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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2986 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1422 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 311)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Annals of Applied Biology
  [SJR: 0.816]   [H-I: 56]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0003-4746 - ISSN (Online) 1744-7348
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1580 journals]
  • Bruchid pest management in pulses: past practices, present status and use
           of modern breeding tools for development of resistant varieties
    • Authors: S.K. Mishra; M.L.R. Macedo, S.K. Panda, J. Panigrahi
      Abstract: Bruchids (Callosobruchus spp.) are recognised as the most detrimental storage pest of pulses, especially in the tropics and subtropics. They invade matured pods as well as seeds during storage and, to some extent, farming fields, in turn reducing the net yield of the crops. Several approaches including cultural, biological, physical and chemical control measures have been implemented with the aim of managing these pests, but none of these have been successful across time and space. Recently, transgenic- and marker-assisted breeding approaches have appeared as promising tools for the successful management of these pests. Although some efforts have been made on the development of bruchid-resistant transgenic crops, the cultivars developed are yet to be commercialised worldwide because of various limitations. In contrast, marker-assisted breeding involving the identification of DNA-based markers linked to host resistance against bruchids, have shown some success in the quest for the development of bruchid-resistant cultivar(s). DNA markers linked to bruchid resistance have been identified in various grain legumes, particularly in the genus Vigna, and include mung bean (Vigna radiata), azuki bean (Vigna angularis), rice bean (Vigna umbellata), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and black gram (Vigna mungo). After their validation in different genetic backgrounds, these markers could be utilised for marker-assisted selection and breeding ventures to protect pulse crops. The present study discusses the pros and cons of different approaches for the successful management of the bruchid pests in pulses. The review also highlights about the integrative approach aided with molecular interventions to improve productivity by avoiding losses incurred due to bruchids, and to attain sustainable yields for major pulse crops.An integrative approach aided with conventional practices, host plant resistance and molecular interventions pave the way through marker assisted selection and breeding to improve genetic potential of cultivars against bruchids infestation. As a consequence the losses incurred due to bruchids will be alleviated, and sustainable yields for major pulse crops will be attained to meet the global demand of pulses.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07T01:36:14.972305-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12401
       
  • Wolbachia infection in natural populations of Dictyophara europaea, an
           alternative vector of grapevine Flavescence dorée phytoplasma: effects
           and interactions
    • Authors: O. Krstić; T. Cvrković, M. Mitrović, S. Radonjić, S. Hrnčić, I. Toševski, J. Jović
      Abstract: The European lantern fly, Dictyophara europaea, is an alternative vector of the Flavescence dorée phytoplasma (FDp) disease of grapevine in European vineyards, enabling infection initiation from wild reservoir compartment (Clematis vitalba). Heretofore recorded rate of D. europaea FDp-infection has been very low (3%), making it less epidemiologically significant than would be expected based on reservoir plant infection rate (30%). In this study we present findings on a heavily FDp-infected D. europaea population (>60%), on the natural Wolbachia infection of populations with low FDp-infection rates (DeWo+) and on Wolbachia absence in highly FDp-infected population (DeWo−). We examine several possible causes underlying the differences in vector infection rates: (a) population genetic characteristics of D. europaea and correlation with Wolbachia strain wEur natural infections, (b) Wolbachia effects on fitness components of DeWo+ laboratory colony and (c) rate of reservoir plant FDp-infection and differences in FDp genotypes harboured by low and highly infected vector populations. The vector genetic diversity level was found to be lower in DeWo+ than in uninfected individuals and to exhibit a different evolution of fixed haplotypes. All DeWo+ populations were infected with the same strain of wEur. The FDp was found to be genetically diversified (five genotypes) but had no relation to infection rates. We did not find evidence of fitness upgrades with regard to Wolbachia infection status. Although more experimentation is needed, it seems that Wolbachia confers protection against FDp or is in competition with FDp according to the observed correlations: low FDp-infected vector populations are infected with Wolbachia and vice versa.Median joining and statistical parsimony haplotype network obtained from mtCOI and ITS2 sequences of D. europaea. Shown here are COI haplotype networks for populations infected with Wolbachia (A), populations free of Wolbachia (B) and a joint network of both infected and uninfected populations of COI and ITS2 genes (C). Circle sizes of COI haplotypes are proportional to haplotype frequency levels. Colours correspond to the country of haplotype origin. Black dot vertices represent missing or unsampled haplotypes.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25T02:15:34.871842-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12400
       
  • Distribution and diversity of begomoviruses in tomato and sweet pepper
           plants in Costa Rica
    • Authors: N. Barboza; M. Blanco-Meneses, P. Esker, E. Moriones, A.K. Inoue-Nagata
      Abstract: Begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) have emerged as important plant pathogens in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Although these viruses were reported during the 1970s in Costa Rica, they are still poorly known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyse the diversity and distribution of begomoviruses in commercial tomato and sweet pepper fields from different agricultural production systems of the major growing regions of Costa Rica. A total of 651 plants were randomly sampled from greenhouses and open field crops during 2011 and 2012 in three different geographical locations. The bipartite begomoviruses Tomato yellow mottle virus, Tomato leaf curl Sinaloa virus and Pepper golden mosaic virus, and the monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl virus were detected in the collected samples. The complete genome of isolates from each species was cloned and sequenced. The frequency of detection of these four begomoviruses in the analysed samples ranged from 0 to 9%, the presence, and the prevalent virus varied largely according to the geographical location, the host (tomato and pepper), and the production system (greenhouses or open fields). An association between geographical region and begomovirus species was observed suggesting that in Costa Rica the heterogeneity on climate, topography and agricultural system might influence the distribution of begomovirus species in the country. A broader survey needs to be conducted to confirm it, although these preliminary results may contribute to the management of begomoviruses in Costa Rica.This study aimed to analyse the diversity and distribution of begomoviruses in tomato and sweet pepper fields of the major growing regions of Costa Rica. From 651 plants randomly sampled from greenhouses and open fields during 2011 and 2012, four begomoviruses were detected for which full length genome sequences were obtained: Tomato yellow mottle virus (ToYMoV), Tomato leaf curl Sinaloa virus (ToLCSiV), Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV), and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Their distribution and prevalence varied largely depending on the geographical location, the host and the production system, with detection rates ranging from 0% to 9%.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T20:06:36.944023-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12398
       
  • Antioxidant system is essential to increase drought tolerance of sugarcane
    • Authors: R.D. Vilela; B.K.L. Bezerra, A. Froehlich, L. Endres
      Abstract: Drought is one of the main factors affecting the productivity of agricultural crops, and plants respond to such stress by activating various physiological and biochemical mechanisms against dehydration. The present study investigated two varieties of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) with contrasting responses to drought (RB867515, more tolerant; and RB855536, less tolerant) and subjected them to progressive drought conditions (2, 4, 6 and 8 days) followed by rehydration. Drought caused a decrease in water potential (ψw) and osmotic potential (ψos) in the leaves, which recovered to normal levels after rehydration only up to the fourth day of drought. Water stress changed the carbon metabolism of leaves by reducing starch and sucrose contents and increasing glucose and fructose contents in both varieties. Water deficit caused a significant reduction in the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and effective quantum yield (ΦPSII) in both varieties; however, RB867515 recovered faster after rehydration. Under water stress, the more tolerant variety RB867515 exhibited increased activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase compared with the RB855536 variety. The results suggest that RB867515 is more tolerant to drought conditions because of a more efficient antioxidant system, which results in reduced photosynthesis photoinhibition during water stress, thus revealing itself as a potential physiological marker for drought tolerance studies.Two varieties of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) with contrasting responses to drought (RB867515, more tolerant; and RB855536, less tolerant) were subjected to progressive drought conditions (2, 4, 6 and 8 days) followed by rehydration. Several physiological parameters were measured: leaf water potential and osmotic potential; leaf carbon metabolism; maximum and effective PSII quantum yield; and antioxidant enzymes. The results suggest that RB867515 is more tolerant to drought conditions because of a more efficient antioxidant system, which results in reduced photosynthesis photoinhibition during water stress, thus revealing itself as a potential physiological marker for drought tolerance studies.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T21:25:34.728509-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12387
       
  • Effect of tillage, subsidiary crops and fertilisation on plant-parasitic
           nematodes in a range of agro-environmental conditions within Europe
    • Authors: J.H. Schmidt; G. Bergkvist, E. Campiglia, E. Radicetti, R.A. Wittwer, M.R. Finckh, J. Hallmann
      Abstract: The overall goal in nematode management is to develop sustainable systems where nematode populations are kept under the economic damage threshold. Conservation tillage and subsidiary crops, applied as cover crops and living mulches, generally improve soil health by increasing soil organic matter content and stimulating soil microbial activity. However, more permanent crop and weed cover associated with subsidiary crops and noninversion tillage, respectively, may benefit plant-parasitic nematodes with broad host spectra such as Meloidogyne and Pratylenchus. These genera are major constraints to many field crops throughout Europe and there is a need to identify effective and reliable management options that can be applied to avoid excessive infestations. The dynamics of the indigenous fauna of plant-parasitic nematodes were studied in eight coordinated multi-environment field experiments (MEEs) under four agro-environmental conditions in Europe (Continental, Nemoral, Atlantic North and Mediterranean North). The MEEs consisted of a 2-year sequence of wheat combined with a living mulch or subsequent cover crops and second main crops maize, potatoes or tomatoes depending on site. Additionally, the effects of inversion tillage using the plough were compared with various forms of conservation tillage (no-tillage, shallow and deep noninversion tillage). Overall, Helicotylenchus, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus and Tylenchorhynchus were the most frequent genera across sites while Meloidogyne occurred only in Germany at very low densities. During the wheat–maize sequences in Switzerland, the populations of Pratylenchus increased from 63 to 146 nematodes per 100 mL soil and Helicotylenchus from 233 to 632 nematodes per 100 mL soil. The effects of tillage on plant-parasitic nematodes were generally minor, although no tillage in Italy supported higher densities of Pratylenchus (184 nematodes per 100 mL soil) than inversion tillage (59 nematodes per 100 mL soil). Furthermore, Pratylenchus densities were 160 nematodes per 100 mL soil when leguminous subsidiary crops were grown, 122 nematodes per 100 mL soil in the green fallow and 84 nematodes per 100 mL soil after growing black oat (Avena strigosa) or oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus). The differences were greatest in Italy, in a sandy soil with low organic matter. Application of compost or nitrogen fertiliser had no consistent effects on plant-parasitic nematodes. We conclude that crop rotations including specific subsidiary crops are prominent factors affecting the indigenous nematode community, while tillage and fertiliser are of lower importance.The effects of tillage on plant-parasitic nematodes were generally minor, although no tillage in Italy supported higher densities of Pratylenchus (184 nematodes per 100 ml soil) than inversion tillage (59 nematodes per 100 ml soil). Pratylenchus densities were 160 nematodes per 100 ml soil when leguminous subsidiary crops were grown, 122 nematodes per 100 ml soil in the green fallow, and 84 nematodes per 100 ml soil after growing black oat (Avena strigosa) or oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus). Crop rotations including specific subsidiary crops are therefore prominent factors affecting indigenous nematode communities, while tillage and fertilizer are of lower importance.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T01:45:31.246357-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12389
       
  • Comparative analysis of core collection sampling methods for mandarin
           germplasm based on molecular and phenotypic data
    • Authors: A. Garcia-Lor; F. Luro, P. Ollitrault, L. Navarro
      Abstract: Gene banks have been established to conserve the genetic diversity of crop species. Large germplasm collections lead to management problems (space, maintenance costs, etc.), especially in collections involving species with recalcitrant seeds that must be maintained as growing plants. Core collections (CCs) are thus developed to reduce the size of large germplasm collections while keeping the maximum variability. This also facilitates fine phenotypic evaluation. In this study, several software packages (DARwin, PowerMarker and MSTRAT) and methods (Max length subtree, M strategy, simulated annealing and MinSD) were compared to define a mandarin (Citrus reticulata) CC. One hundred and sixty-seven accessions were sampled from two germplasm collections, which were genotyped with 50 SSR, 24 InDel and 68 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. All the CC obtained were tested for the maintenance of the genetic variability parameters (Ho and He) of the initial collection, the level of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the phenotypic diversity retention. The Max length subtree function from DARWin seemed to be the most appropriate method for establishing a CC in C. reticulata. It maintained 96.82% of the allelic richness and 17.96% of the size of the initial collection with only 30 accessions. Besides it did not increase the LD (r2 value) of the initial collection and retained the vast majority of the phenotypic variability. However, a CC with 70 accessions would be more helpful for genetic association studies.Comparative results of the core collection sampling methods in the two sizes selected (χ2, P < 0.05). Germplasm collections are established to maintain the genetic diversity of the crops. When they are huge and are species with recalcitrant seeds as citrus, their maintenance, costs, space and so on become a problem. To reduce their size, but maintaining their diversity, core collections are being developed.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01T22:40:27.831975-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12376
       
  • Phenological growth stages of mulberry tree (Morus sp.) codification and
           description according to the BBCH scale
    • Authors: E.M. Sánchez-Salcedo; J.J. Martínez-Nicolás, Fca. Hernández
      Abstract: Recently, mulberry fruits have increased rapidly the production and consumption, due to its high levels of bioactive compounds, excellent taste and nutritional value. Nevertheless there is poorly information about its phenology. In the present study, the different phenological growth stages of mulberry are characterised according to the BBCH (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt Chemische Industrie) scale. Eight of the 10 principal developmental stages from BBCH scale were described for Morus sp., starting at bud development (stage 0) and ending at the senescence and beginning of the rest period (stage 9). The BBCH code for this species provides a consensual unified approach for standardisation of phenological stages in mulberry, moreover to facilitate agronomic practices.Phenology of the mulberry tree
      PubDate: 2017-10-01T21:56:06.472457-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12386
       
  • Antagonism between Byssochlamys spectabilis (anamorph Paecilomyces
           variotii) and plant pathogens: Involvement of the bioactive compounds
           produced by the endophyte
    • Authors: S. Rodrigo; O. Santamaria, S. Halecker, S. Lledó, M. Stadler
      Abstract: Fungal endophytes can be part of the defensive system of plants against multiple pathogens by competing for resources, hyperparasitism or producing bioactive compounds with antimicrobial properties. There is an ever-increasing interest for obtaining new and environmentally friendly products to use in the fight against pathogens. With this purpose, Byssochlamys spectabilis (anamorph Paecilomyces variotii), which is a fungal species that commonly occurs, was evaluated as an antagonistic organism towards three phytopathogens (Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Fusarium moniliforme and Phytophthora cinnamomi). First, an in vitro experiment was designed to test the effect that the endophyte filtrate had on the three pathogens. The endophyte filtrate decreased the radius growth rate of F. moniliforme by nearly 10%. Consequently, the antagonism between B. spectabilis and F. moniliforme was evaluated in Lolium rigidum plants under greenhouse conditions by means of co-inoculations. The endophyte produced a decrease of 50–75% in the disease severity caused by the pathogen in the earliest infection stages. Crude extracts of B. spectabilis were obtained to determine the secondary metabolites responsible for such an effect. The bioactivity-guided chromatography and HPLC-MS (high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry) of the active fraction suggested that the antibiotic activity was caused by viriditoxin. In conclusion, the fungal endophyte B. spectabilis and/or its bioactive compounds showed antagonism towards several phytopathogens and deserves further study to investigate its actual potential for use as a biocontrol agent.The fungal endophyte Byssochlamys spectabilis (anamorph Paecilomyces variotii) showed antagonism towards phytopathogens in vitro and in Lolium rigidum plants. The antibiotic activity seemed to be caused by the secondary metabolite viriditoxin produced by the endophyte
      PubDate: 2017-09-29T10:59:12.424241-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12388
       
  • How do caterpillars cope with xenobiotics' The case of Mythimna
           unipuncta, a species with low susceptibility to Bt
    • Authors: C. López; P. Muñoz, M. Pérez-Hedo, M. Moralejo, M. Eizaguirre
      Abstract: Mythimna unipuncta is a species with low susceptibility to the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin, and this insect occasionally causes devastating damage to maize. In the study region, M. unipuncta-developed larvae were observed moving from a non-Bt crop to a nearby Bt crop. Although the first response of many caterpillars to xenobiotics, such as the Bt toxin, is to reduce food intake and prolong development, few studies have focused on the causes and consequences of this response in terms of resistance evolution. To clarify the causes of this response, this work compared changes in the feeding behaviour, cytochrome P450 expression and juvenile hormone titre during the last larval instar of M. unipuncta after Bt ingestion. Four P450 enzymes related to the xenobiotic metabolism of the CYP9 and CYP6 families were identified. Developed larvae fed the Bt diet reduced their food intake and CYP9 expression, experienced prolonged development and presented an altered juvenile hormone balance. The CYP9s were not increased in the larvae that consumed Bt, as previously expected, although their highest expression was observed when larval feeding increased. The high recovery capacity of the larvae contributed to their development when they were fed a non-Bt diet. The efficiency of responses that act jointly as a defence mechanism against Bt might favour the development of field resistance to the toxin. Therefore, these responses should be further investigated for resistance management programmes.How do caterpillars cope with xenobiotics' The case of Mythimna unipuncta, a species with low susceptibility to Bt
      PubDate: 2017-09-21T23:26:19.083633-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12380
       
  • Grafting to manage infections of top stunting and necrogenic strains of
           cucumber mosaic virus in tomato
    • Authors: R. Spanò; D. Gallitelli, T. Mascia
      Abstract: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) lists among the most important etiological agents of tomato diseases. Some isolates of CMV function as helper virus for replication, encapsidation and transmission of satellite RNAs (satRNA), which may exacerbate symptoms induced by CMV in certain hosts. Outbreaks of CMV strains supporting hypervirulent variants of satRNAs are recurrent in tomato with devastating effects on crop production and efficient control measures are still unavailable. In this study, we examined the dynamics of infection of the CMV strains tomato top stunting (TTS) and 77 supporting replication of satRNA variants that codetermine top stunting (TTS-satRNA) and necrotic (77-satRNA) phenotypes in two tomato cultivars denoted Solanum lycopersicum Manduria (Sl-Ma) and S. lycopersicum UC82 (Sl-UC). Sl-Ma but not Sl-UC recovered from disease symptoms induced by CMV-TTS while both the cultivars succumbed to the infection of CMV-77 and its necrogenic satRNA. Ability to recover of the Sl-Ma plants was transmitted by grafting to the susceptible genotype Sl-UC. More interestingly, recovery was observed also against the challenge inoculation of CMV plus 77-satRNA in plants grafted on Sl-Ma and in self-grafted plants of both the Sl-Ma and Sl-UC cultivars. Analysis of small RNAs and genes of the defence plant response based on RNA interference (RNAi) suggested that RNAi is involved in the recovery of Sl-Ma against CMV with hypervirulent satRNAs and in scions grafted on this rootstock. The response of Sl-Ma to the inoculation of CMV-77 plus 77-satRNA was compared with that of the transgenic tomato line S. lycopersicum transgenic line UCTC5.9.2 that expresses constitutively the benign variant of the satRNA denoted Tfn-satRNA. Comparative analysis suggested that the response may operate via similar mechanisms, which involve RNAi, the graft and the presence of the satRNA.Tomato plants grafted on Sl-Ma tomato cultivar recovered from severe symptoms induced by cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) strains supporting hypervirulent satRNAs like those that codetermine stunting (TTS-satRNA) and necrotic (77-satRNA) phenotypes in tomato. The response of Sl-Ma to the inoculation of CMV-77 plus 77-satRNA parallels that of the transgenic tomato line Sl-UCTC that expresses constitutively the benign variant of the satRNA denoted Tfn-satRNA. On the whole, results suggest that in the two tomato genotypes the response may operate via similar mechanisms, which involve RNAi, the graft and the presence of the satRNA.
      PubDate: 2017-09-21T03:15:54.516118-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12382
       
  • Incidence and control of black spot syndrome of tiger nut
    • Authors: D. Alvares; C. Armero, A. Forte, J. Serra, L. Galipienso, L. Rubio
      Abstract: Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentum) is a very profitable crop in Valencia, Spain, but in the last years, part of the harvested tubers presents black spots in the skin making them unmarketable. Surveys performed in two consecutive years showed that about 10% of the tubers were severely affected by the black spot syndrome whose aetiology is unknown. Disease control procedures based on selection of tubers used as seed (seed tubers) or treatment with hot-water and/or chemicals were assayed in greenhouse. These assays showed that that this syndrome had a negative impact on the germination rate, tuber size and yield. Selection of asymptomatic seed tubers reduced drastically the incidence of the black spot syndrome with respect to using seed tubers with severe symptoms (selection of healthy seed tubers was not possible because the causal agent is undetermined). Thermal treatment of seed tubers with severe symptoms reduced the number of unmarketable harvested tubers by half but was detrimental for the germination. Chemical treatments of seed tubers with severe symptoms decreased the incidence of the black spot syndrome about 40% for sodium hypochlorite and about 10% for hydrochloric acid, trisodium phosphate and the fungicide trioxystrobin.The black spot syndrome, of unknown etiology, causes considerable economical losses in tiger nut crops in Eastern Spain. Our results showed that the best method to control this syndrome was the selection of asymptomatic tubers used as seed, which showed lower incidence of the black spot syndrome and an improvement in the germination rate and the yield of marketable tubers. Thermal and chemical treatments also reduced the incidence of this syndrome. The figure shows the comparison of harvested tubers of tiger nut in pots in greenhouse from seed tubers with severe symptoms of the black spot syndrome (S) and from asymptomatic seed tubers (A). Time-course incidence of the black spot syndrome (proportion of unmarketable tubers, showing severe symptoms), germination rate (proportion of germinated seed tubers), yield of marketable tubers (weight per pot). Dots represent posterior medians and vertical segments credible intervals at 95%.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T00:45:32.786211-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12384
       
  • Phenological behaviour of Parthenium hysterophorus in response to climatic
           variations according to the extended BBCH scale
    • Authors: A. Kaur; D.R. Batish, S. Kaur, H.P. Singh, R.K. Kohli
      Abstract: Considering the importance of ecological and biological traits in imparting invasive success to the alien species, the phenological behaviour of an alien invasive weed Parthenium hysterophorus was documented according to the extended BBCH scale in four different seasons. A phenological calendar was prepared using both two- and three- digit coding system, precisely describing the developmental stages of the weed. The phenological documentation is further supplemented with the dates corresponding to a particular growth stage, pictures of the representative growth stages and meteorological data of all the four seasons. Results revealed that the phenology of the weed altered in response to the changing temperature and humidity conditions but no apparent climatic condition could inhibit its germination or flowering. However, the emergence of inflorescence was highly sensitive to the temperature/photoperiodic conditions. Variations in the phenological traits of P. hysterophorus with changing environmental conditions explain the acclimatisation potential of the weed permitting its vast spread in the non-native regions. Since the given phenological illustrations are accurate, unambiguous and coded as per an internationally recognised scale, they could be exploited for agronomic practices, weed management programmes, and research purposes.To evaluate the impact of environmental factors (temperature [T] and humidity [RH]) on the invasiveness of Parthenium hysterophorus, we documented the phenological stages of the weed in different seasons using BBCH scale. For this, various growth stages beginning from the dry seeds until the maturity of the plant, were observed and photographed. Phenology of the weed in season 1 and 4 was remarkably different as it involved the formation of rosette stage unlike in season 2 and 3. The outcome of the study is expected to be useful for devising strategies to manage this invasive weed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T03:12:00.616313-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12374
       
  • Slavery in plants: how the facultative hemi-parasitic plant Rhamphicarpa
           fistulosa can completely dominate its host
    • Authors: S. Kabiri; J. Rodenburg, A. van Ast, L. Bastiaans
      Abstract: The rain-fed lowland rice weed Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Rice Vampireweed) is a facultative root parasitic plant. Growth and reproduction of R. fistulosa benefit considerably from parasitism, but how this affects the host plant is not well established. We determined accumulation and partitioning of rice–parasite biomass in two pot experiments. First, rice (cv. IR64) was grown under eight R. fistulosa densities (15–1000 seeds per pot) with two sampling times. Next, 2 parasite densities (6 and 13 plants per pot) were combined with 9 destructive samplings. Infection increased host root: shoot ratios and decreased host plant height, leaf area and tiller number. Reductions in light interception were followed by reductions in light use efficiency, causing 22–71% losses in host plant biomass and 78–100% losses in host kernel production. Parasitism eventually caused a complete standstill of host plant growth, while the parasite managed to gradually increase its share in total host plant–parasite biomass up to 50–82%. This implies that ultimately the host plant was producing solely for the sake of the parasite. Due to its facultative nature, R. fistulosa may incorrectly be perceived as relatively harmless. Upon infection this Rice Vampireweed, however, turns into a genuine slave master, whereby it completely dominates its host.The rain-fed lowland rice weed Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Rice Vampireweed) is a facultative root parasitic plant but how this parasite affects the host plant was not well established. Our key findings are that very low infestation levels of R. fistulosa increased host root : shoot ratios, reduced leaf area and tiller numbers and caused stunting. Light interception and light use efficiency were reduced, causing 22–71% losses in rice biomass and 78–100% losses in kernel production. After successful infection, the parasite eventually manipulated rice plants in such a way that they produced assimilates only to benefit the parasite. The good news is that the facultative nature of the parasite ensures that emergence is preceding infection. It takes around 6 weeks before the first symptoms of parasite infection are noticed. Thus, this time lag can be a window of opportunity to control the parasite and prevent severe damage to the crop.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07T02:45:31.045957-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12378
       
  • Aspects in oat breeding: nutrition quality, nakedness and disease
           resistance, challenges and perspectives
    • Authors: A. Gorash; R. Armonienė, J. Mitchell Fetch, Ž. Liatukas, V. Danytė
      Abstract: Traditionally, the oat crop (Avena sativa) has been neglected in a number of respects, cultivated in cropping areas not optimal for wheat, barley or maize. In recent years the interest in oats has increased, particularly because of its dietary benefits and therapeutic potential for human health. The uniqueness and advantages of naked oats over other popular cereals, due to its potentially valuable nutritional composition, have been well studied and reported, opening new market “niches” for oats. Despite the well-documented benefits, the status of the oat crop is still fragile, due to many reasons. The area cultivated for the oat crop is much less compared with other cereals, and therefore commercial efforts in oat breeding are less. Oat groat yield is lower than other cereals such as wheat and the nutritious uniqueness has not been reflected in agreeable market prices. The same price still exists for both naked and conventional/covered oats in the world grain market. The absence of visible market competitiveness, and some of the oat biological drawbacks, including low grain yield, keeps the oat crop as a lower profitability minor crop. This review is intended to analyse and summarise main achievements and challenges in oat genetics, agronomy and phytopathology to find possible ways of oat improvement and future perspectives for oat breeding.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07T02:35:39.143613-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12375
       
  • How do weeds differ in their response to the timing of tillage' A
           study of 61 species across the northeastern United States
    • Authors: S. Cordeau; R.G. Smith, E.R. Gallandt, B. Brown, P. Salon, A. DiTommaso, M.R. Ryan
      Abstract: Previous research has demonstrated that the season in which soil is tilled (spring versus fall) can strongly influence weed community assembly and subsequent species composition and abundance in annual cropping systems. Despite this understanding, it is unknown whether finer-scale, within-season variation in the timing of tillage has similar impacts on weed community assembly. We conducted an experiment on four research farms across the northeastern USA to test the effects of tillage timing on weed emergence periodicity. Soil was tilled at 12 different times that were 2 weeks apart from 29 April to 30 September (the entire growing season) and the composition and abundance of the weed seedlings that emerged was measured 6 weeks later. Weed species clustered into three tillage timing groups at the two New York locations and clustered into five tillage timing groups at the New Hampshire and Maine locations. Individual species associated with each window of tillage time varied by location. No single trait or combination of traits were consistently associated with species-by-tillage time groupings across locations; however, within each location several traits were associated with particular groups of species, including: (a) seed length, (b) seed weight, (c) cotyledon type, (d) life span, (e) ploidy level and (f) photosynthetic pathway. These results suggest that fine-scale variation in the timing of tillage can lead to predictable changes in the species composition and trait distribution of weed communities in annually tilled agroecosystems.Weed species differ in their emergence timing, and previous research has shown that agricultural weed communities can vary based on the season in which the soil was tilled. Here we present results from a field experiment that was conducted in order to quantify the emergence timing of different weed species. Violin plots show the kernel density of the emergence of weed species six weeks after soil was tilled. Our results suggest that fine-scale differences in tillage timing can affect weed species composition and trait distribution in weed communities.
      PubDate: 2017-09-06T02:55:48.963299-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12377
       
  • Novel phytoplasma strains of X-disease group unveil genetic markers that
           distinguish North American and South American geographic lineages within
           subgroups 16SrIII-J and 16SrIII-U
    • Authors: E. Pérez-López; W. Wei, J. Wang, R.E. Davis, M. Luna-Rodríguez, Y. Zhao
      Abstract: Phytoplasmas in the X-disease group (16SrIII) are highly diverse in terms of geographic distributions, vectorship and plant host specificity. Such biological and ecological diversity is often correlated with distinctive genetic markers present in evolutionarily conserved genes. Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers in the 16S rRNA gene sequences, 29 subgroups have been delineated, with most of them being found in the Americas. However, it has been unknown whether distinct geographic lineages are present within a given subgroup. Prior to this study, phytoplasmas belonging to subgroups 16SrIII-J and 16SrIII-U were reported only in countries located in South America. In the present study, we identified new phytoplasmas strains closely related to the reference strains of the two subgroups in Mexico, a North American country. These newly identified Mexican strains possess unique RFLP, single nucleotide polymorphism, and fragmental deletion markers in 16S rRNA- and/or ribosomal protein-encoding genes. Since these markers consistently distinguished the Mexican strains from their South American counterparts, they may represent emerging or previously unknown North American geographic lineages of the subgroups 16SrIII-J and 16SrIII-U.Phytoplasmas in the X-disease group (16SrIII) are highly diverse in terms of geographic distributions, vectorship, and plant host specificity. Such biological and ecological diversity is often correlated with distinctive genetic markers present in evolutionarily conserved genes. In the present study, we identified new phytoplasmas strains based on unique RFLP and SNP markers in 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein-encoding genes. These new phytoplasmas were discovered from periwinkle plants growing in Mexico; they may represent North American lineages of the subgroups 16SrIII-J and 16SrIII-U.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T23:55:47.415983-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12383
       
  • Relative importance of natural enemies and abiotic factors as sources of
           regulation of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian coffee
           plantations
    • Authors: N. Rodrigues-Silva; S. Oliveira Campos, E. Sá Farias, T.C. Souza, J.C. Martins, M.C. Picanço
      Abstract: In the present study, we determined the critical stages and the key factors of mortality for Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian coffee plantations using a life table to understand the role of natural biological control on its population. Predators, parasitoids, rainfall, sunlight, physiological disturbances and fungal diseases were collectively responsible for 98.79% in the total mortality of P. citri. Predators belonging to the Chrysopidae, Syrphidae, Dolichopodidae and Coccinellidae families were the most important mortality factors in the early developmental stages of P. citri (i.e. eggs and 1st and 2nd instar nymphs), whereas predators belonging to the Coccinellidae and Chrysopidae families were the most important mortality factors for the last instars (i.e. 3rd instars and adults) for P. citri. The generalist predators Harmonia axyridis, Chrysoperla genanigra and Chrysoperla externa were the key mortality factors for P. citri. The third nymph stage was considered the critical life stage (i.e. the life stage that most influences population size). Our results show that generalist predators and climatic factors are important sources of natural mortality of P. citri governing the population dynamics of this pest in the field.In this study, we determined the critical stages and the key factors of mortality for Planococcus citri using a life table to understand the role of natural biological control on its population. Predators, parasitoids, rainfall, sunlight, physiological disturbances and fungal diseases were collectively responsible for 98.79% in the total mortality of P. citri. The generalist predators Harmonia axyridis, Chrysoperla genanigra and C. externa were the key mortality factors for P. citri. The third nymph stage was considered the critical mortality stage. Our results show that these generalist predators are important natural control agents of P. citri in the field.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T01:55:27.770284-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12373
       
  • Microbe-mediated control of Aspergillus flavus in stored rice grains with
           a focus on aflatoxin inhibition and biodegradation
    • Authors: M. Mannaa; J.Y. Oh, K.D. Kim
      Abstract: Biological control of mycotoxigenic fungi using antagonistic microbes is a promising alternative to agricultural chemicals for postharvest storage. In this study, we evaluated rice-derived bacterial strains to identify biocontrol agents to inhibit Aspergillus flavus in stored rice grains. Consequently, we obtained three potential biocontrol strains (Microbacterium testaceum KU313, Bacillus megaterium KU143 and Pseudomonas protegens AS15) from 26 tested strains that were prescreened from the 460 strains isolated from rice grains. The three selected strains proved to be effective biocontrol agents showing antifungal activity against A. flavus and good colonisation ability on rice grains, along with inhibition of the fungal growth and aflatoxin production. In particular, P. protegens AS15 greatly inhibited the aflatoxins produced by A. flavus on rice grains to 8.68 (percent aflatoxin reduction relative to control = 82.9%) and 18.05 (68.3 %) ng g−1 dry weight of rice grains, compared with the 50.89 and 56.97 ng g−1 dry weight of rice grains of the MgSO4 control at 1 and 2 weeks after inoculation, respectively. In addition, strain AS15 had a significant ability to not only degrade aflatoxin B1 (the most harmful aflatoxin), but also utilise the toxin for bacterial growth in a nutrient-deficient medium. Therefore, the selected bacterial strains could be environmentally sound alternatives for the management of A. flavus and aflatoxin production by reducing the fungal damage to stored rice grains. This would also reduce the human and animal health hazards associated with the consumption of fungus-contaminated rice grains. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the potential of the bacterial species M. testaceum and P. protegens as biocontrol agents for controlling aflatoxigenic A. flavus on stored rice grains.(A) Aflatoxin degradation by bacterial strain AS15, strain KU408 (negative control), and MgSO4 (untreated control) in various diluted nutrient broth supplemented with aflatoxin B1 at 3 days after inoculation; (B) bacterial populations of the treatments in the diluted medium with or without aflatoxin B1.
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T00:30:34.668151-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12381
       
  • If not multiple comparisons, then what'
    • Authors: M. Kozak; S.J. Powers
      Pages: 277 - 280
      PubDate: 2017-10-18T21:21:37.775619-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12379
       
  • Analysis of the genetic diversity and structure of the Spanish apple
           genetic resources suggests the existence of an Iberian genepool
    • Authors: S. Pereira-Lorenzo; J. Urrestarazu, A.M. Ramos-Cabrer, C. Miranda, A. Pina, E. Dapena, M.A. Moreno, P. Errea, N. Llamero, M.B. Díaz-Hernández, L.G. Santesteban, M.J. Laquidain, Y. Gogorcena, V. Urbina, J. Dalmases, J. Ascasíbar-Errasti, J.B. Royo
      Pages: 424 - 440
      Abstract: The nature and structure of genetic diversity in the Spanish apple germplasm preserved at the national level was widely unknown, since studies performed to date on this topic have been exclusively carried out at the regional scale. Here, 1453 accessions from Spanish collections of Malus × domestica were evaluated with a common set of 13 SSR (Simple Sequence Repeats) markers in order to estimate genetic diversity, to identify the underlying genetic structure and to unravel the relationships among them and among a wide set of international cultivars for reference. In total, 737 unique genotypes were identified, 581 diploids and 156 triploids. Using a model-based Bayesian clustering procedure, two reconstructed populations were obtained for diploid genotypes; one retaining only Spanish cultivars (42% of genotypes), and a second containing all foreign cultivars the latter exhibiting evidence supporting the existence of a secondary sub-structure. Similarly, analysis performed on the 156 triploid genotypes also revealed two reconstructed populations; one exclusively associated with local Spanish genotypes (44%). The Jaccard coefficient allowed clustering by UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method) diploid and triploid genotypes, and remarkable differences in allelic composition among the different partitioning levels were found. AMOVA analyses showed moderate but significant differentiation among the main groups (0.08 ≤ FST ≤ 0.12). Our results highlight an important fraction of the Spanish apple germplasm that constitutes a differentiated genepool with respect to the international and commercial apple cultivars. Moreover, the extent of the Spanish genetic diversity was spatially distributed along the northern Iberian Peninsula, suggesting an extensive migration of genotypes along the country. This study is the first valuable action for genetic conservation of apple at the national scale, and constitutes a decisive step towards the definition of a Spanish core collection that will be useful for further studies in dissecting the genetic control of important horticultural traits through genome-wide association analysis in apple.In this study, 1453 apple accessions were characterized with 13 SSR markers in order to evaluate the genetic diversity and to unravel the structure in the Spanish germplasm. 737 unique genotypes were identified (581 diploids and 156 triploids). Two reconstructed populations were obtained for diploid genotypes: one retaining only Spanish cultivars, and a second containing all foreign cultivars. For triploids, also two reconstructed populations were revealed, one exclusively comprising local Spanish genotypes. The results indicate that an important fraction of the Spanish apple germplasm constitutes a differentiated genepool with respect to the international and commercial apple cultivars.
      PubDate: 2017-10-18T21:21:38.704234-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12385
       
  • A discussion on disease severity index values. Part II: using the disease
           severity index for null hypothesis testing
    • Authors: K.S. Chiang; H.I. Liu, J.W. Tsai, J.R. Tsai, C.H. Bock
      Pages: 490 - 505
      Abstract: A disease severity index (DSI) is a single number for summarising a large amount of information on disease severity. The DSI has most often been used with data based on a special type of ordinal scale comprising a series of consecutive ranges of defined numeric intervals, generally based on the percent area of symptoms presenting on the specimen(s). Plant pathologists and other professionals use such ordinal scale data in conjunction with a DSI (%) for treatment comparisons. The objective of this work is to explore the effects on both of different scales (i.e. those having equal or unequal classes, or different widths of intervals) and of the selection of values for scale intervals (i.e. the ordinal grade for the category or the midpoint value of the interval) on the null hypothesis test for the treatment comparison. A two-stage simulation approach was employed to approximate the real mechanisms governing the disease-severity sampling design. Subsequently, a meta-analysis was performed to compare the effects of two treatments, which demonstrated that using quantitative ordinal rating grades or the midpoint conversion for the ranges of disease severity yielded very comparable results with respect to the power of hypothesis testing. However, the principal factor determining the power of the hypothesis test is the nature of the intervals, not the selection of values for ordinal scale intervals (i.e. not the mid-point or ordinal grade). Although using the percent scale is always preferable, the results of this study provide a framework for developing improved research methods where the use of ordinal scales in conjunction with a DSI is either preferred or a necessity for comparing disease severities.Overview of the options for assessing disease severity, and specifically the process used for establishing a quantitative ordinal scale using a DSI regarding the number of grades, the nature of the grade values and the method (interval midpoint or grade values) for estimating mean disease severity and/or hypothesis testing. The results of this study demonstrated that an amended 10% category scale (10% linear scale emphasizing severities ≤ 50% disease, and with additional intervals at severities < 10%) provided both accuracy for estimating the disease severity, and optimal power for hypothesis testing. The boxes with the parallel grey bars indicate other methods for assessing disease severity, depending on purpose, desired accuracy and disease characteristics. Solid dark grey boxes indicate the process of DSI scale selection for estimating only the disease severity, while the pale gray boxes indicate the process of DSI selection for hypothesis testing.
      PubDate: 2017-10-18T21:21:32.554411-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12396
       
  • Mode of action and efficacy of iprodione against the root-knot nematode
           Meloidogyne incognita
    • Authors: G. d'Errico; R. Giacometti, P. F. Roversi, F. P. d'Errico, S. L. Woo
      Pages: 506 - 510
      Abstract: The ban and restriction on the use of several synthetic chemicals for controlling plant parasitic nematodes, and concern about their side effects necessitate the availability of effective methods of control with low toxicity to humans and non-target organisms. Therefore, efficacy and mode of action of iprodione, a dicarboximide fungicide, was evaluated against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, in vitro and in vivo conditions, in comparison with the nematicides fenamiphos, fosthiazate and oxamyl at 7.00, 1.66 and 1.66 mL/5 L water, respectively. In vitro, iprodione showed nematostatic rather than nematicidal activity against second-stage juveniles of M. incognita in contrast to fenamiphos, fosthiazate and oxamyl which were nematicidal. In the in vivo experiment with tomato, iprodione controlled M. incognita less than fenamiphos, fosthiazate and oxamyl. No visual symptoms of phytotoxicity were observed. Therefore, iprodione can be a useful chemical for controlling nematode populations if included in an Integrated Pest Management program.Progressively, the chemicals used for controlling root-knot nematodes are being banned or restricted for use. This necessitates alternative effective methods of control with low toxicity. The efficacy and mode of action of iprodione, a dicarboximide fungicide, was evaluated against Meloidogyne incognita, in vitro and in vivo conditions, in comparison with fenamiphos, fosthiazate and oxamyl. In vitro, iprodione showed mainly a nematistatic activity against second-stage juveniles of M. incognita. Although iprodione controlled M. incognita less than chemical controls in in vivo experiment with tomato plants, it can be a useful less toxic product for controlling nematodes in Integrated Pest Management programs.
      PubDate: 2017-10-18T21:21:36.601149-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12397
       
 
 
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