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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2575 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (190 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (58 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1316 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (39 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (144 journals)
    - BOTANY (192 journals)
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    - ZOOLOGY (119 journals)

BIOLOGY (1316 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

International Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Chemical and Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Computational Biology and Drug Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Design Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Ecological Economics and Statistics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Ecology & Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Enteric Pathogens     Open Access  
International Journal of Evolution     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Experimental and Computational Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of High Throughput Screening     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Insect Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Life Science and Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Medical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Myriapodology     Open Access  
International Journal of Nanoparticles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Natural Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Phytoremediation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Speleology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Tropical Insect Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Tryptophan Research     Open Access  
International Research Journal of Applied Life Sciences     Open Access  
International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Intervirology     Full-text available via subscription  
IntraVital     Full-text available via subscription  
Invertebrate Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Invertebrate Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Invertebrate Systematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Iranian Journal of Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IRBM     Full-text available via subscription  
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription  
Islets     Full-text available via subscription  
Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
ISRN Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ISRN Biomathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ISRN Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ITBM-RBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
IUBMB Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Izvestiya Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
JCP : BioChemical Physics     Hybrid Journal  
JETP Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bacteriology & Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bioanalysis & Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bioequivalence & Bioavailability     Open Access  
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cell Science & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Computer Science & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Advance Researches In Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Agricultural, Biological & Environmental Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Amino Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Applied Bioinformatics & Computational Biology     Partially Free  
Journal of Applied Biosciences     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Applied Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Arachnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Avian Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Bacteriology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Basic Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bio-Science     Open Access  
Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Biological and Information Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biological Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biological Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biological Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biological Methods     Open Access  
Journal of Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Biological Research - Thessaloniki     Open Access  
Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Biological Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biology and Earth Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biology and Life Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)

  First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 | Last

Journal Cover Journal of Avian Biology
   [18 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0908-8857 - ISSN (Online) 1600-048X
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1602 journals]   [SJR: 1.066]   [H-I: 50]
  • Irruptive movements and breeding dispersal of snowy owls: a specialized
           predator exploiting a pulsed resource
    • Authors: J.-F. Therrien; G. Gauthier, D. Pinaud, J. Bêty
      Abstract: Mobility and irruptive movements have been proposed as mechanisms that could allow some diet specialists to inhabit and breed in environments with highly unpredictable resources, like the arctic tundra. The snowy owl, one of the main avian predators of the tundra, is known to specialize on lemmings during the breeding season. These small mammals are also well known for their tremendous spatial and temporal variations in abundance. We examined the spring (pre‐breeding, from March to June) movements of snowy owls by tracking 9 breeding females in the Canadian Arctic for up to 3 yr with satellite transmitters. We used state‐space modeling to assess searching behavior and measure breeding dispersal distances. We also ascertain lemming abundance at some of the sites used by the marked owls. Tracked owls displayed searching movements for extended periods (up to 108 d) and traveled over large distances (up to 4093 km) each spring. The distance between furthest apart searching areas in a given year averaged 828 km (range 220 to 2433 km). Settlement date, distance between searching areas, traveled distance and the duration of prospecting movements were longer in the year where density of lemmings recorded in the eastern High‐Arctic (Bylot Island) was lowest. Nonetheless, snowy owls settled in areas where local lemming abundance was relatively high. Individual breeding dispersal distance between consecutive years averaged 725 km (range 18 to 2224). Overall, the high mobility of female snowy owls allowed these diet specialists to behave as irruptive migrants and to sustain their reproductive activities during consecutive years even under highly fluctuating resources.
      PubDate: 2014-06-02T04:55:37.815494-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00426
       
  • Geographical and environmental factors affecting the distribution of
           wintering black storks Ciconia nigra in the Iberian Peninsula
    • Authors: Luis Santiago Cano; Carlos Pacheco, Pablo Refoyo, José Luis Tellería
      Abstract: Here we explore the environmental and geographical factors affecting the winter distribution of the black stork Ciconia nigra in the Iberian Peninsula, where an increasing number of individuals have remained to winter in the last two decades. We recorded 179 locations of 54 ringed individuals between 1988 and 2011 to map the species habitat suitability with MaxEnt, a machine‐learning technique based on the principle of maximum entropy. The migratory movements of 25 birds equipped with satellite transmitters were used to define the autumnal migratory flyway used by most storks crossing the Peninsula as well as to define the wintering period. The aim was to test if the number of wintering storks was positively correlated to habitat suitability and negatively correlated to the flyway distance. Data provided by an extensive count across Portugal and Spain during the 2012–2013 winter supported the findings that black storks were more abundant in areas of high habitat suitability close to the migratory flyway. This agrees with previous evidence on the role of migratory flyways in determining the distribution of some wintering birds in Iberia. A gap analysis reflected that just 12.3% of the suitable areas and 18.8% of individuals recorded during the 2012–2013 winter were included within the Special Protection Areas network of Portugal and Spain. Most of these birds were crowded in unprotected areas covered by rice fields (68% of individuals), a key habitat for the species.
      PubDate: 2014-06-02T04:50:26.561406-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00391
       
  • Age‐dependent song changes in a closed‐ended vocal learner:
           elevation of song performance after song crystallization
    • Authors: Nao Ota; Masayo Soma
      Abstract: Birdsong is a sexual signal that serves as an indicator of male quality. There is already abundant evidence that song elaboration reflects early life‐history because early developmental stress affects neural development of song control systems, and leaves irreversible adverse effects on song phenotypes. Especially in closed‐ended vocal learners, song features crystallized early in life are less subject to changes in adulthood. This is why less attention has been paid to lifelong song changes in closed‐ended learners. However, in the eyes of female birds that gain benefits from choosing mates based on male songs, not only past but also current conditions encoded in songs would be meaningful, given that even crystallized songs in closed‐ended learners would not be identical in the long term. In this study, we examine within‐individual song changes in the Java sparrow Lonchura oryzivora, with the aim of shedding light on the relationship between song and long‐term life history. Specifically, we compared song length, tempo, and song complexity measures between the point just after song crystallization and around 1 yr later, and also compared those traits between fathers and sons to clarify the effect of vocal learning. While it is not surprising that song complexity did not differ depending on age or between fathers and sons, we found that song length and tempo increased with age. Follow‐up analyses have revealed that frequency bandwidth and peak frequency of song notes also elevated with age. Our results show that song performance related to motor skills can be improved even after song crystallization. We also suggest that song performance in closed‐ended vocal learners gives a reliable clue for mate choice by reflecting male quality with aging.
      PubDate: 2014-06-02T04:50:21.615686-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00383
       
  • South temperate birds have higher apparent adult survival than tropical
           birds in Africa
    • Authors: Penn Lloyd; Fitsum Abadi, Res Altwegg, Thomas E. Martin
      Abstract: Life history theory predicts an inverse relationship between annual adult survival and fecundity. Globally, clutch size shows a latitudinal gradient among birds, with south temperate species laying smaller clutches than north temperate species, but larger clutches than tropical species. Tropical birds often have higher adult survival than north temperate birds associated with their smaller clutches. However, the prediction that tropical birds should also have higher adult survival than south temperate birds because of smaller clutch sizes remains largely untested. We measured clutch size and apparent annual breeding adult survival for 17 south temperate African species to test two main predictions. First, we found strong support for a predicted inverse relationship between adult survival and clutch size among the south temperate species, consistent with life‐history theory. Second, we compared our clutch size and survival estimates with published estimates for congeneric tropical African species to test the prediction of larger clutch size and lower adult survival among south temperate than related tropical species. We found that south‐temperate species laid larger clutches, as predicted, but had higher, rather than lower, apparent adult survival than related tropical species. The latter result may be an artefact of different approaches to measuring survival, but the results suggest that adult survival is generally high in the south temperate region and raises questions about the importance of the cost of reproduction to adult survival.
      PubDate: 2014-05-09T08:26:52.447612-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00454
       
  • Effect of photoperiod on incubation period in a wild passerine, Sylvia
           atricapilla
    • Authors: Suzanne H. Austin; Michaela Hau, W. Douglas Robinson
      Abstract: Time required for avian embryos to develop is influenced by incubation temperature and the amount of time adults incubate eggs. Experiments on poultry indicate that photoacceleration, the light‐induced stimulation of embryonic development, decreases the length of the incubation period as embryos receive more light. We hypothesized that eggs of wild birds exposed to longer periods of light should also have shorter incubation periods. We tested whether photoacceleration would occur in a species of open‐cup nesting passerine, the blackcap Sylvia atricapilla. We artificially incubated blackcap eggs under four different photoperiods, four hours of light (4L) and 20 h of dark (20D), 12L:12D, 20L:4D, and a skeleton photoperiod (1 h light, 2 times per day) that framed a 20 h day. While incubation periods were accelerated with increasing photoperiod length, the differences among photoperiods of 4, 12 and 20L were weak. Embryos exposed to skeleton photoperiods developed as fast as those exposed to 20L and significantly faster than those exposed to 4L and 12L treatments. Skeleton photoperiods may most closely approximate natural patterns of light exposure that embryos experience during dawn and dusk incubation recesses typically associated with adult foraging. If our results from this species also occur in other wild birds, exposure to different day lengths may help explain some of the variation in the observed seasonal and latitudinal trends in avian incubation period.
      PubDate: 2014-05-09T08:26:10.566162-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00046
       
  • Extra‐pair paternity in relation to breeding synchrony in ground
           tits: an individual‐based approach
    • Authors: Chen Wang; Xin Lu
      Abstract: Previous studies thought that at the within‐population level, whether a female bird engages in extra‐pair (EP) mating depends on how synchronous she is in breeding time with all other females around her, presumably the synchronization might affect the female's opportunities to meet potential EP sires who socially pair with these other females. However, when females or males are choosy about EP partners and mate with one EP individual only, the probability of EP mating may be most influenced by breeding synchrony between the EP partners. In such a case, the ‘individual‐level’ synchrony should act to determine EP mating success. We test this idea in a socially monogamous passerine, the ground tit Parus humilis. Fifty‐five out of 172 sampled females produced 122 EP offspring, each mating with one EP sire in most cases (92%), usually her intermediately‐related kin. As expected, the broader‐scale synchrony did not predict the probability of EP paternity but the individual‐level did, for females having EP offspring bred more synchronously with their EP than with their nearest neighbors, and females without EP offspring were least synchronous with their nearest neighbors. We argue that this kind of individual‐based approaches will shine light on the synchrony‐EP mating relationship in birds.
      PubDate: 2014-05-09T08:25:41.177146-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00318
       
  • Foraging strategy of the little auk Alle alle throughout breeding season
           – switch from unimodal to bimodal pattern
    • Authors: Dariusz Jakubas; Katarzyna Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Lech Iliszko, Mirosław Darecki, Lech Stempniewicz
      Abstract: Energy and time allocation differs between incubation and chick‐rearing periods, which may lead to an adjustment in the foraging behaviour of parent birds. Here, we investigated the foraging behaviour of a small alcid, the little auk Alle alle during incubation and compared it with the chick‐rearing period in West Spitsbergen, using the miniature GPS (in Hornsund) and temperature loggers (in Magdalenefjorden). GPS‐tracking of 11 individuals revealed that during incubation little auks foraged 8–55 (median 46) km from the colony covering 19–239 (median 120) km during one foraging trip. Distance from the colony to foraging areas was similar during incubation and chick‐rearing period. During incubation 89% of foraging positions were located in the zone over shallower parts of the shelf (isobaths up to 200–300 m) with sea surface temperature below 2.5°C. Those environmental conditions are preferred by Arctic zooplankton community. Thus, little auks in the Hornsund area restrict their foraging (both during the incubation and chick‐rearing period) to the area under influence of cold, Arctic‐origin water masses where its most preferred prey, copepod Calanus glacialis is most abundant. The temperature logger data (from 4 individuals) indicate that in contrast to the chick‐rearing period, when parent birds alternated short and long trips, during the incubation they performed only long trips. Adopting such a flexible foraging strategy allows little auks to alter their foraging strategy to meet different energy and time demands during the two main stages of the breeding.
      PubDate: 2014-05-09T08:25:36.760143-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00303
       
  • Spring phenology and timing of breeding in short‐distance migrant
           birds: phenotypic responses and offspring recruitment patterns in common
           goldeneyes
    • Authors: Robert G. Clark; Hannu Pöysä, Pentti Runko, Antti Paasivaara
      Abstract: Understanding how organisms adjust breeding dates to exploit resources that affect fitness can provide insights into impacts of climate change on avian demography. For instance, mismatches have been reported in long‐distance migrant bird species when environmental cues experienced during spring migration are decoupled from conditions on breeding grounds. Short‐distance migrant bird species that store reproductive nutrients prior to breeding may avoid or buffer adverse phenological effects. Furthermore, reduced short‐term reproductive success could be offset by higher future recruitment of surviving offspring. We evaluated whether recruitment of locally‐hatched female offspring was related to hatching date alone or strength of mismatched breeding date for 405 individually‐marked adult female common goldeneyes Bucephala clangula (a short‐distance migrant) and their ducklings from a site in central Finland where ice‐out date has advanced by ˜ 2 weeks over 24 yr. Path analyses revealed that older, early‐nesting females with good body condition and larger broods recruited the most female offspring. Offspring recruitment decreased strongly among females that bred late relative to other females in the population each year; the extent of mismatched breeding date, i.e. hatching date scaled to annual ice‐out date, was less influential. Overall, most females advanced breeding dates when ice‐out occurred earlier in spring, but some females exhibited greater flexibility in response to ice‐out conditions than did others. In general, directional selection favoured early breeding over a wide range of ice‐out dates. Our results seem most consistent with a hypothesis that some short‐distance migrant species like goldeneyes have the capacity to track and respond appropriately to changing environmental conditions prior to onset of breeding.
      PubDate: 2014-05-06T10:35:23.850049-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00290
       
  • Costs of rearing and sex‐ratio variation in southern grey shrike
           Lanius meridionalis broods
    • Authors: Gregorio Moreno-Rueda; Francisco Campos, Francisco Gutiérrez-Corchero, M.-Ángeles Hernández
      Abstract: Several non‐mutually exclusive hypotheses predict adaptive variation in the offspring sex ratio. When conditions for breeding are adverse, parents are predicted to produce more offspring of the less costly sex to rear (‘the cost‐of‐reproduction hypothesis’). Moreover, they also should produce the more dispersing sex in order to diminish future competition (‘the local‐resource‐competition hypothesis’). Here, we analyse brood sex ratio according to rearing conditions in the southern shrike Lanius meridionalis, a species with moderately reversed sexual dimorphism. Our results suggest that females are more costly to rear than males in this species. Adult females proved heavier than males, and female nestling tended to be heavier than male nestlings. Moreover, the greater brood reduction, the more male‐biased was the brood, suggesting that brood reduction implied higher mortality in female nestlings. Consistent with these findings, the brood sex ratio was biased to the less costly sex (males) when breeding conditions were adverse (bad years or low‐quality male parents), supporting the cost‐of‐reproduction hypothesis. By contrast, these findings did not support the local‐resource‐competition hypothesis, which predicted female‐biased brood sex ratio under adverse conditions. As a whole, our results support the idea that birds adaptively modulate sex ratio in order to minimize reproduction costs.
      PubDate: 2014-04-28T09:54:59.249766-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00367
       
  • Taxonomy and conservation: a tale of two tinamou species groups
           (Tinamidae, Crypturellus)
    • Authors: Oscar Laverde-R; Carlos Daniel Cadena
      Abstract: Species delimitation has important consequences for the management of endangered species. Species‐level taxonomy in the genus Crypturellus (Tinamidae) has been based largely on plumage characters and species limits in several groups have been difficult to establish. Because some of the forms of uncertain taxonomic status are currently threatened with extinction, a basic understanding of species limits is crucial not only for taxonomists but also for conservation biologists and managers. We analysed vocal variation to assess species limits in two Crypturellus species‐groups, the red‐legged complex (Crypturellus erythropus and allied forms) and the brown tinamou Crypturellus obsoletus. In the red‐legged complex, where several species‐level taxa have been recognized by some authors, there is no obvious geographic variation in vocalizations and populations appear mostly continuously distributed, with plumage variation largely explicable in terms of environmental conditions. In the brown group, a single species is recognized, but we found marked geographic variation in vocalizations and populations have disjunct distributions; we propose that at least one of the populations in this group likely merits recognition as a separate species. We conclude that incomplete knowledge of patterns of variation in relevant traits in addition to the momentum carried by traditional taxonomy may potentially mislead conservation actions.
      PubDate: 2014-04-28T09:54:52.984371-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00298
       
  • Horned larks on the Tibetan Plateau adjust the breeding strategy according
           to the seasonal changes in the risk of nest predation and food
           availability
    • Authors: Bo Du; Chang-Jing Liu, Meng Yang, Shi-Jie Bao, Meng-Meng Guan, Nai-Fa Liu
      Abstract: Songbirds in seasonal environments often adjust their breeding strategy according to spatial or temporal changes in breeding conditions. Here we investigate how horned larks Eremophila alpestris, a multi‐brooded songbird on the Tibetan Plateau, responded to the changing risk of nest predation and food availability across breeding attempts. We showed that both nest concealment and food supply increased with plant growth, and horned larks adjusted their breeding strategies accordingly. First they selected nest‐sites where predator density was low, which enhanced nest survival. Second, clutch size increased with improving breeding conditions. They did not adopt an ‘egg‐size’ strategy as egg size did not change with laying sequence or breeding attempt. Instead, they adopted the ‘brood survival (feeding later‐hatched nestlings more)’ and ‘brood reduction (feeding early‐hatched nestlings more)’ strategies during early and later attempts. Moreover, nestlings’ growth varied with breeding attempt: more energy was invested into the growth of body mass during the first attempt but more energy was expended on the growth of linear structures during later attempts. This difference in energy allocation reflected changing food availability. We suggest that temporal changes of environmental factors are also the important force driving the evolution of avian breeding strategies.
      PubDate: 2014-04-25T10:03:25.612225-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00449
       
  • Testosterone levels in feces predict risk‐sensitive foraging in
           hummingbirds
    • Authors: C. A. Chávez-Zichinelli; L. Gómez, R. Ortiz-Pulido, C. Lara, R. Valdéz, M. C. Romano
      Abstract: Risk taking decisions related to the unpredictability of resource availability (risk‐sensitive foraging theory) have typically been explained by behavioral ecology and psychology approaches. However, little attention has been given to the physiological condition of animals as a factor that can influence the direction of foraging preferences. We evaluated the role of steroid hormones testosterone (T) and corticosterone (CORT) on the foraging preferences expressed by white‐eared hummingbirds Hylocharis leucotis in a risk‐sensitivity experiment. We recorded choices made by male individuals to floral arrays with constant and variable rewards (sugar concentration), and associated these with steroid hormone levels quantified at the start of the experiments. We found that males with higher T levels behave as risk‐prone foragers as they perform more visits to flower arrays with variable rewards. Interestingly, CORT levels were similar regardless whether individuals visited both types of array. According to our results, T seems to influence the foraging preferences of male hummingbirds. Individuals with higher levels of this hormone, made more rapid, frequent visits to flowers with variable rewards, and behave consistently as risk‐prone foragers, compared to males with low T levels. These are exciting avenues for future work, particularly considering recent evidence that individuals may exhibit behavioral differences, denoting an apparent personality, which may be associated with phisiological condition influencing how they respond behaviorally to environmental variation.
      PubDate: 2014-04-25T10:02:38.749676-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00387
       
  • Impact of miniaturized geolocators on barn swallow Hirundo rustica fitness
           traits
    • Authors: Chiara Scandolara; Diego Rubolini, Roberto Ambrosini, Manuela Caprioli, Steffen Hahn, Felix Liechti, Andrea Romano, Maria Romano, Beatrice Sicurella, Nicola Saino
      Abstract: Miniaturized light‐level geolocators may revolutionise the study of avian migration. However, there are increasing concerns that they might negatively affect fitness. We investigated the impact of two miniaturized geolocator models (SOI‐GDL2.10, deployed in 2010, and SOI‐GDL2.11, deployed in 2011) on fitness traits of the barn swallow Hirundo rustica, one of the smallest migratory species to which geolocators have been applied to date. The 2011 model was lighter (by 0.09 g) and had a shorter light stalk compared to the 2010 model. Using data from 640 geolocator and 399 control individuals from three geographical populations, we found that geolocators reduced annual survival probabilities (control birds: 0.19–0.63; geolocator birds: 0.08–0.40, depending on year, sex, and how birds that lost the device were considered), with more markedly negative effects on females equipped with the 2010 model. In addition, among birds equipped with the 2010 model, onset of reproduction in the subsequent year was delayed (by 12 d) and females laid smaller first clutches (by 1.5 eggs, i.e. a 30% reduction) compared to controls. Equipping parents with geolocators while they were attending their brood did not affect nestling body mass or fledging success. A reduction of geolocator weight and drag by shortening the light stalk slightly enhanced the survival of females but not that of males, and mitigated the negative carry‐over effects on subsequent reproduction. Our study shows that geolocators can have a negative impact on survival and reproduction, and that even minor differences in weight and drag can make the difference. We suggest that studies aiming at deploying geolocators or other year‐round tagging devices should be preceded by pilot experiments to test for fitness effects.
      PubDate: 2014-04-24T09:44:12.643287-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00412
       
  • Vitamin E improves growth of collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis
           young: a supplementation experiment
    • Authors: Jana Matrková; Vladimír Remeš
      Abstract: In altricial birds, the quantity and quality of food provided by parents is a crucial determinant of nestling performance. Vitamin E is an important micronutrient with various physiological functions, including a positive role in the antioxidant system. Sufficient intake of vitamin E has been shown to condition normal avian development in poultry, yet, our knowledge of the role of vitamin E in free‐living birds is limited. Thus, we experimentally examined the effects of vitamin E on nestling development in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis. We supplemented nestlings with vitamin E and evaluated their growth and survival till fledging. Increased availability of vitamin E did not affect body mass, wing length or survival, but improved tarsus growth. The effect of supplementation on tarsus length changed over season and with initial body mass. Supplemented nestlings that were smaller at hatching and those that hatched later in the season grew longer tarsi compared to the control. Our results suggest that 1) vitamin E may be limiting for the development of collared flycatcher nestlings, 2) seasonal changes of vitamin E availability may affect breeding success of collared flycatchers, and 3) increased income of vitamin E may improve growth of nestlings with bad start in life.
      PubDate: 2014-04-24T09:43:49.240621-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00368
       
  • Maternal dietary carotenoids mitigate detrimental effects of maternal GnRH
           on offspring immune function in Japanese quail Coturnix japonica
    • Authors: Susana I. Peluc; Wendy L. Reed, Penelope Gibbs, Kevin J. McGraw
      Abstract: Maternal resources deposited in eggs can affect the development of several offspring phenotypic traits and result in trade‐offs among them. For example, maternal androgens in eggs may be beneficial to offspring growth and competitive ability, but detrimental to immunocompetence and oxidative stress. In contrast, maternal antioxidants in eggs may be beneficial if they mitigate oxidative stress and immunosuppressive effects of androgens. We investigated possible interactive effects of maternal steroids and carotenoids on aspects of offspring physiology and phenotype, by simultaneously manipulating levels of androgens (via gonadotropin‐releasing hormone, GnRH‐challenges) and carotenoids (via diet supplementation) in captive female Japanese quail Coturnix japonica during egg laying. Carotenoid supplementation of hens, which elevates yolk concentrations of carotenoid and vitamins A and E, enhanced egg hatching success, offspring survival to age 15 d, and size of the bursa of Fabricius in offspring. In contrast, repeated maternal GnRH challenges, which elevated yolk testosterone concentrations, enhanced offspring neonatal size, but negatively affected bursa size. However, interaction among the treatments suggests that the positive effect of maternal carotenoid supplementation on plasma bactericidal capacity was mediated by maternal GnRH challenges. Chicks originating from carotenoid‐supplemented hens were less immunosuppressed than those originating from carotenoid‐supplemented + GnRH‐challenged hens, which were less immunosuppressed than chicks from GnRH‐challenged females not supplemented with carotenoids. Females availability of carotenoid enriched diets allows them to enhance the development of offspring immune system via carotenoids and vitamins deposited in egg yolks and offset detrimental effects of androgens deposited by GnRH‐challenged females.
      PubDate: 2014-04-10T05:40:19.188353-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00360
       
  • The origin of feather holes: a word of caution
    • Authors: Csongor I. Vágási
      Abstract: Antagonistic processes between parasites and their hosts are hallmarks of evolutionary ecology. A group of parasites is adapted to feed on feather keratin. In doing so, they inflict a variety of costs on avian hosts by causing feathers to degrade faster. Feather holes represent a class of feather damage that is attributed to the chewing bites of Phthirapteran lice. Consequently, hole counts were used as an approximation of lice infestation intensity when studying bird–lice interaction. Here, I express some reservations regarding this practice. I survey the literature concerning feather holes and the state of the hole–lice concept, highlight some uncertainties regarding its reliability, offer possible alternative explanations for the origin of holes, and suggest directions for future investigations. I conclude that the origin of holes is still unknown, and so a prudent approach is desirable when interpreting the relationship between avian phenotype or fitness and lice infestation inferred from hole counts.
      PubDate: 2014-04-10T05:38:57.923915-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00359
       
  • Genetically‐based behavioural morph affects stopover refuelling
           performance in white‐throated sparrows Zonotrichia albicollis
    • Authors: J. Morgan Brown; Brendan J. McCabe, Lisa V. Kennedy, Christopher G. Guglielmo
      Abstract: Intraspecific competition can influence refuelling at migration stopover sites. White‐throated sparrows Zonotrichia albicollis have genetically‐determined plumage morphs that differ in dominance behaviour and competitive abilities. This study examines the effects of plumage morph, sex and age, three likely indicators of competitive ability, on fall migration timing, body composition, and refuelling rates during stopover at Long Point, Ontario. We used quantitative magnetic resonance analysis and plasma metabolite profiling to determine body composition and refuelling rates, respectively. We determined sex and plumage morph genetically. Competitive ability did not influence migration timing. Controlling for structural size, males had larger lean mass than females, but we found no differences in body fat or lean mass between plumage morphs. Plasma metabolite concentrations indicated that the aggressive white‐stripe morph refuelled faster than the less aggressive tan‐stripe morph, though there were no differences among sex and age groups. We suggest that increased refuelling rates did not result in increased fat or lean mass because 1) individuals categorised as less competitive had longer stopover durations to compensate for slower refuelling rates; or 2) costs of behaving more competitively offset gains from faster refuelling rates.
      PubDate: 2014-04-10T05:38:34.559135-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00334
       
  • Colony attendance and at‐sea distribution of thin‐billed
           prions during the early breeding season
    • Authors: Petra Quillfeldt; Richard A. Phillips, Melanie Marx, Juan F. Masello
      Abstract: Procellariiform seabirds have extreme life histories; they are very long‐lived, first breed when relatively old, lay single egg clutches, both incubation and chick‐rearing are prolonged and chicks exhibit slow growth. The early part of the breeding season is crucial, when pair bonds are re‐established and partners coordinate their breeding duties, but is a difficult period to study in burrow‐nesting species. Miniature geolocators (Global Location Sensors or GLS loggers) now offer a way to collect data on burrow attendance, as well as determine at‐sea movements. We studied the early breeding season in thin‐billed prions Pachyptila belcheri breeding at New Island, Falkland Islands. Males and females arrived back at the colony at similar times, with peak arrival in the last days of September. However, males spent more time on land during the pre‐laying period, presumably defending and maintaining the burrow and maximising mating opportunities. Males departed later than females, and carried out a significantly shorter pre‐laying exodus. Males took on the first long incubation shift, whereas females returned to sea soon after egg laying. During the pre‐laying exodus and incubation, males and females travelled at similar speeds (> 250 km d−1) and were widely distributed over large areas of the Patagonian Shelf. Inter‐annual differences in oceanographic conditions were stronger during the incubation than during the pre‐laying exodus and were matched by stronger differences in distribution. The study thus suggests that extended trips and flexible distribution enable thin‐billed prions to meet the high energy demands of egg production and incubation despite low productivity in waters around the colony during the early summer.
      PubDate: 2014-04-10T05:38:32.818254-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00307
       
  • Inland flights of young red‐eyed vireos Vireo olivaceus in relation
           to survival and habitat in a coastal stopover landscape
    • Authors: Bradley K. Woodworth; Charles M. Francis, Philip D. Taylor
      Abstract: Inland dispersal of migrating land birds away from the coast, often opposite to the direction of migration, occurs frequently. Many of these movements may involve migrants seeking improved stopover conditions farther inland, but direct study of inland flights and of the ecological factors influencing their occurrence is limited. We used an automated telemetry array and ground‐tracking to assess flight behaviours, survival, and habitat use of young red‐eyed vireos Vireo olivaceus during fall migration at a coastal island and an inland stopover site in southwest Nova Scotia. We recorded inland flights for 41% (11/27) of individuals that departed the island. At least 25% of 16 individuals tagged at the inland site also relocated within the landscape prior to continuing migration, but due to the higher proportion of ambiguous flights at the inland site (44%) compared to the island (15%), we could not be sure if actual proportions of relocations differed between sites. Mortality on the island (at least 10 of 39 individuals) was significantly higher than at the inland site (0 of 16 individuals). At mainland sites near the coast where we found 6 of 11 individuals after they relocated away from the island, mortality remained high (2/6). Lack of deciduous canopy cover may have contributed to the high mortality on the island, but coastal mainland sites had a relatively high amount of deciduous canopy cover, similar to at the inland site where there was no mortality. Although coastal stopover sites may be important for migrating songbirds, especially before or after making a large water crossing, our results show that mortality can be much higher, and habitat poorer, at the coast compared to farther inland. Therefore, relocating inland may be an adaptive strategy for individuals that initially settle at the coast and that need to rest and refuel before they continue migration.
      PubDate: 2014-04-09T07:11:26.454179-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00276
       
  • Age‐dependent dispersal and habitat choice in black‐tailed
           godwits Limosa limosa limosa across a mosaic of traditional and modern
           grassland habitats
    • Authors: Rosemarie Kentie; Christiaan Both, Jos C. E. W. Hooijmeijer, Theunis Piersma
      Abstract: Whether to disperse, and where to, are two of the most prominent decisions in an individual's life, with major consequences for reproductive success. We studied natal and breeding dispersal in the monogamous black‐tailed godwit Limosa limosa limosa in the Netherlands, where they breed in agricultural grasslands. The majority of these grasslands recently changed from wet herb‐rich meadows into well‐drained grassland monocultures, on which godwits have a lower reproductive success. Here we examine habitat selection with a multistate mark–recapture analysis. Habitat transition probabilities between meadows and monocultures were estimated on the basis of 1810 marked chicks and 531 adults during seven years in a 8500 ha study area. Young and adult godwits may differ in habitat selection because: 1) adults may have gained experience from previous nest success where to settle, 2) younger individuals may find it harder to compete for the best territories. Both young and adults moved at a higher rate from the predominant monocultures to meadows than the other way around, thus actively selecting the habitat with better quality. However, dispersal distance of adults was not affected by previous nest success. The average dispersal distance from place of birth of godwits breeding for the first time was ten times larger than that of adult godwits. That godwits breeding in their second calendar year arrived and laid at similar dates and were equally able to select territories in areas with high breeding densities, suggests that young birds were not competitively inferior to adults. Although on monocultures reproduction is insufficient to maintain constant populations, birds sometimes moved from meadows to monocultures. This explains why even after 30 years of land‐use intensification, godwits still breed in low‐quality habitat. The adjustment to changing habitat conditions at the population level appears to be a slow process.
      PubDate: 2014-04-09T07:11:24.102258-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00273
       
  • Colonization pathways of the northeast Atlantic by northern fulmars: a
           test of James Fisher’s ‘out of Iceland’ hypothesis using
           museum collections
    • Authors: T. M. Burg; H. Bird, L. Lait, M. de L. Brooke
      First page: 209
      Abstract: When the northern fulmar expanded its northeast Atlantic breeding range from the two known colonies, Grimsey in northern Iceland and St Kilda in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland, about 350 yr ago, the geographical pattern of colonisation – initially the Faroes, then Scotland, followed by Ireland and southern Britain – led James Fisher to propose a sole Icelandic source for the colonists. However, previously‐analysed mitochondrial DNA from contemporary samples indicated a St Kildan origin for at least some colonists. If Fisher's hypothesis is correct and Iceland and not St Kilda was the source population for all of the new colonies, the Icelandic signal should be stronger in museum samples collected 100 yr ago when St Kilda was populated by people who harvested large numbers of fulmars. Patterns of genetic, specifically, nucleotide, diversity suggest an Icelandic origin for the pre‐1940 samples. St Kilda birds contained a number of closely related haplotypes whereas Grimsey, Iceland, the other putative source population, contained diverse haplotypes. These two patterns are indicative of a younger and older population, respectively. When both nuclear aldolase and mitochondrial control region sequence data from historical samples collected on the newly colonized islands were examined, they contained highly divergent haplotypes characteristic of Grimsey, not St Kilda. Comparison of mitochondrial data from samples collected in the early and late 20th century showed an interesting pattern of haplotype turnover on St Kilda. Prior to 1940 the haplotypes present on St Kilda were genetically similar to one another, yet haplotype sampling in the 1990s showed highly divergent haplotypes on the island. We propose that these new haplotypes are not the result of mutation, but immigration from other colonies in the North Atlantic.
      PubDate: 2014-01-22T10:35:25.769378-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-048X.2013.00262.x
       
  • Avian malaria is associated with increased reproductive investment in the
           blue tit
    • Authors: Edyta Podmokła; Anna Dubiec, Szymon M. Drobniak, Aneta Arct, Lars Gustafsson, Mariusz Cichoń
      First page: 219
      Abstract: Haemosporidians causing avian malaria are very common parasites among bird species. Their negative effects have been repeatedly reported in terms of deterioration in survival prospects or reproductive success. However, a positive association between blood parasites and avian fitness has also been reported. Here, we studied a relationship between presence of malaria parasites and reproductive performance of the host, a hole‐breeding passerine – the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus. Since the malaria parasites might affect their hosts differently depending on environmental conditions, we performed brood size manipulation experiment to differentiate parental reproductive effort and study the potential interaction between infection status and brood rearing conditions on reproductive performance. We found individuals infected with malaria parasites to breed later in the season in comparison with uninfected birds, but no differences were detected in clutch size. Interestingly, infected parents produced heavier and larger offspring with stronger reaction to phytohemagglutinin. More importantly, we found a significant interaction between infection status and brood size manipulation in offspring tarsus length and reaction to phytohemagglutinin: presence of parasites had stronger positive effect among birds caring for experimentally enlarged broods. Our results might be interpreted either in the light of the parasite‐mediated selection or terminal investment hypothesis.
      PubDate: 2014-01-22T10:37:49.748166-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-048X.2013.00284.x
       
  • Insights into life history theory: a brood size manipulation on a southern
           hemisphere species, Tachycineta leucorrhoa, reveals a fast pace of life
    • Authors: Florencia Bulit; Melina Barrionuevo, Viviana Massoni
      First page: 225
      Abstract: Life history traits exhibit substantial geographical variation associated with the pace of life. Species with a slow pace are expected to invest more in their future/residual reproductive value and are more common at tropical latitudes, whereas species from high latitudes, with a faster pace, are expected to prioritize the current reproductive effort. Most evidence supporting this pattern comes from studies conducted in tropical and north temperate species; very little is known about patterns in southern South American species. Here, we describe the life history of a southern swallow Tachycineta leucorrhoa and use an experimental approach to test their breeding strategy over four breeding seasons. We manipulated brood size for 105 nests of white‐rumped swallows to measure whether costs of reproduction were borne by adults or nestlings as alternative selection strategies towards maintaining residual or current reproductive value. Adults increased their feeding effort in enlarged broods, at least enough to maintain nestlings’ development/growth. In addition, adults decreased the number of visits to the nest (without having a negative effect on nestlings) in reduced broods. We did not detect differences in fledging success among treatments, suggesting there were no differences in nestlings’ survival. However, enlarged broods more frequently incurred in complete nest failure, suggesting only some adults were able to cope with increased costs of reproduction. We conclude this species is characterized by a fast pace of life similar to their northern congeners and less like its tropical ones. This is one of the first studies to use an experimental approach to test a life history hypothesis of pace of life using data from a southern South American species. We encourage researches to include southern species when evaluating latitudinal variations as we still do not have enough evidence to assume all southern subtropical species are indeed similar to tropical ones.
      PubDate: 2014-01-28T11:36:08.813609-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-048X.2013.00266.x
       
  • Antioxidant status in relation to age, condition, reproductive performance
           and pollution in three passerine species
    • Authors: Åsa M. M. Berglund; Miia J. Rainio, Mirella Kanerva, Mikko Nikinmaa, Tapio Eeva
      First page: 235
      Abstract: Oxidative stress has been suggested as a mediator in life‐history trade‐off. By spending more resources on for example reproduction an organism might sacrifice its antioxidant defence. So far, most conclusions on trade‐offs between life‐history traits and oxidative stress have been drawn from laboratory studies using a few model species and there is a need for studies conducted in natural settings. We investigated associations between markers for antioxidant status (antioxidant enzyme activities and antioxidant levels), body condition, age and reproduction in three species of wild‐living passerines. The impact from an anthropogenic stressor (metal pollution) was also assessed. The three bird species showed interspecific variation in their SOD and CAT activities, indicating different pathways to eliminate radicals. The age of females affected both antioxidant status and the breeding performance, indicating the importance of age as a factor in life‐history studies. Old birds had lower levels of antioxidants/antioxidant enzyme activities and they produced larger broods/more successful broods, though the latter might be confounded by surviving females having increased fitness. Metal exposure had a negative impact on breeding, and improved breeding outcome was also associated with increased antioxidant defence, but metal exposure was not directly related to the oxidative status of birds, emphasizing that additional stressors might independently affect the same traits. Our results highlight that caution has to be taken when generalizing and extrapolating results to even closely related species. The results support the idea that there is a cost of reproduction, in terms of increased resources spent on antioxidant defence, though this should be confirmed with experimental studies.
      PubDate: 2014-01-28T11:31:23.333013-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-048X.2013.00126.x
       
  • Facultative adjustment of pre‐fledging mass recession by nestling
           chimney swifts Chaetura pelagica
    • Authors: Sagan Goodpaster; Gary Ritchison
      First page: 247
      Abstract: In species susceptible to mass‐dependent flight costs, mass recession prior to fledging may ensure that fledglings have appropriate wing loading. Our objectives were to determine if mass recession by chimney swift Chaetura pelagica nestlings is intrinsically controlled or facultatively adjusted by nestlings, and if mass recession is driven by changes in parental (i.e. reduced provisioning rates) or nestling (i.e. reduced begging) behavior. Nestling swifts (n = 50 in 17 broods) were divided into three treatment groups: controls, half‐weighted, or weighted. Half‐weighted and weighted nestlings had 0.6–0.7 or 1.2–1.3‐g lead weights, respectively, glued to body feathers on their backs during the period from 16 to 26 d post‐hatching. Weighted nestlings lost more mass than control and half‐weighted nestlings. After accounting for the added weights, control nestlings also had a higher wing loading than weighted nestlings. Video recordings revealed that provisioning rates of adult swifts did not vary throughout the nestling period, but the percent time nestlings spent begging increased slightly with age. Differences in mass recession among nestlings in different treatment groups resulted in convergence toward similar wing loading values likely optimal for flight efficiency. Mechanism(s) involved in this process remain unclear because provisioning rates were similar (from day 12 to 26 post‐hatching) whereas percent begging time by nestlings tended to increase with nestling age. However, weighted nestlings may have lost more mass than control nestlings by soliciting less food from adults than siblings, being more active, losing more water due to tissue maturation, or through some combination of two or more of these factors.
      PubDate: 2014-03-24T05:45:19.764061-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00326
       
  • Multilocus phylogeography and morphology give insights into the recent
           evolution of a Mexican endemic songbird: Vireo hypochryseus
    • Authors: Enrique Arbeláez-Cortés; Diego Roldán-Piña, Adolfo G. Navarro-Sigüenza
      First page: 253
      Abstract: We used multilocus phylogeographic analyses, morphometric measurements, and environmental niche models (ENMs) to analyze the recent evolution of the golden vireo Vireo hypochryseus, a Mexican endemic species. Vireo hypochryseus is made up of two phylogeographically structured mitochondrial DNA clades that probably diverged 132 000 yr ago. One clade comprised individuals from mainland Sinaloa and the Tres Marías islands in the northwest, and the other included individuals from the remaining range of the species. This marked phylogeographic structure contrasts with the low genetic structure reported for temperate North American vireos. The nuclear DNA markers also showed some geographic differences in allele frequency, but did not exhibit a clear phylogeographic structure. The morphometric analyses suggested a decreasing north to south cline, with the largest individuals located in the Tres Marías islands. The ENMs did not support a scenario of geographic fragmentation of the environmental conditions of the area in which V. hypochryseus has inhabited over the last 130 000 yr. However, a model of isolation by resistance based on the actual configuration of climatic conditions in western Mexico did explain a major proportion of both the mitochondrial DNA distances and the differences in size, while a model of isolation by distance explain a low proportion of such differences. Therefore, the recent history of V. hypochryseus was likely shaped by historical habitat fragmentation due to fluctuating environmental conditions in the mainland that produced a phylogeographic print, and natural selection on morphological traits in the insular population, suggesting an active diversification of endemic lineages in the Mexican dry forest.
      PubDate: 2014-02-25T11:40:28.26765-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-048X.2013.00335.x
       
  • Body composition of north and southbound migratory blackcaps is influenced
           by the lay‐of‐the‐land ahead
    • Authors: Michał S. Wojciechowski; Reuven Yosef, Berry Pinshow
      First page: 264
      Abstract: The annual migration of small birds depends on the optimal management of time and energy. Since refueling at stopovers between flights consumes most of the birds’ time and energy, selection of food‐rich sites, and timely departure therefrom are likely crucial to success. We examined this concept quantifying body composition of 200 migrating blackcaps, Sylvia atricapilla, in Eilat, Israel, using dual‐energy x‐ray absorptiometry and generated a model to predict body composition as it changes with body mass (mb). We then back‐calculated body composition of > 20 000 blackcaps ringed between 1984 and 2005, and tested the hypothesis that the amount of fuel that a bird stores determines the length of its stopover. We predicted that 1) if time‐constrained in spring, birds at the stopover site carry less than a maximum fuel load, but 2) if not time‐constrained, as in autumn, their fuel load is much higher than in spring. We found the change in body composition of blackcaps to be biphasic and correlated with increasing mb. At mb < ˜ 17.8 g, increasing mb is due to increasing lean mass (ml), while at mb > ˜ 17.8 g increasing mb results from increasing fat mass (mf), which is accompanied by decreasing ml. Body composition of blackcaps at a spring stopover site indicates that blackcaps leave stopovers as soon as they regain functionality of their digestive systems, but before laying down much mf. In autumn blackcaps arrive with fuel stores much larger than in spring. For these birds, the Eilat stopover apparently serves to complete fat accumulation before crossing the deserts ahead. We conclude that in spring, the decision to depart is not determined by the bird's fuel stores, especially when early arrival at the breeding site, and therefore time, is of the essence. In autumn, accumulating enough fuel to ensure successful crossing of the deserts ahead probably dictates stopover time.
      PubDate: 2014-02-25T11:40:31.039175-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-048X.2013.00345.x
       
  • Influence of incubation recess patterns on incubation period and hatchling
           traits in wood ducks Aix sponsa
    • Authors: A. W. Carter; W. A. Hopkins, I. T. Moore, S. E. DuRant
      First page: 273
      Abstract: Parental effects are influential sources of phenotypic variation in offspring. Incubation temperature in birds, which is largely driven by parental behavior and physiology, affects a suite of phenotypic traits in offspring including growth, immune function, stress endocrinology, and sex ratios. The importance of average incubation temperature on offspring phenotype has recently been described in birds, but parental incubation behaviors like the duration and frequency of recesses from the nest can be variable. There are few studies describing how or if thermal variation as a result of variable incubation affects offspring phenotype. We incubated wood duck Aix sponsa eggs under three different incubation regimes, based on patterns that occur in nature, which varied in off‐bout duration and/or temperature. We measured incubation period, morphometrics at hatching, and monitored growth and body condition for nine days post hatch. When average incubation temperature was allowed to drop from 35.9°C to 35.5°C as a result of doubled off‐bout duration, we found a significant 2 d extension in incubation period, but no effects on duckling hatch mass, or growth and body condition up to nine days post hatch. However, when average incubation temperatures were equivalent (35.9°C), doubling the duration of the simulated off‐bouts did not influence incubation period or any post hatch parameters. Our results suggest that if incubating parents can maintain favorable thermal environments in the nest via altered behavior (e.g. manipulating nest insulation) and/or physiology (e.g. heat production), parents may be able to avoid the costs of longer incubation periods resulting from increased off‐bout duration.
      PubDate: 2014-01-22T10:35:44.633953-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-048X.2013.00275.x
       
  • Direct and indirect effects of an insect outbreak increase the
           reproductive output for an avian insectivore and nest‐cavity
           excavator, the red‐breasted nuthatch Sitta canadensis
    • Authors: Andrea R. Norris; Kathy Martin
      First page: 280
      Abstract: Community‐wide food pulses may ameliorate food constraints but may also result in increased competition for other resources and predation rates. In cavity‐nesting vertebrate communities, where the availability of tree cavities can limit reproduction and the reuse of cavities can increase nest predation by squirrels, excavators may maximize their fecundity by creating new cavities in competitor‐ and predator‐rich habitats that undergo food pulses. The reproductive cost associated with excavation (i.e. increased energy allocation early in the breeding season that often delays laying and thereby reduces clutch size), may be reduced if food pulses allow for a longer breeding season and larger clutches. A large‐scale mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae outbreak that occurred during our long‐term study (1995–2009) provided a natural food supplementation experiment across 27 sites in British Columbia, Canada. We examined the effects of a reduction in food constraints accompanied with increases in excavation rates, conspecific density and nest predation risk on the fecundity of a facultative excavator, the red‐breasted nuthatch Sitta canadensis. We found a total of 420 nests in tree cavities. Nuthatch clutch sizes ranged from two to nine eggs, and broods from one to nine fledglings per nest. Later clutches were larger at sites and in years with high beetle abundance (mean clutch size of six eggs did not decline later in the season), second broods were produced in outbreak years (usually only one nesting attempt/normal year), and the number of fledglings per successful nest increased with increasing beetle abundance and nuthatch densities, but declined with increased squirrel densities. Since fecundity did not differ between new and reused cavities, the costs and benefits of excavation versus cavity reuse may be neutralized for nuthatches during strong resource pulses. Overall, the beetle outbreak reduced food constraints for nuthatches and provided alternate food for nest predators, allowing increased annual fecundity.
      PubDate: 2014-03-24T05:45:17.863235-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00112
       
  • Contemporary divergence of island bird plumage
    • Authors: Julian D. Avery; Phillip Cassey, Julie L. Lockwood
      First page: 291
      Abstract: Although the diversity in avian plumage coloration is striking, there is little known about the rate with which colour diverges. Eastern bluebirds Sialia sialis bermudensis on the island of Bermuda are considered endemic based upon differences in coloration from the mainland, but recent molecular evidence suggests they established on the island only 400 yr ago. We explored sexual dichromatism and colour divergence in this isolated population, thus providing one of the few quantitative accounts of contemporary plumage change. Contrary to expectations that sexual dichromatism would decrease in this sedentary island population, we found that males and females have increased plumage ornamentation in a coordinated fashion that acts to preserve sexual dichromatism, while plumage colour is also altered to become brighter and bluer. These differences were in place at least 100 yr ago based upon a separate analysis of museum specimens. Our results provide insight into the divergence of plumage colour in an incipient species, and we show the remarkable extent to which plumage colour can change over contemporary time frames.
      PubDate: 2014-03-18T09:09:56.606777-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00300
       
  • Occupancy of yellow‐billed and Pacific loons: evidence for
           interspecific competition and habitat mediated co‐occurrence
    • Authors: Trevor B. Haynes; Joel A. Schmutz, Mark S. Lindberg, Kenneth G. Wright, Brian D. Uher-Koch, Amanda E. Rosenberger
      First page: 296
      Abstract: Interspecific competition is an important process structuring ecological communities, however, it is difficult to observe in nature. We used an occupancy modelling approach to evaluate evidence of competition between yellow‐billed (Gavia adamsii) and Pacific (G. pacifica) loons for nesting lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. With multiple years of data and survey platforms, we estimated dynamic occupancy states (e.g. rates of colonization or extinction from individual lakes) and controlled for detection differences among aircraft platforms and ground survey crews. Results indicated that yellow‐billed loons were strong competitors and negatively influenced the occupancy of Pacific loons by excluding them from potential breeding lakes. Pacific loon occupancy was conditional on the presence of yellow‐billed loons, with Pacific loons having almost a tenfold decrease in occupancy probability when yellow‐billed loons were present and a threefold decrease in colonization probability when yellow‐billed loons were present in the current or previous year. Yellow‐billed and Pacific loons co‐occurred less than expected by chance except on very large lakes or lakes with convoluted shorelines; variables which may decrease the cost of maintaining a territory in the presence of the other species. These results imply the existence of interspecific competition between yellow‐billed and Pacific loons for nesting lakes; however, habitat characteristics which facilitate visual and spatial separation of territories can reduce competitive interactions and promote species co‐occurrence.
      PubDate: 2014-03-18T09:11:50.435234-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/jav.00394
       
 
 
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