement of the pathological valve are often unsuitable for about half of symptomatic patients, who are judged high-risk. Transcatheter valve implantation could represent an effective solution. However, currently available aortic valve devices are inapt for the mitral position. This paper presents the design, development and hydrodynamic assessment of a novel bi-leaflet mitral valve suitable for transcatheter implantation. The device consists of two leaflets and a sealing component made from bovine pericardium, supported by a self-expanding wireframe made from superelastic NiTi alloy. A parametric design procedure based on numerical simulations was implemented to identify design parameters providing acceptable stress levels and maximum coaptation area for the leaflets. The wireframe was designed to host the leaflets and was optimised numerically to minimise the stresses for crimping in an 8 mm sheath for percutaneous delivery. Prototypes were built and their hydrodynamic performances were tested on a cardiac pulse duplicator, in compliance with the ISO5840-3:2013 standard. The numerical results and hydrodynamic tests show the feasibility of the device to be adopted as a transcatheter valve implant for treating mitral regurgitation.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1828-2
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • Waveform Integrity in Atrial Fibrillation: The Forgotten Issue of Cardiac
    • Authors: Miguel Martínez-Iniesta; Juan Ródenas; Raúl Alcaraz; José J. Rieta
      Pages: 1890 - 1907
      Abstract: Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in clinical practice with an increasing prevalence of about 15% in the elderly. Despite other alternatives, catheter ablation is currently considered as the first-line therapy for the treatment of AF. This strategy relies on cardiac electrophysiology systems, which use intracardiac electrograms (EGM) as the basis to determine the cardiac structures contributing to sustain the arrhythmia. However, the noise-free acquisition of these recordings is impossible and they are often contaminated by different perturbations. Although suppression of nuisance signals without affecting the original EGM pattern is essential for any other later analysis, not much attention has been paid to this issue, being frequently considered as trivial. The present work introduces the first thorough study on the significant fallout that regular filtering, aimed at reducing acquisition noise, provokes on EGM pattern morphology. This approach has been compared with more refined denoising strategies. Performance has been assessed both in time and frequency by well established parameters for EGM characterization. The study comprised synthesized and real EGMs with unipolar and bipolar recordings. Results reported that regular filtering altered substantially atrial waveform morphology and was unable to remove moderate amounts of noise, thus turning time and spectral characterization of the EGM notably inaccurate. Methods based on Wavelet transform provided the highest ability to preserve EGM morphology with improvements between 20 and beyond 40%, to minimize dominant atrial frequency estimation error with up to 25% reduction, as well as to reduce huge levels of noise with up to 10 dB better reduction. Consequently, these algorithms are recommended as a replacement of regular filtering to avoid significant alterations in the EGMs. This could lead to more accurate and truthful analyses of atrial activity dynamics aimed at understanding and locating the sources of AF.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1832-6
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • The Association Between Geometry and Wall Stress in Emergently Repaired
           Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
    • Authors: Sathyajeeth S. Chauhan; Carlos A. Gutierrez; Mirunalini Thirugnanasambandam; Victor De Oliveira; Satish C. Muluk; Mark K. Eskandari; Ender A. Finol
      Pages: 1908 - 1916
      Abstract: Abstract Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a prevalent cardiovascular disease characterized by the focal dilation of the aorta, which supplies blood to all the organs and tissues in the systemic circulation. With the AAA increasing in diameter over time, the risk of aneurysm rupture is generally associated with the size of the aneurysm. If diagnosed on time, intervention is recommended to prevent AAA rupture. The criterion to decide on surgical intervention is determined by measuring the maximum diameter of the aneurysm relative to the critical value of 5.5 cm. However, a more reliable approach could be based on understanding the biomechanical behavior of the aneurysmal wall. In addition, geometric features that are proven to be significant predictors of the AAA wall mechanics could be used as surrogates of the AAA biomechanical behavior and, subsequently, of the aneurysm’s risk of rupture. The aim of this work is to identify those geometric indices that have a high correlation with AAA wall stress in the population of patients who received an emergent repair of their aneurysm. In-house segmentation and meshing algorithms were used to model 75 AAAs followed by estimation of the spatially distributed wall stress by performing finite element analysis. Fifty-two shape and size geometric indices were calculated for the same models using MATLAB scripting. Hypotheses testing were carried out to identify the indices significantly correlated with wall stress by constructing a Pearson’s correlation coefficient matrix. The analyses revealed that 12 indices displayed high correlation with the wall stress, amongst which wall thickness and curvature-based indices exhibited the highest correlations. Stepwise regression analysis of these correlated indices indicated that wall stress can be predicted by the following four indices with an accuracy of 76%: maximum aneurysm diameter, aneurysm sac length, average wall thickness at the maximum diameter cross-section, and the median of the wall thickness variance. The primary outcome of this work emphasizes the use of global measures of size and wall thickness as geometric surrogates of wall stress for emergently repaired AAAs.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1837-1
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • An MRI-Guided Telesurgery System Using a Fabry-Perot Interferometry Force
           Sensor and a Pneumatic Haptic Device
    • Authors: Hao Su; Weijian Shang; Gang Li; Niravkumar Patel; Gregory S. Fischer
      Pages: 1917 - 1928
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a surgical master-slave teleoperation system for percutaneous interventional procedures under continuous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. The slave robot consists of a piezoelectrically actuated 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) robot for needle placement with an integrated fiber optic force sensor (1-DOF axial force measurement) using the Fabry-Perot interferometry (FPI) sensing principle; it is configured to operate inside the bore of the MRI scanner during imaging. By leveraging the advantages of pneumatic and piezoelectric actuation in force and position control respectively, we have designed a pneumatically actuated master robot (haptic device) with strain gauge based force sensing that is configured to operate the slave from within the scanner room during imaging. The slave robot follows the insertion motion of the haptic device while the haptic device displays the needle insertion force as measured by the FPI sensor. Image interference evaluation demonstrates that the telesurgery system presents a signal to noise ratio reduction of less than 17% and less than 1% geometric distortion during simultaneous robot motion and imaging. Teleoperated needle insertion and rotation experiments were performed to reach 10 targets in a soft tissue-mimicking phantom with 0.70 ± 0.35 mm Cartesian space error.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1839-z
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • Can Recovery Foot Placement Affect Older Adults’ Slip-Fall
    • Authors: Shuaijie Wang; Xuan Liu; Anna Lee; Yi-Chung Pai
      Pages: 1941 - 1948
      Abstract: Abstract Following a slip occurred in the overground walking, a fall can be classified into two exclusive categories: feet-forward fall or split fall. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether the placement of the recovery foot would determine the slip types, the likelihood of fall, and the severity associated with each fall. The fall severity was estimated based on the impact velocity of body segments or trunk orientation upon fall arrest. One hundred ninety-five participants experienced a novel, unannounced slip while walking on a 7-m walkway. Kinematics of a full-body marker set was collected by a motion capture system which was synchronized with the force plates and loadcell. The results showed that the recovery foot landing position relative to the projected center of mass position at the recovery foot touchdown determined the slip type by 90.8%. Feet-forward slips led to significantly lower rate of falls than did split slips (47.6 vs. 67.8%, p < 0.01). Yet, feet-forward falls were much more dangerous because they were associated with significantly greater estimated maximum hip impact velocity (p < 0.001) and trunk backward leaning angle (p < 0.001) in comparison to split falls.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1834-4
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • Age has a Minimal Effect on the Impact Performance of Field-Used Bicycle
    • Authors: Alyssa L. DeMarco; Craig A. Good; Dennis D. Chimich; Jeff A. Bakal; Gunter P. Siegmund
      Pages: 1974 - 1984
      Abstract: Abstract Helmet manufacturers recommend replacing a bicycle helmet after an impact or after anywhere from 2 to 10 years of use. The goal of this study was to quantify the effect of helmet age on peak headform acceleration during impact attenuation testing of field-used bicycle helmets. Helmets were acquired by donation from consumers and retail stores, and were included in the study if they were free of impact-related damage, had a legible manufacture date label, and were certified to at least one helmet standard. Helmets (n = 770) spanning 0–26 years old were drop tested to measure peak linear headform acceleration during impacts to the right and left front regions of the helmets at two impact speeds (3.0 and 6.2 m/s). General linear mixed models were used to assess the effect of age and three covariates (helmet style, size and certification impact speed) on peak acceleration. Overall, age was related to either no difference or a statistically significant but small increase (≤0.76 g/year of helmet age) in peak headform acceleration. Extrapolated across 20 years, age-related differences were less than both style- (traditional vs. BMX) and size-related differences. The age-related differences were also less than the variability observed between different helmets after accounting for style, size and certification effects. These findings mean that bicycle helmets (up to 26-year-old traditional helmets and 13-year-old BMX helmets) do not lose their ability to attenuate impacts with age; however, other helmet features that may change with age were not evaluated in this study.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1842-4
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • Individual Impact Magnitude vs. Cumulative Magnitude for Estimating
           Concussion Odds
    • Authors: Kathryn L. O’Connor; Thomas Peeters; Stefan Szymanski; Steven P. Broglio
      Pages: 1985 - 1992
      Abstract: Abstract Helmeted impact devices have allowed researchers to investigate the biomechanics of head impacts in vivo. While increased impact magnitude has been associated with greater concussion risk, a definitive concussive threshold has not been established. It is likely that concussion risk is not determined by a single impact itself, but a host of predisposing factors. These factors may include genetics, fatigue, and/or prior head impact exposure. The objective of the current paper is to investigate the association between cumulative head impact magnitude and concussion risk. It is hypothesized that increased cumulative magnitudes will be associated with greater concussion risk. This retrospective analysis included participants that were recruited from regional high-schools in Illinois and Michigan from 2007 to 2014 as part of an ongoing study on concussion biomechanics. Across seven seasons, 185 high school football athletes were instrumented with the Head Impact Telemetry system. Out of 185 athletes, 31 (17%) sustained a concussion, with two athletes sustaining two concussions over the study period, yielding 33 concussive events. The system recorded 78,204 impacts for all concussed players. Linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, and head impact telemetry severity profile (HITsp) magnitudes were summed within five timeframes: the day of injury, three days prior to injury, seven days prior to injury, 30 days prior to injury, and prior in-season exposure. Logistic regressions were modeled to explain concussive events based on the singular linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, and HITsp event along with the calculated summations over time. Linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, and HITsp all produced significant models estimating concussion (p < 0.05). The strongest estimators of a concussive impact were the linear acceleration (OR = 1.040, p < 0.05), rotational acceleration (OR = 1.001, p < 0.05), and HITsp (OR = 1.003, p < 0.05) for the singular impact rather than any of the cumulative magnitude calculations. Moreover, no cumulative count measure was significant for linear or rotational acceleration. Results from this investigation support the growing literature indicating cumulative magnitude is not related to concussion likelihood. Cumulative magnitude is a simplistic measure of the total exposure sustained by a player over a given period. However, this measure is limited as it assumes the brain is a static structure unable to undergo self-repair. Future research should consider how biological recovery between impacts may influence concussion risk.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1843-3
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • A Finite Element Model of the Foot/Ankle to Evaluate Injury Risk in
           Various Postures
    • Authors: Chris Smolen; Cheryl E. Quenneville
      Pages: 1993 - 2008
      Abstract: Abstract The foot/ankle complex is frequently injured in many types of debilitating events, such as car crashes. Numerical models used to assess injury risk are typically minimally validated and do not account for ankle posture variations that frequently occur during these events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a finite element model of the foot and ankle accounting for these positional changes. A model was constructed from computed tomography scans of a male cadaveric lower leg and was evaluated by comparing simulated bone positions and strain responses to experimental results at five postures in which fractures are commonly reported. The bone positions showed agreement typically within 6° or less in all anatomical directions, and strain matching was consistent with the range of errors observed in similar studies (typically within 50% of the average strains). Fracture thresholds and locations in each posture were also estimated to be similar to those reported in the literature (ranging from 6.3 kN in the neutral posture to 3.9 kN in combined eversion and external rotation). The least vulnerable posture was neutral, and all other postures had lower fracture thresholds, indicating that examination of the fracture threshold of the lower limb in the neutral posture alone may be an underestimation. This work presents an important step forward in the modeling of lower limb injury risk in altered ankle postures. Potential clinical applications of the model include the development of postural guidelines to minimize injury, as well as the evaluation of new protective systems.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1844-2
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • Neck Muscle Moment Arms Obtained In-Vivo from MRI: Effect of Curved and
           Straight Modeled Paths
    • Authors: Bethany L. Suderman; Anita N. Vasavada
      Pages: 2009 - 2024
      Abstract: Abstract Musculoskeletal models of the cervical spine commonly represent neck muscles with straight paths. However, straight lines do not best represent the natural curvature of muscle paths in the neck, because the paths are constrained by bone and soft tissue. The purpose of this study was to estimate moment arms of curved and straight neck muscle paths using different moment arm calculation methods: tendon excursion, geometric, and effective torque. Curved and straight muscle paths were defined for two subject-specific cervical spine models derived from in vivo magnetic resonance images (MRI). Modeling neck muscle paths with curvature provides significantly different moment arm estimates than straight paths for 10 of 15 neck muscles (p < 0.05, repeated measures two-way ANOVA). Moment arm estimates were also found to be significantly different among moment arm calculation methods for 11 of 15 neck muscles (p < 0.05, repeated measures two-way ANOVA). In particular, using straight lines to model muscle paths can lead to overestimating neck extension moment. However, moment arm methods for curved paths should be investigated further, as different methods of calculating moment arm can provide different estimates.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1830-8
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • Laser Sintered Porous Ti–6Al–4V Implants Stimulate Vertical
           Bone Growth
    • Authors: Alice Cheng; David J. Cohen; Adrian Kahn; Ryan M. Clohessy; Kaan Sahingur; Joseph B. Newton; Sharon L. Hyzy; Barbara D. Boyan; Zvi Schwartz
      Pages: 2025 - 2035
      Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the ability of 3D implants with trabecular-bone-inspired porosity and micro-/nano-rough surfaces to enhance vertical bone ingrowth. Porous Ti–6Al–4V constructs were fabricated via laser-sintering and processed to obtain micro-/nano-rough surfaces. Male and female human osteoblasts were seeded on constructs to analyze cell morphology and response. Implants were then placed on rat calvaria for 10 weeks to assess vertical bone ingrowth, mechanical stability and osseointegration. All osteoblasts showed higher levels of osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin, vascular endothelial growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 2 on porous constructs compared to solid laser-sintered controls. Porous implants placed in vivo resulted in an average of 3.1 ± 0.6 mm3 vertical bone growth and osseointegration within implant pores and had significantly higher pull-out strength values than solid implants. New bone formation and pull-out strength was not improved with the addition of demineralized bone matrix putty. Scanning electron images and histological results corroborated vertical bone growth. This study indicates that Ti–6Al–4V implants fabricated by additive manufacturing to have porosity based on trabecular bone and post-build processing to have micro-/nano-surface roughness can support vertical bone growth in vivo, and suggests that these implants may be used clinically to increase osseointegration in challenging patient cases.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1831-7
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • Influence of Inherent Mechanophenotype on Competitive Cellular Adherence
    • Authors: Manisha K. Shah; Iris H. Garcia-Pak; Eric M. Darling
      Pages: 2036 - 2047
      Abstract: Abstract Understanding the role of mechanophenotype in competitive adherence of cells to other cells versus underlying substrates can inform such processes as tissue development, cancer progression, and wound healing. This study investigated how mechanophenotype, defined by whole-cell, elastic/viscoelastic properties for the perinuclear region, and cellular assembly are intertwined through the mechanosensing process. Atomic force microscopy was used to characterize the temporal elastic/viscoelastic properties of individual and assembled fibroblasts grown on substrates with elastic moduli above, below, or similar to whole-cell mechanophenotypes measured for three, genetically modified cell lines. All cells were at their most compliant immediately after plating but transitioned to distinct, stiffer mechanophenotypes by Day 1 after acclimation. This mechanical state, and cellular assembly/morphology, did not change significantly over the following three days of testing, regardless of substrate compliance or cellular organization (multi-cell nodules/plaques or single cells). Interestingly, cells formed 3D nodules when attached to substrates with elastic moduli less than their own but spread readily on substrates with moduli equal to or greater than their own, suggesting a preference to adhere to the stiffest surface sensed (substrate or cell). This suggests that inherent mechanophenotype plays a role as a competing surface during microenvironment mechanosensing and subsequent cell–cell-substrate organization.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1841-5
      Issue No: Vol. 45, No. 8 (2017)
  • Image-Guided Surgical Robotic System for Percutaneous Reduction of Joint
    • Authors: Giulio Dagnino; Ioannis Georgilas; Samir Morad; Peter Gibbons; Payam Tarassoli; Roger Atkins; Sanja Dogramadzi
      Abstract: Abstract Complex joint fractures often require an open surgical procedure, which is associated with extensive soft tissue damages and longer hospitalization and rehabilitation time. Percutaneous techniques can potentially mitigate these risks but their application to joint fractures is limited by the current sub-optimal 2D intra-operative imaging (fluoroscopy) and by the high forces involved in the fragment manipulation (due to the presence of soft tissue, e.g., muscles) which might result in fracture malreduction. Integration of robotic assistance and 3D image guidance can potentially overcome these issues. The authors propose an image-guided surgical robotic system for the percutaneous treatment of knee joint fractures, i.e., the robot-assisted fracture surgery (RAFS) system. It allows simultaneous manipulation of two bone fragments, safer robot-bone fixation system, and a traction performing robotic manipulator. This system has led to a novel clinical workflow and has been tested both in laboratory and in clinically relevant cadaveric trials. The RAFS system was tested on 9 cadaver specimens and was able to reduce 7 out of 9 distal femur fractures (T- and Y-shape 33-C1) with acceptable accuracy (≈1 mm, ≈5°), demonstrating its applicability to fix knee joint fractures. This study paved the way to develop novel technologies for percutaneous treatment of complex fractures including hip, ankle, and shoulder, thus representing a step toward minimally-invasive fracture surgeries.
      PubDate: 2017-08-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1901-x
  • Part II: U.S.—Sub-Saharan Africa Educational Partnerships for
           Medical Device Design
    • Authors: Brittany Ploss; Tania S. Douglas; Matthew Glucksberg; Elsie Effah Kaufmann; Robert A. Malkin; Janet McGrath; Theresa Mkandawire; Maria Oden; Akinniyi Osuntoki; Andrew Rollins; Kathleen Sienko; Robert T. Ssekitoleko; William Reichert
      PubDate: 2017-08-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1898-1
  • A Novel Approach to Utilize Icariin as Icariin-Derived ECM on Small
           Intestinal Submucosa Scaffold for Bone Repair
    • Authors: Mei Li; Chi Zhang; Yi Zhong; Jiyuan Zhao
      Abstract: Abstract Icariin (Ic) has been demonstrated as a potent osteoinductive compound for bone tissue engineering. However, toxic side effects of the drug and poor biocompatibility of drug delivery systems (DDSs) still limit its application for bone repair in the clinic. To overcome these disadvantages and utilize the osteoinductivity of Ic, we developed a novel method to utilize Ic as an Ic-derived osteoinductive extracellular matrix (ECM) on small intestinal submucosa (SIS) (Ic-ECM-SIS). The generated Ic-ECM-SIS scaffolds, as a natural construct, exhibited much better biocompatibility (including cell adhesion, cell survival and cell proliferation) than Ic-SIS scaffolds generated by traditional DDSs. Meanwhile, osteogenic differentiation was promoted by Ic-ECM-SIS with higher expression of alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin than ECM-SIS, which was same as Ic-SIS. BMP-4 expression was further increased in the cells on Ic-ECM-SIS compared to that on Ic-SIS. A mouse calvarial defect model was introduced to evaluate the function of Ic-ECM-SIS on bone regeneration in vivo. The bone regeneration was enhanced in the defects implanted with Ic-ECM-SIS, with a higher new bone formation ratio (BV/TV) than the defects implanted with ECM-SIS or Ic-SIS. Angiogenesis was also promoted by Ic-ECM-SIS implantation when compared with ECM-SIS or Ic-SIS. Thus, this work proposes a novel method for applying a drug as a drug-derived ECM-modified scaffold for bone tissue engineering.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1900-y
  • A Wireless Pressure Sensor for Continuous Monitoring of Intraocular
           Pressure in Conscious Animals
    • Authors: Simon A. Bello; Christopher L. Passaglia
      Abstract: Abstract An important aspect of eye health in humans and animal models of human diseases is intraocular pressure (IOP). IOP is typically measured by hand with a tonometer, so data are sparse and sporadic and round-the-clock variations are not well characterized. Here we present a novel system for continuous wireless IOP and temperature measurement in small animals. The system consists of a cannula implanted in the anterior chamber of the eye connected to pressure sensing electronics that can be worn by rats or implanted in larger mammals. The system can record IOP with 0.3 mmHg accuracy and negligible drift at a rate of 0.25 Hz for 1–2 months on a regulated battery or indefinitely at rates up to 250 Hz via RF energy harvesting. Chronic recordings from conscious rats showed that IOP follows a diurnal rhythm, averaging 16.5 mmHg during the day and 21.7 mmHg at night, and that the IOP rhythm lags a diurnal rhythm in body temperature by 2.1 h. IOP and body temperature fluctuations were positively correlated from moment-to-moment as well. This technology allows researchers to monitor for the first time the precise IOP history of rat eyes, a popular model for glaucoma studies.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1896-3
  • Proteomic Alterations Associated with Biomechanical Dysfunction are Early
           Processes in the Emilin1 Deficient Mouse Model of Aortic Valve Disease
    • Authors: P. M. Angel; D. A. Narmoneva; M. K. Sewell-Loftin; C. Munjal; L. Dupuis; B. J. Landis; A. Jegga; C. B. Kern; W. D. Merryman; H. S. Baldwin; G. M. Bressan; Robert B. Hinton
      Abstract: Abstract Aortic valve (AV) disease involves stiffening of the AV cusp with progression characterized by inflammation, fibrosis, and calcification. Here, we examine the relationship between biomechanical valve function and proteomic changes before and after the development of AV pathology in the Emilin1−/− mouse model of latent AV disease. Biomechanical studies were performed to quantify tissue stiffness at the macro (micropipette) and micro (atomic force microscopy (AFM)) levels. Micropipette studies showed that the Emilin1−/− AV annulus and cusp regions demonstrated increased stiffness only after the onset of AV disease. AFM studies showed that the Emilin1−/− cusp stiffens before the onset of AV disease and worsens with the onset of disease. Proteomes from AV cusps were investigated to identify protein functions, pathways, and interaction network alterations that occur with age- and genotype-related valve stiffening. Protein alterations due to Emilin1 deficiency, including changes in pathways and functions, preceded biomechanical aberrations, resulting in marked depletion of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins interacting with TGFB1, including latent transforming growth factor beta 3 (LTBP3), fibulin 5 (FBLN5), and cartilage intermediate layer protein 1 (CILP1). This study identifies proteomic dysregulation is associated with biomechanical dysfunction as early pathogenic processes in the Emilin1−/− model of AV disease.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1899-0
  • Detergent-Based Decellularization of Bovine Carotid Arteries for Vascular
           Tissue Engineering
    • Authors: Aila Daugs; Beate Hutzler; Martina Meinke; Christoph Schmitz; Nadine Lehmann; Annina Markhoff; Oliver Bloch
      Abstract: Abstract Vascular diseases are an increasing health issue, and common alloplastic, allogenic or autologous vascular grafts show frequent complications. The aim of this study is to develop an acellular, xenogenic bypass-graft from a bovine carotid artery (BAC) using detergent-based protocols. We compared decellularization with sodium desoxycholate (DOA), 3-[(3-Cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (Chaps), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and Triton X100 and improved suitable methods by variation of concentration, buffer system, incubation time, temperature, rinsing, and flow rate. All processes were evaluated systematically based on cellular residues, biocompatibility, structural and mechanical integrity. Decellularization with SDS and Triton X100 was not sufficient for the removal of cellular components. We optimized protocols using 1% DOA and Chaps by a buffered system at 37 °C with extended decellularization and rinsing. Decellularization with DOA depleted DNA to 0.5 ± 0.1% and soluble proteins to 0.6 ± 0.2%. Using Chaps, DNA was reduced to 0.2 ± 0.2% and proteins to 0.6 ± 0.3%. The improved protocols eliminated RNA completely from the matrix, and no cytotoxic effects were detected. Mechanical and structural integrity of decellularized tissues was comparable to non-decellularized controls. Our method effectively removed cellular components from the extracellular matrix while preserving the structural and mechanical integrity of the tissue. Decellularized BACs could be a promising alternative for vascular replacement therapy.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1892-7
  • Interpreting Musculoskeletal Models and Dynamic Simulations: Causes and
           Effects of Differences Between Models
    • Authors: Sarah A. Roelker; Elena J. Caruthers; Rachel K. Baker; Nicholas C. Pelz; Ajit M. W. Chaudhari; Robert A. Siston
      Abstract: Abstract With more than 29,000 OpenSim users, several musculoskeletal models with varying levels of complexity are available to study human gait. However, how different model parameters affect estimated joint and muscle function between models is not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of four OpenSim models (Gait2392, Lower Limb Model 2010, Full-Body OpenSim Model, and Full Body Model 2016) on gait mechanics and estimates of muscle forces and activations. Using OpenSim 3.1 and the same experimental data for all models, six young adults were scaled in each model, gait kinematics were reproduced, and static optimization estimated muscle function. Simulated measures differed between models by up to 6.5° knee range of motion, 0.012 Nm/Nm peak knee flexion moment, 0.49 peak rectus femoris activation, and 462 N peak rectus femoris force. Differences in coordinate system definitions between models altered joint kinematics, influencing joint moments. Muscle parameter and joint moment discrepancies altered muscle activations and forces. Additional model complexity yielded greater error between experimental and simulated measures; therefore, this study suggests Gait2392 is a sufficient model for studying walking in healthy young adults. Future research is needed to determine which model(s) is best for tasks with more complex motion.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1894-5
  • Effect of Chestbands on the Global and Local Response of the Human Thorax
           to Frontal Impact
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of chestbands on both global and local thoracic response. A total of twenty-two frontal impacts were imposed on two post-mortem human surrogates, using a 23 kg pneumatic impactor. Impacts were at speeds of 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m/s, and there were either 0, 1, or 2 chestbands on the subject. The baseline configuration of 0.8 m/s with zero chestbands was tested initially, then was repeated intermittently throughout testing. For each impact speed, the difference between response with and without chestbands was calculated. Results showed average changes of +0.79 mm in chest deflection, −0.42 N/mm in thoracic stiffness, and −96 µS in rib strain when chestbands were used, none of which were statistically significant (t test, p = 0.35, p = 0.42 and, p = 0.42, respectively). The results provide support for the commonly employed assumption that chestbands do not alter the response of the thorax in frontal impact.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-017-1895-4
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