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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2982 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1420 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 233)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Annals of Applied Biology
  [SJR: 0.816]   [H-I: 56]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0003-4746 - ISSN (Online) 1744-7348
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1583 journals]
  • Probability distributions for marketable pods and white mould on snap bean
    • Authors: D.A. Shah; H.R. Dillard, S.J. Pethybridge
      Abstract: White mould, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most recalcitrant diseases of snap bean. Probability distributions suitable for describing the total number of marketable pods (hereafter simply referred to as pods) per plant, as well as for the number of pods and stems with white mould per plant, have not been identified. The total number of pods and the number of pods and stems with white mould were measured on a per plant basis in plots of processing snap bean (var. Hystyle) in New York. The total number of pods per plant ranged from 0 to 29, and was best described by the Pólya-Aeppli distribution. The number of pods and the number of stems with white mould per plant were well-described by the negative binomial (NB) distribution. A Sarmanov bivariate distribution with NB marginals was derived and fitted to the joint data on the number of pods and stems with white mould per plant, accounting for correlation between pods and stems with white mould on the same plant. The bivariate distribution was used to formulate an empirical equation for the incidence of plants with white mould as a function of the average number of pods and stems with white mould per plant. The results represented a more complete understanding of the distributional properties of white mould in snap bean.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T04:11:24.960644-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12363
       
  • Ethylenediamine-N,N′-disuccinic acid mitigates salt-stress damages in
           strawberry by interfering with effects on the plant ionome
    • Authors: R. Aslantas; I. Angin, M. Kose, N. Bernstein
      Abstract: This study evaluated the hypothesis that the organic chelant ethylenediamine-N,N′-disuccinic acid (EDDS) mitigates plant damage under salinity, and that this is accomplished by EDDS-induced effects on cation uptake. Damaging effects of salinity on plants often involve inhibited uptake of nutritional cations, such as K and Ca, and excessive accumulation of Na. Therefore, mechanisms that improve uptake of K and Ca, or reduce Na uptake, have a potential for ameliorating salinity damages. Organic chelants increase heavy-metal cation availability at the site of uptake and increase their uptake by the roots or in planta transport. Although organic chelants are routinely used in agriculture to enhance uptake of heavy-metal cations into plants, and for soil bioremediation, their effect on uptake of cation-macronutrients is not known, and neither is their impact on plant function under salinity. In this study, we evaluated the response of strawberry plants to EDDS application (0, 1, 3 and 5 mmol kg soil−1), under six levels of NaCl (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 mmol L−1). EDDS application under salinity improved vegetative development, as well as reproductive growth and chlorophyll content, with statistically significant interaction between chelant dosage and level of salinity. The mitigation of salinity damage by EDDS occurred at high salinity treatments (from 9 mM NaCl). Application rates of 1–3 mmol EDDS kg−1 were optimal for mitigating salinity effects on reproductive development, but in accordance with the extent of chelant-induced accumulation of the macronutrients K, Ca and P in the leaves, higher application rates (3–5 mmol EDDS kg−1) were required for optimal improvement of vegetative development. These results suggest that EDDS improves plant function under mild salinities by interfering with salinity effects on the plant ionome.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T03:40:29.654703-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12364
       
  • Effects of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 on the physiology in
           asymptomatic plants of Vitis vinifera
    • Authors: R. Montero; H. El aou ouad, D. Pacifico, C. Marzachì, N. Castillo, E. García, N.F. Del Saz, I. Florez-Sarasa, J. Flexas, J. Bota
      Abstract: Grapevine leafroll disease is one of the most important viral diseases of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) worldwide. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) is the most predominant virus species causing this disease. Therefore, it is important to identify GLRaV-3 effects, especially in plants which do not systematically show visual symptoms. In this study, effects of GLRaV-3 on grapevine physiology were evaluated in asymptomatic plants of Malvasía de Banyalbufar and Cabernet Sauvignon cvs. Absolute virus quantification was performed in order to determine the level of infection of the treatment. The net carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation (AN) and electron transport rate (Jflux) were the main parameters affected by the virus. The AN reduction in infected plants was attributed to restrictions in CO2 diffusion caused by anatomical leaf changes and a reduction of Rubisco activity. Those effects were more evident in Malvasia de Banyalbufar plants. The reduction of AN leads to a decrease in the total oxygen uptake rate by the activity of the cytochrome oxidase pathway, producing slight differences in plant growth. Therefore, even though no symptoms were expressed in the plants, the effects of the virus compromised the plant vital processes, showing the importance of early detection of the virus in order to fight against the infection.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17T03:41:11.103456-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12356
       
  • Lessons learned from the virus indexing of Musa germplasm: insights from a
           multiyear collaboration
    • Authors: C. De Clerck; K. Crew, I. Van den houwe, L. McMichael, C. Berhal, L. Lassois, M. Haissam Jijakli, N. Roux, J. Thomas, S. Massart
      Abstract: The Bioversity International Transit Center (ITC) for banana hosts more than 1500 accessions largely covering the genetic diversity of the genus Musa. Its objective is to conserve this genetic diversity and to supply plant materials to users worldwide. All the Musa accessions must be tested for virus presence and, if infected, virus elimination must be attempted, to enable the supply of virus-free plant material. An international collaborative effort launched under the auspices of Bioversity International (2007–2013) finally led to the implementation of a two-step process to test the accessions. The first step, called pre-indexing, involved only molecular tests and was designed as a pre-screen of new germplasm lines or existing accessions to reduce the need for post-entry virus therapy and repeated virus indexing. The second step, called full indexing, was performed on either older existing accessions or newer accessions which tested negative during pre-indexing, and involved molecular tests, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and symptom observation. In total, 270 germplasm lines (434 samples) were pre-indexed; while full indexing was carried out on 243 accessions (68 of which had been pre-indexed). A significant proportion of the samples tested during pre-indexing was infected with at least one virus (68%), showing the utility of this early pre-screening step. Banana streak OL virus and Banana mild mosaic virus were the most commonly detected viruses during both pre- and full indexing. For 22 accessions, viral particles were observed by TEM in full indexing while the molecular tests were negative, underlining the importance of combining various detection techniques. After full indexing, viruses were not detected in 166 accessions, which were then released for international distribution from the ITC. This publication exemplifies how the practical application of diagnostic protocols can raise fundamental questions related to their appropriate use in routine practice and the need for their continuous monitoring and improvement after their first publication.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T04:51:31.242832-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12353
       
  • Allometric equations for yield predictions of enset (Ensete ventricosum)
           and khat (Catha edulis) grown in home gardens of southern Ethiopia
    • Authors: B.T. Mellisse; K. Descheemaeker, M.J. Mourik, G.W.J. Ven
      Abstract: Enset is a large, single-stemmed perennial herbaceous plant domesticated as a staple food crop only in Ethiopia. Khat is a perennial plant cultivated for its economically important leaves and twigs that are the sources of stimulant when chewed. We address the issue of yield estimation of both crops, as they are important for the livelihoods of smallholders in the home garden systems in Southern Ethiopia and have received little attention so far. The objective of this study was to develop linear allometric models for estimating the edible (food and feed) and commercial yields of enset and khat plants, respectively. Data were collected from 20 enset and 100 khat plants. Diameter at 50-cm height (d50), pseudostem height (hp) and their combination were good predictor variables for the food products of enset with adjusted R2 values above 0.85, while d50, hp, edible pseudostem height (hep), total height (ht) and their combination were good predictor variables for the feed products of enset with adjusted R2 values above 0.70. For dwarf khat plants crown area (ca) combined with total height (ht) resulted in the best prediction with an adjusted R2 of 0.77, while the leaf and twig dry weight for tall khat plants was best predicted by ca with adjusted R2 of 0.43. In all cases linear models were used.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T04:05:49.499485-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12350
       
  • Effects of species and soil-nitrogen availability on root system
           architecture traits – study on a set of weed and crop species
    • Authors: D. Moreau; F. Abiven, H. Busset, A. Matejicek, L. Pagès
      Abstract: Better managing crop : weed competition in cropping systems while reducing both nitrogen and herbicide inputs is a real challenge that requires a better understanding of crop and weed root architecture in relation to soil-nitrogen availability. An original approach was used which considered the parameters of a simulation model of root architecture as traits to analyse (a) the interspecific diversity of root system architecture, and (b) its response to soil-nitrogen availability. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted using three crop and nine weed species grown at two contrasted concentrations of soil-nitrogen availability. Plant traits were measured to characterise both overall plant growth and root architecture, with a focus on primary root emergence, root elongation and branching. The studied root traits varied among species (from a twofold to a fourfold factor, depending on the trait), validating their use as indicators to analyse the interspecific variability of root architecture. The largest interspecies differences were for two traits: ‘maximal apical root diameter’ and ‘interbranch distance’ (distance between two successive laterals on the same root). Conversely, most of the studied root traits varied little with soil-nitrogen availability (from no variation to a 1.1-fold factor, depending on the trait) even though soil-nitrogen availability varied with a 17-fold factor and impacted the overall shoot and root biomass. So, the root traits used in this article are stable whatever soil-nitrogen availability. As they reflect processes underlying root system architecture, this low effect of nitrogen suggests that the rules governing root architecture are little affected by plant nitrogen status and soil-nitrogen availability. We propose that the determinants of differences in root system architecture between soils with contrasted nitrogen availability mainly originate from differences in the amount of carbon allocated to and within the root system. Characterising each plant species by a combination of root traits gave insights regarding the potential species competitive ability for soil resources in agroecosystems.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:10:29.020179-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12355
       
  • New insights on Flavescence dorée phytoplasma ecology in the vineyard
           agro-ecosystem in southern Switzerland
    • Authors: P. Casati; M. Jermini, F. Quaglino, G. Corbani, S. Schaerer, A. Passera, P.A. Bianco, I.E. Rigamonti
      Abstract: Phytoplasmas associated with Flavescence dorée (FDp) grapevine disease are quarantine pathogens controlled through mandatory measures including the prompt eradication and destruction of diseased plants, and the insecticide treatments against the insect vector, the ampelophagous leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus. In the present study, a multidisciplinary approach has been applied to investigate the FDp ecological cycle in a test vineyard agro-ecosystem in Canton Ticino, south Switzerland. Despite the scarce population density of S. titanus, a regular trend of new infections (3.4% of the total vines) through the years was observed. The leafhopper Orientus ishidae was found as the most abundant among the captured insect species known as phytoplasma vectors (245 out of 315 specimens). The population of O. ishidae was evidenced prevalently (167 specimens) in the south-western side of the vineyard and within the neighbouring forest constituted mainly by hazel (Corylus avellana) and willow (Salix spp.). These plant species were found infected by FDp related strains (30% of analysed trees) for the first time in this study. Interestingly, O. ishidae was found to harbour FDp related strains in high percentage (26% of the analysed pools). In addition, 16SrV phytoplasma group was detected for the first time in the insect Hyalesthes obsoletus and a FDp related strain in Thamnotettix dilutior, present in low populations within the test vineyard. Molecular characterisation and phylogenetic analyses of methionine aminopeptidase (map) gene sequences of FDp and related strains, here identified, revealed the great prevalence of the map-type FD2 in grapevines (97%) and in O. ishidae pools (72%). Such a map-type was found also in hazel and in T. dilutior, but not in S. titanus. Moreover, map-types FD1 and FD3 were identified for the first time in Switzerland in several host plants and phytoplasma vectors, including grapevine (FD1), S. titanus (FD1) and O. ishidae (FD1 and FD3). Based on the data obtained in this study, it is reasonable to hypothesise that the ecological cycle of FDp could be related not exclusively to the grapevine-specific feeding diet of S. titanus, but it could include other insect vector(s) and/or plant host(s). Further studies will be needed to prove the role of O. ishidae as vector able to transmit FDp from wild plants (e.g. hazel) to grapevine.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T04:38:33.379387-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12359
       
  • A real-time PCR assay for improved rapid, specific detection of
           Cryphonectria parasitica
    • Authors: S. Rubio; A. Barnes, K. Webb, J. Hodgetts
      Abstract: Cryphonectria parasitica, an ascomycete fungus, is the causal agent of chestnut blight. This highly destructive disease of chestnut trees causes significant losses, and is therefore a regulated pathogen in Europe. Existing methods for the detection of C. parasitica include morphological identification following culturing, or PCR; however, these are time-consuming resulting in delays to diagnosis. To allow improved detection, a new specific real-time PCR assay was designed to detect C. parasitica directly from plant material and fungal cultures, and was validated according to the European Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO) standard PM 7/98. The analytical specificity of the assay was tested extensively using a panel of species taxonomically closely related to Cryphonectria, fungal species associated with the hosts and healthy plant material. The assay was found to be specific to C. parasitica, whilst the analytical sensitivity of the assay was established as 2 pg µL−1 of DNA. Comparative testing of 63 samples of naturally infected plant material by the newly developed assay and traditional morphological diagnosis demonstrated an increased diagnostic sensitivity when using the real-time PCR assay. Furthermore the assay is able to detect both virulent and hypovirulent strains of C. parasitica. Therefore the new real-time PCR assay can be used to provide reliable, rapid, specific detection of C. parasitica to prevent the accidental movement of the disease and to monitor its spread.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T04:01:37.548846-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12354
       
  • First report of the gall midge Asphondylia serpylli on thyme (Thymus
           vulgaris), and identification of the associated fungal symbiont
    • Authors: B. Zimowska; G. Viggiani, R. Nicoletti, A. Furmańczyk, A. Becchimanzi, I. Kot
      Abstract: Asphondylia spp. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) are known for inducing gall formation on many diverse plants in both wild and agricultural contexts. The species Asphondylia serpylli is herewith reported for the first time on thyme (Thymus vulgaris) cropped in Poland. The associated fungus has been identified as Botryosphaeria dothidea, representing its first record from cecidomyiid galls on a species of Lamiaceae. Moreover, a short account is given on the parasitoid species active in this particular ecological context. These findings point out the basic role of B. dothidea in the organization of these three-component biotic systems regardless of the varied assortments between the midge species and their host plant.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:35:25.306197-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12360
       
  • Influence of limiting and regulating factors on populations of Asian
           citrus psyllid and the risk of insect and disease outbreaks
    • Authors: B.J. Udell; C. Monzo, T.M. Paris, S.A. Allan, P.A. Stansly
      Abstract: Diaphorina citri, known as the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), is the insect vector of a devastating citrus disease (huanglongbing; HLB), which has caused billions of dollars in damage in Florida since its detection in 2005. Data from long-term monitoring programs in two Florida citrus groves were used to assess ACP demography and population ecology, which is needed to implement more effective management strategies for HLB. Seasonal patterns and correlations between ACP density estimates and a suite of environmental and community indicators, previously shown to influence ACP demography, were described and interpreted. Data were evaluated for evidence for spatial clustering and density-dependent recruitment of ACP in a major outbreak event using Taylor power law analysis and by fitting a stochastic Beverton–Holt recruitment model using state-space approach. Strong evidence for density-dependent recruitment and spatial clustering was found and should be considered for future modelling work as it can greatly influence ACP populations by affecting their growth rates, dispersal behaviour and morphology, as well as HLB transmission. Observations of ACP density and dispersion in space and time, along with the estimated parameters from the Beverton–Holt model, suggested that intraspecific competition for resources may initiate both local, then widespread dispersal process, thus affecting grove-wide and area-wide HLB transmission. When these results were synthesised with those of parallel studies, the removal of several of these regulating factors in a single year could lead to widespread disease of the entire crop in a grove, and likely surrounding groves as well. We provide the first field evidence of the consequences of back-to-back ACP colonisation on the rapid spread of the HLB in a grove (a mechanism previously demonstrated in laboratory settings). We stress the importance of proper integrated pest management and area-wide management to prevent such outbreaks.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:30:43.440895-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12349
       
  • Effect of five fungicides with different modes of action on cobweb disease
           (Cladobotryum mycophilum) and mushroom yield
    • Authors: J. Carrasco; M.J. Navarro, M. Santos, F.J. Gea
      Abstract: The fungicides chlorothalonil, metrafenone, prochloraz-Mn, thiabendazole and thiophanate-methyl were tested in vitro and in vivo for their effect on Cladobotryum mycophilum, the mycoparasite that causes cobweb disease in white button mushroom. In vitro experiments showed that metrafenone (EC50= 0.025 mg L−1) and prochloraz-Mn (EC50= 0.045 mg L−1) were the most effective fungicides for inhibiting the mycelial growth of C. mycophilum. Selectivity indexes of the tested fungicides on both C. mycophilum and Agaricus bisporus indicated that metrafenone was also the most selective fungicide, while chlorothalonil was the most toxic fungicide against A. bisporus mycelium. The in vivo efficacy of fungicides for controlling cobweb was evaluated in three mushroom cropping trials, which were artificially inoculated with C. mycophilum (106 conidia m−2). Prochloraz-Mn provided good control, although the surface colonised by cobweb reached 12% by the end of the crop cycles. None of the inoculated cropping trials treated with metrafenone showed any cobweb disease symptoms, and neither were any significant phytotoxic effects on mushroom yield recorded. These results indicated that metrafenone can be used as an alternative to prochloraz-Mn in the control of cobweb disease.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:20:24.830082-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12352
       
  • Phenological growth stages of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) based on the
           BBCH scale
    • Authors: V. Sosa-Zuniga; V. Brito, F. Fuentes, U. Steinfort
      Abstract: Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a pseudocereal native from the Andean region of South America that has increased in importance worldwide. Quinoa is now considered an alternative to traditional crops in a climate change scenario, considering its ability to adapt to marginal soils, droughts and frosts. Despite the interesting agronomic and nutritional features of this crop, research into quinoa is characterised by individual attempts to define its phenological stages without an international consensus. A unique criterion to quantify the phenology of quinoa could become a useful tool for researchers and plant breeders in future work by standardising this information for international cooperation. In this article, a proposed scale of the phenological growth stages of quinoa based on the BBCH coding system (Biologische Bundesanstalt Bundessortenamt und CHemische Industrie) was developed. Growth stages were described utilising the decimal code of the BBCH system, and figures were included for the most representative stages.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T06:15:43.248042-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12358
       
  • Temporal and spatial dynamics of Tomato spotted wilt virus and its vector
           in a potato crop in Argentina
    • Authors: A.E. Salvalaggio; P.M. López Lambertini, G. Cendoya, M.A. Huarte
      Abstract: The nature of spatial and temporal dynamics of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and its vector in a potato crop cv. Innovator without insecticide application is analysed. Seed tuber was analysed for the presence of TSWV as a source of initial inoculum. The presence of plants with symptoms of TSWV was evaluated by visual observation and DAS-ELISA analysis to confirm the virus infection. Thrips species were collected from leaves and inflorescences and identified under stereomicroscope. The distribution of symptomatic plants and thrips species was recorded five times at 14 days intervals. The initial seed tuber infection was of 1.1%. Disease incidence was 0% at 29 days after planting (DAP), 0.2% at 43 DAP, 2.2% at 56 DAP, 11.6% at 70 DAP and 14.6% at 84 DAP. The progress of the disease was adequately described by a Logistic model [y = 0.15/(1 + 1205372.93 × exp (−0.22 × DAP))]. Thrips vector species identified as resident in the crop during the whole cycle were Thrips tabaci (n = 423), Frankliniella occidentalis (n = 141) and as occasional species, F. schultzei (n = 34) and F. gemina (n = 5) were found. At 43 and 56 DAP a random distribution pattern was observed and the thrips species found were T. tabaci (n = 188) and F. occidentalis (n = 105). An aggregated pattern was determined at 70 and 84 DAP. Spatial patterns of the disease spread suggest a polycyclic epidemic with TSWV secondary spread in the potato crop. Multiple control measures were deduced from these epidemiological results like virus testing in tubers, removal of external virus infection sources and thrips control.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T03:30:26.533028-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12357
       
  • Mating behaviour and reproductive output in insecticide-resistant and
           -susceptible strains of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais)
    • Authors: N.M.P Guedes; R.N.C. Guedes, J.F. Campbell, J.E. Throne
      Abstract: Insecticide resistance is a broadly recognised and well-studied management problem resulting from intensive insecticide use, which also provides useful evolutionary models of newly adapted phenotypes to changing environments. Two common assumptions in such models are the existence of fitness costs associated with insecticide resistance, which will place the resistant individuals at a disadvantage in insecticide-free environments, and the prevalence of random mating among insecticide-resistant and -susceptible individuals. However, cases of insecticide resistance lacking apparent fitness disadvantages do exist impacting the evolution and management of insecticide resistance. Assortative mating, although rarely considered, may also favour the evolution and spread of insecticide resistance. Thus, the possible existence of both conditions in the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais), a key pest of stored cereals, led to the assessment of the mating behaviour and reproductive fitness of insecticide-resistant and -susceptible weevil strains and their reciprocal crosses. The patterns of female and male mating choice also were assessed. Although mating behaviour within and between weevil strains was similar without mate choice, mating within the resistant strain led to higher reproductive output than within the susceptible strain; inter-strain matings led to even higher fertility. Thus, no apparent fitness cost associated with resistance seems to exist in these weevils, favouring the evolution of this phenotype that is further aided by the higher fertility of inter-strain matings. Mate choice reduced latency to mate and no inter-strain preference was detected, but female weevils were consistent in their mate selection between 1st and 2nd matings indicating existence of female mating preference among maize weevils. Therefore, if female mate selection comes to favour trait(s) associated with insecticide resistance, higher reproductive fitness will be the outcome of such matings favouring the evolution and spread of insecticide resistance among maize weevil populations reverting into a management concern.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T04:51:56.257965-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12346
       
  • Phenological growth stages of bael (Aegle marmelos) according to the
           extended Biologische Bundesantalt, Bundessortenamt und Chemische Industrie
           scale
    • Authors: K. Kishore; K.K. Mahanti, D. Samant
      Abstract: Bael (Aegle marmelos) is an important rutaceous fruit widely cultivated in India. This crop is revered for its high economic and therapeutic value. However, its phenology has not yet been described systematically. Detailed description of phenological growth stages of bael using the extended Biologische Bundesantalt, Bundessortenamt und Chemische Industrie (BBCH) scale has been worked out and reported in this paper. Eight principal growth stages and 37 secondary growth stages for bud, leaf development, shoot growth, inflorescence emergence, flowering, fruit development, fruit maturation and senescence have been distinctively defined. The sequential progression of principal growth stages has been described according to the phenological growth pattern and climatic requirements of different phenophases. The extended BBCH scale is broadly applicable for bael cultivation as it describes all the phenophases pertaining to vegetative and reproductive stages. Because of the relative importance of phenophases in crop management and crop improvement, the BBCH scale will facilitate adoption of better crop management practices, crop improvement and characterisation of bael germplasm. Moreover, the extended BBCH scale will be a useful tool in assessing impact of climate change on crop yield and fruit quality.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T04:51:30.721562-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12347
       
  • Detection of lethal yellowing phytoplasma in coconut plantlets obtained
           through in vitro germination of zygotic embryos from the seeds of infected
           palms
    • Authors: C. Oropeza; I. Cordova, C. Puch-Hau, R. Castillo, J.L. Chan, L. Sáenz
      Abstract: Lethal yellowing (LY) is a disease caused by 16SrIV phytoplasmas that has devastated coconut plantations in the Americas. An alternative means of phytoplasma spread is through seeds. Therefore, we used a novel approach based on plumules from the embryos of LY-diseased coconut palms. We cultured the plumules in vitro to determine the presence of phytoplasma DNA in the plantlets. In the first assay, 185 embryos were obtained. The results showed positive detection in 20 samples (11%) with the nested PCR and in 59 samples (32%) with the TaqMan real-time PCR. A second assay was designed to trace plumules to their respective embryos and haustorial tissues to determine whether they had derived from an embryo with positive LY detection; a total of 124 embryos were obtained. The results showed no positive detection with the nested PCR and positive detection in 42 of the haustorial tissue samples (32%) with the TaqMan real-time PCR. The 124 plumules isolated from the embryos were cultivated under in vitro conditions and divided into two groups. Group A was followed for shoot formation and Group B was followed to the plantlet stage. After 3 months of cultivation, 33 cultures (50%) within Group A became necrotic; the rest were analysed to evaluate LY phytoplasma DNA with the TaqMan real-time PCR assay and 14 (42%) tested positive. After 18 months of cultivation, 20 cultures (34%) within Group B became necrotic. The rest were analysed for the detection of the LY phytoplasma DNA, and 15 and 11 (39% and 29%) of the samples tested positive with the TaqMan real-time PCR and nested PCR assays, respectively. Blast analysis of the sequenced products revealed that the sequences showed 99% homology with LY-phytoplasma subgroup 16SrIV-A. The results presented here demonstrate, for the first time, the occurrence of the transmission of LY phytoplasmas from coconut embryos to plantlets.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T02:05:38.907363-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12351
       
  • Inoculation of cucumber, melon and zucchini varieties with Tomato leaf
           curl New Delhi virus and evaluation of infection using different detection
           methods
    • Authors: M.R. Figàs; A. Alfaro-Fernández, M.I. Font, D. Borràs, C. Casanova, M. Hurtado, M. Plazas, J. Prohens, S. Soler
      Abstract: The disease caused by Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV), which is naturally transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, causes important economic losses in cucurbit crops. The availability of simple and efficient inoculation protocols and detection methods is necessary for screening varieties and germplasm collections as well as for breeding populations. We evaluated the infectivity of ToLCNDV inocula prepared using three different buffers for mechanical sap inoculation in a susceptible variety of zucchini. We found that inoculum prepared with buffer III, which contains polyvinylpyrrolidone, is highly efficient for mechanical inoculation, with 100% of plants displaying severe symptoms 21 days post-inoculation. Using this buffer, we mechanically inoculated 19 commercial varieties of cucurbit crops (six of cucumber, six of melon and seven of zucchini), evaluated the evolution of symptoms and diagnosed infection using nine different ToLCNDV detection methods (four based on serology, four based on molecular hybridization and one based on PCR detection). The results revealed that all varieties are susceptible, although cucumber varieties display less severe symptoms than those of melon or zucchini. All detection methods were highly efficient (more than 85% of plants testing positive) in melon and zucchini, but in cucumber, the percentage of positive plants detected with serology and molecular hybridization methods ranged from 20.4% with Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) antiserum, to 78.5% with DNA extract hybridization. Overall, the best detection results were obtained with PCR, with 92.6%, 92.4% and 98.4% cucumber, melon and zucchini plants, respectively, testing positive. When considering the overall results in the three crops, the best serology and molecular hybridization methods were those using Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) antiserum and DNA extract, respectively. The inoculation methodology developed and the information on detection methods are of great relevance for the selection and breeding of varieties of cucurbit crops that are tolerant or resistant to ToLCNDV.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T03:15:48.705298-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12344
       
  • Biological control of Ziziphus mauritiana (Rhamnaceae): feasibility,
           prospective agents and research gaps
    • Authors: K. Dhileepan
      Abstract: The tropical fruit tree, Ziziphus mauritiana (Rhamnaceae), a native of the Indian subcontinent, is a pasture and environmental weed in northern Australia and Fiji. In their native range, Ziziphus spp., including commercially cultivated Z. mauritiana and Z. jujuba, are subjected to a wide range of pests and diseases. The feasibility of classical biological control of this weed has not been explored to date. Effective biological control could reduce plant vigour and seed output, thereby limiting the spread of Z. mauritiana in Australia. Two Ziziphus species are native to Australia, hence, any prospective biological control agent should be specific to Z. mauritiana. Opportunistic field surveys and literature searches identified 133 species of phytophagous insects, 9 species of phytophagous mites and 12 plant pathogens on Ziziphus spp. Host records suggest the following are possibly specific to Z. mauritiana and hence are prospective biological control agents in Australia: the seed-feeding weevil Aubeus himalayanus; the leaf-feeding gracillariid moth Phyllonorycter iochrysis; the leaf-mining chrysomelid beetle Platypria erinaceus; the leaf-folding crambid moth Synclera univocalis; the leaf-galling midge Phyllodiplosis jujubae; and the gall-mites Aceria cernuus and Larvacarus transitans. Host range of the rust Phakopsora zizyphi-vulgaris includes many Ziziphus species, including the native Z. oenoplia and hence would not be a suitable biological control agent in Australia. The powdery mildew Pseudoidium ziziphi, with a host range restricted to Ziziphus species, has not been reported on Z. oenoplia. All available information on the pests and diseases of Z. mauritiana are from cultivated varieties. Hence, future surveys should focus on wild Z. mauritiana in the Indian subcontinent in areas that are climatically similar to the regions of northern Australia, where it is currently most abundant.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T01:00:27.416341-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12338
       
  • Control and yield loss modelling of circular leaf spot of persimmon caused
           by Mycosphaerella nawae
    • Authors: D.D.M. Bassimba; J.L. Mira, M.E. Sedano, A. Vicent
      Abstract: Symptoms of circular leaf spot of persimmon (CLSP), caused by Mycosphaerella nawae, consisted of necrotic spots on leaves, chlorosis and premature defoliation. Although CLSP is a foliar disease, early fruit maturation and abscission are frequently associated with the presence of lesions on leaves and defoliation, resulting in severe economic losses. Despite their importance for the design of efficient disease management programmes, quantitative relationships between CLSP incidence and yield loss are unknown. Therefore, fungicide efficacy trials were conducted during two consecutive years in Spain to induce different levels of disease severity, defoliation and yield loss. The effects of fungicide treatments on CLSP severity were analysed by ordinal logistic regression models. Relative yield loss values were regressed against the percentage of affected leaves or defoliated obtained at different evaluation dates. The disease had high negative impact and complete yield loss was observed in the absence of effective fungicide treatments. Preventive applications of pyraclostrobin, trifloxy-strobin and mancozeb provided the best disease control and highest yields, up to 95.77 kg tree−1. An exponential relationship of CLSP incidence and defoliation with yield loss was found. In general, model fit and predictive ability was superior when defoliation, rather than incidence, was used as explanatory variable. The impact of defoliation on yield loss was higher in earliest evaluation dates, suggesting that early leaf abscission may be the main factor contributing to premature fruit drop and subsequent yield loss. Substantial yield losses were observed even with relatively low levels of CLSP incidence and defoliation. Therefore, it was not possible to define a critical action threshold for CLSP management based on foliar symptoms.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T00:50:35.867278-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12343
       
  • Development, histological observations and Grapevine leafroll-associated
           virus-3 localisation in in vitro grapevine micrografts
    • Authors: X.-Y. Hao; W.-L. Bi, Z.-H. Cui, C. Pan, Y. Xu, Q.-C. Wang
      Abstract: Development, histological process and Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-3 localisation were studied in micrografts of three scion/rootstock combinations: healthy/healthy, healthy/infected and infected/healthy. Earlier bud break and faster growth in scions of micrografts were obtained when the healthy shoot segments were used as scions, while earlier bud break in rootstocks and greater fresh weight of roots in micrografts were produced when the healthy shoot segments were used as rootstocks. All histological processes including callus initiation and formation in micrografting conjunctions, and initiation of new cambial cells followed by vascular bundle development connecting scions and rootstocks were similar in micrografts, regardless of the sanitary status of the scions and rootstocks used for micrografting. Virus infection in micrografting conjunctions and systematic infection in micrografts were much more efficient and faster in micrografting combination of the infected scions/healthy rootstocks than in the healthy scions/infected rootstocks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report addressing histological process of micrograft development and virus localisation in micrografts. In vitro culture system established in this study facilitates studies on the ‘pure’ impact of the viral infection on micrografting.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17T05:40:49.329023-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12342
       
  • Detection and differentiation of the coconut lethal yellowing phytoplasma
           in coconut-growing villages of Grand-Lahou, Côte d'Ivoire
    • Authors: Y. A. Rosete; H. A. Diallo, J. L. Konan Konan, N. Yankey, M. Saleh, F. Pilet, N. Contaldo, S. Paltrinieri, A. Bertaccini, J. Scott
      Abstract: Surveys for the Côte d'Ivoire lethal yellowing (CILY) phytoplasma were conducted in eight severely CILY-affected villages of Grand-Lahou in 2015. Leaves, inflorescences and trunk borings were collected from coconut palms showing CILY symptoms and from symptomless trees. Total DNA was extracted from these samples and tested by nested polymerase chain reaction/RFLP and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA, ribosomal protein (rp) and the translocation protein (secA) genes. The CILY phytoplasma was detected in 82.9% of the symptom-bearing palms collected from all the surveyed villages and from all the plant parts. Trunk borings were recommended as the most suitable plant tissue type for sampling. Results indicate that the CILY phytoplasma may have a westward spread to other coconut-growing areas of Grand-Lahou. CILY phytoplasma strains infecting coconut palms in the western region of Grand-Lahou exhibited unique single nucleotide polymorphisms on the rp sequence compared to the strains from the eastern region. Moreover, single nucleotide polymorphisms on the SecA sequence distinguished the CILY phytoplasma from the Cape St. Paul Wilt Disease phytoplasma in Ghana, and the Lethal Yellowing phytoplasma in Mozambique.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T20:46:46.19748-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12333
       
  • Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): an organism invisible
           to the defences of tomato fruits
    • Authors: R.S. Silva; A.E. Marques, D.O. Ferreira, Á.H. Costa, A.V. Ribeiro, M.G. Almeida Oliveira, R.M.S. Alves Meira, L. Jesus Pereira, M.C. Picanço
      Abstract: Insect–plant interactions involving species of the genus Solanum have been intensively studied, resulting in several articles on insect–plant interactions. However, the interactions between herbivores and the fruits of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) are not well known. Neoleucinodes elegantalis is a borer that causes great yield losses in S. lycopersicum crops because of the direct damage that it causes to the fruits and the difficulty of controlling it. In the field, the outside of a tomato fruit infested with the larvae of N. elegantalis is visually similar to uninfested fruits. Even a minor injury by herbivores can elicit a defensive response. Due to the lack of studies on interactions between fruit borers and S. lycopersicum, our aim in this study was to determine the locations of S. lycopersicum fruit in which the N. elegantalis larvae prefer to feed. An evaluation of nutritional sources was done through histochemical and biochemical tests and the defensive response of the S. lycopersicum fruit to attack by N. elegantalis larvae was evaluated through the detection of protease inhibitors (PIs) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activity. Our results show that the columella region is preferred by the N. elegantalis larvae and that this region has a nutritional source. Furthermore, attack by N. elegantalis larvae in the columella does not induce a significant increase in lipoxygenase activity and PIs. Thus, our results provide a better understanding of the interaction between the larvae of N. elegantalis and S. lycopersicum fruits and a better understanding of the evolution of plant–herbivore interactions, with an emphasis on the choice of feeding location as a strategy to avoid plant defences.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T18:55:36.821161-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12335
       
  • Cage and field experiments as basis for the development of control
           strategies against Cacopsylla pruni, the vector of European Stone Fruit
           Yellows
    • Authors: C. Paleskić; K. Bachinger, G. Brader, M. Kickenweiz, C. Engel, L. Wurm, L. Czipin, M. Riedle-Bauer
      Abstract: The efficacy and the instant effect of 13 insecticides and antifeedants towards Cacopsylla pruni, the vector of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’ were examined in cage studies (no choice experiments with 10 field-collected overwintered adults per experiment) on potted apricot trees (budding trees under outdoor conditions in early spring and foliated seedlings kept at 21°C). Cypermethrin caused 100% insect mortality within 2–4 h, thiacloprid 90–100% mortality within 24 h both on foliated and on budding trees. On budding trees spinosad led to 70–90% mortality within 24 h, thixotropic white trunk paint to 90% mortality within 48 h. On foliated seedlings flonicamid gave 70–100% mortality within 1 day, abamectin, spinosad, acetamiprid and spirotetramat 70–100% within 72 h. Field studies monitoring the effects of thiacloprid on remigrants of C. pruni by yellow sticky traps were carried out in two apricot orchards. Additionally the influence of the insecticide on insect dispersal was examined by mark, release and recapture trials. As compared to the control thiacloprid significantly reduced the catches of naturally occurring and released insects, decreased the number of trees on which released insects were recaptured (by 25–100%) and shortened the migration distances of the released insects by more than half. Our results suggest that appropriate insecticide treatments both reduce C. pruni populations and have a direct effect on pathogen transmission. Application of Cypermethrin before bloom and thiacloprid after bloom seem best suited to achieve these objectives. Thixotropic white trunk paint could, a formulation for spray application provided, eventually be a sustainable alternative or complement for treatments before bloom.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T02:40:36.626799-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12340
       
  • Maize seedling morphology and defence hormone profiles, but not herbivory
           tolerance, were mediated by domestication and modern breeding
    • Authors: M. Chinchilla-Ramírez; E.J. Borrego, T.J. DeWitt, M.V. Kolomiets, J.S. Bernal
      Abstract: We addressed whether Zea seedling morphology relevant to performance, defence hormone profiles and tolerance of a phloem-feeding, specialist herbivore were affected by two processes, plant domestication and modern breeding. Domestication effects were inferred through comparisons between Balsas teosintes (Zea mays parviglumis) and landrace maizes (Z. mays mays), and modern breeding effects through comparisons between landrace maizes and inbred maize lines. Specifically, we compared seedling forms (a composite measure of leaf length, average stem diameter, shoot wet weight, shoot dry weight, total root length, root wet weight, and root dry weight), shapes (forms scaled by seedling dry weight, a proxy for seedling size), and defence hormone profiles among Balsas teosinte and landrace and inbred line maizes, exposed or unexposed to feeding by Dalbulus maidis. Our results suggested that domestication as well as modern breeding strongly mediated both seedling form and shape. Form was more similar between landrace and inbred maize than between Balsas teosinte and landrace maize, suggesting that domestication affected seedling form more than modern breeding. In contrast, shape was more similar between Balsas teosinte and landrace maize than between landrace and inbred maizes, suggesting that modern breeding affected seedling shape more than domestication. Additionally, seedling shoot : root ratios appeared to have been mediated by domestication, but not by modern breeding. In broad terms, individual seedling structures relevant to seedling ecology in wild or managed environments, such as leaf and root lengths, and shoot and root masses, were enlarged with domestication and reduced with modern breeding. Herbivory did not affect seedling shape, but had a weak effect on form so that seedlings were slightly larger in the absence versus presence of D. maidis. Also, both domestication and modern breeding seem to have mediated seedling hormone profiles, with breeding more strongly mediating profiles than domestication. Jasmonic acid isoleucine (JA-Ile) and salicylic acid (SA) were induced by herbivory in both teosinte and maize. The hormone profiles assays collectively suggested that domestication and modern breeding altered constitutive levels of SA, abscisic acid and JA-related (JA-Ile and oxo-phytodienoic acid) hormone levels in seedlings, particularly by increasing the levels of SA and decreasing those of JA-related hormones. Altogether, our results suggested that maize domestication and modern breeding significantly altered seedling form, shape, ecologically relevant morphological traits (e.g. leaf and root lengths, and shoot and root masses) and hormonal defences, but not tolerance of D. maidis herbivory.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T02:35:33.811588-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12331
       
  • Can the pheromones of predators modulate responses to herbivore-induced
           plant volatiles'
    • Authors: T. Cabello; M.A. Rodriguez-Manzaneque, J.R. Gallego
      Abstract: Biological control of greenhouse pests has been successfully developed and applied. In greenhouse crops, several entomophagous species (predators and parasitoids) are used simultaneously in the crop cycle. One important aspect of these crops, which represent modified ecosystems, is the interactions among complexes of species, including plants, phytophagous insects, and predators. The chemical relationships (semiochemicals: pheromones and kairomones) among these species likely play an important role in greenhouse crops; however, few studies have focused on these relationships. The aim of this study was to analyse the importance of semiochemicals. Three groups of laboratory trials were conducted with two predatory species: Nabis pseudoferus and Nesidiocoris tenuis (Hemiptera: Nabidae and Miridae, respectively). The results of the first group of trials indicated that the adult females of both species were more attracted to herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) than they were to the control plants or plants with artificial damage. Based on the second group of trials, pheromones triggered an attraction in adult females of both species for conspecifics. Finally, based on the interactions of the adult females of the same species, pheromones changed or modulated the predatory responses to HIPVs. The implications of these results for the biological control of pest species in greenhouses are further discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T03:05:49.744297-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12341
       
  • Discovering and sequencing new plant viral genomes by next-generation
           sequencing: description of a practical pipeline
    • Authors: R. Blawid; J.M.F. Silva, T. Nagata
      Pages: 301 - 314
      Abstract: Small-scale sequencing has improved substantially in recent decades, culminating in the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. Modern NGS methods have helped the discovery of many new plant viruses. Nevertheless, there is still a need to establish solid assembly pipelines targeting small genomes characterised by low identities to known viral sequences. Here, we describe and discuss the fundamental steps required for discovering and sequencing new plant viral genomes by NGS. A practical pipeline and standard alternative tools used in NGS analysis are presented.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T02:59:59.181384-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12345
       
  • Fusarium fujikuroi associated with stem rot of red-fleshed dragon fruit
           (Hylocereus polyrhizus) in Malaysia
    • Authors: M. Masratul Hawa; I. Nurul Faziha, M.N. Nik Mohamad Izham, Z. Latiffah
      Pages: 434 - 446
      Abstract: Stem rot was recorded as one of serious diseases of red-fleshed dragon fruit, (Hylocereus polyrhizus), in Malaysia. Fusarium fujikuroi was recovered from stem rot lesion of H. polyrhizus and the species was identified using TEF1-α sequence and mating study. From maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree using combined TEF1-α and β-tubulin sequences, the F. fujikuroi isolates from stem rot were grouped according to three geographical locations, namely Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that F. fujikuroi isolates from stem rot of H. polyrhizus were clustered separately from F. fujikuroi isolates from rice because of intraspecific variation. From amplification of MAT allele-specific primers, 20% of the isolates carried MAT-1 allele while 80% carried MAT-2 allele. From isolates that carried MAT-1 allele, 65% crossed-fertile with MP-C (mating population of F. fujikuroi) tester strain while for MAT-2 allele, 56% crossed-fertile with MP-C. None of the isolates were identified as MP-D (mating population of F. proliferatum). Pathogenicity test conducted on 40 representative isolates showed that the stem rot symptoms were similar with the symptoms observed in the field, and can be categorized as low, moderate and high aggressiveness, which indicated variation in pathogenicity and virulence among the isolates. This study provides novel findings regarding Fusarium species associated with stem rot of H. polyrhizus and indicated that F. fujikuroi as a new causal pathogen of the disease.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T03:00:02.305677-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/aab.12348
       
 
 
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