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Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
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acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
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Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
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AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
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American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
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American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
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American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
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Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
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Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
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Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
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Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
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Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
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Journal Cover Annals of Applied Biology
  [SJR: 0.816]   [H-I: 56]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0003-4746 - ISSN (Online) 1744-7348
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1592 journals]
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2018-02-19T20:23:13.496939-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12391
  • Intraguild interactions between two biological control agents in citrus
           fruit: implications for biological control of medfly
    • Authors: J. Tormos; F. Beitia, J.D. Asís, L. de Pedro
      Abstract: The parasitoid wasp Spalangia cameroni and the predatory beetle Pseudoophonus rufipes have long been studied for use as biological control agents against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, particularly in citrus fruit orchards. Nevertheless, these two species of natural enemies, when competing for a common resource, may experience intraguild predation (IGP) interactions. These possible interactions, affecting parasitism and predation, have been evaluated in the present work, under laboratory conditions, through potential changes in functional response. Regarding host/prey density, both natural enemies, when acting alone, showed a type II functional response. Nevertheless, due to IGP, S. cameroni, in the presence of P. rufipes, showed a higher fertility rate and a type III functional response. The parasitism behaviour of S. cameroni was affected by the presence of the predator, reducing the host handling time. Conversely, the parasitism rate of S. cameroni did not vary in the presence of P. rufipes but the degree of superparasitism decreased and led to an increased fertility rate and an increasingly female-biased sex ratio. Meanwhile, the predatory efficiency of P. rufipes was not affected by the presence of S. cameroni but discrimination between parasitised and unparasitised pupae of C. capitata, with a preference for the latter, was reported for this predator species. Our results suggest that in biological control programmes, the use of only one of these species is recommended at low infestation levels, whilst at high densities of the pest, the combination of both natural enemies seems to be the most appropriate strategy.Functional response curve fit by non-linear least-squares regression of fertilised Spalangia cameroni females infesting Ceratitis capitata pupae and sharing the experimental unit with Pseudoophonus rufipes adults predating C. capitata pupae (type III). Host density: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 20, 30 or 40 pupae per fertilised S. cameroni female (one or three) and P. rufipes adult (one or three) (both natural enemies exposed together in the same experimental unit) and day. For host densities above 40, values are shown in grey as they are an extrapolation beyond recorded data.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T03:04:44.976194-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12422
  • A nodule endophytic Bacillus megaterium strain isolated from Medicago
           polymorpha enhances growth, promotes nodulation by Ensifer medicae and
           alleviates salt stress in alfalfa plants
    • Authors: A. Chinnaswamy; T. Coba de la Peña, A. Stoll, D. de la Peña Rojo, J. Bravo, A. Rincón, M.M. Lucas, J.J. Pueyo
      Abstract: A Gram-positive, fast-growing, endophytic bacterium was isolated from root nodules of Medicago polymorpha and identified as Bacillus megaterium. The isolate, named NMp082, co-inhabited nodules with the symbiotic rhizobium Ensifer medicae. B. megaterium NMp082 contained nifH and nodD genes that were 100% identical to those of Ensifer meliloti, an unusual event that suggested previous lateral gene transfer from a different rhizobial species. Despite the presence of nodulation and nitrogen fixation genes, the endophyte was not able to form effective nodules; however, it induced nodule-like unorganised structures in alfalfa roots. Axenic inoculation promoted plant growth in M. polymorpha, Medicago lupulina, Medicago truncatula and Medicago sativa, and co-inoculation with E. medicae enhanced growth and nodulation of Medicago spp. plants compared with inoculation with either bacterium alone. B. megaterium NMp082 also induced tolerance to salt stress in alfalfa and Arabidopsis plants. The ability to produce indole acetic acid (IAA) and the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity displayed by the endophyte in vitro might explain the observed plant growth promotion and salt stress alleviation. The isolate was also highly tolerant to salt stress, water deficit and to the presence of different heavy metals. The newly characterised endophytic bacterium possessed specific characteristics that point at potential applications to sustain plant growth and nodulation under abiotic stress.A Gram-positive, fast-growing, endophytic bacterium was isolated from root nodules of Medicago polymorpha and identified as Bacillus megaterium. Despite the presence of nodulation and nitrogen fixation genes, the endophyte was not able to form effective nodules, but it induced nodule-like unorganized structures in alfalfa roots. The isolate was highly tolerant to salt stress, water deficit and heavy metals, and displayed plant growth-promoting activities. Inoculation with the endophyte enhanced growth, promoted nodulation by Ensifer medicae and alleviated salt stress in alfalfa plants, pointing at potential applications to sustain plant growth and nodulation under abiotic stress.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T03:01:56.924456-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12420
  • Identification and characterisation of antixenosis and antibiosis to pea
           aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) in Pisum spp. germplasm
    • Authors: T. Aznar-Fernández; D. Rubiales
      Abstract: Acyrthosiphon pisum is a polyphagous aphid of major importance on the pea crop to which few resistant cultivars are available. In this study, we screened a germplasm collection of Pisum spp. under field conditions over two seasons yielding the identification of a number of accessions with intermediate levels of resistance. Selected accessions were further studied under semi-controlled and controlled conditions in no choice and choice assays to validate the responses, and to further characterise the mechanisms of resistance operative. Results elucidated the valuable resistance of accession P40 (Pisum sativum ssp. sativum) and P665 (P. sativum ssp. syriacum), with the combination of both antixenosis, by reducing aphid preference, and antibiosis, by diminishing aphid proliferation.Acyrthosiphum pisum is a polyphagous aphid of major importance on pea crop to which little resistant cultivars are available. A germplasm collection of Pisum spp. was screened under field conditions over two seasons. Selected accessions were further studied under controlled and semi-controlled conditions in dual choice and no choice assays corroborating field data and elucidating the combination of antixenosis (no preference) and antibiosis (hamper aphid reproduction) mechanism in two accessions.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14T02:42:47.021616-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12417
  • Phenological growth stages of Montpelier Rock-Rose Mediterranean shrub
           (Cistus monspeliensis): codification and description according to the BBCH
    • Authors: A. Piga; P. Duce, C. Cesaraccio
      Abstract: Shrubland species are important vegetation component resulting from the degradation of Mediterranean forests due to anthropic activities, and constitute the first step of soil covering process subsequent to disturbances such as fire, grazing and deforestation. They represent interesting case studies for their adaptability to challenging climate and soil conditions, and for their potential use in the protection and enhancement of biodiversity. Montpelier Rock-Rose (Cistus monspeliensis) is a shrubland species growing widespread around the Mediterranean Basin. It is a drought semi-deciduous species well adapted to cope to the particularly severe climate conditions of this area. The BBCH scale is widely adopted throughout the world for the description of growth developmental stages of several economically important crops but a detailed description of the phenological growth stages of Montpelier Rock-Rose has never been developed. In this work, the description of the phenological growth stages of Montpelier Rock-Rose according to the BBCH scale was provided. The description is supplemented by images of principal phenological stages. This work might contribute to a better understanding of the life cycles of Mediterranean shrubland species, providing a useful tool for supporting studies on the responses of shrubs to the seasonal changes due to climate warming.Phenological diagram and illustration of the main phenological growth stages of Montpelier Rock-Rose according to BBCH (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und CHemische Industrie) scale system, based on phenological stages observed during two growing seasons (2010–12) at Capo Caccia site (Italy). Shrubland species are important vegetation component of Mediterranean Basin representing interesting case studies for their adaptability to challenging climate and soil conditions. Montpelier Rock-Rose (Cistus monspeliensis L.) is a drought semi-deciduous species well adapted to cope to the particularly severe climate conditions of this area. In this work, the description of the phenological growth stages of Montpelier Rock-Rose according to the BBCH scale was provided. This work might contribute to a better understanding of the life cycles of Mediterranean shrubland species, supporting studies on their responses to the seasonal changes due to climate warming.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14T02:36:17.211332-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12418
  • Growth promotion and root colonisation in pepper plants by
           phosphate-solubilising Chryseobacterium sp. strain ISE14 that suppresses
           Phytophthora blight
    • Authors: M.K. Sang; J.-J. Jeong, J. Kim, K.D. Kim
      Abstract: Previously, we selected bacterial strain ISE14 through a sequential selection procedure that included radicle, seedling, and in planta assays and field tests. This strain not only suppressed a destructive soilborne disease, Phytophthora blight, caused by Phytophthora capsici but also increased fruit yields of pepper plants in the fields. This study was conducted to identify strain ISE14 by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and to characterise biocontrol and plant growth promotion activities of the strain in pepper plants. Strain ISE14, identified as Chryseobacterium sp., significantly reduced disease severity in plants inoculated with Ph. capsici and promoted plant growth (lengths and dry weights of shoots and roots) compared with those in plants treated with Escherichia coli DH5α (negative control) or MgSO4 solution (untreated control). This strain effectively colonised pepper plant roots as assessed by bacterial population analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy; it enhanced soil microbial activity and biofilm formation, but not the production of indole acetic acid. Strain ISE14 also solubilised organic or inorganic phosphate by production of acid and alkaline phosphatases or reduction in pH, resulting in enhanced pepper plant growth. This strain exhibited similar or greater activity in disease control and plant growth promotion tests compared with positive control strains Paenibacillus polymyxa AC-1 (biocontrol) and Bacillus vallismortis EXTN-1 (plant growth). Therefore, Chryseobacterium sp. ISE14 may be a phosphate-solubilising and plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) strain that suppresses Phytophthora blight of pepper. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a phosphate-solubilising PGPR strain of Chryseobacterium sp. that suppresses the pepper disease.Confocal laser scanning micrographs of pepper (cv. ‘Nockwang’) roots colonised by gfp-tagged bacterial strains: (a) Escherichia coli DH5α (negative control); (b) Bacillus vallismortis EXTN-1 (positive control for plant growth); (c) Paenibacillus polymyxa AC-1 (positive control for biocontrol); and (d) Chryseobacterium sp. ISE14 at 0, 3 and 7 days after treatment (DAT) in a gnotobiotic system. No green fluorescence was observed in roots treated with 10 mM MgSO4 solution (untreated control).
      PubDate: 2018-02-09T02:51:00.429839-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12413
  • Grafting influence on the weight and quality of tomato fruit under salt
    • Authors: I. Koleška; D. Hasanagić, V. Todorović, S. Murtić, I. Maksimović
      Abstract: Two commercial tomato cultivars were used to determine whether grafting could prevent decrease of fruit weight and quality under salt stress conditions. The cultivars Buran F1 and Berberana F1 were grafted onto rootstock ‘Maxifort’ and grown under three levels of elevated soil salinity (EC 3.80 dS m−1, 6.95 dS m−1 and 9.12 dS m−1). Fruit weight reduction of grafted plants was lower (about 20–30%) in comparison with non-grafted ones. Salt stress at the second salinity level (EC 6.95 dS m−1) induced the highest alteration of examined growth and quality parameters. The total increase of phenols, flavonoids, ascorbate and lycopene content in the fruits of both grafted and non-grafted plants for both cultivars had a similar trend and intensity, though some inter-cultivar variation was observed. The possibility of grafting tomato plants to improve salt tolerance without fruit quality loss is discussed.Grafting influence on the weight and quality of tomato fruitunder salt stress.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12T01:15:29.327534-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12411
  • Pecan phenology in Southeastern China
    • Authors: M. Han; F. Peng, P. Marshall
      Abstract: Pecan (Carya illinoensis) is heterodicogamous, which often leads to unstable yield of its nut crops. Relating pecan orchard management to the phenological stage of the trees is the key to increasing yields; however, describing morphology alone does not lead to an orchard management system that is simple and practical. In this work, we extend the BBCH (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und Chemische Industrie) coding method to describe the morphology of the protogynous Mahan pecan cultivar over two consecutive years in southern China. Eight main growth stages, from vegetative bud dormancy to fruit harvest, were described and each phenological period was photographed. Pecan orchard management activities were listed for each stage in pecan BBCH scale to allow orchard managers to better manage their trees. This codification will facilitate breeding, conservation of genetic resources and general orchard management of this commercial crop. As well, recording the dates of various morphological stages over time will allow the influence of global climate change on pecan development to be tracked.Progression of pecan principal growth stages (PGS) and average monthly temperatures and monthly rainfall related to the BBCH scale in southern China.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08T02:41:51.426083-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12408
  • Input data needed for a risk model for the entry, establishment and spread
           of a pathogen (Phomopsis vaccinii) of blueberries and cranberries in the
    • Authors: A.H.C. van Bruggen; J.S. West, W. van der Werf, R.P.J. Potting, C. Gardi, I. Koufakis, V.V. Zelenev, H. Narouei-Khandan, A. Schilder, P. Harmon
      Pages: 126 - 147
      Abstract: International trade in live plant materials has increased worldwide over the last four decades. This has led to a dramatic increase in the introduction, establishment and spread of non-native plant pathogens. Regulatory authorities need advice on measures that may mitigate these adverse consequences of trade. Risk models may be used to underpin such advice. In this review, we give a systematic overview of the data needed for a quantitative risk model for Phomopsis vaccinii, which causes stem and fruit infections on Vaccinium species, and sometimes death, potentially also on native wild Vaccinium species in the EU. P. vaccinii is a quarantine organism worldwide, except for North America, where it is endemic. Despite extensive knowledge of the aetiology of the diseases caused by this pathogen and its taxonomy, quantitative data on transportation and detection of infected plants for planting and berries are scarce, and quantitative assessment of the future introduction, establishment and spread of P. vaccinii is difficult. Estimation of the potential impact of this pathogen in production fields and wild Vaccinium stands is even more difficult. P. vaccinii is not unique in this respect, and this review indicates the need for more and better quantitative data for assessment of the risks posed by newly introduced plant pathogens in areas where they are not endemic.Overview of assessment for Diaporthe vaccinii.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T20:23:13.661013-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12414
  • Identification and characterisation of RNA editing sites in chloroplast
           transcripts of einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum)
    • Authors: F. Kumbhar; X. Nie, G. Xing, X. Zhao, Y. Lin, S. Wang, S. Weining
      Pages: 197 - 207
      Abstract: RNA editing is a biological process that the RNA molecule occurred base change or modification to result in the change of genetic information at the post-transcription level, which played the vital roles in plant growth and development as well as in response to diverse stresses. To understand the composition and characteristic of chloroplast RNA editing patterns in einkorn wheat, the progenitor of wheat A subgenome, we systematically predicted and identified the RNA editing sites in plastome of three einkorn wheat species using bioinformatics analysis combined with RT-PCR method. A total of 33 sites distributed in 15 genes, 34 in 15 genes and 33 in 14 genes were predicted in Triticum urartu, Triticum boeoticum and Triticum monococcum, respectively, all of which were C to U conversion and most of them could be validated by RNA-seq data. Furthermore, all of the predicted editing sites were validated experimentally in T. urartu. Totally, 24 sites were found to be consistent with the prediction. The secondary structure and transmembrane domains of these five transcripts with the most abundant editing sites were further investigated. The results showed that the secondary structures of all five genes were changed, together with the transmembrane domains of ndhB were also altered as the result of editing, suggesting that RNA editing could have impact on the biological function of target genes. Finally, comparative analysis of the RNA editing patterns among Triticum species was performed to identify the conserved and species-specific editing sites. This study reported the chloroplast RNA editing in einkorn wheat, which laid the foundation for further study on the biological function of chloroplast RNA editing in wheat, and also provided the important information to reveal the origin and evolution of wheat from the perspective of RNA editing.RNA editing sites in chloroplast transcript of three einkorn wheat species were identified using bioinformatics analysis and experimental method. RNA editing altered the secondary structures of the target protein to result in biological effect. The conserved and species-specific editing sites were found through comparative analysis of einkorn wheat and other Triticum species.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T20:23:15.22369-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12412
  • Removal of early fruit branches triggered regulations in senescence, boll
           attributes and yield of Bt cotton genotypes
    • Authors: M.F. Saleem; M. Shahid, A. Shakoor, M.A. Wahid, S.A. Anjum, M. Awais
      Pages: 224 - 235
      Abstract: Premature senescence, unopened and rotted bolls are the primary constrictions hampering the accomplishment of yield potential in Bt cotton. An experiment was conducted with the objectives to delay senescence, enhance boll opening and reduce the boll rotting. The experiment was conducted at two randomly selected sites of University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan, during 2015 and repeated in 2016. Each experiment was laid out in randomised complete block design with two by two factorial arrangement structure and replicated five times. Treatments were comprised of R0 = no fruit removal; R1 = removal of early fruit branches (REFB) and two genotypes, viz. V1 = FH-142 and V2 = MNH-886. Genotypes were selected on the basis of abiotic stress tolerance (FH-142) and susceptibility (MNH-886). Nodes above cracked bolls, monopodial branches, opened bolls per plant and seed cotton yield were enhanced by 23, 12, 13 and 17%, respectively, under the influence of REFB over no fruit branch removal, while the REFB-mediated decrease in boll rotting was 27%. Moreover, the response of MNH-886 was more remarkable than FH-142 for all studied variables. Conclusively, REFB increased the number of nodes above a cracked boll, monopodial branches, opened bolls per plant and seed cotton yield while decreased rotted bolls per plant in both genotypes.Bad boll opening owing to early senescence and rotted bolls are chief hindrances to accomplish yield potential in cotton. The present study was aimed to delay the senescence and thus enhance the number of opened bolls and decrease the number of rotted bolls in cotton genotypes using removal of early fruit branches (REFB) as potential regulator of boll opening. Removal of two early fruit branches enhanced number of opened bolls, decreased rotted bolls, delayed the senescence and ultimately improved seed cotton yield in varying cotton genotypes compared to control.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T20:23:14.289019-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12415
  • Biochemical response between insects and plants: an investigation of
           enzyme activity in the digestive system of Leucoptera coffeella
           (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) and leaves of Coffea arabica (Rubiaceae) after
    • Authors: Y. Meriño-Cabrera; J.C. Zanuncio, R.S. da Silva, M. Solis-Vargas, G. Cordeiro, F.R. Rainha, W.G. Campos, M.C. Picanço, M.G. de Almeida Oliveira
      Pages: 236 - 243
      Abstract: Plant defence mechanisms can reduce the digestive enzyme activity of insect pests. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the production of proteinase inhibitors, lipoxygenase and polyphenol oxidase activity in Coffea arabica (Catuai IAC 15) plants, and the digestive enzyme activity in the pest Leucoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) after feeding on the plant. The production of proteinase inhibitors was evaluated with L-BApNA as a substrate. We studied lipoxygenase activity with linoleic acid and polyphenol oxidase activity with catechol substrates, in coffee plants damaged (T1) and not damaged (T2) by L. coffeella. L. coffeella digestive enzyme activity was verified by trypsin-like (substrate l-BApNA and l-TAME), chymotrypsin-like (BTpNA and ATEE), cysteine proteases (l-BApNA) and total protease (azocasein). Proteinase inhibitor production and lipoxygenase and polyphenol oxidase activity in C. arabica increases (P ≤ 0.05) with L. coffeella damage. Our results provide important information that these enzymatic activities may play a role in plant defence processes in C. arabica. Trypsin-like activity increases, whereas chymotrypsin-like and cysteine protease activity decrease in the midgut of L. coffeella, which acts as a defence mechanism.Protease inhibitor production, PPO and LOX activity in C. arabica plants, have no effect on reducing the proteolytic activity in L. coffeella. An increase in essential protease trypsin-like activity and a decrease of secondary ones such as chymotrypsin-like activity was founded in the digestive system of L. coffeella, in response to these plant defence mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T20:23:13.169754-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12416
  • Roles of bacteria in the bark beetle holobiont – how do they shape
           this forest pest'
    • Authors: P. García-Fraile
      Abstract: Bark beetles are well-known forest pests, some species inducing massive attacks on trees, resulting in the devastation of entire woodlands. Bark beetles are associated with microorganisms, forming an entity known as ‘holobiont’. Beetles and fungi are the best-studied members of this multipartite symbiosis. However, recent studies have shown that bacteria may play important roles in the bark beetle holobiont, such as providing certain nutrients, promoting the growth of beneficial fungi, detoxifying the environment by lowering the levels of phenolic compounds synthesised by the host tree or by inhibiting the growth of antagonistic fungi whereas some bacterial symbionts have the potential to kill beetles under certain conditions. Therefore, bacteria probably greatly affect the life cycle of bark beetles; hence, more research is needed to clarify the extent to which a bacterial associate is implicated in a bacterial bark beetle symbiosis and how much it determines host's performance. This review summarises all of the known activities of bacteria present in the bark beetle holobiont, indicates some important gaps in the knowledge of this symbiosis and provides some guidance for overcoming the difficulties in investigating this relationship in future studies.Relationship between bacteria and all the other different members in the bark beetle holobiont and ecology of this multi-species organism.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T23:31:31.767516-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12406
  • Responses of radish (Raphanus sativus) to drought stress
    • Authors: F. Stagnari; A. Galieni, S. D'Egidio, G. Pagnani, M. Pisante
      Abstract: With this study the effects of water deficit on radish growth, dry mass production and partitioning, source–sink relations, physiological responses and accumulation of secondary metabolites in storage roots and leaves have been investigated. Three water stress treatments were applied: (Control) 100% of water holding capacity (WHC), (WS50) 50% of WHC, (WS30) 30% of WHC. Water stress was effectively acquired starting from 287 growing degree days (GDD) as demonstrated by the lower values of relative water content (RWC), higher leaf temperature and NIR-based water indices values in water stressed conditions. Water stress reduced storage root dry weight by 27% at WS50 and 53% at WS30 as well as leaf dry matter accumulation (by 23% and 31% in WS50 and WS30, respectively), expansion (by 28% and 45% in WS50 and WS30, respectively) and specific leaf area (by 7% and 20% in WS50 and WS30, respectively) at 403 GDD. The increasing of leaf-to-root mass (L/R) and leaf area-to-root mass (LA/R) ratios indicated less dry matter allocation into storage organs under water stress conditions. Besides, water shortage increased leaf greenness as estimated by the higher soil–plant analysis development (SPAD) values (+14% and +20% on average for WS50 and WS30, respectively); other reflectance indices only partially confirmed SPAD readings. Substantially, water limitation did not significantly influence total anthocyanin content, ABTS-radical scavenging activity and total free phenolic compounds in storage roots, as well as the total free phenolic compounds in leaves. Radish showed a strong plasticity in its adaptation to drought thanks to avoidance mechanisms such as constrained leaf development, increased leaf thickness and adjusted source–sink relationships.Radish showed important drought avoidance mechanisms as reduced dry matter partitioning to storage organs and expansion of photosynthetic apparatus. The selected water indices were all sensitive to radish water status, showing also a negative linear relationship with RWC. Noticeable differences in terms of total free fraction of phenolic compounds TAC and ABTS in storage roots, or accumulation of phenolic compounds in leaves were not detected.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:01:01.928108-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12409
  • Intercropping hampers the nocturnal biological control of aphids
    • Authors: L.M. Gontijo; A.V. Saldanha, D.R. Souza, R.S. Viana, B.C. Bordin, A.C. Antonio
      Abstract: Increasing plant diversity in agroecosystems (i.e. intercropping) has been widely accepted as a means of promoting conservation biological control of mites and insect pests. Nevertheless, the contribution from underlying mechanisms such as the provision of non-prey alternative food (i.e. pollen and nectar) and shelter have not been properly disentangled; and additionally, it remains unexplored whether the performance of nocturnal and diurnal natural enemies is improved when provided with diverse plant communities. Using open field experiments and a greenhouse microcosm, we investigated whether intercropping collards with parsley could create shelter for natural enemies in the lower stratum (parsley), and whether or not nocturnal and diurnal natural enemies would carry out aphid biological control equally well in this increased plant diversity scenario (intercropping). The results showed that the shelter alone provided by the lower stratum/companion plants (parsley) mediated an increase in the abundance of natural enemies without involving the provision of non-prey alternative food. However, the biological control of aphids exerted by nocturnal predators was negatively affected by intercropping. The lower stratum (parsley) appeared to hamper the ability of nocturnal predators to reach aphids more quickly on the collard host plants (higher stratum). In total, our findings indicate that intercropping non-flowering companion plants is likely enough to mediate an increase of natural enemies via shelter provision. In addition, the results suggest that nocturnal predators, or non-flying predators for that matter, are hampered by complex lower stratum vegetation. Thus, considering natural enemy behaviour and plant characteristics when designing polyculture systems are vital for attaining conservation biological control success.Impact of intercropping green collards with parsley on the nocturnal and diurnal biological control of aphids (the wider the arrow the stronger/faster the biological control).
      PubDate: 2017-12-12T03:26:06.651829-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12407
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