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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3308 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1576 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Biologica Venezuelica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 80)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 384)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.042
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 19  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-9686 - ISSN (Online) 0090-6964
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2562 journals]
  • Using Tools from Optogenetics to Create Light-Responsive Biomaterials:
           LOVTRAP-PEG Hydrogels for Dynamic Peptide Immobilization
    • Abstract: Hydrogel materials have become a versatile platform for in vitro cell culture due to their ability to simulate many aspects of native tissues. However, precise spatiotemporal presentation of peptides and other biomolecules has remained challenging. Here we report the use of light-sensing proteins (LSPs), more commonly used in optogenetics research, as light-activated reversible binding sites within synthetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels. We used LOVTRAP, a two component LSP system consisting of LOV2, a protein domain that can cycle reversibly between “light” and “dark” conformations in response to blue light, and a z-affibody, Zdark (Zdk), that binds the dark state of LOV2, to spatiotemporally control the presentation of a recombinant protein within PEG hydrogels. By immobilizing LOV2 within PEG gels, we were able to capture a recombinant fluorescent protein (used as a model biomolecule) containing a Zdk domain, and then release the Zdk fusion protein using blue light. Zdk was removed from LOV2-containing PEG gels using focused blue light, resulting in a 30% reduction of fluorescence compared to unexposed regions of the gel. Additionally, the reversible binding capability of LOVTRAP was observed in our system, enabling our LOV2 gels to capture and release Zdk at least three times. By adding a Zdk domain to a recombinant peptide or protein, dynamic, spatially constrained displays of non-diffusing ligands within a PEG gel could feasibly be achieved using LOV2.
      PubDate: 2019-11-13
  • Miniaturized Test Loop for the Assessment of Blood Damage by
           Continuous-Flow Left-Ventricular Assist Devices
    • Abstract: Although the hemocompatibility of left-ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has continuously improved, assessment of hemolysis remains mandatory in pre-clinical testing. The ASTM-F1841 has standardized this assessment since 1997. However, the recommended usage of fresh, non-pooled human blood is hardly feasible with the test loop volume specified therein, when testing the device under test versus a predicate device as required by the international standard 10993-4. In this study, we compared ASTM-conforming (ASTM) and downscaled (mini) test loops with a one-third priming volume for the assessment of blood damage at the ASTM operating point. Blood damage was assessed for HeartMate 3 and BPX-80 in 6 experiments with heparinized porcine slaughterhouse blood for 6 h. We analyzed plasma free hemoglobin (pfHb), von Willebrand factor (vWF) concentration and collagen-binding functionality and calculated indices of hemolysis and vWF-ratios. The mini test loops provided significantly higher pfHb increase and consistently stronger vWF-ratio decrease and yielded a significantly better differentiation of the pumps. Interestingly, indices of hemolysis were generally lower in the mini set-up, indicating less adverse effects by the mini loop itself. Thus, we propose our mini test loop as suitable tool for clinically relevant standardized assessment of blood damage by future LVADs with single-donation human blood.
      PubDate: 2019-11-13
  • Effects of Physical, Chemical, and Biological Stimulus on h-MSC Expansion
           and Their Functional Characteristics
    • Abstract: Human adult mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (h-MSC) therapy has gained considerable attention due to the potential to treat or cure diseases given their immunosuppressive properties and tissue regeneration capabilities. Researchers have explored diverse strategies to promote high h-MSC production without losing functional characteristics or properties. Physical stimulus including stiffness, geometry, and topography, chemical stimulus, like varying the surface chemistry, and biochemical stimuli such as cytokines, hormones, small molecules, and herbal extracts have been studied but have yet to be translated to industrial manufacturing practice. In this review, we describe the role of those stimuli on h-MSC manufacturing, and how these stimuli positively promote h-MSC properties, impacting the cell manufacturing field for cell-based therapies. In addition, we discuss other process considerations such as bioreactor design, good manufacturing practice, and the importance of the cell donor and ethics factors for manufacturing potent h-MSC.
      PubDate: 2019-11-08
  • Regenerative and Resorbable PLA/HA Hybrid Construct for Tendon/Ligament
           Tissue Engineering
    • Abstract: Tendon and ligament shows extremely limited endogenous regenerative capacity. Current treatments are based on the replacement and or augmentation of the injured tissue but the repaired tissue rarely achieve functionality equal to that of the preinjured tissue. To address this challenge, tissue engineering has emerged as a promising strategy. This study develops a regenerative and resorbable hybrid construct for tendon and ligament engineering. The construct is made up by a hollow poly-lactic acid braid with embedded microspheres carrying cells and an anti-adherent coating, with all the parts being made of biodegradable materials. This assembly intends to regenerate the tissue starting from the interior of the construct towards outside while it degrades. Fibroblasts cultured on poly lactic acid and hyaluronic acid microspheres for 6 h were injected into the hollow braid and the construct was cultured for 14 days. The cells thus transported into the lumen of the construct were able to migrate and adhere to the braid fibers naturally, leading to a homogeneous proliferation inside the braid. Moreover, no cells were found on the outer surface of the coating. Altogether, this study demonstrated that PLA/HA hybrid construct could be a promising material for tendon and ligament repair.
      PubDate: 2019-11-08
  • Biomaterials and Contraception: Promises and Pitfalls
    • Abstract: The present state of reproductive and sexual health around the world reveals disparities in contraceptive use and effectiveness. Unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection transmission rates remain high even with current prevention methods. The 20th century saw a contraceptive revolution with biomedical innovation driving the success of new contraceptive technologies with central design concepts and materials. Current modalities can be broadly categorized according to their mode of function: reversible methods such as physical/chemical barriers or hormonal delivery devices via systemic (transdermal and subcutaneous) or localized (intrauterine and intravaginal) administration, and nonreversible sterilization procedures such as tubal ligation and vasectomy. Contraceptive biomaterials are at present dominated by well-characterized elastomers such as polydimethylsiloxane and ethylene vinyl acetate due to their favorable material properties and versatility. Contraceptives alter the normal function of cellular components in the reproductive systems to impair fertility. The purpose of this review is to highlight the bioengineering design of existing methods, explore novel adaptations, and address notable shortcomings in current contraceptive technologies.
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
  • Combined Effects of Electrical Stimulation and Protein Coatings on Myotube
           Formation in a Soft Porous Scaffold
    • Abstract: Compared to two-dimensional cell cultures, three-dimensional ones potentially allow recreating natural tissue environments with higher accuracy. The three-dimensional approach is being investigated in the field of tissue engineering targeting the reconstruction of various tissues, among which skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle is an electroactive tissue which strongly relies upon interactions with the extracellular matrix for internal organization and mechanical function. Studying the optimization of myogenesis in vitro implies focusing on appropriate biomimetic stimuli, as biochemical and electrical ones. Here we present a three-dimensional polyurethane-based soft porous scaffold (porosity ~ 86%) with a Young’s modulus in wet conditions close to the one of natural skeletal muscle tissue (~ 9 kPa). To study the effect of external stimuli on muscle cells, we functionalized the scaffold with extracellular matrix components (laminin and fibronectin) and observed an increase in myoblast proliferation over three days. Furthermore, the combination between laminin coating and electrical stimulation resulted in more spread and thicker myotubes compared to non-stimulated samples and samples receiving the single (non-combined) inputs. These results pave the way to the development of mature muscle tissue within three-dimensional soft scaffolds, through the combination of biochemical and electrical stimuli.
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
  • Targeted and Controlled Drug Delivery to a Rat Model of Heart Failure
           Through a Magnetic Nanocomposite
    • Abstract: As a novel cardiac myosin activator, Omecamtive Mecarbil (OM) has shown promising results in the management of systolic heart failure in clinical examinations. However, the need for repeated administration along with dose-dependent side effects made its use elusive as a standard treatment for heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that improved cardiac function in systolic HF models would be achieved in lower doses by targeted delivery of OM to the heart. To test this hypothesis, a nanocomposite system was developed by composing chitosan and a magnetic core (Fe3O4), loaded with OM, and directed toward the rats’ heart via a 0.3 T magnet. HF-induced rats were injected with saline, OM, and OM-loaded nanocomposite (n = 8 in each group) and compared with a group of healthy animals (saline injected, n = 8). Knowing the ejection fraction (EF) of healthy (93.68 ± 1.37%) and HF (71.7 ± 1.41%) rats, injection of nanocomposites was associated with improved EF (EF = 89.6 ± 1.40%). Due to increased heart targeting of nanocomposite (2.5 folds), improved cardiac function was seen with only 4% of the OM dose required for infusion, while injecting the same dose of OM without targeting was unable to stop HF progression (EF = 55.33 ± 3.16%) during 7 days. In conclusion, heart nanocomposites targeting improves the EF by up to 18% by only using 4% of the doses traditionally used in treating the HF.
      PubDate: 2019-11-06
  • Ultrasound-Based Optimal Parameter Estimation Improves Assessment of Calf
           Muscle–Tendon Interaction During Walking
    • Abstract: We present and evaluate a new approach to estimate calf muscle–tendon parameters and calculate calf muscle–tendon function during walking. We used motion analysis, ultrasound, and EMG data of the calf muscles collected in six young and six older adults during treadmill walking as inputs to a new optimal estimation algorithm. We used estimated parameters or scaled generic parameters in an existing approach to calculate muscle fiber lengths and activations. We calculated the fit with experimental data in terms of root mean squared differences (RMSD) and coefficients of determination (R2). We also calculated the calf muscle metabolic energy cost. RMSD between measured and calculated fiber lengths and activations decreased and R2 increased when estimating parameters compared to using scaled generic parameters. Moreover, R2 between measured and calculated gastrocnemius medialis fiber length and soleus activations increased by 19 and 70%, and calf muscle metabolic energy decreased by 25% when using estimated parameters compared to using scaled generic parameters at speeds not used for estimation. This new approach estimates calf muscle–tendon parameters in good accordance with values reported in literature. The approach improves calculations of calf muscle–tendon interaction during walking and highlights the importance of individualizing calf muscle–tendon parameters.
      PubDate: 2019-11-05
  • Correction to: A Predictive Model of High Shear Thrombus Growth
    • Abstract: This erratum is to correct the heading of column 2 (titled “b”) in Table 1, which was missing proper units. The heading for that column was revised to include proper units, reading “b (× 10−6 s)”.
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
  • Reporter Scaffolds for Clinically Relevant Cell Transplantation Studies
    • Abstract: There are a number of cell therapies that are either in clinical trials or moving toward clinical trials, particularly for diseases of the retina. One of the challenges with cell therapies is tracking the status of cells over time. Genetic manipulation can facilitate this, but it can limit the clinical application of the cells. There are a host of fluorophores that have been developed to assess the status of cells, but these molecules tend to be cleared rapidly from cells. There are preclinical strategies that use degradable scaffolds, and we hypothesized that these scaffolds could be used to track the state of cells during preclinical studies. In this work, we explored whether fluorophores could be delivered from simple scaffolds fabricated under extremely harsh conditions, be active upon release, and report on the cells growing on the scaffolds over time. We encapsulated CellROX® Green Reagent, and pHrodo™ Red AM in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds, showed that they could be delivered over weeks and were still active upon release and taken up by cells. These experiments provide the foundation for using scaffolds to deliver molecules to report on cells.
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
  • Nanoparticles for Manipulation of the Developmental Wnt, Hedgehog, and
           Notch Signaling Pathways in Cancer
    • Abstract: The Wnt, Hedgehog, and Notch signaling pathways play a crucial role in early development and the maintenance of adult tissues. When dysregulated, these developmental signaling pathways can drive the formation and progression of cancer by facilitating cell survival, proliferation, and stem-like behavior. While this makes these pathways promising targets for therapeutic intervention, their pharmacological inhibition has been challenging due to the substantial complexity that exists within each pathway and the complicated crosstalk that occurs between the pathways. Recently, several small molecule inhibitors, ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules, and antagonistic antibodies have been developed that can suppress these signaling pathways in vitro, but many of them face systemic delivery challenges. Nanoparticle-based delivery vehicles can overcome these challenges to enhance the performance and anti-cancer effects of these therapeutic molecules. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which the Wnt, Hedgehog, and Notch signaling pathways contribute to cancer growth, and discusses various nanoparticle formulations that have been developed to deliver small molecules, RNAs, and antibodies to cancer cells to inhibit these signaling pathways and halt tumor progression. This review also outlines some of the challenges that these nanocarriers must overcome to achieve therapeutic efficacy and clinical translation.
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
  • A High-Precision and Miniature Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Force Sensor for
           Tissue Palpation During Minimally Invasive Surgery
    • Abstract: This paper presents a novel Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG)-based palpation force sensor to explore tissue abnormalities during minimally invasive surgery. The proposed sensor design mainly consists of a miniature force-sensitive flexure, one tightly suspended optical fiber embedded with one FBG element and associated connectors and fixations. The flexure design has been prototyped through the configuration synthesis of Sarrus mechanism by using a rigid-body replacement method to achieve an excellent axial linear force–deformation relationship and a large measurement range. The mounted fiber has been configured at the flexure’s central line with its two ends glued, and its tight suspension configuration can achieve improved resolution and sensitivity and avoid the FBG chirping failure compared to the commonly used direct FBG-pasting methods. Finite element method (FEM)-based simulation has been performed to investigate both static and dynamic performance to aid in structural design. Simulation-enabled structural optimization design has also been implemented to further improve the proposed design and the sensor’s sensitivity has been increased. The optimized sensor design has been prototyped and calibrated to demonstrate an excellent linearity with a small linearity error of 0.97% and achieve a high resolution of 2.55 mN within a relatively large measurement range of 0–5 N. Dynamic force stimulation experiments, in vitro palpation implementation on a silicone phantom embedded with simulated tumors and ex vivo indentation experiments on a porcine liver have validated the effectiveness of the presented sensor design.
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
  • Correction to: Material Mapping of QCT-Derived Scapular Models: A
           Comparison with Micro-CT Loaded Specimens Using Digital Volume Correlation
    • Abstract: The article Material Mapping of QCT-Derived Scapular Models: A Comparison with Micro-CT Loaded Specimens Using Digital Volume Correlation, written by Knowles et al, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 11 July 2019 without open access. With the author(s)’ decision to opt for Open Choice the copyright of the article changed on [August 30] to © The Author(s) 2019 and the article is forthwith distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Correction to: Mechano-Immunomodulation: Mechanoresponsive Changes in
           Macrophage Activity and Polarization
    • Abstract: This article was corrected to add a permissions credit to Fig 3 legend.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Letter to the Editor on “Augmented Reality Based Navigation for Computer
           Assisted Hip Resurfacing: A Proof of Concept Study”
    • PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Letter to the Editor on “Augmented Reality Based Navigation for Computer
           Assisted Hip Resurfacing: A Proof of Concept Study”
    • PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Restricting Lower Limb Flail is Key to Preventing Fatal Pelvic Blast
    • Abstract: Pelvic vascular injury in the casualty of an explosive insult is a principal risk factor for increased mortality. The mechanism of injury has not previously been investigated in a physical model. In this study, a small-animal model of pelvic blast injury with a shock-tube mediated blast wave was utilised and showed that lower limb flail is necessary for an unstable pelvic fracture with vascular injury to occur. One hundred and seventy-three cadaveric mice underwent shock-tube blast testing and subsequent injury analysis. Increasingly displaced pelvic fractures and an increase in the incidence of pelvic vascular injury were seen with increasing lower limb flail; the 50% risk of vascular injury was 66° of lower limb flail out from the midline (95% confidence intervals 59°–75°). Pre-blast surgical amputation at the hip or knee showed the thigh was essential to result in pelvic displacement whilst the leg was not. These findings, corroborated by clinical data, bring a paradigm shift in our understanding of the mechanism of blast injury. Restriction of lower limb flail in the human, through personal protective equipment, has the potential to mitigate the effects of pelvic blast injury.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Linking Joint Impairment and Gait Biomechanics in Patients with Juvenile
           Idiopathic Arthritis
    • Abstract: Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is a paediatric musculoskeletal disease of unknown aetiology, leading to walking alterations when the lower-limb joints are involved. Diagnosis of JIA is mostly clinical. Imaging can quantify impairments associated to inflammation and joint damage. However, treatment planning could be better supported using dynamic information, such as joint contact forces (JCFs). To this purpose, we used a musculoskeletal model to predict JCFs and investigate how JCFs varied as a result of joint impairment in eighteen children with JIA. Gait analysis data and magnetic resonance images (MRI) were used to develop patient-specific lower-limb musculoskeletal models, which were evaluated for operator-dependent variability (< 3.6°, 0.05 N kg−1 and 0.5 BW for joint angles, moments, and JCFs, respectively). Gait alterations and JCF patterns showed high between-subjects variability reflecting the pathology heterogeneity in the cohort. Higher joint impairment, assessed with MRI-based evaluation, was weakly associated to overall joint overloading. A stronger correlation was observed between impairment of one limb and overload of the contralateral limb, suggesting risky compensatory strategies being adopted, especially at the knee level. This suggests that knee overloading during gait might be a good predictor of disease progression and gait biomechanics should be used to inform treatment planning.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Experimental and Computational Investigation of the IDDSI Flow Test of
           Liquids Used in Dysphagia Management
    • Abstract: The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative (IDDSI) flow test, using a standard 10-mL syringe, is being adopted in many countries for clinical measurement of the consistency of drinks. The working hypothesis is that thickening drinks to retard flow can be advantageous for individuals who struggle to cope with thin drinks. This study assesses how the IDDSI test relates to rheology and clinical knowledge of physiological flows during swallowing. With no pre-existing analytical solution for internal flow through the syringe, a computational model was designed, incorporating rheometry data from a variety of Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids. The computational model was validated experimentally across the range of liquids but the technique showed limitations in simulating dripping and cohesiveness. Gum-based liquids which were strongly shear-thinning (0.12 < n < 0.25) showed plug-flow characteristics with 90% of the shear occurring in only 22% of the radial dimension. Shear rates were maximal at the nozzle outlet (> 60 times higher than the barrel) and reached 7400/s for the thinnest gum-based liquid. Shear rheology data alone was unable to describe the flow of these drinks. The flow conditions in the test varied according to the type and consistency of liquid, relating to the desired clinical effect.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Nonlinear Inversion of Ultrasonic Dispersion Curves for Cortical Bone
           Thickness and Elastic Velocities
    • Abstract: In this study, a nonlinear grid-search inversion has been developed to estimate the thickness and elastic velocities of long cortical bones, which are important determinants of bone strength, from axially-transmitted ultrasonic data. The inversion scheme is formulated in the dispersive frequency-phase velocity domain to recover bone properties. The method uses ultrasonic guided waves to retrieve overlying soft tissue thickness, cortical thickness, compressional, and shear-wave velocities of the cortex. The inversion strategy requires systematic examination of a large set of trial dispersion-curve solutions within a pre-defined model space to match the data with minimum cost in a least-squares sense. The theoretical dispersion curves required to solve the inverse problem are computed for bilayered bone models using a semi-analytical finite-element method. The feasibility of the proposed approach was demonstrated by the numerically simulated data for a 1 mm soft tissue-5 mm bone bilayer and ex-vivo data from a bovine femur plate with an overlying 2 mm-thick soft-tissue mimic. The bootstrap method was employed to evaluate the inversion uncertainty and stability. Our results have shown that the cortical thickness and wave speeds could be recovered with fair accuracy.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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