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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3086 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1462 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 281)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Anatomical Science International
  [SJR: 0.301]   [H-I: 26]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1447-6959 - ISSN (Online) 1447-073X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • A review of functional heterogeneity among astrocytes and the
           CS56-specific antibody-mediated detection of a subpopulation of astrocytes
           in adult brains
    • Authors: Hiroaki Okuda
      Pages: 161 - 168
      Abstract: Astrocytes comprise the largest class of glial cells in the mammalian central nerve system (CNS). Although astrocytes were long considered to be a homogeneous population of neuron-supporting cells, recent decades have seen a shift toward the recognition that astrocytes exhibit morphological and functional heterogeneities and serve as essential modulators of brain functions. However, the mechanism underlying astrocyte diversity remains unclear, and the different subpopulations are difficult to identify due to a lack of specific cell markers. In this review, I discuss current knowledge regarding astrocyte heterogeneity and introduce a subpopulation that can be detected via labeling with a chondroitin sulfate-specific antibody (CS56). These CS56-positive astrocytes were found to selectively express tenascin-R (TNR) in the adult mouse cerebral cortex. Further research demonstrated significantly lower levels of glutamate uptake activity and glutamate aspartate transporter expression in TNR-knockdown astrocytes relative to controls, suggesting that the expression and secretion of Tnr by a subpopulation of astrocytes may contribute to region-specific neuron–astrocyte interactions. In summary, these results suggest that CS56-specific antibody and Tnr could be used as novel markers to detect an astrocyte subpopulation in the adult CNS.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0420-z
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Oncostatin M in the development of metabolic syndrome and its potential as
           a novel therapeutic target
    • Authors: Tadasuke Komori; Yoshihiro Morikawa
      Pages: 169 - 176
      Abstract: Oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the IL-6 family of cytokines, plays an important role in various biologic actions, including cell growth, neuronal development, and inflammatory responses. Recently, we demonstrated the unique relationship between OSM and metabolic syndrome in mice. Mice lacking OSM receptor β subunit (OSMRβ−/− mice) exhibited late-onset obesity. Before the onset of obesity, adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance were observed in OSMRβ−/− mice. In addition, high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders, including obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis, were aggravated in OSMRβ−/− mice compared to those in wild-type mice. Consistent with these findings, OSM treatment dramatically improved these metabolic disorders in the mouse model of metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, OSM directly changed the phenotypes of adipose tissue macrophages toward anti-inflammatory M2 type. Furthermore, fatty acid content in the hepatocytes was decreased by OSM through expression regulation of several key enzymes of hepatic lipid metabolism. These findings suggest that OSM is a novel therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0421-y
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Morphological, histological and immunohistochemical study of the area
           postrema in the dog
    • Authors: Maria Oliveira; Francisco Fernández; Jordi Solé; Martí Pumarola
      Pages: 188 - 196
      Abstract: Circumventricular organs are specialized brain structures that are located mainly at the midsagittal line, around the third and fourth ventricles, often protruding into the lumen. They are positioned at the interface between the neuroparenchyma and the ventricular system of the brain. These highly vascularized nervous tissue structures differ from the brain parenchyma, as they lack a blood–brain barrier. Circumventricular organs have specialized sensory and secretory functions. It is essential for any pathologist who evaluates brain sections to have a solid knowledge of microscopic neuroanatomy and to recognize these numerous specialized structures within the nervous system as normal and not mistake them for pathological changes. The purpose of this study was to provide, for the first time, a detailed and complete histological description of the healthy canine area postrema and to determine its resemblance to that of other mammalian species. Anatomical dissections with routine histological and immunohistochemical techniques were carried out on ten canine brains. The cellular composition of area postrema proved to be largely comparable to that of other mammal species.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0388-0
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Unfolding of the myosin head by purealin in glycerol
    • Authors: Jiro Takito; Jun’ichi Kobayashi; Masanori Nakamura; Yasushi Ohizumi; Yoshiaki Nonomura
      Pages: 197 - 202
      Abstract: Purealin is a small bioactive compound obtained from the marine sponge. The compound modulates various types of ATPase activity of myosin from skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle. To elucidate the structural basis of these effects of purealin on myosin ATPases, we examined the effect of purealin on the conformation of skeletal muscle myosin in aqueous solution and in glycerol. Analysis of the circular dichroism spectrum of subfragment 1, a single-headed fragment of myosin, revealed that in 10% glycerol purealin decreased the β-sheet content of S1, but in aqueous solution it had little effect on the secondary structure of S1. A myosin monomer conforms to two pear-like globular heads attached to a long tail. Electron microscopy observations with rotary shadowing revealed that purealin unfolded each globular head to an extended single strand. The tips of the unfolded strand bound each other and formed a ring in one molecule. These results suggest that binding of purealin affects the critical parameters of myosin folding.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0389-7
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • A new superficial landmark for the odontoid process: a cadaveric study
    • Authors: Christian Fisahn; Michael J. Montalbano; Joe Iwanaga; Marc Moisi; Marios Loukas; Jens R. Chapman; Rod J. Oskouian; R. Shane Tubbs
      Pages: 203 - 206
      Abstract: When image guidance is not available or when there is a need to confirm the findings of such technology, superficial landmarks can still play a role in providing surgeons with estimations of the position of deeper anatomical structures. To our knowledge, surface landmarks for the position of the odontoid process have not been investigated. We have therefore performed an anatomical study to investigate such a landmark. One-centimeter metallic rods were placed on the philtrum of the upper lip of 20 cadaveric head specimens. To assess the position relative to the odontoid process, we took lateral and anteroposterior radiographs and recorded the measurements. Descriptive findings from radiographic observations indicated a reasonable approximation between the philtrum and the midpoint of the odontoid process. Based on our results, we suggest that the philtrum of the upper lip can serve as a first line estimation of the position of the odontoid process and can assist in verifying this bony structure following the use of image guidance.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0390-1
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Computed tomographic analysis of the internal structure of the metacarpals
           and its implications for hand use, pathology, and surgical intervention
    • Authors: Alison L. Wong; Clifton G. Meals; Christopher B. Ruff
      Pages: 231 - 237
      Abstract: The variation of bone structure and biomechanics between the metacarpals is not well characterized. It was hypothesized that their structure would reflect their common patterns of use (i.e., patterns of hand grip), specifically that trabecular bone density would be greater on the volar aspect of all metacarpal bases, that this would be most pronounced in the thumb, and that the thumb diaphysis would have the greatest bending strength. Cross-sections at basal and mid-diaphyseal locations of 50 metacarpals from 10 human hands were obtained by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. The volar and dorsal trabecular densities of each base were measured and characterized using the volar/dorsal density ratio. The polar stress–strain index (SSIp), a surrogate measure of torsional/bending strength, was measured for each diaphysis and standardized for bone length and mass. Comparisons were made using mixed-model analyses of variance (ANOVAs) and post hoc tests. Volar/dorsal trabecular density ratios showed even distribution in all metacarpal bases except for the thumb, which showed greater values on the volar aspect. The thumb, second, and third metacarpals all had high bending strength (SSIp), but the thumb’s SSIp relative to its length and trabecular mass was much higher than those of the other metacarpals. Trabecular density of the metacarpal bases was evenly distributed except in the thumb, which also showed higher bending strength relative to its length and mass. Understanding of how these indicators of strength differ across metacarpals may improve both fracture diagnosis and treatment and lays the groundwork for investigating changes with age, hand dominance, and occupation.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0400-3
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Dorsal metacarpal veins: anatomic variation and potential clinical
           implications
    • Authors: Sara S. Elmegarhi; Justin Z. Amarin; Maher T. Hadidi; Darwish H. Badran; Islam M. Massad; Amjad M. Bani-Hani; Amjad T. Shatarat
      Pages: 238 - 243
      Abstract: The dorsal metacarpal veins are frequently cannulated. Cannulation success is determined by several variable anatomic features. The objective of this study is to classify, for the first time, the anatomic variants of the dorsal metacarpal veins. In this cross-sectional study, 520 university students and staff were conveniently recruited. The dorsal metacarpal veins in 1040 hands were studied. Venous visibility was enhanced by either tourniquet application or near-infrared illumination. Variant patterns of the dorsal metacarpal veins were classified. The final analysis included 726 hands, for an exclusion rate of 30 %. Eight pattern types were identified. Three anatomic features informed the variation. Bilateral symmetry of the dorsal metacarpal veins was present in 352 participants (83 % of the total). The overall frequency distribution of variants in both hands was similar (P = 0.8). The frequency distribution of variants was subject to sexual dimorphism (P = 0.001), ethnic variation (P < 0.001), and technical variation (P < 0.001). The anatomic variants of the dorsal metacarpal veins were sorted into decreasingly frequent primary, secondary, and tertiary groups. The groups may signify a progressive increase in difficulty of peripheral cannulation, in the mentioned order. As such, primary patterns are the most common and likely the easiest to cannulate, while tertiary patterns are the least common and likely the most difficult to cannulate. The preceding premise, in tandem with the bilateral asymmetry of the veins, is clinically significant. With cannulation difficulty likely signifying an underlying tertiary pattern, the contralateral dorsal metacarpal veins are probabilistically characterized by a primary pattern and are, as such, the easier option for peripheral venous cannulation.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0403-0
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Prevalence of cribra orbitalia in Pacopampa during the formative period in
           Peru
    • Authors: Tomohito Nagaoka; Yuji Seki; Kazuhiro Uzawa; Mai Takigami; Daniel Morales Chocano
      Pages: 254 - 261
      Abstract: Cribra orbitalia is characterized by an aggregation of small apertures in the orbital roof in response to marrow hypertrophy. This pathological change is indicative of biological stress during youth. We examined the prevalence of this lesion in Pacopampa, a ceremonial center of the formative period, located in the northern highlands of Peru. Using this evaluation of cribra orbitalia, we reconstructed aspects of the population’s health and nutritional status during the formation of Andean civilization. We examined 41 orbits of 27 adult individuals (13 males, 14 females) and recorded the macroscopic presence or absence of cribra orbitalia. The presence or absence of cribra orbitalia was the same bilaterally for all 14 individuals having both orbits preserved. The pathology was present in two of the 13 males (15.4%), one of the 14 (7.1%) females, and three of 27 individuals (11.1%) for both sexes combined. There was no difference in the frequency between sexes. The prevalence of cribra orbitalia was found to be lower in Pacopampa than in the comparative data of coastal populations. It is reasonable to assume that the increase in social complexity in Pacopampa was probably unrelated to the decline in overall health of the people.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0404-z
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Effect of ligamentum teres tear on the development of joint instability
           and articular cartilage damage: an in vivo rabbit study
    • Authors: Jong Hun Baek; Young Soo Chun; Kee Hyung Rhyu; Wan Keun Yoon; Yoon Je Cho
      Pages: 262 - 268
      Abstract: The contribution of the ligamentum teres to the stabilization of the hip joint and the clinical influence of a compromised ligamentum teres are not well known. This study aimed to investigate joint stability and cartilage damage in a rabbit model by surgically inducing a complete ligamentum teres tear. Twenty adult New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Rabbits were divided into complete ligamentum teres tear with capsulotomy (n = 9, group I) and capsulotomy only (n = 10, group II) groups. Unilateral surgery was performed on the left hip. Joint instability was assessed by measuring the preoperative and postoperative acetabulofemoral (A-F) distances. Rabbits were euthanized to assess cartilage damage at 24 weeks postoperatively. The median postoperative A-F distance of the operated side in group I [0.68 cm (0.37–1.04 cm)] was larger than that in group II [0.50 cm (0.30–0.65 cm)] (p = 0.041). The median postoperative A-F distance was larger in the operated side [0.68 cm (0.37–1.04 cm)] compared to the nonoperated side [0.45 cm (0.30–0.75 cm)] in group I; it also was larger in the operated side [0.50 cm (0.30–0.65 cm)] compared to the nonoperated side [0.44 cm (0.32–0.67 cm)] in group II, but only group I showed a significant difference (p = 0.016 and 0.395, respectively). Articular cartilage damage was detected at the apex of the femoral head in two rabbits (22.2%) in group I only. Rabbits with a complete ligamentum teres tear showed significant instability at the hip joint and articular cartilage damage in our rabbit model, supporting the potential clinical importance of ligamentum teres as a hip joint stabilizer.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0406-x
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Morphometric changes in the spinal cord during prenatal life: a
           stereological study in sheep
    • Authors: Javad Sadeghinezhad; Narges Zadsar; Beal Hasanzadeh
      Pages: 269 - 276
      Abstract: This study describes the volumetric changes in the spinal cord during prenatal life in sheep using quantitative stereological methods. Twenty healthy sheep fetuses were included in the present study, divided into four groups representing 9–11, 12–14, 15–17, and 18–20 weeks of gestation. In each group, the spinal cord was dissected out and sampled according to the unbiased systematic random sampling method then used for stereological estimations. The total volume of spinal cord, volume of gray matter (GM), volume of white matter (WM), ratio of GM volume to WM volume, and volume of central canal (CC) were estimated in the whole spinal cord and its various regions using Cavalieri’s principle. The total volume of the spinal cord increased 8 times from week 9 to week 20. The cervical region showed the greatest (9.7 times) and the sacral region the least (6.3 times) volumetric change. The CC volume of the whole spinal cord increased 5.8 times from week 9 to week 20. The cervical region developed faster (8.2 times) and the thoracic region slower (4.4 times) than the total spinal cord. During development, the volume ratio of GM to WM decreased from lower toward upper regions. The greatest volume changes occurred mostly in weeks 9–11 and 12–14. The cervical region showed the greatest volume changes in comparison with other regions of the spinal cord.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0407-9
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Considering the inferior surface area of lower lumbar vertebrae:
           determining weight transmission pattern at the lumbosacral junction
    • Authors: Uchenna Kenneth Ezemagu; Chike P. Anibeze; Chinedu F. Akpuaka
      Pages: 277 - 283
      Abstract: The biomechanical function of the lumbosacral junction (LSJ) is obscure, but its medical significance is not, as it is the most common site of low back pain. In this study, we analyzed the difference between the mean values of the surface areas of the inferior body and total inferior facet areas of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae. We aimed to define the function of the LSJ during weight transmission and clarify its mechanical significance. Vertebral columns of 45 adult male human cadavers from five anatomy departments in Nigeria were cut at the L3–L4 intervertebral disc and macerated. Using the graph paper method, the mean values of the surface area of the inferior body and total facet area of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae were 1356 ± 26 and 329 ± 6 and 1277 ± 27 and 418 ± 8 mm2, respectively. The relationships between the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae paired variables were highly significant (P < 0.001). A sudden reduction in the surface area of the inferior body of the fifth lumbar vertebra was compensated for by a corresponding increase in its total inferior facet area, which indicated that corresponding weight was diverted from the anterior column to the posterior column at the LSJ. This pattern of weight transmission may be a beneficial functional adaptation in man to protect the relatively large intervertebral disc of the LSJ in bipedal posture, or it may predispose the LSJ synovial zygapophyseal joints to mechanical stress.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0409-7
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Analysis of dural sac thickness in the human cervical spine
    • Authors: Soonwook Kwon; Seung-Woo Suh; Dasom Kim; Im Joo Rhyu; Hyunung Yu; Seung Woo Han; Jae-Young Hong
      Pages: 284 - 290
      Abstract: The thickness of the dura mater in the human cervical spine can vary between individuals and by vertebral level; these differences can result in various clinical outcomes. The purpose was to measure and analyze cervical dura mater thickness. Microscopic measurements were made of tissue from human cadavers. The subjects were nine human cadavers with no previous history of spinal deformity or surgery. Fourteen segments of both anterior and posterior dura mater from the C1 to C7 cervical vertebrae were obtained. Dura mater thickness was measured using an infrared laser-based confocal microscope. Statistical analyses were performed to examine the relationships of cervical dura mater thickness with vertebral level, age, and sex. The overall average cervical dura mater thickness was 379.3 × 10−3 mm. Statistically significant differences in thickness were found between the anterior and posterior segments (P < 0.0001). Moreover, the thickness at each vertebral level was significantly different from the thicknesses at the other levels (P < 0.05). The posterior dura mater thickness was highest at C1 and lowest at C5/6. Posterior dura mater thickness was significantly different at the axial, sub-axial, and lower cervical levels, whereas anterior dura mater thickness was relatively constant among levels. A significant correlation was found between thickness and age (P < 0.05); however, the average dura mater thickness was not significantly different between males and females. This study shows anatomical differences in cervical dura mater thickness with respect to vertebral level and age. These results provide anatomical information that will inform basic research and clinical approaches.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0412-z
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Macroscopic anatomical study of the distribution of the cranial mesenteric
           artery to the intestine in the rabbit
    • Authors: Tetsuhito Kigata; Reona Ikegami; Hideshi Shibata
      Pages: 291 - 298
      Abstract: Intestinal surgery is commonly performed to cure bowel obstruction in rabbits, but detailed descriptions of the arterial supply to the intestine are incomplete. We investigated anatomical variations of the distribution of the cranial mesenteric artery to the intestine in 33 New Zealand White rabbits by injecting colored latex into the arteries. The cranial mesenteric artery arose independently from the abdominal aorta at about 2.0 cm caudal to the celiac artery and branched off the pancreaticoduodenal, middle colic, ileocecocolic, jejunal and ileal arteries. One or occasionally two caudal pancreaticoduodenal arteries supplied the distal duodenum, and one to three middle colic arteries supplied the transverse colon and the initial portion of the descending colon. The ileocecocolic artery arose distal to the middle colic arteries and provided the right colic, ileocecal and appendicular arteries, and branches to the proximal colon, with various branching patterns, which were grouped into four major types. These arteries and branches supplied the ileum, cecum, appendix and proximal colon. The cranial mesenteric artery also provided the jejunal arteries (predominantly 17; range 11–21) and one ileal artery supplying the jejunum and proximal ileum, respectively. The results show that the distribution patterns of the cranial mesenteric artery to the intestine in the rabbit are highly specialized to this species. Such specialization should always be considered when performing intestinal surgery in rabbits.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0411-0
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Anatomical variations of the pronator teres muscle in a Central European
           population and its clinical significance
    • Authors: Łukasz Olewnik; Michał Podgórski; Michał Polguj; Grzegorz Wysiadecki; Mirosław Topol
      Pages: 299 - 306
      Abstract: The pronator teres (PT) muscle is a forearm flexor with radial and ulnar heads. It is innervated by the median nerve (MN), which passes between these heads. Nerve entrapment, known as “PT syndrome”, may occur in this passage. Anatomical variations in this region may be potential risk factors of this pathology. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the relationship between morphologic variations of the PT and the MN. In 50 isolated, formalin-fixed upper limbs, the cubital region and the forearm were dissected. The following measurements were taken: origin of the PT muscle heads, the length of these heads, the length of the forearm, diameter of the MN and the number of its muscular branches to the pronator teres muscle. The forearms with the humeral head originating from the medial humeral epicondyle and medial intermuscular septum (72%) were significantly shorter (p = 0.0088) than those where the humeral head originated only from the medial humeral epicondyle. Moreover, in these specimens, the MN was significantly thinner (p = 0.003). The ulnar head was present in 43 limbs (86%). The MN passed between the heads of the PT muscle (74%) or under the muscle (26%). In the majority of cases, it provided two motor branches (66%). There is an association between the morphologic variation of the PT muscle heads and the course and branching pattern of the MN. Both are related to differences in forearm length. This may have an impact on the risk of PT syndrome and the performance of MN electrostimulation.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0413-y
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Association of high carotid bifurcation and thyrolinguofacial trunk: a
           rare variation
    • Authors: Suresh Narayanan; Senthil Murugan
      Pages: 307 - 310
      Abstract: Variations in the origins and the branching pattern of the carotid system of arteries are not uncommon. Here we report a rare case of higher bifurcation of the common carotid artery (CCA) (at the level of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone), thyrolinguofacial trunk (TLFT) originating from the CCA, superior laryngeal artery (SLA) arising from the external carotid artery (ECA) on the left side, and linguofacial trunk arising from the ECA on the right side. In the present case, the CCA and carotid bifurcation may have arisen from the second aortic arch. The ECA bud could have developed from parts of the first aortic arch and ventral aorta. Thus, the altered blood flow through these vessels due to high carotid bifurcation could have caused disproportionate growth and shift in the origins of the branches of the ECA. An understanding of the bifurcation of the CCA and the branching pattern of the ECA should prove useful to surgeons performing selective intra-arterial chemotherapy for head and neck cancer.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0405-y
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Rare muscular variations identified in a single cadaveric upper limb: a
           four-headed biceps brachii and muscular elevator of the latissimus dorsi
           tendon
    • Authors: Colin W. Moore; Charles L. Rice
      Pages: 311 - 316
      Abstract: Supernumerary or accessory heads of the biceps brachii are persistent muscular structures which can vary in number and location in the arm. Variations in other arm muscles, such as the coracobrachialis, can accompany supernumerary biceps brachii musculature in the upper limb. In this case report, we describe two rare muscular variants in a single adult male: a four-headed biceps brachii and the muscular elevator of the latissimus dorsi tendon. Additionally, accessory muscles of the brachialis and flexor digiti minimi brevis were identified in the upper limb. To our knowledge, the muscular variants identified here are considered rare, and their co-occurrence in a single upper limb has not been described previously. Also, a four-headed biceps brachii consisting of both the infero-medial and infero-lateral humeral heads has not been described previously to our knowledge. We postulate that the simultaneous appearance of several muscular variations may indicate a signaling disruption in embryogenesis during muscle patterning of the ventral limb bud. Knowledge of variant musculature in the arm is important for surgeons and clinicians as these muscles and their aberrant innervation patterns can complicate surgical procedures and may compress arteries and nerves producing upper limb pain and paresthesia. The clinical, functional and embryological implications of the upper limb variants are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0408-8
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Anatomical variations of the torcular Herophili: macroscopic study and
           clinical aspects
    • Authors: Wakoto Matsuda; Takahiro Sonomura; Satoru Honma; Sachi Ohno; Tetsuya Goto; Shuichi Hirai; Masahiro Itoh; Yoshiko Honda; Hiroki Fujieda; Jun Udagawa; Shingo Takano; Fumino Fujiyama; Shuichi Ueda
      Abstract: The anatomical variations of the confluence of sinuses were examined, focusing on the continuity of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and the transverse sinuses (TSs). In the 142 specimens studied, there were 72 symmetric cases (50.7%) and 70 asymmetric cases (49.3%). The symmetric group (no dominant type) was categorized into 34 cases of bifurcation (23.9%) and 38 cases of confluence (26.8%). The asymmetric group was categorized into 54 cases of the right-dominant type (38.0%) and 16 cases of the left-dominant type (11.3%). The right-dominant type was further categorized into 38 partially-communicating (26.8%) and 16 non-communicating types (11.3%). The left-dominant type was categorized into 11 partially-communicating (7.7%) and 5 non-communicating types (3.5%). In summary, the SSS asymmetrically drained into one TS in about half of the cases studied. The right-dominant type was about three to four times as common as the left-dominant type. The draining pattern shown by the asymmetric group could provoke intracranial hypertension due to unilateral jugular vein obstruction. In order to avoid this risk in cases of neck dissection, jugular vein catheterization, or hypercoagulopathy, preoperative evaluations of the dural sinus variations via MR venography, three-dimensional CT, or plain X-ray of the skull are recommended.
      PubDate: 2018-03-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-018-0436-z
       
  • Mash1-expressing cells could differentiate to type III cells in adult
           mouse taste buds
    • Authors: Hiroki Takagi; Yuji Seta; Shinji Kataoka; Mitsushiro Nakatomi; Takashi Toyono; Tatsuo Kawamoto
      Abstract: The gustatory cells in taste buds have been identified as paraneuronal; they possess characteristics of both neuronal and epithelial cells. Like neurons, they form synapses, store and release transmitters, and are capable of generating an action potential. Like epithelial cells, taste cells have a limited life span and are regularly replaced throughout life. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell genesis and differentiation. In the present study, to begin to understand these mechanisms, we investigated the role of Mash1-positive cells in regulating adult taste bud cell differentiation through the loss of Mash1-positive cells using the Cre-loxP system. We found that the cells expressing type III cell markers—aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), carbonic anhydrase 4 (CA4), glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25)—were significantly reduced in the circumvallate taste buds after the administration of tamoxifen. However, gustducin and phospholipase C beta2 (PLC beta2)—markers of type II taste bud cells—were not significantly changed in the circumvallate taste buds after the administration of tamoxifen. These results suggest that Mash1-positive cells could be differentiated to type III cells, not type II cells in the taste buds.
      PubDate: 2018-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-018-0431-4
       
  • Gene expression of A6-like subgroup of ATP-binding cassette transporters
           in mouse brain parenchyma and microvessels
    • Authors: Masanori Tachikawa; Hidetoh Toki; Masahiko Watanabe; Masatoshi Tomi; Ken-ichi Hosoya; Tetsuya Terasaki
      Abstract: The A-subclass of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is a highly conserved superfamily of potent lipid transporters. Although the ABCA1-like subgroup of ABCA1-4, and A7 have been shown to mediate the transport of endogenous lipids, the roles of the ABCA6-like subgroup transporters, which have been identified as a unique gene cluster on human chromosome 17q24 (ABCA5, A6, A8, A9, and A10) and mouse chromosome 11 (Abca5, a6, a8a, a8b, and a9), remains largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the spatial and temporal expression profiles of Abca6-like subgroup transporters in embryonic and postnatal mouse brains by a combination of in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using magnetically isolated brain vascular endothelial cells. In embryonic brains, the transcripts of Abca5, a8a and a8b were detected predominantly in the mantle zone, where postmitotic neurons differentiate. At the postnatal stages, they were expressed in various nuclei and neuronal layers. Abca9 mRNA was detected diffusely in the embryonic and postnatal brains and sequential and/or strong spotted signals were detected in the leptomeninges on the brain surface. PCR detected expression of Abca8a and Abca9 mRNAs in isolated vascular endothelial cells. Expression signals for Abca6 mRNA were hardly observed at any stages examined. These distinct spatio-temporal expression patterns of Abca6-like subgroup transporters may reflect their functional significance and diversity to regulate lipid transport, particularly in neurons, leptomeningeal cells, and vascular endothelial cells.
      PubDate: 2018-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-018-0435-0
       
  • Clinical significance of understanding lateral and medial circumflex
           femoral artery origin variability
    • Authors: Aleksandra Vuksanović-Božarić; Marija Abramović; Ljiljana Vučković; Mileta Golubović; Batrić Vukčević; Miroslav Radunović
      Abstract: The common femoral artery (CFA) divides into the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and deep femoral artery (DFA). The lateral circumflex femoral artery (LCFA) and medial circumflex femoral artery (MCFA) are most often branches of the DFA, although a large number of different variations in their origin has been described. We performed microdissection on both lower limbs of 30 fetuses, gestational age from 7 to 10 lunar months. Our results show that the LCFA and MCFA usually arise from the DFA. In 78.3% of cases, the MCFA originated from the DFA. In 11.7% of cases, the MCFA originated from the CFA, and in 5% of cases from the SFA. One case showed a common trunk with the DFA. Also, the MCFA was missing in one case, and it had a common trunk with the LCFA in one case. In 83.3% of cases, the LCFA arose from the DFA and in 6.7% of cases from the CFA. In one case, it had a common trunk with the DFA, and in one case with the MCFA. In 3.3% of cases, the LCFA was missing. In 66.7% of cases, both arteries originated from the DFA, in 15% of cases one originated from the DFA and the other from the CFA or SFA. Our results are in accordance with some published studies but also differ from the outcomes of other studies. Comprehensive knowledge of different variation types is imperative in order to prevent complications during surgical and orthopedic interventions.
      PubDate: 2018-03-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-018-0434-1
       
 
 
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