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BIOLOGY (1529 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access  
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 317)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
Anatomical Science International
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.367
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1447-6959 - ISSN (Online) 1447-073X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Anatomical variations of the recurrent artery of Heubner: number, origin,
           and course
    • Authors: Wakoto Matsuda; Takahiro Sonomura; Satoru Honma; Sachi Ohno; Tetsuya Goto; Shuichi Hirai; Masahiro Itoh; Yoshiko Honda; Hiroki Fujieda; Jun Udagawa; Shuichi Ueda
      Pages: 317 - 322
      Abstract: The clinical anatomy of the recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH) was examined, focusing on its number, origin, and course, in a large number of brain specimens. We studied 724 RAH in total from 357 brain specimens (714 hemispheres). In 98.74 % of 714 cases there were one or more RAHs, while it was absent in 1.26 % of cases. There was a single RAH in 96.22 % of cases, double in 2.38 % of cases, and triple in 0.14 % of cases. In this study, three origin types of the RAH were defined. We defined A1 and A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) as the artery from the origin of the ACA to the junction of the anterior communicating artery (AComA) and the artery from the junction of the AComA to the anterior border of the corpus callosum, respectively. In 76.2 % of 724 arteries, the RAH originated from the junction of the A1 and A2 segment of the ACA. In 16.3 %, the RAH originated from the A2 segment of the ACA. In 7.5 %, the RAH originated from the A1 segment of the ACA. The course of the RAH was superior to the A1 segment of the ACA in 30.1 % of 724 arteries, anterior in 62.2 %, and posterior in 7.7 %. It is of great importance for neurosurgeons to understand the detailed anatomical variations of the RAH before operating to prevent operative complications resulting in neurological deficits.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0415-9
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2018)
  • Morphological characteristics of the tongue and lingual papillae of the
           large bamboo rat ( Rhizomys sumatrensis )
    • Authors: Thanakul Wannaprasert
      Pages: 323 - 331
      Abstract: The large bamboo rat (Rhizomys sumatrensis) is a fossorial rodent found throughout Indochina that has a distinct habitat dominated by bamboo thickets. In the study reported here, the lingual biology of this rodent is described in detail, based on characteristic features of the tongue and lingual papillae as determined by light and scanning electron microscopy studies. The tongue was found to be elongated with a rounded apex and possessed a median groove and a well-developed intermolar prominence. Three types of the papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface: filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae. The most abundant papillae were the filiform papillae, the majority of which had a wide base and fork-like processes. Rounded fungiform papillae with one to four taste buds were randomly distributed among the filiform papillae, with a high density found at the anterior tongue, particularly the apex. Two oval vallate papillae were observed on the posterior part of the tongue, surrounded by a circumferential groove into which their numerous gustatory pores opened. The lingual radix had no papillae but contained mucus-secreting Weber’s salivary glands. Structural adaptations of the tongue to meet the functional demands of food ingestion and food manipulation in the oral cavity are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0414-x
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2018)
  • Age-related behavioral, morphological and physiological changes in the
           hippocampus of zitter rats
    • Authors: Ayuka Ehara; Masao Maekawa; Yuuichi Hori; Kazuhiko Nakadate; Shiuchi Ueda
      Pages: 332 - 339
      Abstract: Convulsive seizure is known to be associated with hippocampal abnormalities, such as hilar cell degeneration, abnormal mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus (DG) and abnormal expression of immediate early genes. However, whether these morphological changes are a cause or consequence of convulsive seizures has remained contentious. Zitter (zi/zi) rats carry a mutation of the attractin gene and display spongiform degeneration of the brain. Spontaneous convulsive seizures in zi/zi rats over 8 months (M) old were demonstrated using 24-h video monitoring. Spontaneous convulsive seizures did not occur before this age. The present study examined structural changes in the hippocampus of zi/zi rats at different ages. Fluoro-Jade B-positive cells first appeared in the hilus of 1-M zi/zi rats, indicating hilar cell degeneration. After 2 M, mossy fiber sprouting was observed in granular cell layers and in the inner molecular layer. After 10 M, granule cells showed Fos expression. In the hippocampal slices from 12-M zi/zi rats, abnormal population spikes in the DG were observed in the presence of bicuculline and strychnine. Conversely, Sprague-Dawley rats showed no aberrant zinc distribution, few Fos-positive cells, no Fluoro-Jade B-positive cells in the hippocampus and no abnormal population spikes in the DG. These data indicate that morphological changes in the hippocampus might contribute to epileptogenesis in this mutant rat.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0416-8
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2018)
  • Morphological alterations in the position of the mandibular foramen in
           dentate and edentate mandibles
    • Authors: Niki Matveeva; Lidija Popovska; Biljana Evrosimovska; Elizabeta Chadikovska; Julijana Nikolovska
      Pages: 340 - 350
      Abstract: The technique of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block must be based on precise anatomical knowledge regarding the correct position of the mandibular foramen (MF). The aim of the investigation reported here was to determine the anatomic and topographic localization of the MF according to mandibular ramus anatomic landmarks and to identify morphological alterations in the position of the MF and size and shape of the ramus in terms of the impact of tooth socket loss in the molar and premolar region. Seventy-three dry human adult mandibles were divided into two groups according to dental status. These were measured to determine the distances from the anterior and posterior ramus border (AB, PB) to the midpoint of the MF fossa, and from the mandibular notch (MN) and inferior ramus border (IB) to the MF entering point. A number of relevant ramus anatomic features were analyzed, such as ramus width (RW), height (RH), and thickness (RT). The MF was closer to the PB and IB in edentate mandibles (right/left mean PB-MF 10.66 ± 1.84/11.06 ± 2.05 mm; right/left mean IB-MF 21.77 ± 3.23/21.8 ± 2.27 mm) compared to dentate mandibles (right/left mean PB-MF 11.87 ± 2.08/12.04 ± 1.94 mm; right/left mean IB-MF 22.94 ± 3.09/22.74 ± 3.74 mm). Edentate mandibles demonstrated reduced RW (right/left mean RW 26.03 ± 3.53/26.49 ± 3.90 mm), significantly reduced (p = 0.03) right RH (right/left mean RH 43.56 ± 4.74/45.43 ± 4.86 mm), and significantly reduced (p < 0.05) RT in the area of the MF fossa depression (right/left mean RT 5.52 ± 1.21/5.21 ± 0.91 mm) compared to dentate mandibles (right/left mean RW 27.34 ± 3.84/27.48 ± 3.80 mm; right/left mean RH 46.33 ± 4.52/47.40 ± 4.20 mm; right/left mean RT 7.86 ± 1.98/8.10 ± 1.92 mm). Alterations in MF position and mandibular ramus anatomic features in edentate mandibles increase the potential risk of complications and failure of IAN block.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0423-9
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2018)
  • The effect of methamphetamine exposure during pregnancy and lactation on
    • Authors: Zahra Jalayeri-Darbandi; Aliakbar Rajabzadeh; Mahmoud Hosseini; Farimah Beheshti; Alireza Ebrahimzadeh-bideskan
      Pages: 351 - 363
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of methamphetamine (MA) exposure during pregnancy and lactation on doublecortin (DCX) expression in the hippocampus of rat offspring and also on learning/memory. Thirty-five pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups of 5 rats each: three experimental groups, each receiving 5 mg/kg body weight (BW) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of MA during pregnancy or/and lactation; three sham groups, each receiving saline injections; one control group, receiving no injection. After the interventions, two male pups (1 and 22 days old) were randomly selected from each mother, sacrificed and their brains subjected to DCX immunohistochemistry. One additional male pup from each mother was randomly selected and maintained for 60 days for testing in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. MA administration during pregnancy was found to have significantly decreased the number of DCX-positive cells in the CA1, CA3 and DG regions of the hippocampus in the 1-day pups (P ≤ 0.05) and to have significantly decreased the number of DCX-positive cells in only two regions of the hippocampus, the CA1 and DG regions, in 22-day old pups. In comparison, exposure to MA during lactation was only associated with a significant decrease in the number of DCX-positive cells in the DG. Exposure to MA during pregnancy had significant impact on the intensity of DCX expression in the hippocampus of 1- and 22-day pups (P ≤ 0.05). There was no significant difference in memory/learning among the study groups. Our results indicate the administration of MA during pregnancy had a greater effect that during the lactation period on DCX expression in the hippocampus of rat offspring.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0419-5
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2018)
  • The malaris muscle: its morphological significance for sustaining the
           intraorbital structures
    • Authors: Natnicha Kampan; Masahiro Tsutsumi; Itsuko Okuda; Hisayo Nasu; Mi-Sun Hur; Kumiko Yamaguchi; Keiichi Akita
      Pages: 364 - 371
      Abstract: The orbicularis oculi muscle, an important mimetic muscle, was investigated to ascertain its anatomical relation to facial aging—especially its orbital part (Oo). Previous studies of the distinct muscle bundles frequently found inferior to the Oo have provided various definitions, including that of the malaris muscle. This study aimed to examine these muscle bundles and clarify their function in facial aging. Twelve heads of Japanese cadavers (average age: 82.5 years old) were dissected to observe the muscles, focusing in particular on those in the periorbital region. Six specimens were further dissected from the inner surfaces to examine the patterns of facial nerve branches under the operating microscope. Histological examinations of two head halves were carried out to investigate the relationship between the muscle bundles and the intraorbital structures. Muscle bundles consisting of lateral, medial, and U-shaped suspending bundles were observed in the region inferior to the Oo. Lateral and suspending bundles were found in all specimens, while the medial bundles were noted in only 9 of 22 specimens. Some branches of the facial nerve penetrated through the lateral, medial, and suspending bundles. The relationship between the suspending bundles and the protruding orbital fat was assessed. The muscle bundles found in this study were regarded as the malaris muscle—a transitional muscle between the superficial and deep facial layers. The suspending bundle may play a role in sustaining the intraorbital structures.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0422-x
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2018)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) tyrosine kinase
           signaling facilitates granulation tissue formation with recruitment of
           VEGFR1 + cells from bone marrow
    • Authors: Keiichi Park; Hideki Amano; Yoshiya Ito; Yoshio Mastui; Mariko Kamata; Yasuharu Yamazaki; Akira Takeda; Masabumi Shibuya; Masataka Majima
      Pages: 372 - 383
      Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A facilitates wound healing. VEGF-A binds to VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and VEGFR2 and induces wound healing through the receptor’s tyrosine kinase (TK) domain. During blood flow recovery and lung regeneration, expression of VEGFR1 is elevated. However, the precise mechanism of wound healing, especially granulation formation on VEGFR1, is not well understood. We hypothesized that VEGFR1-TK signaling induces wound healing by promoting granulation tissue formation. A surgical sponge implantation model was made by implanting a sponge disk into dorsal subcutaneous tissue of mice. Granulation formation was estimated from the weight of the sponge and the granulation area from the immunohistochemical analysis of collagen I. The expression of fibroblast markers was estimated from the expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and cellular fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) using real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and from the immunohistochemical analysis of S100A4. VEGFR1 TK knockout (TK−/−) mice exhibited suppressed granulation tissue formation compared to that in wild-type (WT) mice. Expression of FGF-2, TGF-β, and VEGF-A was significantly suppressed in VEGFR1 TK−/− mice, and the accumulation of VEGFR1+ cells in granulation tissue was reduced in VEGFR1 TK−/− mice compared to that in WT mice. The numbers of VEGFR1+ cells and S100A4+ cells derived from bone marrow (BM) were higher in WT mice transplanted with green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic WT BM than in VEGFR1 TK−/− mice transplanted with GFP transgenic VEGFR1 TK−/− BM. These results indicated that VEGFR1-TK signaling induced the accumulation of BM-derived VEGFR1+ cells expressing F4/80 and S100A4 and contributed to granulation formation around the surgically implanted sponge area in a mouse model.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0424-8
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2018)
  • Surface ultrastructural (SEM) characteristics of oropharyngeal cavity of
           house sparrow ( Passer domesticus )
    • Authors: Mohamed M. A. Abumandour
      Pages: 384 - 393
      Abstract: The focus of the present study is to provide a full morphological description of the oropharyngeal cavity of the house sparrow. The head of six birds was prepared for gross examination and by stereo and electron microscopy. The bifid lingual apex has multiple long, rostrally directed needle-like processes. The lateral border of the apex carries rostromedially directed needle-like processes. The dorsal lingual surface of the apex and body carries numerous caudomedially directed filiform papillae and many orifices of lingual salivary glands. The lingual body is divided into two parts: rostral and caudal. The caudal part is divided into two laterally elevated regions by a median groove, while the rostral part is bounded laterally by a rostrodorsally directed papillary row, which on SEM is formed from two rows. On SEM, the lingual root has many orifices of posterior salivary glands. The pharyngeal papillary row is located at the caudal border of the laryngeal mound, but this single papillary row is formed from two rows at SEM magnification. The laryngeal cleft continues caudally as a laryngeal fissure bounded by two longitudinal rows of caudally directed papillae; at high SEM magnification, this fissure is divided into two halves by a median ridge which carries caudally directed papillae on its posterior part. The choanal cleft proceeds rostrally by the median tubercle. There are a small number of orifices of palatine salivary glands. The morphological characters of the oropharyngeal cavity of the sparrow confirm its adaptation to surrounding environmental conditions and available food particles.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0426-6
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2018)
  • Ureteric entrapment in sacroiliac joint causing hydroureter and
           ipsilateral kidney hypertrophy
    • Authors: Yurie Otsuru; Chuichi Kondo; Shohei Hara; Hideo Takahashi; Kenjiro Matsuno
      Pages: 394 - 399
      Abstract: A unilateral megaureter was found in an elderly female cadaver during routine dissection. The left proximal ureter, which was thick and convolute, descended and entered into the pelvic cavity, where the distal ureter was attached to the posterior pelvic wall at the inlet level. Removal of connective tissue surrounding the attached region revealed ureteric entrapment in the sacroiliac joint. The ipsilateral kidney, from which the megaureter originated, showed no pelvicalyceal dilatation. In contrast, the left kidney was enlarged, weighing 24% more than the right kidney. Differences in the upper urinary system between the obstructed and normal sides were examined in terms of gross anatomy, measurements, and histology. Although ureteric obstruction frequently causes hydroureter and hydronephrosis, the present case is very rare as the incomplete obstruction may have stimulated ipsilateral kidney growth, instead of contralateral compensatory augmentation.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0425-7
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2018)
  • Bifurcation of brachial artery into a common radial–interosseous trunk
           and superficial ulnar artery: a rare variation
    • Authors: Suresh Narayanan; Senthil Murugan
      Pages: 400 - 403
      Abstract: Variations in the branching pattern of brachial artery and abnormal course of its branches are not uncommon. The present article describes a case of bifurcation of the brachial artery into a common radial–interosseous trunk and superficial ulnar artery. The embryological basis behind the present case report could be, the radial artery establishing a connection with the axis artery just below the level of origin of ulnar artery, the posterior interosseous artery arising from the axis artery distal to the origin of the radial artery. The part of axis artery between origin of ulnar and radial artery must have developed into the common radial–interosseous trunk. The part of axis artery between origin of radial and posterior interosseous arteries develops as the common interosseous artery. The superficial position of ulnar artery could enable the surgeons in raising a free ulnar forearm flap for head and neck reconstructive surgeries.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0427-5
      Issue No: Vol. 93, No. 3 (2018)
  • Correction to: Morphological reflections of evolutionary adaptations in
           the tongue of the white-headed duck
    • Authors: Ghasem Akbari; Belal Hassanzadeh; Mohammad Sadegh Madadi; Mohammad Babaei
      Abstract: The affiliation of the third author has been incorrectly published in the original publication of the article. The correct affiliation is provided in this erratum.
      PubDate: 2018-05-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-018-0443-0
  • A case of pancake kidney with a single ureter in the retroperitoneal space
    • Authors: Kasuga Horai; Munekazu Naito; Tomiko Yakura; Yuka Furuya; Yusuke Ohmichi; Mika Ohmichi; Takayoshi Miyaki; Takashi Nakano
      Abstract: The pancake kidney (PK) is a rare type of renal anomaly in which both kidneys completely fuse without an isthmus. In the previous reports, PKs have double ureters and are located in the pelvic cavity. We encountered a rare case of PK with a single ureter, which is located in the left retroperitoneal space, in a 95-year-old female cadaver, which was detected during a dissection course. In our case, the major calyces joined to form a single renal pelvis, which continued as a single ureter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on PK with a single ureter that is located not in the pelvic cavity but in the retroperitoneal space. The knowledge of such anomalous presentation is important to avoid any complications during retroperitoneal surgery.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-018-0442-1
  • Anatomical classification of breast sentinel lymph nodes using computed
    • Authors: Tamaki Fujita; Hiroyuki Miura; Hiroko Seino; Shuichi Ono; Takashi Nishi; Akimasa Nishimura; Kenichi Hakamada; Masahiko Aoki
      Abstract: To evaluate the anatomical classification and location of breast sentinel lymph nodes, preoperative computed tomography–lymphography examinations were retrospectively reviewed for sentinel lymph nodes in 464 cases clinically diagnosed with node-negative breast cancer between July 2007 and June 2016. Anatomical classification was performed based on the numbers of lymphatic routes and sentinel lymph nodes, the flow direction of lymphatic routes, and the location of sentinel lymph nodes. Of the 464 cases reviewed, anatomical classification could be performed in 434 (93.5 %). The largest number of cases showed single route/single sentinel lymph node (n = 296, 68.2 %), followed by multiple routes/multiple sentinel lymph nodes (n = 59, 13.6 %), single route/multiple sentinel lymph nodes (n = 53, 12.2 %), and multiple routes/single sentinel lymph node (n = 26, 6.0 %). Classification based on the flow direction of lymphatic routes showed that 429 cases (98.8 %) had outward flow on the superficial fascia toward axillary lymph nodes, whereas classification based on the height of sentinel lymph nodes showed that 323 cases (74.4 %) belonged to the upper pectoral group of axillary lymph nodes. There was wide variation in the number of lymphatic routes and their branching patterns and in the number, location, and direction of flow of sentinel lymph nodes. It is clinically very important to preoperatively understand the anatomical morphology of lymphatic routes and sentinel lymph nodes for optimal treatment of breast cancer, and computed tomography–lymphography is suitable for this purpose.
      PubDate: 2018-05-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-018-0441-2
  • Lumbosacral loadbearing, sagittal shift in the line of gravity and joint
           surface areas
    • Authors: Niladri Kumar Mahato
      PubDate: 2018-04-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-018-0439-9
  • Anatomical variation in the form of inter- and intra-individual laterality
           of the calcaneofibular ligament
    • Authors: Hisayoshi Yoshizuka; Kentaro Shibata; Toyoko Asami; Akio Kuraoka
      Abstract: The lateral ligament complex of the ankle is involved in a large proportion of ankle sprains. The calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) is often involved in severe injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anatomical variation and laterality of the CFL to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of CFL-related injuries. This study utilized 110 paired ankles from 55 formalin-fixed Japanese cadavers (33 male and 22 female). The length and width of the CFL and the angle created by the CFL and long axis of the fibula (CF angle) were measured after exposing the CFL by careful dissection from the surrounding tissues. The results revealed that each parameter exhibited a wide range of values and showed unique patterns of frequency distribution, among which only the length was normally distributed. Among the parameters, only the CF angle showed no significant correlation with the other parameters. Analysis of laterality revealed that the mean left CF angle was significantly greater than the value on the opposite side (p < 0.05) and that the values of the bilateral CF angle showed no significant correlation at the individual level. The present results revealed not only detailed information regarding the CFL morphology, but also inter- and intra-individual laterality regarding the CFL traveling angle. It is likely that the differences in the quality and quantity of mechanical stress against each leg may have caused this morphologic laterality of the CFL.
      PubDate: 2018-04-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-018-0440-3
  • Investigations of cortical and cancellous clavicle bone patterns reveal an
           explanation for the load transmission and the higher incidence of lateral
           clavicle fractures in the elderly: a CT-based cadaveric study
    • Authors: Satoshi Yamamura; Shogo Hayashi; Zhong-Lian Li; Shinichi Kawata; Philipp Pieroh; Kenta Nagahori; Takuya Omotehara; Hidenobu Miyaso; Masahiro Itoh
      Abstract: Clavicle fracture is known to be one of the injuries frequently occurring in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to characterise the internal structures that might correlate with the higher incidence of lateral clavicle fracture in the elderly. Twenty clavicles were collected from ten Japanese cadavers ranging from 70 to 99 years (83.6 ± 7.6), scanned, and three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) images reconstructed. The clavicle lengths were divided into five equal segments. The four demarcation lines from the acromial end of the clavicle were defined as the observation points A, B, C, and D. The clavicles were then measured and analysed. It was shown that along the clavicles observation point A was the widest and points B and C the narrowest. Regarding the thickness, point D was the thickest among all four points, and there was no significant difference among the points A, B, and C. No male-female difference was found in either the cortical or cancellous bone ratio at all four points. Interestingly, the highest cortical bone ratio was observed at point B and the ratio was significantly decreased toward either end. The cancellous bone ratio was highest at point C and decreased toward both ends. Further observations showed that there were rays of trabeculae around point A, spreading from the superior-posterior edge or anterior edge toward each other and toward the lateral end and point B. Characteristics in the cortical and cancellous bone ratios and cancellous bone patterns might shed light on understanding the fractures in the lateral portion of the clavicle in the elderly.
      PubDate: 2018-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-018-0437-y
  • Morphological reflections of evolutionary adaptations in the tongue of the
           white-headed duck
    • Authors: Ghasem Akbari; Belal Hassanzadeh; Mohammad Sadegh Madadi; Mohammad Babaei
      Abstract: During an organism’s evolution, functional adaptations help species to become better suited to their ecological niches. From the morphological aspect, these adaptations are reflected in the anatomical specializations of different organs. Specializations of the lingual organ is a critical adaptation of birds, such as the white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala), that enables their nutritional requirements to be met. For optimal use of the available food resources, the white-headed duck utilizes three methods of food collection, namely pecking, grazing and filter-feeding. Since this species is classified as endangered, we conducted the present study on two carcasses of the white-headed duck (death due to natural causes) employing routine histological methods, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Our results show that the tongue of this bird shares some similarities and some differences with the tongue of other members of the family Anatidae. The results confirm that it is better adapted to the filter-feeding method rather than to other types of food intake. This adaptation is reflected by anatomical specializations of its lingual structures, including the stair-like outline shape, bi-sectional lingual body, a deep median sulcus, lateral conical papillae, mucus secreting glands, lack of serous secreting glands, cartilaginous skeleton and the triangular fibromuscular structure of the lingual body. The so-called triangular structure and cartilaginous skeleton are the major structures involved in the lingual motions during the filter-feeding method. The presence of the triangular structure and its connection with the cartilaginous skeleton and lingual mucosa have not previously been reported in any species of birds.
      PubDate: 2018-03-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-018-0438-x
  • Anatomical variations of the torcular Herophili: macroscopic study and
           clinical aspects
    • Authors: Wakoto Matsuda; Takahiro Sonomura; Satoru Honma; Sachi Ohno; Tetsuya Goto; Shuichi Hirai; Masahiro Itoh; Yoshiko Honda; Hiroki Fujieda; Jun Udagawa; Shingo Takano; Fumino Fujiyama; Shuichi Ueda
      Abstract: The anatomical variations of the confluence of sinuses were examined, focusing on the continuity of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and the transverse sinuses (TSs). In the 142 specimens studied, there were 72 symmetric cases (50.7%) and 70 asymmetric cases (49.3%). The symmetric group (no dominant type) was categorized into 34 cases of bifurcation (23.9%) and 38 cases of confluence (26.8%). The asymmetric group was categorized into 54 cases of the right-dominant type (38.0%) and 16 cases of the left-dominant type (11.3%). The right-dominant type was further categorized into 38 partially-communicating (26.8%) and 16 non-communicating types (11.3%). The left-dominant type was categorized into 11 partially-communicating (7.7%) and 5 non-communicating types (3.5%). In summary, the SSS asymmetrically drained into one TS in about half of the cases studied. The right-dominant type was about three to four times as common as the left-dominant type. The draining pattern shown by the asymmetric group could provoke intracranial hypertension due to unilateral jugular vein obstruction. In order to avoid this risk in cases of neck dissection, jugular vein catheterization, or hypercoagulopathy, preoperative evaluations of the dural sinus variations via MR venography, three-dimensional CT, or plain X-ray of the skull are recommended.
      PubDate: 2018-03-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-018-0436-z
  • Mash1-expressing cells could differentiate to type III cells in adult
           mouse taste buds
    • Authors: Hiroki Takagi; Yuji Seta; Shinji Kataoka; Mitsushiro Nakatomi; Takashi Toyono; Tatsuo Kawamoto
      Abstract: The gustatory cells in taste buds have been identified as paraneuronal; they possess characteristics of both neuronal and epithelial cells. Like neurons, they form synapses, store and release transmitters, and are capable of generating an action potential. Like epithelial cells, taste cells have a limited life span and are regularly replaced throughout life. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell genesis and differentiation. In the present study, to begin to understand these mechanisms, we investigated the role of Mash1-positive cells in regulating adult taste bud cell differentiation through the loss of Mash1-positive cells using the Cre-loxP system. We found that the cells expressing type III cell markers—aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), carbonic anhydrase 4 (CA4), glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25)—were significantly reduced in the circumvallate taste buds after the administration of tamoxifen. However, gustducin and phospholipase C beta2 (PLC beta2)—markers of type II taste bud cells—were not significantly changed in the circumvallate taste buds after the administration of tamoxifen. These results suggest that Mash1-positive cells could be differentiated to type III cells, not type II cells in the taste buds.
      PubDate: 2018-03-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-018-0431-4
  • Gene expression of A6-like subgroup of ATP-binding cassette transporters
           in mouse brain parenchyma and microvessels
    • Authors: Masanori Tachikawa; Hidetoh Toki; Masahiko Watanabe; Masatoshi Tomi; Ken-ichi Hosoya; Tetsuya Terasaki
      Abstract: The A-subclass of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is a highly conserved superfamily of potent lipid transporters. Although the ABCA1-like subgroup of ABCA1-4, and A7 have been shown to mediate the transport of endogenous lipids, the roles of the ABCA6-like subgroup transporters, which have been identified as a unique gene cluster on human chromosome 17q24 (ABCA5, A6, A8, A9, and A10) and mouse chromosome 11 (Abca5, a6, a8a, a8b, and a9), remains largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the spatial and temporal expression profiles of Abca6-like subgroup transporters in embryonic and postnatal mouse brains by a combination of in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using magnetically isolated brain vascular endothelial cells. In embryonic brains, the transcripts of Abca5, a8a and a8b were detected predominantly in the mantle zone, where postmitotic neurons differentiate. At the postnatal stages, they were expressed in various nuclei and neuronal layers. Abca9 mRNA was detected diffusely in the embryonic and postnatal brains and sequential and/or strong spotted signals were detected in the leptomeninges on the brain surface. PCR detected expression of Abca8a and Abca9 mRNAs in isolated vascular endothelial cells. Expression signals for Abca6 mRNA were hardly observed at any stages examined. These distinct spatio-temporal expression patterns of Abca6-like subgroup transporters may reflect their functional significance and diversity to regulate lipid transport, particularly in neurons, leptomeningeal cells, and vascular endothelial cells.
      PubDate: 2018-03-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-018-0435-0
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