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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3026 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1437 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1201 - 1400 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
PROTEOMICS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Proteomics - Clinical Applications     Hybrid Journal  
Proteomics Insights     Open Access  
Protist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
PROTOPLASMA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Pteridines     Hybrid Journal  
Quantitative Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Quarterly Review of Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Radiation Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Rajshahi University Journal of Life & Earth and Agricultural Sciences     Open Access  
Redox Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Redox Report     Hybrid Journal  
Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Regulatory Peptides     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Reinwardtia : A Journal on Taxonomy Botany, Plant Sociology and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Reports in Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reports on Mathematical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Reports on Progress in Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Reproductive Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Reproductive Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online     Open Access  
Reproductive Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Research and Reports in Biodiversity Studies     Open Access  
Research and Reports in Biology     Open Access  
Research in Engineering Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Research Journal of Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Seed Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research Journal of Soil Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Toxins     Open Access  
Resources     Open Access  
Rethinking Ecology     Open Access  
Retrovirology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Reviews of Modern Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Revista Argentina de Antropología Biológica     Open Access  
Revista Bio Ciencias     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Biociencias     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Biologia     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Fisiologia Vegetal     Open Access  
Revista CENIC. Ciencias Biológicas     Open Access  
Revista Ceres     Open Access  
Revista Ciencias Marinas y Costeras     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Investigaciones Biomédicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Biología Tropical     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista de Educación en Biología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Investigaciones Altoandinas - Journal of High Andean Research     Open Access  
Revista de la Ciencia del Suelo y Nutricion Vegetal     Open Access  
Revista de Protección Vegetal     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica de Biologia     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica TECCEN     Open Access  
Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Bioética     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de las Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Micología     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Micologí­a     Open Access  
Revista Mundi Saúde e Biológicas     Open Access  
Revista Peruana de Biología     Open Access  
Revue de primatologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revue d’ethnoécologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Rhodora     Full-text available via subscription  
Rice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Rice Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Risk Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
RNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
RNA & Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RNA Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
RURALS: Review of Undergraduate Research in Agricultural and Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Journal of Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Russian Journal of Marine Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Russian Journal of Mathematical Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Physics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Rwanda Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Sainstek : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Sainteknol : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi     Open Access  
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Science and Engineering Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Science Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science China Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science Signaling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Science Technology & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Scientific Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientific Papers Animal Science and Biotechnologies     Open Access  
Scientific Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
Scientific Research Journal     Open Access  
Scientifica     Open Access  
Seed Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Selection     Full-text available via subscription  
Self/Nonself - Immune Recognition and Signaling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Selforganizology     Open Access  
Semiconductor Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Seminars in Cancer Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Seminars in Hematology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research     Open Access  
Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Sexual Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy     Open Access  
Signal Transduction Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
SINET : Ethiopian Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Small     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Small GTPases     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Social and Natural Sciences Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sociobiology     Open Access  
Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Somatosensory and Motor Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Source Code for Biology and Medicine     Open Access  
South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture     Open Access  
South African Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
South Asian Journal of Experimental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South Australian Naturalist, The     Full-text available via subscription  
Spatial Vision     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sri Lankan Journal of Biology     Open Access  
Standards in Genomic Sciences     Open Access  
Statistics in Biosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Stem Cell and Translational Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Stem Cell Biology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Stem Cell Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Stem Cell Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Stem Cell Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Stem Cell Reviews and Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Stem Cells     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Stem Cells International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Stem Cells Translational Medicine     Open Access  
Steroids     Hybrid Journal  
Studies in Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Subterranean Biology     Open Access  
Sugar Tech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Summa Phytopathologica     Open Access  
Sunsari Technical College Journal     Open Access  
Surface Science Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Sustainability : The Journal of Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Symbiosis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Systematic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Systematics and Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Systems and Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Taprobanica : The Journal of Asian Biodiversity     Open Access  
Taxon     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Telomere and Telomerase     Open Access  
Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
The Anatomical Record : Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The Botulinum J.     Hybrid Journal  
The Breast Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
The Bryologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
The Cerebellum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
The Coleopterists Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
The Condor     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
The Enzymes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The FASEB Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
The Herpetological Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
The HUGO Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The Journal of Technology Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
The Knee     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
The Nucleus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
The Physics of Metals and Metallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
The Plant Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
The Protein Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Theoretical Population Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Tissue and Cell     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Tissue Engineering Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Toxicology in Vitro     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Traffic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Transcription     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Transgenic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Translational Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Transportation Planning and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Tree Genetics & Genomes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Tree-Ring Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Trees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Trends in Bacteriology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Trends in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Trends in Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 146)
Trends in Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Trends in Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Trends in Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Trends in Molecular Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Trends in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Trends in Plant Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Trends in Vector Research and Parasitology     Open Access  
Tropical Freshwater Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Tumor Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Tumor Microenvironment and Therapy     Open Access  
Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Turtle and Tortoise Newsletter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Journal of Avian Biology
  [SJR: 1.296]   [H-I: 59]   [25 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0908-8857 - ISSN (Online) 1600-048X
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Body condition and feather molt of a migratory shorebird during the
           non‐breeding season
    • Authors: Matilde Alfaro; Brett K. Sandercock, Luciano Liguori, Matias Arim
      Abstract: Migratory shorebirds have some of the highest fat loads among birds, especially species which migrate long distances. The Upland Sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda) makes long‐distance migrations twice a year, but variation in body condition or timing of feather molt during the non‐breeding season has not been studied. Molt is an important part of the annual cycle of migratory birds because feather condition determines flight performance during migration, and long‐distance movements are energy costly. Howerver, variation in body condition during molt has been poorly studied. The objective of our field study was to examine the timing and patterns of feaher molt of a longo distance migratory shorebird during the non‐breeding season and test for relationships with body size, fat depots, mass, and sex. Field work was conducted at four ranches in the Northern Campos of Uruguay (Paysandú and Salto Departments). We captured and marked 62 sandpipers in a 2‐month period (Nov‐Jan) during four non‐breeding season (2008‐2012). Sex was determinded by genetic analyses of blood samples taken at capture. Molt was measured in captured birds using rank scores based on published standards. Body mass and tarsus length measurements showed female‐biased sexual size dimorphism with males smaller than females. Size‐corrected body mass (body condition) showed a U‐shaped relationship with the day of the season, indicating that birds arrived to non‐breeding grounds in relatively good condition. Arriving in good body condition at non‐breeding grounds is probably important because of the energetic demands due to physiological adjustments after migration and the costs of feather molt.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2018-01-06T03:05:55.092875-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01480
       
  • Lower haematocrit, haemoglobin and red blood cell number in zebra finches
           acclimated to cold compared to thermoneutral temperature
    • Authors: Jowita Niedojadlo; Agata Bury, Mariusz Cichoń, Edyta T. Sadowska, Ulf Bauchinger
      Abstract: Thermoregulation constitutes an important share of the energy budget of endotherms. Elevated thermoregulatory requirements must be met by oxygen supply through the blood, as heat is produced mainly via aerobic processes. In contrast to mammal studies, it remains unclear whether elevated thermoregulatory needs are followed by changes in haematological variables in birds. We investigated haematocrit (HCT), haemoglobin content per volume of blood (HGB), number of red blood cells (RBCcount), and size of the erythrocytes (RBCarea) in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) acclimated to either cold or thermoneutral ambient temperatures under laboratory conditions. Seventy‐nine females were maintained for six weeks either in cold (T = + 12 °C) or thermoneutral (T = + 32 °C) ambient temperature prior to blood collection. On average, HGB, HCT and RBCcount were significantly lower by about 10% in cold acclimated compared to thermoneutral acclimated birds. Only RBCarea was not different between the two acclimation temperatures. Mean HCT, one of the most commonly measured haematological variable for example was 53 ± 0.9 % (LSM ± s.e.m) in thermoneutral and 49 ± 0.8 % (LSM ± s.e.m) in cold acclimated zebra finches. On first sight, the observed lower values for three out of the four determined haematological variables in response to acclimation to cold question oxygen supply to be indeed a limiting factor for heat production. However, higher demands of oxygen supply due to increased thermoregulation in birds may instead require specific optimisation of blood viscosity and modulation by other cardiovascular properties. Nucleated red blood cells in birds may pose different strain on blood viscosity compared to non‐nucleated mammalian erythrocytes and explain the contrasting response in haematological variables to temperature acclimation between birds and mammals.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2018-01-06T03:05:26.096806-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01596
       
  • Species distribution models for Peruvian Plantcutter improve with
           consideration of biotic interactions
    • Authors: P. Joser Atauchi; A. Townsend Peterson, Jeremy Flanagan
      Abstract: Biotic interactions have been controversial in distributional ecology, mainly in regards to whether they have effects over broad extents, with the negative view known as the Eltonian Noise Hypothesis (ENH). In this study, we evaluated the ENH for Phytotoma raimondii, a restricted‐range Peruvian endemic bird species: we developed models based on (1) only abiotic conditions, (2) only host plant distributions, and (3) both abiotic conditions and host plant distributions; models were evaluated with partial receiver operating characteristic test and Akaike information criteria metrics. We rejected the ENH for this case: biotic interactions improved the model. The frequency with which exceptions to the ENH are detected has important implications for distributional ecology and methods for estimating distributions of species.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2018-01-06T03:05:24.669076-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01617
       
  • Automated birdsong recognition in complex acoustic environments: a review
    • Authors: Nirosha Priyadarshani; Stephen Marsland, Isabel Castro
      Abstract: Conservationists are increasingly using autonomous acoustic recorders to determine the presence/absence and the abundance of bird species. Unlike humans, these recorders can be left in the field for extensive periods of time in any habitat. Although data acquisition is automated, manual processing of recordings is labour intensive, tedious, and prone to bias due to observer variations. Hence automated birdsong recognition is an efficient alternative.However, only few ecologists and conservationists utilise the existing birdsong recognisers to process unattended field recordings because the software calibration time is exceptionally high and requires considerable knowledge in signal processing and underlying systems, making the tools less user‐friendly. Even allowing for these difficulties, getting accurate results is exceedingly hard. In this review we examine the state‐of‐the‐art, summarising and discussing the methods currently available for each of the essential parts of a birdsong recogniser, and also available software. The key reasons behind poor automated recognition are that field recordings are very noisy, calls from birds that are a long way from the recorder can be faint or corrupted, and there are overlapping calls from many different birds. In addition, there can be large numbers of different species calling in one recording, and therefore the method has to scale to large numbers of species, or at least avoid misclassifying another species as one of particular interest. We found that these areas of importance, particularly the question of noise reduction, are amongst the least researched. In cases where accurate recognition of individual species is essential, such as in conservation work, we suggest that specialised (species‐specific) methods of passive acoustic monitoring are required. We also believe that it is important that comparable measures, and datasets, are used to enable methods to be compared.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2018-01-06T03:00:27.773227-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01447
       
  • On heterospecifc learning in birds ‐ comments on Samplonius and
           Forsman et al.
    • Authors: Tore Slagsvold; Karen L. Wiebe
      Abstract: In several papers, it has been argued that two migratory species, the pied and the collared flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca and F. albicollis, take clutch size of a resident bird, the great tit Parus major, into account when deciding which of two adjacent nest boxes to use for their own breeding attempt (see Forsman et al. 2017). We termed this the interspecific cue hypothesis (the ICH; Slagsvold and Wiebe 2017) and argued that some of its basic assumptions have never been critically examined. Samplonius (2017) and Forsman et al. (2017) criticize our paper and argue that the ICH is the most plausible explanation but here we conclude that the new data they provide on the behaviour of the pied flycatcher (Forsman et al. 2017) are, in fact, inconsistent with the most critical assumption of the ICH. Therefore, the hypothesis should be rejected.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-12-22T10:15:19.670158-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01706
       
  • Around the Mediterranean: an extreme example of loop migration in a
           long‐distance migratory passerine
    • Authors: Petr Klvaňa; Jaroslav Cepák, Pavel Munclinger, Romana Michálková, Oldřich Tomášek, Tomáš Albrecht
      Abstract: An important issue in migration research is how small‐bodied passerines pass over vast geographical barriers; in European‐African avian migration, these are represented by the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara Desert. Eastern (passing Eastern Mediterranean), central (passing Apennine Peninsula) and western (via western Mediterranean) major migration flyways are distinguished for European migratory birds. The autumn and spring migration routes may differ (loop migration) and there could be a certain level of individual flexibility in how individuals navigate themselves during a single migration cycle. We used light‐level loggers to map migration routes of barn swallows Hirundo rustica breeding in the centre of a wide putative contact zone between the north‐eastern and southern‐western European populations that differ in migration flyways utilised and wintering grounds. Our data documented high variation in migration patterns and wintering sites of tracked birds (n = 19 individuals) from a single breeding colony, with evidence for loop migration in all but one of the tracked swallows. In general, two migratory strategies were distinguished. In the first, birds wintering in a belt stretching from south‐central to southern Africa that used an eastern route for both the spring and autumn migration, then shifted their spring migration eastwards (anti‐clockwise loops, n = 12). In the second, birds used an eastern or central route to their wintering grounds in central Africa, shifting the spring migration route westward (clockwise loops, n = 7). In addition, we observed an extremely wide clockwise loop migration encompassing the entire Mediterranean, with one individual utilising both the eastern (autumn) and western (spring) migratory flyway during a single annual migration cycle. Further investigation is needed to ascertain whether clockwise migratory loops encircling the entire Mediterranean also occur other small long‐distance passerine species.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T07:41:47.917432-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01595
       
  • Cophylogenetic assessment of New World warblers (Parulidae) and their
           symbiotic feather mites (Proctophyllodidae)
    • Authors: Alix E. Matthews; Pavel B. Klimov, Heather C. Proctor, Ashley P. G. Dowling, Lizzie Diener, Stephen B. Hager, Jeffery L. Larkin, Douglas W. Raybuck, Cameron J. Fiss, Darin J. McNeil, Than J. Boves
      Abstract: Host‐symbiont relationships are ubiquitous in nature, yet evolutionary and ecological processes that shape these intricate associations are often poorly understood. All orders of birds engage in symbioses with feather mites, which are ectosymbiotic arthropods that spend their entire life on hosts. Due to their permanent obligatory association with hosts, limited dispersal, and primarily vertical transmission, we hypothesized that the cospeciation between feather mites and hosts within one avian family (Parulidae) would be perfect (strict cospeciation). We assessed cophylogenetic patterns and tested for congruence between species in two confamiliar feather mite genera (Proctophyllodidae: Proctophyllodes, Amerodectes) found on 13 species of migratory warblers (and one other closely related migratory species) in the eastern United States. Based on COI sequence data, we found three Proctophyllodes lineages and six Amerodectes lineages. Distance‐ and event‐based cophylogenetic analyses suggested different cophylogenetic trajectories of the two mite genera, and although some associations were significant, there was little overall evidence supporting strict cospeciation. Host switching is likely responsible for incongruent phylogenies. In one case, we documented Prairie Warblers (Setophaga discolor) harboring two mite species of the same genus. Most interestingly, we found strong evidence that host ecology may influence the likelihood of host switching occurring. For example, we documented relatively distantly related ground‐nesting hosts (Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapilla, and Kentucky Warbler, Geothlypis formosa) sharing a single mite species, while other birds are shrub/canopy or cavity nesters. Overall, our results suggest that cospeciation is not the case for feather mites and parulid hosts at this fine phylogenetic scale, and raise the question if cospeciation applies for other symbiotic systems involving hosts that have complex life histories. We also provide preliminary evidence that incorporating host ecological traits into cophylogenetic analyses may be useful for understanding how symbiotic systems have evolved.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T07:36:18.036467-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01580
       
  • Sprague's pipit breeding biology and reproductive success in planted and
           native grasslands.
    • Authors: Stephen K. Davis
      Abstract: Much of the native grasslands in agricultural regions have been converted to cropland or tilled and seeded with non‐native grasses for livestock production. Several grassland songbird species occupy planted grasslands, but occupancy or density may not be a reliable indicator of habitat quality. I studied the breeding biology of Sprague's pipit (Anthus spragueii) from 2004 to 2008 in Saskatchewan, Canada. My objective was to determine the extent to which the breeding biology, density, and reproductive success of pipits varied in planted and native grasslands. Peak clutch initiation occurred in mid‐ to late‐May in planted and native grassland. Peak pipit density also occurred in May, but density drastically declined over the breeding season in planted grassland. Clutch size varied among years and declined over the breeding season, but was similar in planted (4.7±0.1 SE) and native grasslands (4.5±0.1 SE). Daily nest survival rates varied with age of the nest and date, but the relationships differed in the two habitats and was likely a result of lower nestling survival in planted grassland compared to native grassland. The number of young fledged per nest increased as the season progressed and tended to be greater in native (1.2±0.1 SE) than planted (0.9±0.2 SE) grasslands. Seasonal productivity was much greater in native grassland. Only 3 nests were initiated after May in planted grassland and all were unsuccessful, whereas pipit young fledged at higher rates from nests initiated in native grassland in June and July than planted grassland nests initiated in May. The number of fledged young from successful nests did not vary strongly with habitat, date, or year. This research indicates that planted grasslands attract pipits at the beginning of the breeding season, but habitat suitability and reproductive success substantially declines as the breeding season progresses compared to that found in native grassland.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T04:15:34.657674-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01547
       
  • Is it interspecific information use or aggression between putative
           competitors that steers the selection of nest‐site characteristics'
           A reply to Slagsvold and Wiebe.
    • Authors: Jukka T. Forsman; Janne-Tuomas Seppänen, Mikko Mönkkönen, Robert L. Thomson, Sami M. Kivelä, Indrikis Krams, Olli J. Loukola
      Abstract: A growing number of studies have demonstrated that heterospecific individuals with overlapping resource needs – putative competitors – can provide information to each other that improves the outcomes of decisions. Our studies using cavity nesting resident tits (information provider) and migratory flycatchers (Ficedula spp., information user) have shown that Selective Interspecific Information Use (SIIU) can result in flycatchers copying and rejecting the apparent nest‐site feature preferences of tits, depending on a perceivable fitness correlate (clutch size) of the tits. These, and other results on the interspecific information use, challenge the predictions of traditional theory of species coexistence. Recently, Slagsvold and Wiebe (2017) proposed an alternative hypothesis, the Owner Aggression Hypothesis (OAH), to explain our results. Their main points of critique are: 1) a lack of evidence that flycatchers make visits into tit nests prior to nesting and 2) flycatchers do not have an ability to assess tit clutch size. According to Slagsvold and Wiebe, interspecific aggression between tits and flycatchers, not information use, is the mechanism explaining our results. In this reply we show that part of Slagsvold and Wiebe's criticism is based on mischaracterization of the assumptions of SIIU, resulting in misinterpretations of our results. We also provide new evidence that flycatchers (mostly males) frequently visit tit nests prior to settlement and can acquire information about tit clutch size and thereby on the quality of the tutoring tit individual and its decisions. In short, as intriguing as OAH is, we suggest that 1) some of the assumptions are highly speculative and lack evidence, while 2) our earlier experiment (Loukola et al. 2013) has clearly demonstrated the importance of the visible clutch size of tits for flycatcher decisions. Therefore, SIIU can more parsimoniously than OAH explain the behaviour of flycatchers.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T04:01:09.486043-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01558
       
  • Geographic patterns of song variation in four species of Malurus
           fairy‐wrens
    • Authors: David D. Yandell; Wesley M. Hochachka, Stephen Pruett-Jones, Michael S. Webster, Emma I. Greig
      Abstract: Geographic variation in song is widespread among birds, particularly in species that learn vocalizations. The relationship between geographic distance and song variation is likely related to the degree of isolation between populations. To assess this effect of geographic isolation on song divergence, we examined patterns of geographic song variation in four species of Australian fairy‐wrens (Malurus), two with suspected histories of geographic isolation and two without. Song variation in all four species was consistent with patterns of isolation by distance, and allopatric subspecies in two species were more divergent in song than predicted by distance alone. Each species' pattern was unique, and some interspecific variation could not be explained by geographic distance. These results indicate that patterns of geographic variation can be influenced by more than geographic distance and historical isolation alone. We suggest that morphological constraints, environmental influences, and sexual selection may all contribute to the variation observed for each species.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T04:00:23.639024-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01446
       
  • Local use of landfills by a yellow‐legged gull population suggests
           distance‐dependent resource exploitation.
    • Authors: Alexandra Egunez; Nere Zorrozua, Asier Aldalur, Alfredo Herrero, Juan Arizaga
      Abstract: Understanding the use of feeding sources at the local scale is crucial in comprehending the factors driving population dynamics, dispersal and territory use. Many gull (Larus spp.) populations have increased sharply, which is partly promoted by their use of landfills as a food resource. Although at the large scale it is known that birds from mainland colonies feed more on landfills than those from offshore colonies, at the local scale, this distance‐dependent exploitation has been little studied. Here, then, we study whether the extent of gulls' use of landfill is distance‐dependent through the study of 3 different gull colonies and five separate landfill sites within a relatively small geographical area. After controlling for bird numbers by both age cohort and colony, we observed that the number of gulls found at each landfill was colony dependent and that it decreased non‐linearly with increased distance to place of birth.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T04:00:20.219707-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01455
       
  • Complete taxon sampling of the avian genus Pica (magpies) reveals ancient
           relictual populations and synchronous Late‐Pleistocene demographic
           expansion across the Northern Hemisphere
    • Authors: Gang Song; Ruiying Zhang, Per Alström, Martin Irestedt, Tianlong Cai, Yanhua Qu, Per G. P. Ericson, Jon Fjeldså, Fumin Lei
      Abstract: Previous studies have suggested that bird populations in East Asia were less affected by Pleistocene climatic fluctuations than those in Europe and North America. However, this is mainly based on comparisons among species. It would be more relevant to analyse geographical populations of widespread species or species complexes. We analyzed two mitochondrial genes and two nuclear introns for all taxa of Pica to investigate 1) which Earth history factors have shaped the lineage divergence, and 2) whether different geographical populations were differently affected by the Pleistocene climatic changes. Our mitochondrial tree recovered three widespread lineages, 1) in East Asia, 2) across North Eurasia, and 3) in North America, respectively, with three isolated lineages in Northwest Africa, Arabia and the Qinghai‐Tibet Plateau, respectively. Divergences among lineages took place 1.4–3.1 million years ago. The Northwest African population was sister to the others, which formed two main clades. In one of these, Arabia was sister to Qinghai‐Tibet, and these formed the sister clade to the East Asia clade. The other main clade comprised the North American and North Eurasian clades. There was no or very slight structure within these six geographical clades, including a lack of differentiation between the two North American species Black‐billed Magpie P. hudsonia and Yellow‐billed Magpie P. nutalli. Demographic expansion was recorded in the three most widespread lineages after 0.06 Ma. Asymmetric gene flow was recorded in the North Eurasian clade from southwestern Europe eastward, whereas the East Asian clade was rooted in south central China. Our results indicate that the fragmentation of the six clades of Pica was related to climatic cooling and aridification during periods of the Pliocene–Pleistocene. Populations on both sides of the Eurasian continent were similarly influenced by the Pleistocene climate changes and expanded concomitantly with the expansion of steppes. Based on results we also propose a revised taxonomy recognising seven species of Pica.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01T03:50:45.660059-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01612
       
  • Avoidance, tolerance, and resistance to ectoparasites in nestling and
           adult tree swallows
    • Authors: Joely G. DeSimone; Ethan D. Clotfelter, Elizabeth C. Black, Sarah A. Knutie
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T07:03:05.799701-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01641
       
  • Ecological opportunity and ecomorphological convergence in Australasian
           robins (Petroicidae)
    • Authors: Vicente García-Navas; Marta Rodríguez-Rey, Les Christidis
      Abstract: Ecological theories of adaptive radiation predict that ecological opportunity (EO) stimulates cladogenesis through entry into a novel environment and/or release of competition pressures.Due to its dynamic paleoclimatic and geological history, the Australo‐Papuan region constitutes an opportune scenario to study patterns of diversification in relation to the colonization of new ecological niches. Here, we employ a comparative framework using the Australasian robins (Petroicidae) as a model system to test whether the diversification of this bird family fulfils a niche‐filling process as predicted by the EO model, and to test whether the observed morphological similarity is described by a pattern of phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC) or convergence. Although we detected an early‐burst, we did not find a slowdown in speciation or morphological evolution as expected in a niche‐filling scenario. Divergence in tarsus length and tail length (PC1) was consistent with a multi‐peak model, in which PC1 represents a convergent trait among distantly related clades sharing the same foraging strategy. Our study thus shows that convergence rather than PNC seems to explain the existence of morphological similarity across independent lineages in the Petroicidae. We also found a low level of PNC regarding annual variations in temperature and precipitation, which is in agreement with the hypothesis that diversification within the Petroicidae involved repeated radiations. We suggest two non‐mutually exclusive hypotheses to explain the overall lack of density‐dependent cladogenesis. First, the extreme spatial and temporal heterogeneity of this region may have generated a pattern of repeated ecological opportunity over time and, second, this family may not yet have reached equilibrium diversity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T03:55:36.122364-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01552
       
  • “Seasonal and annual differences in the foraging ecology of two gull
           species breeding in sympatry and their use of fishery discards”
    • Authors: J.G. Calado; D.M. Matos, J.A. Ramos, F. Moniz, F.R. Ceia, J.P. Granadeiro, V.H. Paiva
      Abstract: Niche segregation between similar species will result from an avoidance of competition but also from environmental variability, including nowadays anthropogenic activities. Gulls are among the seabirds with greater behavioural plasticity, being highly opportunistic and feeding on a wide range of prey, mostly from anthropogenic origin. Here, we analysed blood and feather stable isotopes combined with pellet analysis to investigate niche partitioning between Audouin's gull Larus audouinii and yellow‐legged gull Larus michahellis breeding in sympatry at Deserta Island, southern Portugal, during 2014 and 2015. During the breeding season there was considerable overlap in the adults' diet, as their stable isotope values of blood and primary feather (P1) did not differ, and their pellets were comprised mainly by marine fish species. However, Audouin's gulls presented higher occurrences of pelagic fish, while yellow‐legged gulls fed more on demersal fish, insects, and refuse. SIAR mixing models also estimated a higher proportion of demersal fish in the diet of yellow‐legged gulls. We also found differences between the two gull species in chicks' feathers, suggesting that Audouin's gull adults selected prey with lower carbon isotope values to feed their young. Secondary feather (S8) of Audouin's gull presented higher isotope values compared to yellow‐legged gulls, indicating different foraging areas (δ13C) and/ or trophic levels (δ15N) between the two species in the non‐breeding season. During both the all‐year and non‐breeding periods the yellow‐legged gull showed a broader isotopic niche width than Audouin's gull in 2013, and in 2014 the two gull species exhibited different isotopic niche spaces. Our study suggests that both gull species foraged in association with fisheries during the breeding season. In this sense, a discard ban implemented under the new European Union Common Fisheries Policy may lead to a food shortage, therefore future research should closely monitor the population dynamics of Audouin's and yellow‐legged gulls.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T03:49:59.878041-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01463
       
  • Intra‐African movements of the African Cuckoo Cuculus gularis as
           revealed by satellite telemetry
    • Authors: Soladoye B. Iwajomo; Mikkel Willemoes, Ulf Ottosson, Roine Strandberg, Kasper Thorup
      Abstract: Despite many bird species migrating regularly within the African continent, in response to rainfall and breeding opportunities, documented evidence of the spatiotemporal patterns of such movements is scarce. We use satellite telemetry to document the year round movement of an intra‐African migrant breeding in the savannah zone of sub‐Saharan Africa, the African Cuckoo. After breeding in central Nigeria, the birds migrated to more forested sites in the Adamawa region of Cameroon (n=2) and western Central African Republic (n=1). Departure from the breeding ground coincided with deteriorating environmental conditions whereas arrival at the non‐breeding sites matched period of increasing vegetation greenness. Migratory movements generally occurred during dark hours. In total, an average distance of 748 km in 66 days was covered during the post‐breeding migration and 744 km in 27 days during return journey with considerable individual variation and with more stopover sites used during post‐breeding migration. The diversity of migration routes followed suggests a relatively variable or flexible initial migration strategy, high individual route consistency as well as high fidelity for non‐breeding grounds.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T05:44:41.702877-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01616
       
  • The contribution of flight capability to the post‐fledging
           dependence period of golden eagles
    • Authors: Ewan D. Weston; D. Philip Whitfield, Justin M. J. Travis, Xavier Lambin
      Abstract: The period prior to an individual emigrating from its natal site and initiating dispersal is important for developing the skills that are ultimately required for surviving natal dispersal. Using a novel method to quantify the early movements of 35 juvenile golden eagles fitted with satellite transmitters, we hypothesised that variation in golden eagles’ post‐fledging dependence period (PFDP) was determined by variation in how quickly movement skills were acquired in order to become independent and disperse. Twenty nine young eagles exhibited an initial increase in mobility (“ontogenic phase”) levelling off after a median of 68 days, followed by a period of maintained mobility (“maintained phase”) that lasted a median of 99 days (range 24 ‐ 176). Eagles that developed their mobility more quickly during the ontogenic phase had a correspondingly shorter ontogenic phase. Despite this, most of the inter‐individual variation in the length of the PFDP resulted from variation in the length of the “maintained phase”. In general, females (the larger sex) developed more slowly and had a longer ontogenic phase. Males exhibited dispersal strategies around two modes with some dispersing early (mode 1: 89.5 days) and others late (mode 2: 220 days). In contrast females dispersed around a unimodal distribution of timing (mode 167.5 days). Apart from six individuals (mostly males) which dispersed with no discernible maintained phase, most offspring remained in the parental home range after they were fully mobile, even those that developed mobility quickly, suggesting that the PFDP in golden eagles is not simply a function of physical capacity for independence, but also a period when young eagles decide to remain, and are tolerated by parents, in their parental home range before dispersing. We suggest that delaying dispersal may be a beneficial strategy for young raptors facing a competitive environment after PFDP.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T05:40:37.856792-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01265
       
  • Sympatric population divergence within a highly pelagic seabird species
           complex (Hydrobates spp.)
    • Authors: Rebecca S. Taylor; Anna Bailie, Previn Gulavita, Tim Birt, Tomas Aarvak, Tycho Anker-Nilssen, Daniel C. Barton, Kirsten Lindquist, Yuliana Bedolla-Guzmán, Petra Quillfeldt, Vicki L. Friesen
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T05:40:25.359428-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01515
       
  • Body size shapes inter‐specific migratory behaviour: evidence from
           individual tracks of long‐distance migratory shorebirds
    • Authors: Meijuan Zhao; Maureen Christie, Jonathan Coleman, Chris Hassell, Ken Gosbell, Simeon Lisovski, Clive Minton, Marcel Klaassen
      Abstract: Migration is a common phenomenon across many animal taxa. Understanding how migration scales with body size across species is fundamental in the development of migration theory and in making size‐related predictions. Although aerodynamic theory and ecophysiological scaling laws have assisted greatly in generating such predictions, their verifications have been limited by a lack of empirical data across a range of body sizes. The recent development of ultra‐light tracking devices and its rapid application to migration now allows us to put theory to the test. We used tracking data of seven closely related migratory sandpiper species (family Scolopacidae) along the East Asian‐Australasian Flyway to compare their migratory behaviour when migrating towards the breeding grounds as a function of size (50‐750g). We found that besides a marked decline in migration speed (migration distance divided by total migration duration, including time at stopover sites and in flight) with size, departure date from the non‐breeding (i.e. wintering) ground and arrival date at the breeding ground also scaled negatively with size. Total migration duration, migration distance, total staging duration (the number of days staying at stopover sites plus days preparing, i.e. fuelling, prior to initial migration) and step length (distance covered within one migratory leg) were not significantly related with size. Correction for phylogeny showed consistent results for all variables. Besides improving our fundamental understanding of inter‐specific variation in migration behaviours, the finding of a clear scaling with size in migration speed and migration timing highlight differential size related capabilities and constraints of migrants. Migratory birds, including sandpipers, are declining on a global scale and particularly along the EAAF. This notion of size‐dependency in migratory traits may have a bearing on their vulnerability to specific environmental disturbances along their flyways.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T05:40:19.64024-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01570
       
  • Rapid phenotypic change in a native bird population following conversion
           of the Colorado Desert to agriculture
    • Authors: Nicholas A. Mason; Philip Unitt
      Abstract: Humans are modifying our planet's ecosystems with increasing frequency and intensity. Exploring population responses to anthropogenic modifications of natural habitat provides insights into how species persist in the Anthropocene. Here, we leverage natural history collections to document rapid phenotypic change within a native bird population following 80 years of agriculture in the Colorado Desert of southeastern California. By comparing spectrophotometric measurements of Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris) specimens collected in the Imperial Valley from 1918 to 1934 to those collected from 1984 to 2014, we found that more recent birds have darker backs, napes, and crowns. This dorsal darkening may have resulted from a shift in selective pressures for camouflage induced by land use: previously, the lark population nested on light‐colored desert flats, whereas contemporary larks occupy darker soil associated with agricultural fields. Adaptation and/or introgression may have contributed to this instance of rapid phenotypic change following the rise of agriculture in the Imperial Valley.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T05:35:20.959628-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01507
       
  • Migration strategies of the Baltic Dunlin: rapid jump migration in the
           autumn but slower skipping type spring migration
    • Authors: Veli-Matti Pakanen; Tuomo Jaakkonen, Joni Saarinen, Nelli Rönkä, Robert L. Thomson, Kari Koivula
      Abstract: Migration during spring is usually faster than during autumn because of competition for breeding territories. In some cases, however, the costs and benefits associated with the environment can lead to slower spring migration, but examples are quite rare. We compared seasonal migration strategies of the endangered Baltic population of the dunlin (Calidris alpina schinzii) using light‐level geolocator data from 26 individuals breeding in Finland. Autumn migration was faster, with individuals showing a “jump” and “skipping” migration strategy characterised by fewer stationary periods, shorter total stopping time and faster flight. Spring migration was slower, with individuals using a “skipping” strategy. The duration of migration was longer for early departing birds during spring but not during autumn suggesting that early spring migrants are prevented from arriving to the breeding areas or that fueling conditions are worse on the stopover sites for early arriving individuals. Dunlins showed high migratory connectivity. All individuals had one long staging at the Wadden Sea in the autumn after which half of the individuals flew 4500 km non‐stop to Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania. The other half stopped briefly on the Atlantic coast on their way to Mauritania. One bird wintered on the coast of Portugal. Nine individuals that carried geolocators for two years were site faithful to their final non‐breeding sites. Based on the strategies during the non‐breeding period we identified, Baltic dunlin may be especially vulnerable to rapid environmental changes at the staging and non‐breeding areas. Consequently, the preservation of the identified non‐breeding areas is important for their conservation.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T09:57:22.735439-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01513
       
  • Female Dark‐eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis thurberi) produce male‐like
           song in a territorial context during the early breeding season
    • Authors: Dustin G. Reichard; Daniel E. Brothers, Serena E. George, Jonathan W. Atwell, Ellen D. Ketterson
      Abstract: Reports of female song, once considered a rarity, have recently increased across a variety of avian taxa. Females of many species can be induced to produce male‐like song with exogenous testosterone, but observations of female song in free‐living birds remain limited by incomplete sampling of females. Here, we report three independent observations of female dark‐eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) producing male‐like song early in the breeding season (i.e. post‐territory establishment, pre‐nesting) in a recently established non‐migratory, urban population. To elicit song, we presented 17 free‐living junco pairs with a live, caged female conspecific. Three unique females responded to our trials by diving at the intruding female, chasing their (male) mate, fanning their tail feathers, and singing a trilled song similar in structure to male long‐range (broadcast) song. We compared male and female songs quantitatively and found that the two sexes were statistically similar in many spectral and temporal characteristics, but female songs had significantly lower minimum and peak frequencies than males. This result is particularly surprising, as males in this urban population are known to sing at a significantly higher minimum frequency than males in a nearby montane population. Both the seasonal and social context in which these songs were observed suggest a potential function for female song in mate guarding and polygyny prevention, but more data are needed to test this hypothesis. Whether female song is common in all dark‐eyed juncos during the early breeding season or if it is restricted to this particular urban and non‐migratory population remains an important question for future research.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T09:57:18.357658-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01566
       
  • Does territory owner aggression offer an alternative explanation to
           patterns in heterospecific information use studies' A comment on
           Slagsvold & Wiebe
    • Authors: Jelmer M. Samplonius
      Abstract: Slagsvold and Wiebe (2017) criticize part of the literature on heterospecific information use, coined the interspecific cue hypothesis (ICH), which use geometric symbols to study whether flycatchers copy or reject the apparent choices of tits (Seppänen and Forsman 2007, Seppänen et al. 2011, Forsman et al. 2012, Loukola et al. 2013, Jaakkonen et al. 2015). They claim that some of the heterospecific social information use patterns in flycatchers as revealed by these Apparent Novel Niche Experiments (ANNE) can instead be explained by tit aggression. They introduce the owner aggression hypothesis (OAH), which proposes that tits aggressively defend alternative nest boxes, which may better explain the patterns that were previously interpreted as heterospecific information use. Slagsvold and Wiebe (2017) present the number of assumptions of the OAH as smaller than that of the ICH, essentially claiming that this provides a more parsimonious explanation for the patterns observed in the ICH literature. Although the owner aggression hypothesis is interesting and needs to be tested, there are still a number of patterns in the heterospecific information use literature that cannot be explained by tit aggression. Moreover, I do not agree with some of the arguments used to reject the ICH, and the number of assumptions of the OAH may be higher than claimed in the paper, undermining the claim that it is more parsimonious than the ICH.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T09:57:08.235312-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01567
       
  • Life‐history tradeoffs revealed by seasonal declines in reproductive
           traits of Arctic‐breeding shorebirds
    • Authors: Emily L. Weiser; Stephen C. Brown, Richard B. Lanctot, H. River Gates, Kenneth F. Abraham, Rebecca L. Bentzen, Joël Bêty, Megan L. Boldenow, Rodney W. Brook, Tyrone F. Donnelly, Willow B. English, Scott A. Flemming, Samantha E. Franks, H. Grant Gilchrist, Marie-Andrée Giroux, Andrew Johnson, Lisa V. Kennedy, Laura Koloski, Eunbi Kwon, Jean-François Lamarre, David B. Lank, Nicolas Lecomte, Joseph R. Liebezeit, Laura McKinnon, Erica Nol, Johanna Perz, Jennie Rausch, Martin Robards, Sarah T. Saalfeld, Nathan R. Senner, Paul A. Smith, Mikhail Soloviev, Diana Solovyeva, David H.Ward, Paul F. Woodard, Brett K. Sandercock
      Abstract: Seasonal declines in breeding performance are widespread in wild animals, resulting from temporal changes in environmental conditions or from individual variation. Seasonal declines might drive selection for early breeding, with implications for other stages of the annual cycle. Alternatively, selection on the phenology of nonbreeding stages could constrain timing of the breeding season and lead to seasonal changes in reproductive performance. We studied 25 taxa of migratory shorebirds (including five subspecies) at 16 arctic sites in Russia, Alaska, and Canada. We investigated seasonal changes in four reproductive traits, and developed a novel Bayesian risk‐partitioning model of daily nest survival to examine seasonal trends in two causes of nest failure. We found strong seasonal declines in reproductive traits for a subset of species. The probability of laying a full four‐egg clutch declined by 8–78% in 12 of 25 taxa tested, daily nest survival rates declined by 1–12% in eight of 22 taxa, incubation duration declined by 2.0–2.5% in two of seven taxa, and mean egg volume declined by 5% in one of 15 taxa. Temporal changes were not fully explained by individual variation. Across all species, the proportion of failed nests that were depredated declined over the season from 0.98 to 0.60, while the proportion abandoned increased from 0.01 to 0.35 and drove the seasonal declines in nest survival. An increase in abandonment of late nests is consistent with a life‐history tradeoff whereby either adult mortality increased or adults deserted the breeding attempt to maximize adult survival. In turn, seasonal declines in clutch size and incubation duration might be adaptive to hasten hatching of later nests. In other species of shorebirds, we found no seasonal patterns in breeding performance, suggesting that some species are not subject to selective pressure for early breeding.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T09:57:01.146987-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01531
       
  • Effect of light‐level geolocators on apparent survival of two highly
           aerial swift species
    • Authors: Morganti Michelangelo; Rubolini Diego, Åkesson Susanne, Bermejo Ana, de la Puente Javier, Lardelli Roberto, Liechti Felix, Boano Giovanni, Tomassetto Erika, Ferri Mauro, Caffi Mario, Saino Nicola, Ambrosini Roberto
      Abstract: Light‐level geolocators are currently widely used to track the migration of small‐sized birds, but their potentially detrimental effects on survival of highly aerial species have been poorly investigated so far. We recorded capture‐recapture histories of 283 common swifts Apus apus and 107 pallid swifts Apus pallidus breeding in 14 colonies in Italy, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland that were deployed with 10 different types of geolocators (‘geolocator birds’), and compared their survival with that of, respectively, 215 common and 101 pallid swifts not equipped with geolocators (‘control birds’). We performed both traditional GLMM using return rate as a proxy for survival and mark‐recapture models to estimate survival while accounting for recapture probability. In all the analyses, geolocator birds showed reduced apparent survival compared to controls. The extent of the negative effect on survival differed between the species but the direction of the difference between species was opposite in either type of analysis. Geolocator weight was always lower 3% of body mass or less, and did not affect survival per se. Geolocators with a light‐stalk, which is used in some geolocator models to reduce light sensor shading by feathers, decreased apparent survival more than models without light‐stalk. Apparent survival of geolocator birds significantly varied among sites, being much higher in northern Europe. Despite in our analyses we could only partly account for variable recapture probabilities among sites and for inter‐annual variability in survival, our results generally showed that equipping swifts with geolocators decreased their survival prospects, but also that the magnitude of this effect may depend on species‐specific traits. These conclusions are in line with those of other studies on aerial foragers. We suggest that future studies tracking the movements of aerial insectivorous birds should use devices designed to minimize drag.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T06:56:04.341088-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01521
       
  • An Assessment of Tree Availability as a Possible Cause of Population
           Declines in Scavenging Raptors
    • Authors: Kendall Corinne J; Rubenstein Daniel I, Slater Pamela L, Monadjem Ara
      Abstract: Lack of suitable nesting trees is an increasingly common issue for avian conservation given rampant habitat and tree destruction around the world. In the African savannah, habitat loss and particularly tree damage caused by elephants have been suggested as possible factors in the decline of large bird species. Given the recent declines of vultures and other scavenging raptors, it is critical to understand if nest availability is a limiting factor for these threatened populations. Loss of woodland, partially due to elephant populations, has been reported for the Mara-Serengeti ecosystem. Data on characteristics of trees used for nesting were collected for White-backed, Lappet-faced, White-headed vulture, and Tawny eagle nests in Masai Mara National Reserve, Kenya. Nest tree characteristics were compared with the distribution of a random subsample of trees to assess nest preferences and determine suitability of available trees. Nearest neighbor distances were estimated as well as availability of preferred nesting trees to determine if tree availability is a limiting factor for tree-nesting vultures. Tree availability was found to greatly exceed nesting needs for African vultures and Tawny eagles. We thus conclude that on a landscape scale, tree availability is not a limiting factor for any of the species considered here (White-backed, Lappet-faced, White-headed vultures, and Tawny eagles).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T06:55:38.702944-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01497
       
  • Males in seemingly female-like plumage do not mimic females: UV
           reflectance reveals temporal cryptic dimorphism in a manakin species
           exhibiting delayed plumage maturation
    • Authors: Morales-Betancourt Juan Alejandro; Castaño-Villa Gabriel J.
      Abstract: Manakins (Pipridae) are neotropical birds that usually exhibit delayed plumage maturation (DPM). Thus, while plumage of most adult male manakins is brightly conspicuous, subadult males and females are basically dull-olive green. Although sexual dichromatism in some bird species may be evident only through UV reflectance, this phenomenon, known as hidden sexual dichromatism, has not been previously studied in manakins to compare subadult males and females. Within this framework, we carried out spectrophotometric analyses in searching for hidden sexual dichromatism in the white-bearded manakin Manacus manacus, through comparison of UV spectra in females and subadult males in green plumage. Our results revealed UV reflectance in both sexes in green plumage. Moreover, we found UV spectral differences in homologous color patches between sexes, particularly at belly. Since the observed differences may allow intraspecific sex recognition of individuals in green plumage, our results do not support the female-mimicry hypothesis to explain delayed plumage maturation in the white-bearded manakin. Although our findings dismiss the female mimicry hypothesis, we cannot state whether these results support the non-mutually exclusive cryptic and status signaling hypotheses. We propose then, that dull coloration of subadult males may serve both as a cryptic trait and to limit the energetic costs of acquiring the adult plumage before sexual maturity. Meanwhile, differential UV color traits between sexes in green plumage may allow adult males to avoid unnecessary energy expenditures in courtship displays in the presence of males near leks, and to selectively focus their the courtship displays on females. In accordance with the signaling status hypothesis, subadult males can be recognized both as males and subordinates and consequently may practice courtship displays without suffering aggressions by adult males. Our results highlight the importance to include a wider range of spectrophotometric information analyses for testing hypotheses regarding delayed plumage maturation.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T06:55:30.990982-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01467
       
  • Effects of food limitation on the intensity of blue‐green and brown
           eggshell coloration: an experimental study with the canary
    • Authors: Hargitai Rita; Boross Nóra, Nyiri Zoltán, Eke Zsuzsanna
      Abstract: Variation in blue‐green and brown coloration of avian eggshells could be affected by several factors, including environmental nutritional constraints. Better availability of nutrients could influence the synthesis and deposition of pigments into the eggshell, so we may expect a link between the food availability during egg formation, the body condition of the female and intensity of eggshell coloration. This hypothesis has received mixed support so far: in some bird species a positive correlation between female body condition and eggshell blue‐green coloration could be demonstrated, but other studies failed to find a significant link. In this study, we experimentally limited the food availability for domestic canaries (Serinus canaria) prior to and during egg laying, and examined its effects on the biliverdin‐ and protoporphyrin‐based eggshell coloration. Treatment had no significant effect on eggshell blue‐green chroma and biliverdin concentration. However, we found a significant positive relationship between female body condition and eggshell background blue‐green chroma in the control group, but not in the food restricted group. Females possibly experiencing a decline in antioxidant capacity due to food limitation may not be able to produce a blue‐green eggshell colour intensity reliably indicating their body condition. Furthermore, food‐restricted canary females laid eggs with significantly higher eggshell brown chroma, spot intensity, and protoporphyrin concentration. Therefore, our results suggest that limitation in actual nutrient availability increases deposition of protoporphyrin into the eggshell, and it may also modify the association between female body condition and intensity of blue‐green eggshell coloration.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T06:55:23.635359-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01486
       
  • Effect of composition on shape of bird eggs
    • Authors: D. Charles Deeming
      Abstract: Numerous studies over the past 90 years have described the various bird egg shapes in mathematical terms but few studies have considered the underlying reasons for such interspecific egg shape variability. This study investigated how the size and composition, i.e. proportions of shell, yolk and albumen, were associated with egg shape. Geometric morphometrics were used to generate principal components, which were analysed in relation to taxonomy (i.e. avian order) and degree of neonatal developmental maturity, which correlates with egg composition. The analysis confirmed previous results that most of the variation in shape is associated with degree of elongation (i.e. length divided by breadth) and asymmetry (i.e. position of the broadest part of the egg away from the mid-point of the egg's length). Egg shape reflected avian order but not developmental maturity. The degree of elongation of an egg is related to absolute egg mass and the proportion of yolk. By contrast, the degree of asymmetry is related to the proportion of shell and the mass of the egg relative to female body mass. Although significant, the models explained little of the variation in egg shape and so it was concluded that other factors, such as pelvis size and shape, could be more important in determining egg shape in birds.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T23:50:27.0657-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01528
       
  • Song parameters of the fuscous honeyeater Lichenostomus fuscus correlate
           with habitat characteristics in fragmented landscapes
    • Authors: Maria I. Goretskaia; Irina R. Beme, Daria V. Popova, Nevil Amos, Katherine L. Buchanan, Paul Sunnucks, Alexandra Pavlova
      Abstract: Both avian abundance and species richness decline in response to habitat loss and fragmentation. Studying variation in bird song structure across modified landscapes can provide insights into the effects of habitat alterations on coherence of social interactions within populations. Here, we tested whether fragmentation or change of habitat quality within box‐ironbark forest of central Victoria impacted cultural connectivity and song characteristics in fuscous honeyeater, a declining common Australian bird. First, we tested whether geographic distance and/or spatially‐explicit landscape connectivity models can explain patterns of song similarity across fragmented landscapes. We found no evidence that distance or habitat fragmentation impacts the nature and transmission of fuscous honeyeater song, and concluded that acoustic connectivity at the scale of our study is high. Second, we tested whether variation in habitat quality explains variation in song characteristics. In accordance with acoustic adaptation to habitat structure, birds sang longer songs in sites with more large trees and produced longer common song elements in sites with greater tree height. However, the acoustic adaptation hypothesis cannot explain the finding that in less‐disturbed landscapes with higher tree‐cover birds sang songs (and song elements) with higher maximum frequency and wider frequency bandwidth. We also found that birds sing longer and more variable songs of wider frequency bandwidth in less disturbed sites with a greater number of large mature trees, which may represent better feeding resources. Our study suggests that changes in song structure with habitat degradation could signal disturbed population processess, such as changes in the acoustic communication among resident birds.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T04:45:46.647225-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01493
       
  • A bridge between oceans: Overland migration of marine birds in a wind
           energy corridor
    • Authors: Juliet S. Lamb; David J. Newstead, Lianne M. Koczur, Bart M. Ballard, M. Clay Green, Patrick G.R. Jodice
      Abstract: Located at the shortest overland route between the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean, Mexico's Tehuantepec Isthmus is a globally important migratory corridor for many terrestrial bird species. The Pacific coast of the Isthmus also contains a significant wetland complex that supports large multi‐species aggregations of non‐breeding waterbirds during the boreal winter. In recent years, extensive wind energy development has occurred in the plains bordering these wetlands, directly along the migratory flyway. Using recent studies of movement patterns of three marine‐associated bird species—reddish egrets (Egretta rufescens), brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), and red knots (Calidris canutus)—from the northern Gulf of Mexico, we assess the use of the isthmus as a migratory corridor. Our data provide evidence that marine birds from the Gulf region regularly overwinter along the Pacific coast of Mexico and use the isthmus as a migratory corridor, creating the potential for interaction with terrestrial wind farms during non‐breeding. This study is the first to describe migration by marine‐associated bird species between the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific coast. These data contribute new information toward ongoing efforts to understand the complex migration patterns of mobile marine species, with the goal of informing integrated conservation efforts for species whose year‐round habitat needs cross ecoregional and geopolitical boundaries.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-07T01:50:45.639444-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01474
       
  • Vocal plasticity in mallards: multiple signal changes in noise and the
           evolution of the Lombard effect in birds
    • Authors: Adriana M. Dorado-Correa; Sue Anne Zollinger, Henrik Brumm
      Abstract: Signal plasticity is a building block of complex animal communication systems. A particular form of signal plasticity is the Lombard effect, in which a signaler increases its vocal amplitude in response to an increase in the background noise. The Lombard effect is a basic mechanism for communication in noise that is well‐studied in human speech and which has also been reported in other mammals and several bird species. Sometimes, but not always, the Lombard effect is accompanied by additional changes in signal parameters. However, the evolution of the Lombard effect and other related vocal adjustments in birds are still unclear because so far only three major avian clades have been studied. We report the first evidence for the Lombard effect in an anseriform bird, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). In association with the Lombard effect, the fifteen ducklings in our experiment also increased the peak frequency of their calls in noise. However, they did not change the duration of call syllables or their call rates as has been found in other bird species. Our findings support the notion that all extant birds use the Lombard effect to solve the common problem of maintaining communication in noise, i.e. it is an ancestral trait shared among all living avian taxa, which means that it has evolved more than 70 million years ago within that group. At the same time, our data suggest that parameter changes associated with the Lombard effect follow more complex patterns, with marked differences between taxa, some of which might be related to proximate constraints.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-07T01:50:42.505746-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01564
       
  • Evaluating the reliability of species distribution models with an indirect
           measure of bird reproductive performance
    • Authors: Olatz Aizpurua; Lisette Cantú-Salazar, Gilles San Martin, Francesc Sardà-Palomera, Gabriel Gargallo, Sergi Herrando, Lluís Brotons, Nicolas Titeux
      Abstract: Measures of fitness such as reproductive performance are considered reliable indicators of habitat quality for a species. Such measures are, however, only available in a restricted number of sites, which prevents them from being used to quantify habitat quality across landscapes or regions. Alternatively, species presence records can be used along with environmental variables to build models that predict the distribution of species across larger spatial extents. Model predictions are often used for management purposes as they are assumed to describe the quality of the habitats to support a species. Yet, given that species are often present both in optimal and suboptimal areas, the use of data collected during the breeding season to build these models may potentially result in misleading predictions of habitat quality for the reproduction of the species, with potentially significant conservation consequences. In this study we analysed the relationship between fitness parameters informing on habitat quality for reproduction and predictions of species distribution models at multiple spatial scales using two independent sets of data. For 19 passerine bird species, we compared an indirect measure of reproductive performance (ratio of juveniles-to-adults) – obtained from Constant Effort Sites (CES) mist-netting data in Catalonia – with the predictions of models based on bird presence records collected during the Catalan Breeding Bird Atlas (CBBA). A positive relationship between the predictions derived from species distribution models and the reproductive performance of the species was found for half of the species at one or more spatial scales. This result suggests that species distribution models may help to predict habitat quality for some species over some extents. However, caution is needed as this is not consistent for all species at all scales. Further work based on species- and scale-specific approaches is now required to understand in which situations species distribution models provide predictions that are in line with reproductive performance.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T09:30:27.248048-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01218
       
  • Evaluating interspecific niche overlaps in environmental and geographic
           spaces to assess the value of umbrella species
    • Authors: Yoan Fourcade; Aurélien G. Besnard, Jean Secondi
      Abstract: The concept of umbrella species assumes that concentrating resources on the protection of a single species contributes to the conservation of a suite of species and ecological processes belonging to the same ecosystem. The environmental requirements and geographical distribution of the umbrella species should thus overlap those of the group of targeted species. In western France, the conservation of several large grassland floodplains relies on agri-environmental schemes targeting one single bird species, the corncrake Crex crex. It is considered as an umbrella species but no real assessment of its effectiveness has been carried out so far. We used a two-step methodology to assess the potential of the corncrake to act as an umbrella species by estimating niche overlap in the environmental and geographic space between the main ground-nesting species of the bird community in these grasslands, including the corncrake and four passerines. The five species showed substantial differences in their ecological niches so that their distributions did not perfectly overlap. Overlaps in predicted distributions between pairs of species depended on the threshold used to convert suitability to binary maps. Moreover, the number of species that could be protected by a candidate umbrella species was affected by the overlap criterion of success. Although the corncrake may be used as an umbrella species, it would be outperformed by several passerine species. Our study highlights the potential of using niche overlap to select umbrella species. It also reveals the importance of analysing the sensitivity of outputs when changing thresholds and overlap criteria.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T06:31:04.1398-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01153
       
  • Habitat suitability and the constraints of migration in New World warblers
    • Authors: David P. L. Toews
      Abstract: Identifying the factors that influence geographic range limits can illustrate the various ecological, physiological, and evolutionary constraints imposed on a species. The range limits of migratory birds are particularly challenging to study as they occur in disjunct regions at different times of the year, which can impose different constraints. Travel between breeding and wintering regions poses a significant energetic and navigational challenge to birds, although it is not clear how these movements influence breeding dispersal and range expansion. Here I ask whether the possible costs of migration limit the breeding ranges of wood warblers, a group of birds with an extensive history of ecological and evolutionary studies. I used occurrence records for multiple wood warbler species, breeding primarily in the boreal forest of North America, to generate environmental niche models. I tested for over-prediction of habitat suitability into the western boreal forest, where most these species do not have occurrence records but where there is presumably suitable habitat. I found that some of these vagile taxa, primarily found east of the Rocky Mountains, also have predicted habitat suitability that extends into the north and west, where they have little to no occurrence records. I discuss several possible explanations for this discordance. In particular, the patterns are consistent with the costs of a long-distance migration limiting the benefits of range expansion, as migration may become too onerous as the distance between breeding and wintering areas increases. These results speak to the process of niche filling more generally and call attention to an under-appreciated explanation for why migratory species may not fully occupy their fundamental niche.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10T05:50:52.183644-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01157
       
  • Climate determinants of breeding and wintering ranges of lesser kestrels
           in Italy and predicted impacts of climate change
    • Authors: Michelangelo Morganti; Damiano Preatoni, Maurizio Sarà
      Abstract: Climate warming would theoretically create conditions for the breeding range expansion of pseudo-steppe Mediterranean and long-distance migrant species and provide the possibility for these to overwinter in the same breeding areas. However, contemporary changes in rainfall regimes might have negative effects on the climate suitability and in turn, shrink species potential range. The lesser kestrel, Falco naumanni, is highly sensitive to rainfall oscillations and has recently extended its Italian breeding range towards northern latitudes and increasing its wintering records. We modelled the effects of temperature and rainfall on current and future climate suitability for lesser kestrels in both the breeding and wintering periods by using MaxEnt. Models were based on the distribution of 298 colonies and 45 wintering records. Future climate suitability was assessed under eight different scenarios.Spring rainfall amount resulted as the main determinant of breeding climate suitability, so its predicted reduction will determine a shrinkage in suitable areas (-42.10% in 2050; -32.07% in 2070). Specifically, the 66.05% of Italian colonies will be outside the climatically suitable area by 2050. However wide areas, suitable under current climate conditions, are still not occupied by lesser kestrel and allow the potential expansion of its Italian breeding range in the short term. Temperature seasonality mainly determined the species’ winter climate suitability, which is overall predicted to boost in the next decades (+145.03% in 2050; and +123.91% in 2070). All but one future scenarios predicted a northward shift of about 40 km for both breeding and wintering climate suitability. Despite its recent expansion, we have found that climate change will pose conservation concerns for the Italian breeding population of lesser kestrels. Indeed, changes in non-climate factors will also outline the future suitability of the Italian range for lesser kestrels in both seasons with effects that might both strengthen or mitigate climate effects.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T05:05:37.380048-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01179
       
  • Integrating demography, dispersal and interspecific interactions into bird
           distribution models
    • Authors: Damaris Zurell
      Abstract: Species’ ranges are primarily limited by the physiological (abiotic) tolerance of the species, described by their fundamental niche. Additionally, demographic processes, dispersal, and interspecific interactions with other species are shaping species distributions, resulting in the realised niche. Understanding the complex interplay between these drivers is vital for making robust biodiversity predictions to novel environments. Correlative species distribution models have been widely used to predict biodiversity response but also remain criticised, as they are not able to properly disentangle the abiotic and biotic drivers shaping species’ niches. Recent developments have thus focussed on (i) integrating demography and dispersal into species distribution models, and on (ii) integrating interspecific interactions. Here, I review recent demographic and multi-species modelling approaches and discuss critical aspects of these models that remain underexplored in general and in respect to birds, for example, the complex life histories of birds and other animals as well as the scale dependence of interspecific interactions. I conclude by formulating modelling guidelines for integrating the abiotic and biotic processes that limit species’ ranges, which will help to disentangle the complex roles of demography, dispersal and interspecific interactions in shaping species niches. Throughout, I pinpoint complexities of avian life cycles that are critical for consideration in the models and identify data requirements for operationalizing the different modelling steps.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T09:10:49.271627-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01225
       
  • Influence of device accuracy and choice of algorithm for species
           distribution modelling of seabirds: A case study using black-browed
           albatrosses
    • Authors: Petra Quillfeldt; Jan O. Engler, Janet R.D. Silk, Richard A. Phillips
      Abstract: Species distribution models (SDM) based on tracking data from different devices are used increasingly to explain and predict seabird distributions. However, different tracking methods provide different data resolutions, ranging from < 10m to>100km. To better understand the implications of this variation, we modeled the potential distribution of black-browed albatrosses Thalassarche melanophris from South Georgia that were simultaneously equipped with a Platform Terminal Transmitter (PTT) (high resolution) and a Global Location Sensor (GLS) logger (coarse resolution), and measured the overlap of the respective potential distribution for a total of nine different SDM algorithms. We found slightly better model fits for the PTT than for GLS data (AUC values 0.958±0.048 vs. 0.95±0.05) across all algorithms. The overlaps of the predicted distributions were higher between device types for the same algorithm, than among algorithms for either device type. Uncertainty arising from coarse-resolution location data is therefore lower than that associated with the modeling technique. Consequently, the choice of an appropriate algorithm appears to be more important than device type when applying SDMs to seabird tracking data. Despite their low accuracy, GLS data appear to be effective for analyzing the habitat preferences and distribution patterns of pelagic species.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-01-16T00:10:26.097813-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01238
       
  • Outdoor recreation causes effective habitat reduction in Capercaillie
           Tetrao urogallus: a major threat for geographically restricted populations
           
    • Authors: Joy Coppes; Judith Ehrlacher, Rudi Suchant, Veronika Braunisch
      Abstract: Outdoor recreation inflicts a wide array of impacts on individual animals, many of them reflected in the avoidance of disturbed areas. The scale and spatial extent, however, at which wildlife populations are affected, are mostly unclear. Particularly in geographically isolated populations, where restricted habitat availability may preclude a relocation to undisturbed areas, effective habitat reduction may remain underestimated or even unnoticed, when animals stay in disturbed areas and only show small-scale responses. Based on telemetry data, we investigated the spatial and seasonal effects of outdoor recreation - in relation to landscape and vegetation conditions – on western capercaillie Tetrao urogallus, considering two scales, homerange and within-homerange habitat selection. We determined the distance-thresholds up to which recreation infrastructures were avoided and estimated the extent of affected habitat for the isolated Black Forest (Southwestern Germany) study population. While outdoor recreation did not affect homerange selection, strong effects on habitat use within the homerange were detected: Distance to recreation infrastructure (hiking and cross-country skiing trails, ski pistes) was the main determinant of habitat selection in winter; in summer, mountain bike trails and hiker's restaurants were avoided up to an average distance of 145m (CI: 60-1092m). Around winter-infrastructure, relative avoidance was recorded up to 320m (CI: 36-327m), it was reduced, however, when dense understory provided visual cover. Of the entire population area, between 8- 20% (summer) and 8- 40% (winter) were affected by outdoor recreation, mainly in the high altitudes. Even without evident large-scale shifts in species distribution, local-scale avoidance of outdoor recreation can substantially contribute to effective habitat reduction. Based on our results we recommend a general reduction in recreation infrastructure density in key habitats, the establishment of undisturbed wildlife refuges with a diameter of at least 800m, as well as enhancing visual protection by maintaining a strip of dense understory along trails.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-01-16T00:10:23.785218-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01239
       
  • Special issue: state and progress in avian species distribution models
    • Authors: Engler Jan O; Stiels Darius, Brambilla Mattia, Graham Catherine H.
      First page: 1481
      PubDate: 2017-12-18T05:23:44.670611-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01599
       
  • Avian SDMs: current state, challenges, and opportunities
    • Authors: Jan O. Engler; Darius Stiels, Kathrin Schidelko, Diederik Strubbe, Petra Quillfeldt, Mattia Brambilla
      First page: 1483
      Abstract: Quantifying species distributions using species distribution models (SDMs) has emerged as a central method in modern biogeography. These empirical models link species occurrence data with spatial environmental information. Since their emergence in the 1990s, thousands of scientific papers have used SDMs to study organisms across the entire tree of life, with birds commanding considerable attention. Here, we review the current state of avian SDMs and point to challenges and future opportunities for specific applications, ranging from conservation biology, invasive species and predicting seabird distributions, to more general topics such as modeling avian diversity, niche evolution and seasonal distributions at a biogeographic scale. While SDMs have been criticized for being phenomenological in nature, and for their inability to explicitly account for a variety of processes affecting populations, we conclude that they remain a powerful tool to learn about past, current, and future species distributions – at least when their limitations and assumptions are recognized and addressed. We close our review by providing an outlook on prospects and synergies with other disciplines in which avian SDMs can play an important role.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T04:45:51.818988-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01248
       
  • Quantification of climatic niches in birds: adding the temporal dimension
    • Authors: Alison Eyres; Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Susanne A. Fritz
      First page: 1517
      Abstract: Quantification of the climatic niche from geographic occurrences is an increasingly important tool for studying species’ relationships to their environment, for example to predict responses to climate change. However, as the geographic distributions of birds are seasonally dynamic, they pose a challenge to carrying out comparable and appropriate quantification of climatic niches. In this review, we first assess how relevant seasonal dynamics are across birds as a whole by compiling a database of migratory behaviour for 10443 bird species. Second, we examine how studies have quantified climatic niches of birds. Finally, using Australia as a case study, we investigate how well existing distribution datasets represent temporal dynamics by comparing seasonal patterns of species richness obtained from point-occurrence data with those from range maps and assess the consequences for niche quantification. We provide a consistent classification of migratory behaviour across all birds, and find that a huge variety exists between and within species that should be considered when quantifying climatic niches. Despite this, our review of the literature revealed that seasonal dynamics have often not been accounted for. For future studies, we provide a framework for selecting appropriate occurrence data depending on migratory behaviour and data availability. Our comparison of seasonal species richness patterns obtained from extent-of-occurrence range maps and point-occurrence data suggests that range maps are less able to detect temporal dynamics of bird distributions than point-occurrence data. We conclude that seasonally explicit range maps combined with climatic data for the corresponding time period can be used to adequately quantify climatic niches for resident birds, but are not adequate to quantify the climatic niches of migratory and nomadic species. Therefore, consistent quantification of climatic niches across all birds requires temporally explicit occurrence points. As such, increasing the availability of occurrence data and methods correcting biases should be a priority.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T08:31:29.579221-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01308
       
  • A framework integrating physiology, dispersal and land-use to project
           species ranges under climate change
    • Authors: Joel Methorst; Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Imran Khaliq, Christian Hof
      First page: 1532
      Abstract: To study the potential effects of climate change on species, one of the most popular approaches are species distribution models (SDMs). However, they usually fail to consider important species-specific biological traits, such as species’ physiological capacities or dispersal ability. Furthermore, there is consensus that climate change does not influence species distributions in isolation, but together with other anthropogenic impacts such as land-use change, even though studies investigating the relative impacts of different threats on species and their geographic ranges are still rare. Here we propose a novel integrative approach which produces refined future range projections by combining SDMs based on distribution, climate, and physiological tolerance data with empirical data on dispersal ability as well as current and future land-use. Range projections based on different combinations of these factors show strong variation in projected range size for our study species Emberiza hortulana. Using climate and physiological data alone, strong range gains are projected. However, when we account for land-use change and dispersal ability, future range-gain may even turn into a future range loss. Our study highlights the importance of accounting for biological traits and processes in species distribution models and of considering the additive effects of climate and land-use change to achieve more reliable range projections. Furthermore, with our approach we present a new tool to assess species’ vulnerability to climate change which can be easily applied to multiple species.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T08:30:53.381285-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01299
       
  • Using citizen science monitoring data in species distribution models to
           inform isotopic assignment of migratory connectivity in wetland birds
    • Authors: Auriel M. V. Fournier; Kiel L. Drake, Douglas C. Tozer
      First page: 1556
      Abstract: Stable isotopes have been used to estimate migratory connectivity in many species. Estimates are often greatly improved when coupled with species distribution models (SDMs), which temper estimates in relation to occurrence. SDMs can be constructed using from point locality data from a variety of sources including extensive monitoring data typically collected by citizen scientists. However, one potential issue with SDM is that these data oven have sampling bias. To avoid this potential bias, an approach using SDMs based on marsh bird monitoring program data collected by citizen scientists and other participants following protocols specifically designed to maximize detections of species of interest at locations representative of the species range. We then used the SDMs to refine isotopic assignments of breeding areas of autumn-migrating and wintering Sora (Porzana carolina), Virginia Rails (Rallus limicola), and Yellow Rails (Coturnicops noveboracensis) based on feathers collected from individuals caught at various locations in the United States from Minnesota south to Louisiana and South Carolina. Sora were assigned to an area that included much of the western U.S. and prairie Canada, covering parts of the Pacific, Central, and Mississippi Flyways. Yellow Rails were assigned to a broad area along Hudson and James Bay in northern Manitoba and Ontario, as well as smaller parts of Quebec, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan, including parts of the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways. Virginia Rails were from several discrete areas, including parts of Colorado, New Mexico, the central valley of California, and southern Saskatchewan and Manitoba in the Pacific and Central Flyways. Our study demonstrates extensive data from organized citizen science monitoring programs are especially useful for improving isotopic assignments of migratory connectivity in birds, which can ultimately lead to better informed management decisions and conservation actions.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T01:00:52.395389-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01273
       
  • A temporally explicit species distribution model for a long distance avian
           migrant, the common cuckoo
    • Authors: Heather M. Williams; Mikkel Willemoes, Kasper Thorup
      First page: 1624
      Abstract: Modelling the distribution of migratory species has rarely been extended beyond breeding and wintering ranges despite many species showing much more complex movement patterns with multiple stopovers. We aimed to create a temporally explicit species distribution model describing the full annual distribution cycle, and use it to model the complex seasonal shifts in distribution of the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, a declining long-distance migrant. To do this we used full-year satellite telemetry occurrence data, with their associated temporal information, to inform a temporally explicit species distribution model using MaxEnt. The resulting full-year distribution model was highly predictive (AUC = 0.894) and appeared to have generality at the species-level despite being informed by data from a single breeding population. Comparison of our methodology with seasonal distribution models describing the breeding, winter and migration ranges separately showed that our full-year method provided more general and extensive predictions and performed better when tested with an independent dataset. When species distribution models based on a single season exclude environmental conditions experienced by birds in other parts of the annual cycle they risk underestimating niche breadth and neglecting the importance of stopover habitat. Conversely, models which simply average conditions across a season may miss the significance of finer scale within-season movements and overestimate niche breadth. In contrast, our framework for a full-year migrant distribution model successfully captures the finer-scale changes expected in seasonal environments and can be used to inform conservation management at every stage of migration. The full-year model framework appears to produce temporal distribution models generalised to the species-level from occurrence data limited to few individuals of a single population and may have particular utility when aiming to describe the distribution of species with complex migration patterns from telemetry data.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T02:25:47.395143-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.01476
       
 
 
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