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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3003 journals)
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    - BIOLOGY (1427 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1427 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 310)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Anatomical Science International
  [SJR: 0.301]   [H-I: 26]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1447-6959 - ISSN (Online) 1447-073X
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • The stellate cell system (vitamin A-storing cell system)
    • Authors: Haruki Senoo; Yoshihiro Mezaki; Mutsunori Fujiwara
      Pages: 387 - 455
      Abstract: Abstract Past, present, and future research into hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, also called vitamin A-storing cells, lipocytes, interstitial cells, fat-storing cells, or Ito cells) are summarized and discussed in this review. Kupffer discovered black-stained cells in the liver using the gold chloride method and named them stellate cells (Sternzellen in German) in 1876. Wake rediscovered the cells in 1971 using the same gold chloride method and various modern histological techniques including electron microscopy. Between their discovery and rediscovery, HSCs disappeared from the research history. Their identification, the establishment of cell isolation and culture methods, and the development of cellular and molecular biological techniques promoted HSC research after their rediscovery. In mammals, HSCs exist in the space between liver parenchymal cells (PCs) or hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) of the hepatic lobule, and store 50–80% of all vitamin A in the body as retinyl ester in lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. SCs also exist in extrahepatic organs such as pancreas, lung, and kidney. Hepatic (HSCs) and extrahepatic stellate cells (EHSCs) form the stellate cell (SC) system or SC family; the main storage site of vitamin A in the body is HSCs in the liver. In pathological conditions such as liver fibrosis, HSCs lose vitamin A, and synthesize a large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM) components including collagen, proteoglycan, glycosaminoglycan, and adhesive glycoproteins. The morphology of these cells also changes from the star-shaped HSCs to that of fibroblasts or myofibroblasts.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0395-9
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Clinical relevance of conus medullaris and dural sac termination level
           with special reference to sacral hiatus apex: anatomical and MRI
           radiologic study
    • Authors: Ashraf Youssef Nasr
      Pages: 456 - 467
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the vertebral level and variations in the position of the termination of both conus medullaris (CMT) and dural sac (DST) with special reference to the apex of the sacral hiatus (SHA) using magnetic resonance (MR) images and human cadavers. Different measurements were made on 200 MR sagittal T1- and T2-weighted lumbosacral images and 60 formalin-fixed adult human cadavers. The linear distances between the CMT, DST and SHA, the anteroposterior diameter at SHA, delete length and thickness of the sacrococcygeal membrane were also measured. These measurements were correlated with age and sex. In the MRI study, the mean vertebral level of CMT and its highest incidence were seen at the lower third of L1 (L1L) in male patients and at the L1-2 disc in female patients; that of DST was observed at the upper third of S2 (S2U) in male patients and the middle third of S2 (S2M) in female patients and the mean vertebral level of the SHA was noted at the middle third of S4 (S4M) in both males and females with no significant age or sex differences (P < 0.05). In the cadaveric specimens, the mean vertebral levels of CMT, DST and SHA were seen at L1L, S2M and S4U, respectively in both male and female specimens, with no sex difference. Also in the MRI study, all linear distances in the male patients were significantly different (P < 0.05) from those in female patients with exception of the thickness of SCM and the AP diameter at SHA. Accurate knowledge of these levels and the distances in-between are important for safe and successful spinal and caudal anaesthesia.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0343-0
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Erratum to: Clinical relevance of conus medullaris and dural sac
           termination level with special reference to sacral hiatus apex: anatomical
           and MRI radiologic study
    • Authors: Ashraf Youssef Nasr
      Pages: 468 - 469
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0387-1
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Histological and radiographic study of human edentulous and dentulous
           maxilla
    • Authors: Yukino Kamigaki; Iwao Sato; Takashi Yosue
      Pages: 470 - 482
      Abstract: Abstract Data on the bone trabecular structure and density of the edentulous regions of the first upper molars are important for designing successful dental treatments, especially dental implants. However, no detailed defined morphometric properties on the human maxilla are available at the immunohistochemical and radiographic levels. Cone-beam computed tomography analysis and immunohistochemical observation were applied to the maxillary first molar region of 91 cadavers (46 males and 45 females). The edentulous maxilla can be classified into the following three forms: fully edentulous (FE), partially edentulous (PE), and immediately edentulous (IE). Compared with the first molar dentulous (FMD) specimens, significant differences in cortical bone structure and bone density exist among IE, PE, and FE in maxilla (P < 0.001). According to histochemical observations, the positive CD31 reaction clearly described a large vessel of the PE and small vessels of FMD and IE in maxillary sinus connective tissue. These structural issues were clearly related to tooth extraction. These morphological and radiographic data describing the edentulous region of the maxillary first molar might be useful for improving dental treatments.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0344-z
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Differences in osteon structure histomorphometry between puppyhood and
           adult stages in the Golden Retriever
    • Authors: Korakot Nganvongpanit; Waranee Pradit; Tanita Pitakarnnop; Manussabhorn Phatsara; Siriwadee Chomdej
      Pages: 483 - 492
      Abstract: Abstract Osteon structure has been widely studied in mammals, but osteon structure in dogs has received relatively little attention, especially in terms of whether aging has any effect on osteon structure. The aim of this study was to compare the osteon structure of both flat (scapula and os coxae) and long bones (humerus, radius, ulna, metacarpus, femur and tibia) of male puppy and adult Golden Retrievers. We examined five parameters: Haversian canal diameter, Haversian canal area, osteon diameter, osteon area, and number of lacunae per osteon. Our results show that the values for Haversian canal diameter were significantly higher in the os coxae and tibia, but significantly lower in the femur of adult dogs as compared to those of puppies. The Haversian canal diameter of the other bones investigated did not show any significant differences between puppies and adult dogs. The Haversian canal area was significantly greater in the os coxae, radius and femur of adult dogs than in those of puppies. The osteon diameter and area of every bone examined were significantly smaller in puppies than in adult dogs. Lastly, the number of lacunae per osteon showed the same trend as osteon diameter and area. Plexiform bone could be found in three bones in puppies, i.e. the femur, humerus and tibia. Overall, the results of this study should provide basic knowledge on the microanatomy of cortical bone in dogs and on the possible influence age.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0345-y
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Light and scanning electron microscopy of the tongue of a degu ( Octodon
           degus )
    • Authors: Petr Cizek; Pavla Hamouzova; Vladimir Jekl; Pavel Kvapil; Frantisek Tichy
      Pages: 493 - 499
      Abstract: Abstract The tongue of an adult degu was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. It consists of an apex, corpus, and radix and contains a lingual prominence. The aim of this study was to describe the course of muscle fascicles of the proper lingual muscle, the presence and nature of the lingual salivary glands, and particularly the appearance and distribution of the lingual papillae. Three major types of papillae have been observed: filiform, conical, and vallate. The dorsal surface of the lingual apex extends in caudally bent filiform papillae with two spines. The lingual corpus bears long filiform papillae with a single tip. The lingual radix contains crown-like papillae in the region of the prominence and conical papillae in the remaining areas. Two oval vallate papillae were discovered caudally on the lingual radix. This first description of the lingual structures in a degu could be used for comparative studies or as basic data for differentiation of lingual morphology in this species.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0346-x
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Palatine tonsil volume estimation using different methods after
           tonsillectomy
    • Authors: Ayşe Sağıroğlu; Niyazi Acer; Hacı Okuducu; Tolga Ertekin; Mustafa Erkan; Esra Durmaz; Mesut Aydın; Seher Yılmaz; Gökmen Zararsız
      Pages: 500 - 508
      Abstract: Abstract This study was carried out to measure the volume of the palatine tonsil in otorhinolaryngology outpatients with complaints of adenotonsillar hypertrophy and chronic tonsillitis who had undergone tonsillectomy. To date, no study has investigated palatine tonsil volume using different methods and compared with subjective tonsil size in the literature. For this purpose, we used three different methods to measure palatine tonsil volume. The correlation of each parameter with tonsil size was assessed. After tonsillectomy, palatine tonsil volume was measured by Archimedes, Cavalieri and Ellipsoid methods. Mean right–left palatine tonsil volumes were calculated as 2.63 ± 1.34 cm3 and 2.72 ± 1.51 cm3 by the Archimedes method, 3.51 ± 1.48 cm3 and 3.37 ± 1.36 cm3 by the Cavalieri method, and 2.22 ± 1.22 cm3 and 2.29 ± 1.42 cm3 by the Ellipsoid method, respectively. Excellent agreement was found among the three methods of measuring volumetric techniques according to Bland–Altman plots. In addition, tonsil grade was correlated significantly with tonsil volume.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0350-1
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • A dermal equivalent developed from adipose-derived stem cells and
           electrospun polycaprolactone matrix: an in vitro and in vivo study
    • Authors: Vahid Bayati; Mohammad Reza Abbaspour; Fereshteh Negad Dehbashi; Niloofar Neisi; Mahmoud Hashemitabar
      Pages: 509 - 520
      Abstract: Abstract Polycaprolactone (PCL) is used as a material of choice for surgical sutures, wound dressings, contraceptives, fixation devices and dentistry in paramedical sciences. In addition, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of acute and chronic wounds. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of electrospun PCL fibers on keratinocyte differentiation of ASCs and wound healing. PCL solution was electrospun and characterized. Isolated and characterized ASCs were differentiated into keratinocyte-like cells on a tissue culture plate (TCP) and PCL matrices and compared. PCL nano-/microfibers cultured with ASCs (test group) or alone (control) were implanted as a dermal substitute for wound healing. There were significant increases in the proliferation rate and expression level of cytokeratin 14, filaggrin and involucrin in cells cultured on PCL matrices compared to TCP (p < 0.05). After histological and immunological evaluation of the reconstituted skin, a thick epidermal layer with several skin appendages was evidently observed in the ASC/PCL group, whereas no real and mature epidermis was formed, especially in the central area of the healing wound in the pure PCL group on day 14. Pure PCL, if possessing suitable properties including good adhesiveness, high proliferative capability, inductive elasticity and stiffness for migration and differentiation, could drive the keratinocyte differentiation of ASCs and act as an efficient dermal equivalent to promote wound healing.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0352-z
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Mathematical modelling of the growth of human fetus anatomical structures
    • Authors: Krzysztof Dudek; Wojciech Kędzia; Emilia Kędzia; Alicja Kędzia; Wojciech Derkowski
      Pages: 521 - 529
      Abstract: Abstract The goal of this study was to present a procedure that would enable mathematical analysis of the increase of linear sizes of human anatomical structures, estimate mathematical model parameters and evaluate their adequacy. Section material consisted of 67 foetuses—rectus abdominis muscle and 75 foetuses- biceps femoris muscle. The following methods were incorporated to the study: preparation and anthropologic methods, image digital acquisition, Image J computer system measurements and statistical analysis method. We used an anthropologic method based on age determination with the use of crown-rump length—CRL (V–TUB) by Scammon and Calkins. The choice of mathematical function should be based on a real course of the curve presenting growth of anatomical structure linear size Ύ in subsequent weeks t of pregnancy. Size changes can be described with a segmental-linear model or one-function model with accuracy adequate enough for clinical purposes. The interdependence of size–age is described with many functions. However, the following functions are most often considered: linear, polynomial, spline, logarithmic, power, exponential, power-exponential, log-logistic I and II, Gompertz’s I and II and von Bertalanffy’s function. With the use of the procedures described above, mathematical models parameters were assessed for V-PL (the total length of body) and CRL body length increases, rectus abdominis total length h, its segments hI, hII, hIII, hIV, as well as biceps femoris length and width of long head (LHL and LHW) and of short head (SHL and SHW). The best adjustments to measurement results were observed in the exponential and Gompertz’s models.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0353-y
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Degenerative changes of the sacroiliac auricular joint
           surface—validation of influential factors
    • Authors: Keita Nishi; Kazunobu Saiki; Takeshi Imamura; Keishi Okamoto; Tetsuaki Wakebe; Keiko Ogami; Takashi Hasegawa; Takefumi Moriuchi; Junya Sakamoto; Yoshitaka Manabe; Toshiyuki Tsurumoto
      Pages: 530 - 538
      Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study was to clarify the relevance of degenerative changes in the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) and the joints in the lower limb and lumbar spine using age estimation methods. We also examined the shape of the auricular surface to determine the effect of degenerative changes on each joint. A total of 200 iliac auricular surfaces from 100 Japanese male skeletons were examined macroscopically in accordance with conventional methods of age estimation. From the obtained estimated age, we calculated the deflection values, which represented the degree of degenerative changes of the joints. For comparison, we used osteophyte score data of the hip, knee, and zygapophyseal joints in lumbar spines from previous studies which had used the same bone specimens. As a quantitative indicator of auricular surface morphology, we defined the constriction ratio (CR) of the auricular surface and compared the CR values obtained with various measured values. Degenerative changes in the SIJ were positively correlated with those in both the hip joint and zygapophyseal joint, but a correlation with knee joints was found only on the left side. In skeletons from individuals aged ≥60 years as time of death, the CR was significantly different between the group with high scores and those with low scores in both the hip and sacroiliac joints. It has been suggested that degenerative changes in SIJs interact with those in the hip joint and zygapophyseal joint. In addition, the shape of the auricular surface may also be a relevant factor for degenerative changes in these joints.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0354-x
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of the antidepressant-like effect of musk in an animal model of
           depression: how it works
    • Authors: Nasra Naeim Ayuob
      Pages: 539 - 553
      Abstract: Abstract Depression has become a common public health problem that is showing increasing prevalence. Slow onset of action, low response rates and drug resistance are potential limitations of the current antidepressant drugs. Alternative therapy using natural substances, specifically aromatherapy, is currently tried to treat depression. This work aimed to assess the efficacy of musk in relieving the behavioral, biochemical and hippocampal histopathological changes induced by exposure to chronic mild stress in mice and explore the possible mechanism behind this antidepressant-like effect. Forty male albino mice were divided into four groups (n = 10): control, a group exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and two groups exposed to CUMS and then treated with fluoxetine or musk. Behavioral changes and serum corticosterone levels were assessed at the end of the experiment. Protein and gene expressions of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hippocampus were assessed using ELISA and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Histopathological examination of the hippocampus and immunohistochemical techniques using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Ki67, caspase-3, BDNF and GR were performed. Inhalation of musk had an antidepressant-like effect in an animal model of depression. Musk alleviated the behavioral changes and elevated serum corticosterone levels induced by exposure to chronic stress. It reduced the hippocampal neuronal apoptosis and stimulated neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Musk's action may be related to the upregulation of hippocampal GR and BDNF expressions. Musk is considered a potential antidepressant so it is advisable to assess its efficacy in treating depressed patient.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0357-7
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Anatomy, histology and elemental profile of long bones and ribs of the
           Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus )
    • Authors: Korakot Nganvongpanit; Puntita Siengdee; Kittisak Buddhachat; Janine L. Brown; Sarisa Klinhom; Tanita Pitakarnnop; Taweepoke Angkawanish; Chatchote Thitaram
      Pages: 554 - 568
      Abstract: Abstract This study evaluated the morphology and elemental composition of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bones (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula and rib). Computerized tomography was used to image the intraosseous structure, compact bones were processed using histological techniques, and elemental profiling of compact bone was conducted using X-ray fluorescence. There was no clear evidence of an open marrow cavity in any of the bones; rather, dense trabecular bone was found in the bone interior. Compact bone contained double osteons in the radius, tibia and fibula. The osteon structure was comparatively large and similar in all bones, although the lacuna area was greater (P < 0.05) in the femur and ulna. Another finding was that nutrient foramina were clearly present in the humerus, ulna, femur, tibia and rib. Twenty elements were identified in elephant compact bone. Of these, ten differed significantly across the seven bones: Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Zr, Ag, Cd, Sn and Sb. Of particular interest was the finding of a significantly larger proportion of Fe in the humerus, radius, fibula and ribs, all bones without an open medullary cavity, which is traditionally associated with bone marrow for blood cell production. In conclusion, elephant bones present special characteristics, some of which may be important to hematopoiesis and bone strength for supporting a heavy body weight.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0361-y
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • In vitro and in vivo study of microporous ceramics using MC3T3 cells, CAM
           assay and a pig animal model
    • Authors: Marek Tomco; Eva Petrovova; Maria Giretova; Viera Almasiova; Katarina Holovska; Viera Cigankova; Andrej Jenca; Janka Jencova; Andrej Jenca; Martin Boldizar; Kosa Balazs; Lubomir Medvecky
      Pages: 569 - 580
      Abstract: Abstract Bone tissue engineering combines biomaterials with biologically active factors and cells to hold promise for reconstructing craniofacial defects. In this study the biological activity of biphasic hydroxyapatite ceramics (HA; a bone substitute that is a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate in fixed ratios) was characterized (1) in vitro by assessing the growth of MC3T3 mouse osteoblast lineage cells, (2) in ovo by using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and (3) in an in vivo pig animal model. Biocompatibility, bioactivity, bone formation and biomaterial degradation were detected microscopically and by radiology and histology. HA ceramics alone demonstrated great biocompatibility on the CAM as well as bioactivity by increased proliferation and alkaline phosphatase secretion of mouse osteoblasts. The in vivo implantation of HA ceramics with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) showed de novo intramembranous bone healing of critical-size bone defects in the right lateral side of pig mandibular bodies after 3 and 9 weeks post-implantation. Compared with the HA ceramics without MMSCs, the progress of bone formation was slower with less-developed features. This article highlights the clinical use of microporous biphasic HA ceramics despite the unusually shaped elongated micropores with a high length/width aspect ratio (up to 20) and absence of preferable macropores (>100 µm) in bone regenerative medicine.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-016-0362-x
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Multiple muscular variations including tenuissimus and tensor fasciae
           suralis muscles in the posterior thigh of a human case
    • Authors: Takamitsu Arakawa; Takahiro Kondo; Masahiro Tsutsumi; Yuko Watanabe; Toshio Terashima; Akinori Miki
      Pages: 581 - 584
      Abstract: Abstract The posterior thigh muscles on the right side of an 81-year-old male cadaver had multiple variations, denoted muscles I–IV. Muscle I originated from the posteromedial surface of the greater trochanter and divided into two muscle bellies. These muscle bellies fused with the long head of the biceps femoris and were innervated by two branches from muscular branches of the semitendinosus and the long head of the biceps. Muscle II separated from the medial surface of the long head of the biceps in the proximal third and fused with the semitendinosus in the distal fourth. Muscle III was a biventer muscle. Its superior belly separated from the medial surface of the long head of the biceps in the distal third. The inferior belly of this muscle fused with the posterior surface of the crural fascia and was innervated by the tibial nerve. Muscle IV separated from the adductor magnus muscle, passed between the long and short heads of the biceps, fused with the inferior belly of muscle III, and was innervated by the muscular branch of the common fibular nerve to the short head of the biceps. Peeling off the epineurium of the muscular branches to the inferior belly of muscle III showed that this nerve fascicle divided from the common trunk with branches to the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. The inferior bellies of muscle III and muscle IV were thought to be equivalent to the tensor fasciae suralis and tenuissimus muscles, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0396-8
      Issue No: Vol. 92, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Morphological characteristics of the tongue and lingual papillae of the
           large bamboo rat ( Rhizomys sumatrensis )
    • Authors: Thanakul Wannaprasert
      Abstract: Abstract The large bamboo rat (Rhizomys sumatrensis) is a fossorial rodent found throughout Indochina that has a distinct habitat dominated by bamboo thickets. In the study reported here, the lingual biology of this rodent is described in detail, based on characteristic features of the tongue and lingual papillae as determined by light and scanning electron microscopy studies. The tongue was found to be elongated with a rounded apex and possessed a median groove and a well-developed intermolar prominence. Three types of the papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface: filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae. The most abundant papillae were the filiform papillae, the majority of which had a wide base and fork-like processes. Rounded fungiform papillae with one to four taste buds were randomly distributed among the filiform papillae, with a high density found at the anterior tongue, particularly the apex. Two oval vallate papillae were observed on the posterior part of the tongue, surrounded by a circumferential groove into which their numerous gustatory pores opened. The lingual radix had no papillae but contained mucus-secreting Weber’s salivary glands. Structural adaptations of the tongue to meet the functional demands of food ingestion and food manipulation in the oral cavity are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0414-x
       
  • Anatomical variations of the recurrent artery of Heubner: number, origin,
           and course
    • Authors: Wakoto Matsuda; Takahiro Sonomura; Satoru Honma; Sachi Ohno; Tetsuya Goto; Shuichi Hirai; Masahiro Itoh; Yoshiko Honda; Hiroki Fujieda; Jun Udagawa; Shuichi Ueda
      Abstract: Abstract The clinical anatomy of the recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH) was examined, focusing on its number, origin, and course, in a large number of brain specimens. We studied 724 RAH in total from 357 brain specimens (714 hemispheres). In 98.74 % of 714 cases there were one or more RAHs, while it was absent in 1.26 % of cases. There was a single RAH in 96.22 % of cases, double in 2.38 % of cases, and triple in 0.14 % of cases. In this study, three origin types of the RAH were defined. We defined A1 and A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) as the artery from the origin of the ACA to the junction of the anterior communicating artery (AComA) and the artery from the junction of the AComA to the anterior border of the corpus callosum, respectively. In 76.2 % of 724 arteries, the RAH originated from the junction of the A1 and A2 segment of the ACA. In 16.3 %, the RAH originated from the A2 segment of the ACA. In 7.5 %, the RAH originated from the A1 segment of the ACA. The course of the RAH was superior to the A1 segment of the ACA in 30.1 % of 724 arteries, anterior in 62.2 %, and posterior in 7.7 %. It is of great importance for neurosurgeons to understand the detailed anatomical variations of the RAH before operating to prevent operative complications resulting in neurological deficits.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0415-9
       
  • Age-related behavioral, morphological and physiological changes in the
           hippocampus of zitter rats
    • Authors: Ayuka Ehara; Masao Maekawa; Yuuichi Hori; Kazuhiko Nakadate; Shiuchi Ueda
      Abstract: Abstract Convulsive seizure is known to be associated with hippocampal abnormalities, such as hilar cell degeneration, abnormal mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus (DG) and abnormal expression of immediate early genes. However, whether these morphological changes are a cause or consequence of convulsive seizures has remained contentious. Zitter (zi/zi) rats carry a mutation of the attractin gene and display spongiform degeneration of the brain. Spontaneous convulsive seizures in zi/zi rats over 8 months (M) old were demonstrated using 24-h video monitoring. Spontaneous convulsive seizures did not occur before this age. The present study examined structural changes in the hippocampus of zi/zi rats at different ages. Fluoro-Jade B-positive cells first appeared in the hilus of 1-M zi/zi rats, indicating hilar cell degeneration. After 2 M, mossy fiber sprouting was observed in granular cell layers and in the inner molecular layer. After 10 M, granule cells showed Fos expression. In the hippocampal slices from 12-M zi/zi rats, abnormal population spikes in the DG were observed in the presence of bicuculline and strychnine. Conversely, Sprague-Dawley rats showed no aberrant zinc distribution, few Fos-positive cells, no Fluoro-Jade B-positive cells in the hippocampus and no abnormal population spikes in the DG. These data indicate that morphological changes in the hippocampus might contribute to epileptogenesis in this mutant rat.
      PubDate: 2017-09-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0416-8
       
  • Anatomical variations of the pronator teres muscle in a Central European
           population and its clinical significance
    • Authors: Łukasz Olewnik; Michał Podgórski; Michał Polguj; Grzegorz Wysiadecki; Mirosław Topol
      Abstract: Abstract The pronator teres (PT) muscle is a forearm flexor with radial and ulnar heads. It is innervated by the median nerve (MN), which passes between these heads. Nerve entrapment, known as “PT syndrome”, may occur in this passage. Anatomical variations in this region may be potential risk factors of this pathology. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the relationship between morphologic variations of the PT and the MN. In 50 isolated, formalin-fixed upper limbs, the cubital region and the forearm were dissected. The following measurements were taken: origin of the PT muscle heads, the length of these heads, the length of the forearm, diameter of the MN and the number of its muscular branches to the pronator teres muscle. The forearms with the humeral head originating from the medial humeral epicondyle and medial intermuscular septum (72%) were significantly shorter (p = 0.0088) than those where the humeral head originated only from the medial humeral epicondyle. Moreover, in these specimens, the MN was significantly thinner (p = 0.003). The ulnar head was present in 43 limbs (86%). The MN passed between the heads of the PT muscle (74%) or under the muscle (26%). In the majority of cases, it provided two motor branches (66%). There is an association between the morphologic variation of the PT muscle heads and the course and branching pattern of the MN. Both are related to differences in forearm length. This may have an impact on the risk of PT syndrome and the performance of MN electrostimulation.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0413-y
       
  • Macroscopic anatomical study of the distribution of the cranial mesenteric
           artery to the intestine in the rabbit
    • Authors: Tetsuhito Kigata; Reona Ikegami; Hideshi Shibata
      Abstract: Abstract Intestinal surgery is commonly performed to cure bowel obstruction in rabbits, but detailed descriptions of the arterial supply to the intestine are incomplete. We investigated anatomical variations of the distribution of the cranial mesenteric artery to the intestine in 33 New Zealand White rabbits by injecting colored latex into the arteries. The cranial mesenteric artery arose independently from the abdominal aorta at about 2.0 cm caudal to the celiac artery and branched off the pancreaticoduodenal, middle colic, ileocecocolic, jejunal and ileal arteries. One or occasionally two caudal pancreaticoduodenal arteries supplied the distal duodenum, and one to three middle colic arteries supplied the transverse colon and the initial portion of the descending colon. The ileocecocolic artery arose distal to the middle colic arteries and provided the right colic, ileocecal and appendicular arteries, and branches to the proximal colon, with various branching patterns, which were grouped into four major types. These arteries and branches supplied the ileum, cecum, appendix and proximal colon. The cranial mesenteric artery also provided the jejunal arteries (predominantly 17; range 11–21) and one ileal artery supplying the jejunum and proximal ileum, respectively. The results show that the distribution patterns of the cranial mesenteric artery to the intestine in the rabbit are highly specialized to this species. Such specialization should always be considered when performing intestinal surgery in rabbits.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0411-0
       
  • Analysis of dural sac thickness in the human cervical spine
    • Authors: Soonwook Kwon; Seung-Woo Suh; Dasom Kim; Im Joo Rhyu; Hyunung Yu; Seung Woo Han; Jae-Young Hong
      Abstract: Abstract The thickness of the dura mater in the human cervical spine can vary between individuals and by vertebral level; these differences can result in various clinical outcomes. The purpose was to measure and analyze cervical dura mater thickness. Microscopic measurements were made of tissue from human cadavers. The subjects were nine human cadavers with no previous history of spinal deformity or surgery. Fourteen segments of both anterior and posterior dura mater from the C1 to C7 cervical vertebrae were obtained. Dura mater thickness was measured using an infrared laser-based confocal microscope. Statistical analyses were performed to examine the relationships of cervical dura mater thickness with vertebral level, age, and sex. The overall average cervical dura mater thickness was 379.3 × 10−3 mm. Statistically significant differences in thickness were found between the anterior and posterior segments (P < 0.0001). Moreover, the thickness at each vertebral level was significantly different from the thicknesses at the other levels (P < 0.05). The posterior dura mater thickness was highest at C1 and lowest at C5/6. Posterior dura mater thickness was significantly different at the axial, sub-axial, and lower cervical levels, whereas anterior dura mater thickness was relatively constant among levels. A significant correlation was found between thickness and age (P < 0.05); however, the average dura mater thickness was not significantly different between males and females. This study shows anatomical differences in cervical dura mater thickness with respect to vertebral level and age. These results provide anatomical information that will inform basic research and clinical approaches.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s12565-017-0412-z
       
 
 
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