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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3172 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (243 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (119 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1511 journals)
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    - PHYSIOLOGY (73 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (140 journals)

BIOLOGY (1511 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 309)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biological Research     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.042
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 17  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-9686 - ISSN (Online) 0090-6964
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2349 journals]
  • A Review of Arterial Phantom Fabrication Methods for Flow Measurement
           Using PIV Techniques
    • Authors: Sina G. Yazdi; P. H. Geoghegan; P. D. Docherty; Mark Jermy; Adib Khanafer
      Pages: 1697 - 1721
      Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. In the last three decades, fluid dynamics investigations have been an important component in the study of the cardiovascular system and CVD. A large proportion of studies have been restricted to computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling of blood flow. However, with the development of flow measurement techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV), and recent advances in additive manufacturing, experimental investigation of such flow systems has become of interest to validate CFD studies, testing vascular implants and using the data for therapeutic procedures. This article reviews the technical aspects of in-vitro arterial flow measurement with the focus on PIV. CAD modeling of geometries and rapid prototyping of molds has been reviewed. Different processes of casting rigid and compliant models for experimental analysis have been reviewed and the accuracy of construction of each method has been compared. A review of refractive index matching and blood mimicking flow circuits is also provided. Methodologies and results of the most influential experimental studies are compared to elucidate the benefits, accuracy and limitations of each method.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2085-8
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 11 (2018)
       
  • Estimating Left Ventricular Elastance from Aortic Flow Waveform,
           Ventricular Ejection Fraction, and Brachial Pressure: An In Silico Study
    • Authors: Stamatia Z. Pagoulatou; Nikolaos Stergiopulos
      Pages: 1722 - 1735
      Abstract: Although left ventricular end-systolic elastance (Ees) serves as a major index of cardiac contractility, a widely-accepted noninvasive estimation of Ees does not exist. To overcome this limitation, we developed a two-step inverse method that allows for its noninvasive estimation from measurements of aortic flow and brachial pressure using a previously validated one-dimensional model of the cardiovascular system. In a first step, aortic flow is set as the model input and the output brachial pressure is compared with the “real” values. Subsequently, the basic properties of the arterial tree are tuned according to an optimization algorithm. In a second step, the same optimization method is used to estimate the elastance parameters that produce an aortic flow waveform that matches the “real” one. Additional knowledge of the ejection fraction can allow for the accurate estimation of the entire P–V loop, including end-diastolic elastance. The method was tested on a database of 50 different in silico hemodynamic cases generated after varying cardiac and arterial model parameters. Implementation of the method yielded good agreement (r = 0.99) and accuracy (n-RMSE = 4%) between “real” and estimated values of Ees. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis revealed that errors due to poor arterial adjustment and measurements are small (≤ 8% for Ees).
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2072-0
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 11 (2018)
       
  • Quantitative Comparison of Korotkoff Sound Waveform Characteristics:
           Effects of Static Cuff Pressures and Stethoscope Positions
    • Authors: Fan Pan; Fei Chen; Chen Liu; Zhipeng Yang; Zhihong Liu; Dingchang Zheng
      Pages: 1736 - 1744
      Abstract: The underlying principles of Korotkoff sound (KorS) during blood pressure measurement and its waveform characteristic changes with cuff pressure and stethoscope position have not been fully understood. This study aimed to quantify the effects of cuff pressure and stethoscope position on the measured KorS waveform characteristics. Thirty healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Four stethoscopes were placed on the circumferential direction around the arm (m1, m2, m3 and m4; m1 was above the artery, and equal distance between each other), and then sequentially at three different longitudinal positions (‘upper’, ‘middle’ and ‘low’ part under the cuff). At each longitudinal position, three levels of static cuff pressure (high: SBP + 10 mmHg, low: DBP-10 mmHg, and medium: DBP + (SBP-DBP)/3) were applied during the recording of KorS waveform. The averaged KorS waveform was firstly computed by using an interpolation method, separately for measurements from different stethoscope locations and cuff pressures. Two quantitative indices were derived to characterize the recorded KorS waveform: intensity amplitude and high-level duration of KorS waveform. Post-hoc pairwise comparisons after analysis of variance were used to compare the waveform characteristic differences between different stethoscope locations and between cuff pressures. Variance analysis demonstrated that the effects of stethoscope circumferential and longitudinal positions and cuff pressure on the two KorS waveform indices were significant (all p < 0.001). In detail, KorS waveform recorded at cuff pressure PMEDIUM had larger intensity amplitude and shorter high-level duration than those recorded at cuff pressure PHIGH or PLOW. In most conditions, the stethoscope above the artery (m1) produced the largest RMS intensity amplitude and shortest high-level duration, while the stethoscope at the opposite location of m1 generated the smallest RMS intensity amplitude and longest high-level duration. In terms of the effect of longitudinal position, the stethoscopes below the middle of the cuff always produced KorS recordings with larger intensity amplitude and shorter high-level duration. This study has quantified and provided scientific evidence that cuff pressure, stethoscope longitudinal and circumferential positions are important factors influencing KorS waveform characteristics.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2080-0
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 11 (2018)
       
  • In-Vitro Detection of Small Isolated Cartilage Defects: Intravascular
           Ultrasound Vs. Optical Coherence Tomography
    • Authors: T. Horeman; E. C. Buiter; B. Pouran; M. Stijntjes; J. Dankelman; G. J. M. Tuijthof
      Pages: 1745 - 1755
      Abstract: This experimental work focused on the sensor selection for the development of a needle-like instrument to treat small isolated cartilage defects with hydrogels. The aim was to identify the most accurate and sensitive imaging method to determine the location and size of defects compared to a gold standard (µCT). Only intravascular ultrasound imaging (IVUS) vs. optical coherent tomography (OCT) were looked at, as they fulfilled the criteria for integration in the needle design. An in-vitro study was conducted on six human cadaveric tali that were dissected and submerged in saline. To simulate the natural appearance of cartilage defects, three types of defects were created via a standardised protocol: osteochondral defects (OCD), chondral defects (CD) and cartilage surface fibrillation (CSF), all sized between 0.1 and 3 mm in diameter. The detection rate by two observers for all diameters of OCD were 80, 92 and 100% with IVUS, OCT and µCT, for CD these were 60, 83 and 97%, and for CSF 0, 29 and 24%. Both IVUS and OCT can detect the presence of OCD and CD accurately if they are larger than 2 mm in diameter, and OCT can detect fibrillated cartilage defects larger than 3 mm in diameter. A significant difference between OCT–µCT and IVUS–µCT was found for the diameter error (p = 0.004) and insertion depth error (p = 0.002), indicating that OCT gives values closer to reference µCT. The OCT imaging technique is more sensitive to various types and sizes of defects and has a smaller diameter, and is therefore preferred for the intended application.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2073-z
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 11 (2018)
       
  • Method for Segmentation of Knee Articular Cartilages Based on
           Contrast-Enhanced CT Images
    • Authors: Katariina A. H. Myller; Juuso T. J. Honkanen; Jukka S. Jurvelin; Simo Saarakkala; Juha Töyräs; Sami P. Väänänen
      Pages: 1756 - 1767
      Abstract: Segmentation of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) images enables quantitative evaluation of morphology of articular cartilage as well as the significance of the lesions. Unfortunately, automatic segmentation methods for CECT images are currently lacking. Here, we introduce a semiautomated technique to segment articular cartilage from in vivo CECT images of human knee. The segmented cartilage geometries of nine knee joints, imaged using a clinical CT-scanner with an intra-articular contrast agent, were compared with manual segmentations from CT and magnetic resonance (MR) images. The Dice similarity coefficients (DSCs) between semiautomatic and manual CT segmentations were 0.79–0.83 and sensitivity and specificity values were also high (0.76–0.86). When comparing semiautomatic and manual CT segmentations, mean cartilage thicknesses agreed well (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.85–0.93); the difference in thickness (mean ± SD) was 0.27 ± 0.03 mm. Differences in DSC, when MR segmentations were compared with manual and semiautomated CT segmentations, were statistically insignificant. Similarly, differences in volume were not statistically significant between manual and semiautomatic CT segmentations. Semiautomation decreased the segmentation time from 450 ± 190 to 42 ± 10 min per joint. The results reveal that the proposed technique is fast and reliable for segmentation of cartilage. Importantly, this is the first study presenting semiautomated segmentation of cartilage from CECT images of human knee joint with minimal user interaction.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2081-z
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 11 (2018)
       
  • A Hydrogel Meniscal Replacement: Knee Joint Pressure and Distribution in
           an Ovine Model Compared to Native Tissue
    • Authors: Kristine M. Fischenich; Hannah M. Pauly; Jackson T. Lewis; Travis S. Bailey; Tammy L. Haut Donahue
      Pages: 1785 - 1796
      Abstract: Pressure distribution of the native ovine knee meniscus was compared to a medial meniscectomy and three treatment conditions including a suture reattachment of the native tissue, an allograft, and a novel thermoplastic elastomer hydrogel (TPE) construct. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a novel TPE hydrogel construct at restoring joint pressure and distribution. Limbs were loaded in uniaxial compression at 45°, 60°, and 75° flexion and from 0 to 181 kg. The medial meniscectomy decreased contact area by approximately 50% and doubled the mean and maximum pressure reading for the medial hemijoint. No treatment condition tested within this study was able to fully restore medial joint contact area and pressures to the native condition. A decrease in lateral contact area and increase in pressures with the meniscectomy was also seen; and to some degree, all reattachment and replacement conditions including the novel TPE hydrogel replacement helped to restore lateral pressures. Although the TPE construct did not perform as well as hoped in the medial compartment, it performed as well as, if not better, than the other reattachment and replacement options in the lateral. Further work is necessary to determine the best anchoring and attachment methods.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2069-8
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 11 (2018)
       
  • Short-Term Contact Kinematic Changes and Longer-Term Biochemical Changes
           in the Cartilage After ACL Reconstruction: A Pilot Study
    • Authors: Guoan Li; Jing-Sheng Li; Martin Torriani; Ali Hosseini
      Pages: 1797 - 1805
      Abstract: Investigation of the development of cartilage degeneration after ACL reconstruction is important for improving current surgical treatment of ACL injuries to prevent long-term knee joint degeneration. This pilot study examined the relationship between the changes in weight-bearing knee contact kinematics 6 months after ACL reconstruction and the biochemical composition changes in the knee cartilage measured using T2 relaxation values 3 years after the surgery in seven patients. The analysis indicated that the change of the knee contact kinematics in short-term after ACL reconstruction is associated with an increase of T2 values of the cartilage in longer follow up times. The data of this study could provide preliminary data to power future studies that use prospective, longitudinal research and large patient populations to establish prognostic biomechanical markers for determination of long-term cartilage degeneration after ACL reconstruction.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2079-6
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 11 (2018)
       
  • Construction of a Statistical Cervical Vertebrae Geometric Model for
           Children 3–10 Years Old
    • Authors: Zhigang Li; Xiaoqiang Han; Cheng Ji; Xinfeng Han
      Pages: 1816 - 1829
      Abstract: Cervical spinal injuries of children in motor vehicle crashes have high morbidity and mortality rates. Cervical vertebrae change rapidly in both size and shape during growth. To accurately assess the risk of spinal injury for children of different ages, it is necessary to understand how the spatial geometric features of vertebrae change with the child’s age and neck size. In this study, an innovative semi-automated method was developed that can extract and align geometric points from computed tomography scans to accurately represent complex three-dimensional vertebral geometry. Based on these spatial geometric points, a statistical cervical vertebrae geometry model for children aged 3–10 YO was established based on principal component analysis and multivariate regression. According to this model, the vertebra spatial geometries for children of different ages and neck circumferences were represented, and its variation with age were accounted for. Statistical results show that age has a significant effect on anterior–posterior length (APL), transverse process width (TPW), vertebral body circumference (VBC) and height (VBH), whereas the significance of location and its interaction with age effects on these four parameters are different. The VBC and VBH increase more rapidly with age than the APL and TPW. In addition, the APL of C6 and C7 increase significantly faster than that of C3. As for the shape changes with child growth, the inclination angle of the upper surface of the lateral mass for C1 and the tilt angle of the articular process of the articular facet joint for C3–7 increase; and the shape of odontoid process of C2 becomes higher and steeper. This study can provide geometric basis for developing multiple pediatric cervical finite element models and anthropomorphic test devices to further quantify child neck injury risk with different ages and neck geometries.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2071-1
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 11 (2018)
       
  • Trunk Hybrid Passive–Active Musculoskeletal Modeling to Determine the
           Detailed T12–S1 Response Under In Vivo Loads
    • Authors: P. Khoddam-Khorasani; N. Arjmand; A. Shirazi-Adl
      Pages: 1830 - 1843
      Abstract: Biomechanical models of the spine either simplify intervertebral joints (using spherical joints or deformable beams) in musculoskeletal (MS) or overlook musculature in geometrically-detailed passive finite element (FE) models. These distinct active and passive models therefore fail to determine in vivo stresses and strains within and load-sharing among the joint structures (discs, ligaments, and facets). A novel hybrid active–passive spine model is therefore developed in which estimated trunk muscle forces from a MS model for in vivo activities drive a mechanically-equivalent passive FE model to quantify in vivo T12–S1 compression/shear loads, intradiscal pressures (IDP), centers of rotation (CoR), ligament/facet forces, and annulus fiber strains. The predicted and in vivo L4–L5 IDP and L1–S1 CoRs showed satisfactory agreements. The FE model under commonly-used in vitro loading (pure moments and follower loads) predicted different kinetics from those of the hybrid model under in vivo loads (muscle exertions and gravity loads) contributing to suggest the inadequacy of such in vitro loads when simulating in vivo tasks. For an improved assessment of the injury risk, evaluation of the internal loads, and design of implants, such hybrid models should therefore be used.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2078-7
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 11 (2018)
       
  • Ultrarapid Inductive Rewarming of Vitrified Biomaterials with Thin Metal
           Forms
    • Authors: Navid Manuchehrabadi; Meng Shi; Priyatanu Roy; Zonghu Han; Jinbin Qiu; Feng Xu; Tian Jian Lu; John Bischof
      Pages: 1857 - 1869
      Abstract: Arteries with 1-mm thick walls can be successfully vitrified by loading cryoprotective agents (CPAs) such as VS55 (8.4 M) or less concentrated DP6 (6 M) and cooling at or beyond their critical cooling rates of 2.5 and 40 °C/min, respectively. Successful warming from this vitrified state, however, can be challenging. For example, convective warming by simple warm-bath immersion achieves 70 °C/min, which is faster than VS55’s critical warming rate of 55 °C/min, but remains far below that of DP6 (185 °C/min). Here we present a new method that can dramatically increase the warming rates within either a solution or tissue by inductively warming commercially available metal components placed within solutions or in proximity to tissues with non-invasive radiofrequency fields (360 kHz, 20 kA/m). Directly measured warming rates within solutions exceeded 1000 °C/min with specific absorption rates (W/g) of 100, 450 and 1000 for copper foam, aluminum foil, and nitinol mesh, respectively. As proof of principle, a carotid artery diffusively loaded with VS55 and DP6 CPA was successfully warmed with high viability using aluminum foil, while standard convection failed for the DP6 loaded tissue. Modeling suggests this approach can improve warming in tissues up to 4-mm thick where diffusive loading of CPA may be incomplete. Finally, this technology is not dependent on the size of the system and should therefore scale up where convection cannot.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2063-1
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 11 (2018)
       
  • Extracellular Matrix Expression and Production in Fibroblast-Collagen
           Gels: Towards an In Vitro Model for Ligament Wound Healing
    • Authors: Stephanie M. Frahs; Julia Thom Oxford; Erica E. Neumann; Raquel J. Brown; Cynthia R. Keller-Peck; Xinzhu Pu; Trevor J. Lujan
      Pages: 1882 - 1895
      Abstract: Ligament wound healing involves the proliferation of a dense and disorganized fibrous matrix that slowly remodels into scar tissue at the injury site. This remodeling process does not fully restore the highly aligned collagen network that exists in native tissue, and consequently repaired ligament has decreased strength and durability. In order to identify treatments that stimulate collagen alignment and strengthen ligament repair, there is a need to develop in vitro models to study fibroblast activation during ligament wound healing. The objective of this study was to measure gene expression and matrix protein accumulation in fibroblast-collagen gels that were subjected to different static stress conditions (stress-free, biaxial stress, and uniaxial stress) for three time points (1, 2 or 3 weeks). By comparing our in vitro results to prior in vivo studies, we found that stress-free gels had time-dependent changes in gene expression (col3a1, TnC) corresponding to early scar formation, and biaxial stress gels had protein levels (collagen type III, decorin) corresponding to early scar formation. This is the first study to conduct a targeted evaluation of ligament healing biomarkers in fibroblast-collagen gels, and the results suggest that biomimetic in-vitro models of early scar formation should be initially cultured under biaxial stress conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2064-0
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 11 (2018)
       
  • Effects of Level, Loading Rate, Injury and Repair on Biomechanical
           Response of Ovine Cervical Intervertebral Discs
    • Authors: Rose G. Long; Ivan Zderic; Boyko Gueorguiev; Stephen J. Ferguson; Mauro Alini; Sibylle Grad; James C. Iatridis
      Pages: 1911 - 1920
      Abstract: A need exists for pre-clinical large animal models of the spine to translate biomaterials capable of repairing intervertebral disc (IVD) defects. This study characterized the effects of cervical spinal level, loading rate, injury and repair with genipin-crosslinked fibrin (FibGen) on axial and torsional mechanics in an ovine cervical spine model. Cervical IVDs C2–C7 from nine animals were tested with cyclic tension–compression (− 240 to 100 N) and cyclic torsion (± 2° and ± 4°) tests at three rates (0.1, 1 and 2 Hz) in intact, injured and repaired conditions. Intact IVDs from upper cervical levels (C2–C4) had significantly higher torque range and torsional stiffness and significantly lower axial range of motion (ROM) and tensile compliance than IVDs from lower cervical levels (C5–C7). A tenfold increase in loading rate significantly increased torque range and torsional stiffness 4–8% (depending on amplitude) (p < 0.001). When normalized to intact, FibGen significantly restored torque range (FibGen: 0.96 ± 0.14, Injury: 0.88 ± 0.14, p = 0.03) and axial ROM (FibGen: 1.00 ± 0.05, Injury: 1.04 ± 0.15, p = 0.02) compared to Injury, with a values of 1 indicating full repair. Cervical spinal level must be considered for controlling biomechanical evaluations, and FibGen restored some torsional and axial biomechanical properties to intact levels.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2077-8
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 11 (2018)
       
  • Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of a Novel Detergent-Based Method
           for Decellularization of Peripheral Nerves
    • Authors: Charlot Philips; Fernando Campos; Annelies Roosens; María del Carmen Sánchez-Quevedo; Heidi Declercq; Víctor Carriel
      Pages: 1921 - 1937
      Abstract: Tissue engineering is an emerging strategy for the development of nerve substitutes for peripheral nerve repair. Especially decellularized peripheral nerve allografts are interesting alternatives to replace the gold standard autografts. In this study, a novel decellularization protocol was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated by histological, biochemical, ultrastructural and mechanical methods and compared to the protocol described by Sondell et al. and a modified version of the protocol described by Hudson et al. Decellularization by the method described by Sondell et al. resulted in a reduction of the cell content, but was accompanied by a loss of essential extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules such as laminin and glycosaminoglycans. This decellularization also caused disruption of the endoneurial tubes and an increased stiffness of the nerves. Decellularization by the adapted method of Hudson et al. did not alter the ECM composition of the nerves, but an efficient cell removal could not be obtained. Finally, decellularization by the method developed in our lab by Roosens et al. led to a successful removal of nuclear material, while maintaining the nerve ultrastructure and ECM composition. In addition, the resulting ECM scaffold was found to be cytocompatible, allowing attachment and proliferation of adipose-derived stem cells. These results show that our decellularization combining Triton X-100, DNase, RNase and trypsin created a promising scaffold for peripheral nerve regeneration.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2082-y
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 11 (2018)
       
  • Immuno-driven and Mechano-mediated Neotissue Formation in Tissue
           Engineered Vascular Grafts
    • Authors: J. M. Szafron; R. Khosravi; J. Reinhardt; C. A. Best; M. R. Bersi; Tai Yi; C. K. Breuer; J. D. Humphrey
      Pages: 1938 - 1950
      Abstract: In vivo development of a neovessel from an implanted biodegradable polymeric scaffold depends on a delicate balance between polymer degradation and native matrix deposition. Studies in mice suggest that this balance is dictated by immuno-driven and mechanotransduction-mediated processes, with neotissue increasingly balancing the hemodynamically induced loads as the polymer degrades. Computational models of neovessel development can help delineate relative time-dependent contributions of the immunobiological and mechanobiological processes that determine graft success or failure. In this paper, we compare computational results informed by long-term studies of neovessel development in immuno-compromised and immuno-competent mice. Simulations suggest that an early exuberant inflammatory response can limit subsequent mechano-sensing by synthetic intramural cells and thereby attenuate the desired long-term mechano-mediated production of matrix. Simulations also highlight key inflammatory differences in the two mouse models, which allow grafts in the immuno-compromised mouse to better match the biomechanical properties of the native vessel. Finally, the predicted inflammatory time courses revealed critical periods of graft remodeling. We submit that computational modeling can help uncover mechanisms of observed neovessel development and improve the design of the scaffold or its clinical use.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2086-7
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 11 (2018)
       
  • In Vivo Inspection of the Olfactory Epithelium: Feasibility of Robotized
           Optical Biopsy
    • Authors: Cédric Girerd; Thomas Lihoreau; Kanty Rabenorosoa; Brahim Tamadazte; Mourad Benassarou; Laurent Tavernier; Lionel Pazart; Emmanuel Haffen; Nicolas Andreff; Pierre Renaud
      Pages: 1951 - 1961
      Abstract: Inspecting the olfactory cleft can be of high interest, as it is an open access to neurons, and thus an opportunity to collect in situ related data in a non-invasive way. Also, recent studies show a strong link between olfactory deficiency and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. However, no inspection of this area is possible today, as it is very difficult to access. Only robot-assisted interventions seem viable to provide the required dexterity. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated in this article, which shows that the path complexity to the olfactory cleft can be managed with a concentric tube robot (CTR), a particular type of continuum robot. First, new anatomical data are elaborated, in particular for the olfactory cleft, that remains hardly characterized. 3D reconstructions are conducted on the database of 20 subjects, using CT scan images. Measurements are performed to describe the anatomy, including metrics with inter-subject variability. Then, the existence of collision-free passageways for CTR is shown using the 3D reconstructions. Among the 20 subjects, 19 can be inspected using only 3 different robot geometries. This constitutes an essential step towards a robotic device to inspect subjects for clinical purposes.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2076-9
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 11 (2018)
       
  • Correction to: A Semi-passive Planar Manipulandum for Upper-Extremity
           Rehabilitation
    • Authors: Chih-Kang Chang; Edward P. Washabaugh; Andrew Gwozdziowski; C. David Remy; Chandramouli Krishnan
      Pages: 1962 - 1962
      Abstract:
      Authors would like to correct their acknowledgments. Correct acknowledgments appear here.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-2096-5
      Issue No: Vol. 46, No. 11 (2018)
       
  • Linking Physiological Biomarkers of Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury to a
           Rich-Get-Richer Mechanism of Injury Progression
    • Authors: Vitor Mori; Bradford J. Smith; Bela Suki; Jason H. T. Bates
      Abstract: Mechanical ventilation is a crucial tool in the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome, yet it may itself also further damage the lung in a phenomenon known as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). We have previously shown in mice that volutrauma and atelectrauma act synergistically to cause VILI. We have also postulated that this synergy arises because of a rich-get-richer mechanism in which repetitive lung recruitment generates initial small holes in the blood-gas barrier which are then expanded by over-distension in a manner that favors large holes over small ones. In order to understand the causal link between this process and the derangements in lung mechanics associated with VILI, we developed a mathematical model that incorporates both atelectrauma and volutrauma to predict how the propensity of the lung to derecruit depends on the accumulation of plasma-derived fluid and proteins in the airspaces. We found that the model accurately predicts derecruitment in mice with experimentally induced VILI.
      PubDate: 2018-11-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-02165-1
       
  • Spatiotemporal Analyses of Cellular Tractions Describe Subcellular Effect
           of Substrate Stiffness and Coating
    • Authors: Alicia Izquierdo-Álvarez; Diego A. Vargas; Álvaro Jorge-Peñas; Ramesh Subramani; Marie-Mo Vaeyens; Hans Van Oosterwyck
      Abstract: Cells interplay with their environment through mechanical and chemical interactions. To characterize this interplay, endothelial cells were cultured on polyacrylamide hydrogels of varying stiffness, coated with either fibronectin or collagen. We developed a novel analysis technique, complementary to traction force microscopy, to characterize the spatiotemporal evolution of cellular tractions: We identified subpopulations of tractions, termed traction foci, and tracked their magnitude and lifetime. Each focus consists of tractions associated with a local single peak of maximal traction. Individual foci were spread over a larger area in cells cultured on collagen relative to those on fibronectin and exerted higher tractions on stiffer hydrogels. We found that the trends with which forces increased with increasing hydrogel stiffness were different for foci and whole-cell measurements. These differences were explained by the number of foci and their average strength. While on fibronectin multiple short-lived weak foci contributed up to 30% to the total traction on hydrogels with intermediate stiffness, short-lived foci in such a number were not observed on collagen despite the higher tractions. Our approach allows for the use of existing traction force microscopy data to gain insight at the subcellular scale without molecular probes or spatial constraining of cellular tractions.
      PubDate: 2018-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-02164-2
       
  • Ankle Rotation and Muscle Loading Effects on the Calcaneal Tendon Moment
           Arm: An In Vivo Imaging and Modeling Study
    • Authors: Jason R. Franz; Ashish Khanchandani; Hannah McKenny; William H. Clark
      Abstract: In this combined in vivo and computational modeling study, we tested the central hypothesis that ankle joint rotation and triceps surae muscle loading have independent and combinatory effects on the calcaneal (i.e., Achilles) tendon moment arm (CTma) that are not fully captured in contemporary musculoskeletal models of human movement. We used motion capture guided ultrasound imaging to estimate instantaneous variations in the CTma during a series of isometric and isotonic contractions compared to predictions from scaled, lower extremity computational models. As hypothesized, we found that muscle loading: (i) independently increased the CTma by up to 8% and (ii) attenuated the effects of ankle joint rotation, the latter likely through changes in tendon slack and tendon curvature. Neglecting the effects of triceps surae muscle loading in lower extremity models led to an underestimation of the CTma, on average, particularly in plantarflexion when those effects were most prominent. We also found little agreement between in vivo estimates and model predictions on an individual subject by subject basis, alluding to unaccounted for variation in anatomical morphology and thus fundamental limitations in model scaling. Together, these findings contribute to improving our understanding of the physiology of ankle moment and power generation and novel opportunities for model development.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-02162-4
       
  • Parametric Design Optimisation of Proximal Humerus Plates Based on Finite
           Element Method
    • Authors: Ali Jabran; Chris Peach; Zhenmin Zou; Lei Ren
      Abstract: Optimal treatment of proximal humerus fractures remains controversial. Locking plates offer theoretical advantages but are associated with complications in the clinic. This study aimed to perform parametric design optimisation of proximal humerus plates to enhance their mechanical performance. A finite element (FE) model was developed that simulated a two-part proximal humerus fracture that had been treated with a Spatial Subchondral Support (S3) plate and subjected to varus bending. The FE model was validated against in vitro biomechanical test results. The predicted load required to apply 5 mm cantilever varus bending was only 0.728% lower. The FE model was then used to conduct a parametric optimisation study to determine the orientations of inferomedial plate screws that would yield minimum fracture gap change (i.e. optimal stability). The feasible design space was automatically identified by imposing clinically relevant constraints, and the creation process of each FE model for the design optimisation was automated. Consequently, 538 FE models were generated, from which the obtained optimal model had 4.686% lower fracture gap change (0.156 mm) than that of the manufacturer’s standard plate. Whereas its screws were oriented towards the inferomedial region and within the range of neck-shaft angle of a healthy subject. The methodology presented in this study promises future applications in patient-specific design optimisation of implants for other regions of the human body.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10439-018-02160-6
       
 
 
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