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BIOLOGY (1497 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 294)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.042
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 18  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-9686 - ISSN (Online) 0090-6964
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • The Development of a Four-Electrode Bio-Impedance Sensor for
           Identification and Localization of Deep Pulmonary Nodules
    • Authors: Rasool Baghbani; Mohammad Hassan Moradi; Mohammad Behgam Shadmehr
      Pages: 1079 - 1090
      Abstract: Identifying and localizing of deep pulmonary nodules are among the main challenges that thoracic surgeons face during operations, particularly in thoracoscopic procedures. To facilitate this, we have tried to introduce a non-invasive and safe method by measuring the lung electrical bio-impedance spectrum with a four-electrode array sensor. To study the feasibility of this method, since any change in the depth or diameter of the nodule in the lung tissue is not practical, we used the finite element modeling of the lung tissue and pulmonary nodule to allow changes in the depth and diameter of the nodule, as well as the distance in between the injection electrodes. Accordingly, a bio-impedance sensor was designed and fabricated. By measuring the electrical impedance spectrum of pulmonary tissues in four different specimens with a frequency band of 50 kHz to 5 MHz, 4 pulmonary nodules at four different depths were identified. The obtained bio-impedance spectrum from the lung surface showed that the magnitude and phase of electrical bio-impedance of the tumoral tissue at each frequency is smaller than that of the healthy tissue. In addition, the frequency characteristic varies in the Nyquist curves for tumoral and healthy lung tissues.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2032-8
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 8 (2018)
  • Tissue Identification in a Porcine Model by Differential Ion Mobility
           Spectrometry Analysis of Surgical Smoke
    • Authors: Anton Kontunen; Markus Karjalainen; Jukka Lekkala; Antti Roine; Niku Oksala
      Pages: 1091 - 1100
      Abstract: Electrosurgery is widely used in various surgical operations. When tissue is cut with high-frequency current, the cell contents at the incision area evaporate and together with water and possible soot particles, form surgical smoke. The smoke contains cell metabolites, and therefore, possible biomarkers for cancer or bacterial infection. Thus, the analysis of surgical smoke could be used in intraoperative medical diagnostics. We present a method that can be used to detect the characteristics of various tissue types by means of differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) analysis of surgical smoke. We used our method to test tissue identification with ten different porcine tissues. We classified the DMS responses with cross-validated linear discriminant analysis models. The classification accuracy in a measurement set with ten tissue types was 95%. The presented tissue identification by DMS analysis of surgical smoke is a proof-of-concept, which opens the possibility to research the method in diagnosing human tissues and diseases in the future.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2035-5
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 8 (2018)
  • The Effect of Heated CO 2 Insufflation in Minimising Surgical Wound
           Contamination During Open Surgery
    • Authors: Monika Baumann; John E. Cater
      Pages: 1101 - 1111
      Abstract: The primary source of infections in open surgeries has been found to be bacteria and viruses carried into the surgical wound on the surfaces of skin particles shed by patients and surgical staff. In open cardiac surgeries, insufflation of the wound with carbon dioxide is used to limit the quantity of air able to enter into the heart, avoiding air embolisms when the heart is restarted. This surgical technique has been evaluated as a method of limiting the number of skin particles able to enter into the wound, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and experimental testing. Spherical particles of 5.0 and 13.5 μm in diameter were used to simulate skin particles falling above a wound, travelling in air ventilation velocities of either 0.2 or 0.4 m/s, and with or without CO2 insufflation. The CFD simulations with CO2 included a diffuser placed in the wound and supplied with CO2 at a rate of 10 L/min. Experimental testing was completed under similar conditions. The results of CFD simulations and experimental testing showed CO2 insufflation can significantly limit the number of particles able to enter into the wound.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2034-6
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 8 (2018)
  • Finite Element Analysis of Tricuspid Valve Deformation from Multi-slice
           Computed Tomography Images
    • Authors: Fanwei Kong; Thuy Pham; Caitlin Martin; Raymond McKay; Charles Primiano; Sabet Hashim; Susheel Kodali; Wei Sun
      Pages: 1112 - 1127
      Abstract: Despite the growing clinical interest in the tricuspid valve (TV), there is an incomplete understanding of TV biomechanics which is important in normal TV function and successful TV repair techniques. Computational models with patient-specific human TV geometries can provide a quantitative understanding of TV biomechanic. Therefore, this study aimed to develop finite element (FE) models of human TVs from multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) images to investigate chordal forces and leaflet stresses and strains. Three FE models were constructed for human subjects with healthy TVs from MSCT images and incorporated detailed leaflet geometries, realistic nonlinear anisotropic hyperelastic material properties of human TV, and physiological boundary conditions tracked from MSCT images. TV closure from diastole to systole was simulated. Chordal lengths were iteratively adjusted until the simulated TV geometries were in good agreement with the “true” geometries reconstructed from MSCT images at systole. Larger chordal forces were found on the strut (or basal) chords than on the rough zone chords and the total forces applied on the anterior papillary muscles by the strut chords were higher than those on the posterior or septal papillary muscles. At peak systolic pressure, the average maximum stress on the middle sections of the leaflets ranged from 30 to 90 kPa, while the average maximum principal strain values ranged from 0.16 to 0.30. The results from healthy TVs can serve as baseline biomechanical metrics of TV mechanics and may be used to inform TV repair device design. The computational approach developed could be one step towards developing computational models that may support pre-operative planning in complex TV repair procedures in the future.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2024-8
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 8 (2018)
  • The Role of Circle of Willis Anatomy Variations in Cardio-embolic Stroke:
           A Patient-Specific Simulation Based Study
    • Authors: Debanjan Mukherjee; Neel D. Jani; Jared Narvid; Shawn C. Shadden
      Pages: 1128 - 1145
      Abstract: We describe a patient-specific simulation based investigation on the role of Circle of Willis anatomy in cardioembolic stroke. Our simulation framework consists of medical image-driven modeling of patient anatomy including the Circle, 3D blood flow simulation through patient vasculature, embolus transport modeling using a discrete particle dynamics technique, and a sampling based approach to incorporate parametric variations. A total of 24 (four patients and six Circle anatomies including the complete Circle) models were considered, with cardiogenic emboli of varying sizes and compositions released virtually and tracked to compute distribution to the brain. The results establish that Circle anatomical variations significantly influence embolus distribution to the six major cerebral arteries. Embolus distribution to MCA territory is found to be least sensitive to the influence of anatomical variations. For varying Circle topologies, differences in flow through cervical vasculature are observed. This incoming flow is recruited differently across the communicating arteries of the Circle for varying anastomoses. Emboli interact with the routed flow, and can undergo significant traversal across the Circle arterial segments, depending upon their inertia and density ratio with respect to blood. This interaction drives the underlying biomechanics of embolus transport across the Circle, explaining how Circle anatomy influences embolism risk.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2027-5
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 8 (2018)
  • Cell Mimicking Microparticles Influence the Organization, Growth, and
           Mechanophenotype of Stem Cell Spheroids
    • Authors: Nicholas R. Labriola; Jessica S. Sadick; Jeffrey R. Morgan; Edith Mathiowitz; Eric M. Darling
      Pages: 1146 - 1159
      Abstract: Substrate stiffness is known to alter cell behavior and drive stem cell differentiation, though most research in this area has been restricted to traditional, two-dimensional culture systems rather than more physiologically relevant, three-dimensional (3D) platforms. In this study, we utilized polymer-based, cell mimicking microparticles (CMMPs) to deliver distinct, stable mechanical cues to human adipose derived stem cells in 3D spheroid culture to examine changes in adipogenic differentiation response and mechanophenotype. After 21 days of adipogenic induction, spheroids containing CMMPs (composite spheroids) stiffened in accordance with CMMP elasticity such that spheroids containing the stiffest, ~ 10 kPa, CMMPs were over 27% stiffer than those incorporating the most compliant, ~ 0.25 kPa CMMPs. Adipogenically induced, cell-only spheroids were over 180% larger and 50% more compliant than matched controls. Interestingly, composite spheroids cultured without chemical induction factors dissociated when presented with CMMPs stiffer than ~ 1 kPa, while adipogenic induction factors mitigated this behavior. Gene expression for PPARG and FABP4 were upregulated more than 45-fold in adipogenically induced samples compared to controls but were unaffected by CMMP elasticity, attributed to insufficient cell-CMMP contacts throughout the composite spheroid. In summary, mechanically tuned CMMPs influenced whole-spheroid mechanophenotype and stability but minimally affected differentiation response.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2028-4
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 8 (2018)
  • Novel Method for Superposing 3D Digital Models for Monitoring Orthodontic
           Tooth Movement
    • Authors: Falko Schmidt; Fatih Kilic; Neltje Emma Piro; Martin Eberhard Geiger; Bernd Georg Lapatki
      Pages: 1160 - 1172
      Abstract: Quantitative three-dimensional analysis of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is possible by superposition of digital jaw models made at different times during treatment. Conventional methods rely on surface alignment at palatal soft-tissue areas, which is applicable to the maxilla only. We introduce two novel numerical methods applicable to both maxilla and mandible. The OTM from the initial phase of multi-bracket appliance treatment of ten pairs of maxillary models were evaluated and compared with four conventional methods. The median range of deviation of OTM for three users was 13–72% smaller for the novel methods than for the conventional methods, indicating greater inter-observer agreement. Total tooth translation and rotation were significantly different (ANOVA, p < 0.01) for OTM determined by use of the two numerical and four conventional methods. Directional decomposition of OTM from the novel methods showed clinically acceptable agreement with reference results except for vertical translations (deviations of medians greater than 0.6 mm). The difference in vertical translational OTM can be explained by maxillary vertical growth during the observation period, which is additionally recorded by conventional methods. The novel approaches are, thus, particularly suitable for evaluation of pure treatment effects, because growth-related changes are ignored.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2029-3
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 8 (2018)
  • Computational Model for Hyperfibrinolytic Onset of Acute Traumatic
    • Authors: Tie Bo Wu; Sheng Wu; Matthew Buoni; Thomas Orfeo; Kathleen Brummel-Ziedins; Mitchell Cohen; Linda Petzold
      Pages: 1173 - 1182
      Abstract: The onset of acute traumatic coagulopathy in trauma patients exacerbates hemorrhaging and dramatically increases mortality. The disease is characterized by increased localized bleeding, and the mechanism for its onset is not yet known. We propose that the fibrinolytic response, specifically the release of tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA), within vessels of different sizes leads to a variable susceptibility to local coagulopathy through hyperfibrinolysis which can explain many of the clinical observations in the early stages from severely injured coagulopathic patients. We use a partial differential equation model to examine the consequences of vessel geometry and extent of injury on fibrinolysis profiles. In addition, we simulate the efficacy of tranexamic acid treatment on coagulopathy initiated through endothelial t-PA release, and are able to reproduce the time-sensitive nature of the efficacy of this treatment as observed in clinical studies.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2031-9
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 8 (2018)
  • Torso-Tank Validation of High-Resolution Electrogastrography (EGG):
           Forward Modelling, Methodology and Results
    • Authors: Stefan Calder; Greg O’Grady; Leo K. Cheng; Peng Du
      Pages: 1183 - 1193
      Abstract: Electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive method for measuring gastric electrical activity. Recent simulation studies have attempted to extend the current clinical utility of the EGG, in particular by providing a theoretical framework for distinguishing specific gastric slow wave dysrhythmias. In this paper we implement an experimental setup called a ‘torso-tank’ with the aim of expanding and experimentally validating these previous simulations. The torso-tank was developed using an adult male torso phantom with 190 electrodes embedded throughout the torso. The gastric slow waves were reproduced using an artificial current source capable of producing 3D electrical fields. Multiple gastric dysrhythmias were reproduced based on high-resolution mapping data from cases of human gastric dysfunction (gastric re-entry, conduction blocks and ectopic pacemakers) in addition to normal test data. Each case was recorded and compared to the previously-presented simulated results. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed to define the accuracy showing \(\sim \)  1.8% difference, \(\sim \)  0.99 correlation, and \(\sim \)  0.04 normalised RMS error between experimental and simulated findings. These results reaffirm previous findings and these methods in unison therefore present a promising morphological-based methodology for advancing the understanding and clinical applications of EGG.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2030-x
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 8 (2018)
  • Mechanical and Clinical Evaluation of a Shape Memory Alloy and
           Conventional Struts in a Flexible Scoliotic Brace
    • Authors: Wing-Yu Chan; Joanne Yip; Kit-Lun Yick; Sun-Pui Ng; Lu Lu; Kenneth Man-Chee Cheung; Kenny Yat-Hong Kwan; Jason Pui-Yin Cheung; Kelvin Wai-Kwok Yeung; Chi-Yung Tse
      Pages: 1194 - 1205
      Abstract: Smart materials have attracted considerable attention in the medical field. In particular, shape memory alloys (SMAs) are most commonly utilized for their superelasticity (SE) in orthopaedic treatment. In this study, the resin struts of a flexible brace for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) are replaced with different conventional materials and an SMA. The corrective mechanism mainly depends on the compressive force applied by the brace at the desired location. Therefore, the mechanical properties of the materials used and the interface pressure are both critical factors that influence the treatment effectiveness. The results indicate that titanium is the most rigid among the five types of materials, whereas the brace with SMA struts presents the best recovery properties and the most stable interface pressure. A radiographic examination of two patients with AIS is then conducted to validate the results, which shows that the SMA struts can provide better correction of thoracic curvature. These findings suggest that SMAs can be applied in orthoses because their SE allows for continuous and controllable corrective forces.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2016-8
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 8 (2018)
  • 3D Reconstruction of Scoliotic Spines from Stereoradiography and Depth
    • Authors: Benjamin Groisser; Ron Kimmel; Guy Feldman; Nimrod Rozen; Alon Wolf
      Pages: 1206 - 1215
      Abstract: Spine shape can be reconstructed from stereoradiography, but often requires specialized infrastructure or fails to account for subject posture. In this paper a protocol is presented for stereo reconstructions that integrates surface recordings with radiography and naturally accounts for variations in patient posture. Low cost depth cameras are added to an existing radiographic system to capture patient pose. A statistical model of human body shape is learned from public datasets and registered to depth scans, providing 3D correspondence across images for stereo reconstruction of radiographic landmarks. A radiographic phantom was used to validate these methods in vitro with RMS 3D landmark reconstruction error of 2.0 mm. Surfaces were automatically and reliably registered, with SD 12 mm translation disparity and SD .5° rotation. The proposed method is suitable for 3D radiographic reconstructions and may be beneficial in compensating for involuntary patient motion.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2033-7
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 8 (2018)
  • Predictive Simulations of Neuromuscular Coordination and Joint-Contact
           Loading in Human Gait
    • Authors: Yi-Chung Lin; Jonathan P. Walter; Marcus G. Pandy
      Pages: 1216 - 1227
      Abstract: ABSTRACT We implemented direct collocation on a full-body neuromusculoskeletal model to calculate muscle forces, ground reaction forces and knee contact loading simultaneously for one cycle of human gait. A data-tracking collocation problem was solved for walking at the normal speed to establish the practicality of incorporating a 3D model of articular contact and a model of foot–ground interaction explicitly in a dynamic optimization simulation. The data-tracking solution then was used as an initial guess to solve predictive collocation problems, where novel patterns of movement were generated for walking at slow and fast speeds, independent of experimental data. The data-tracking solutions accurately reproduced joint motion, ground forces and knee contact loads measured for two total knee arthroplasty patients walking at their preferred speeds. RMS errors in joint kinematics were < 2.0° for rotations and < 0.3 cm for translations while errors in the model-computed ground-reaction and knee-contact forces were < 0.07 BW and < 0.4 BW, respectively. The predictive solutions were also consistent with joint kinematics, ground forces, knee contact loads and muscle activation patterns measured for slow and fast walking. The results demonstrate the feasibility of performing computationally-efficient, predictive, dynamic optimization simulations of movement using full-body, muscle-actuated models with realistic representations of joint function.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2026-6
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 8 (2018)
  • Correction to: Predictive Simulations of Neuromuscular Coordination and
           Joint-Contact Loading in Human Gait
    • Authors: Yi-Chung Lin; Jonathan P. Walter; Marcus G. Pandy
      Pages: 1228 - 1228
      Abstract: In the “Materials and Methods” section, the link provided at the bottom of the second paragraph should be
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2045-3
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 8 (2018)
  • Sex Differences in 2-DOF Human Ankle Stiffness in Relaxed and Contracted
    • Authors: Jessica Trevino; Hyunglae Lee
      Abstract: Ankle stiffness has been known as one of the most important components contributing to the maintenance of lower body stability during postural balance and locomotion. It has been repeatedly shown that women have lower stability and increased risk of injury when compared to men participating in similar sports activities, yet sex differences in neuromuscular control of the ankle, including the modulation of ankle stiffness, and their contribution to stability remain unknown. To identify sex differences in human ankle stiffness, this study quantified multi-dimensional ankle stiffness in 20 young, healthy men and 20 young, healthy women over a range of ankle muscle contractions, from relaxed to 20% of maximum voluntary co-contraction of ankle muscles. A wearable ankle robot and a system identification method were used to reliably quantify ankle stiffness in a 2-dimensional space spanning the sagittal plane and the frontal plane. In all muscle activation levels, significant sex differences in ankle stiffness were identified in both the sagittal and frontal planes. In the given experimental conditions, ankle stiffness in males was higher than females up to 15.1 and 8.3 Nm/rad in the sagittal plane and the frontal plane, respectively. In addition, sex differences in the spatial structure of ankle stiffness were investigated by quantifying three parameters defining the stiffness ellipse of the ankle: area, aspect ratio, and orientation. In all muscle activation levels, a significant sex difference was identified in the area of stiffness ellipse as expected from the sex difference in the sagittal and frontal planes. However, no statistical sex difference was observed in the aspect ratio and orientation, which would be due to little differences in major anatomical configurations of the ankle joint between sexes. This study, in combination with future studies investigating sex differences during dynamic tasks (e.g. postural balance and locomotion) would serve as a basis to develop a risk assessment tool and sex-specific training programs for efficient ankle injury prevention or rehabilitation.
      PubDate: 2018-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2092-9
  • Biomimetic Placenta-Fetus Model Demonstrating Maternal–Fetal
           Transmission and Fetal Neural Toxicity of Zika Virus
    • Authors: Navein Arumugasaamy; Leila E. Ettehadieh; Che-Ying Kuo; Dominic Paquin-Proulx; Shannon M. Kitchen; Marco Santoro; Jesse K. Placone; Paola P. Silveira; Renato S. Aguiar; Douglas F. Nixon; John P. Fisher; Peter C. W. Kim
      Abstract: Recent global epidemics of viral infection such as Zika virus (ZIKV) and associated birth defects from maternal–fetal viral transmission highlights the critical unmet need for experimental models that adequately recapitulates the biology of the human maternal–fetal interface and downstream fetal development. Herein, we report an in vitro biomimetic placenta-fetus model of the maternal–fetal interface and downstream fetal cells. Using a tissue engineering approach, we built a 3D model incorporating placental trophoblast and endothelial cells into an extracellular matrix environment and validated formation of the maternal–fetal interface. We utilized this model to study ZIKV exposure to the placenta and neural progenitor cells. Our results indicated ZIKV infects both trophoblast and endothelial cells, leading to a higher viral load exposed to fetal cells downstream of the barrier. Viral inhibition by chloroquine reduced the amount of virus both in the placenta and transmitted to fetal cells. A sustained downstream neural cell viability in contrast to significantly reduced viability in an acellular model indicates that the placenta sequesters ZIKV consistent with clinical observations. These findings suggest that the placenta can modulate ZIKV exposure-induced fetal damage. Moreover, such tissue models can enable rigorous assessment of potential therapeutics for maternal–fetal medicine.
      PubDate: 2018-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2090-y
  • Label-Free Assessment of Collagenase Digestion on Bovine Pericardium
           Properties by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging
    • Authors: Cai Li; Jeny Shklover; Mojtaba Parvizi; Benjamin E. Sherlock; Alba Alfonso Garcia; Anne K. Haudenschild; Leigh G. Griffiths; Laura Marcu
      Abstract: The extracellular matrix architecture of bovine pericardium (BP) has distinct biochemical and biomechanical properties that make it a useful biomaterial in the field of regenerative medicine. Collagen represents the dominant structural protein of BP and is therefore intimately associated with the properties of this biomaterial. Enzymatic degradation of collagen molecules is critical for extracellular matrix turnover, remodeling and ultimately tissue regeneration. We present a quantitative, label-free and non-destructive method for monitoring changes in biochemical and biomechanical properties of BP during tissue degradation, based on multi-spectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (ms-FLIm). Strong correlations of fluorescence intensity ratio and average fluorescence lifetime were identified with collagen content, Young’s Modulus and Ultimate tensile strength during collagenase degradation, indicating the potential of optically monitoring collagen degradation using ms-FLIm. The obtained results demonstrate the value of ms-FLIm to assess the quality of biomaterials in situ for applications in regenerative medicine.
      PubDate: 2018-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2087-6
  • A Numerical Preoperative Planning Model to Predict Arterial Deformations
           in Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair
    • Authors: Hossein Mohammadi; Simon Lessard; Eric Therasse; Rosaire Mongrain; Gilles Soulez
      Abstract: Endovascular aneurysm repair is rapidly emerging as the primary preferred method for treating abdominal aortic aneurysm. In this image-guided interventional procedure, to obtain the roadmap and decrease contrast injections, preoperative CT images are overlaid onto live fluoroscopy images using various 2D/3D image fusion techniques. However, the structural changes due to the insertion of stiff tools degrade the fusion accuracy. To correct the mismatch and quantify the intraoperative deformations, we present a patient-specific biomechanical model of the aorto-iliac structure and its surrounding tissues. The predictive capability of the model was evaluated against intraoperative data for a group of four patients. Incorporating the perivascular tissues into the model significantly improved the results and the mean distance between the real and simulated endovascular tools was 2.99 ± 1.78 mm on the ipsilateral side and 4.59 ± 3.25 mm on the contralateral side. Moreover, the distance between the deformed iliac ostia and their corresponding landmarks on intraoperative images was 2.99 ± 2.48 mm.
      PubDate: 2018-07-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2093-8
  • A Review of Arterial Phantom Fabrication Methods for Flow Measurement
           Using PIV Techniques
    • Authors: Sina G. Yazdi; P. H. Geoghegan; P. D. Docherty; Mark Jermy; Adib Khanafer
      Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. In the last three decades, fluid dynamics investigations have been an important component in the study of the cardiovascular system and CVD. A large proportion of studies have been restricted to computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling of blood flow. However, with the development of flow measurement techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV), and recent advances in additive manufacturing, experimental investigation of such flow systems has become of interest to validate CFD studies, testing vascular implants and using the data for therapeutic procedures. This article reviews the technical aspects of in-vitro arterial flow measurement with the focus on PIV. CAD modeling of geometries and rapid prototyping of molds has been reviewed. Different processes of casting rigid and compliant models for experimental analysis have been reviewed and the accuracy of construction of each method has been compared. A review of refractive index matching and blood mimicking flow circuits is also provided. Methodologies and results of the most influential experimental studies are compared to elucidate the benefits, accuracy and limitations of each method.
      PubDate: 2018-07-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2085-8
  • Drill-Specific Head Impacts in Collegiate Football Practice: Implications
           for Reducing “Friendly Fire” Exposure
    • Authors: Breton M. Asken; Zechariah S. Brooke; Taylor C. Stevens; Paul G. Silvestri; Matthew J. Graham; Michael S. Jaffee; James R. Clugston
      Abstract: This study investigated drill-specific head impact biomechanics in a Division 1 collegiate football team using the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS). A total of 32,083 impacts were recorded across 2 years of practices. Precise tracking of instrumented athletes, head impacts, and drill participation allowed quantification of hits sustained per person per minute (H/P/M) for each specific drill. We found significant H/P/M variability between 14 drills and player position, ranging from 0.02 to 0.41 H/P/M for Linemen and 0.01 to 0.15 H/P/M for Non-Linemen. Impact magnitude data are also reported for practice term (Spring, Training Camp, In-Season) and dress-type (Helmets Only, Spyders, Shells, Full Pads). Recommendations for shortening high-risk drills, based on H/P/M drill impact frequencies, suggest possible “friendly fire” reductions of 1000 impacts for Linemen and 300 impacts for Non-Linemen over their collegiate career. Over 80% of potentially avoidable head impacts were attributable to just three drills—“Team Run,” “Move the Field,” and “Team.” Recommending drill-specific modifications based on practical considerations (the drill’s impact frequency, dress-types when performing the drill, and duration) could improve acceptance from coaches and efficiently reduce head impact exposure without drastically altering overall practice structure.
      PubDate: 2018-07-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2088-5
  • Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of a Novel Detergent-Based Method
           for Decellularization of Peripheral Nerves
    • Authors: Charlot Philips; Fernando Campos; Annelies Roosens; María del Carmen Sánchez-Quevedo; Heidi Declercq; Víctor Carriel
      Abstract: Tissue engineering is an emerging strategy for the development of nerve substitutes for peripheral nerve repair. Especially decellularized peripheral nerve allografts are interesting alternatives to replace the gold standard autografts. In this study, a novel decellularization protocol was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated by histological, biochemical, ultrastructural and mechanical methods and compared to the protocol described by Sondell et al. and a modified version of the protocol described by Hudson et al. Decellularization by the method described by Sondell et al. resulted in a reduction of the cell content, but was accompanied by a loss of essential extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules such as laminin and glycosaminoglycans. This decellularization also caused disruption of the endoneurial tubes and an increased stiffness of the nerves. Decellularization by the adapted method of Hudson et al. did not alter the ECM composition of the nerves, but an efficient cell removal could not be obtained. Finally, decellularization by the method developed in our lab by Roosens et al. led to a successful removal of nuclear material, while maintaining the nerve ultrastructure and ECM composition. In addition, the resulting ECM scaffold was found to be cytocompatible, allowing attachment and proliferation of adipose-derived stem cells. These results show that our decellularization combining Triton X-100, DNase, RNase and trypsin created a promising scaffold for peripheral nerve regeneration.
      PubDate: 2018-07-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2082-y
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Heriot-Watt University
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