Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3447 journals)
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    - BIOLOGY (1643 journals)
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    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (269 journals)
    - BOTANY (250 journals)
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    - ENTOMOLOGY (75 journals)
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    - ZOOLOGY (147 journals)

BIOLOGY (1643 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biologica Venezuelica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Scientiae Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biosystems     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de Biología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Research & Review in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bacterial Empire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
BIO-SITE : Biologi dan Sains Terapan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BIODIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Anatomical Science International
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.367
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1447-6959 - ISSN (Online) 1447-073X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Correction to: Untreated incomplete isolated cleft palate: cadaveric
    • Abstract: In the original publication, the given name and family name of the last author was incorrectly published. The correct given name and family name should be “R. Shane” and “Tubbs”.
      PubDate: 2019-03-12
  • Chondroepitrochlearis and a supernumerary head of the biceps brachii
    • Abstract: Unique variants of the pectoralis major and biceps brachii were found during a routine student dissection of a 96-year-old Caucasian female’s axilla and brachium. The donor cadaver had bilateral presentation of a muscle originating from the pectoralis major, near the lateral lip of the intertubercular groove, extending obliquely to insert on the medial intermuscular septum and medial epicondyle of the humerus. This muscle variant is currently described as a rare presentation of the chondroepitrochlearis, potentially a remnant of the panniculus carnosus in man. Often considered to be a thin, slender muscle taking origin from the true ribs, the right-side chondroepitrochlearis described in this report was notably larger—to the authors’ knowledge—than all other published cases, measuring 38.1 mm at the widest point. Meanwhile, another small muscle originating on the posterior surface of the pectoralis major tendon was present. Due to its insertion, the muscle was identified as a supernumerary portion, or a third head, of the biceps brachii. The proximal attachment of both the chondroepitrochlearis and the third head of the biceps brachii could impose functional limitations on the pectoralis major.
      PubDate: 2019-03-12
  • Vertical bundles of the white matter fibers in the pons revisited:
           preliminary study utilizing the Klingler technique
    • Abstract: The inner structure of the pons contains several layers of transverse and vertical fibers and many nuclei. The vertical bundles are described as fibers of the corticospinal tract, corticonuclear tract, frontopontine tract and parieto-temporopontine tract organized in three layers. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure of the vertical bundles in the ventral pons using the modified Klingler method. Ten brain stem specimens were investigated. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin, frozen for 24 h to separate nerve fibers by ice crystals, and then unfrozen again in 10% formalin solution. Afterwards, the specimens were dissected using a sharpened spatula. Results point to the existence of three main layers of vertical bundles and a small, constant, and superficial fourth fascicle that is yet to be described in the literature. We propose the name fasciculus longitudinalis superficialis (superficial longitudinal fascicle) for this group of vertical fibers of the pons.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • The segmental branching of the hepatic arteries in the liver: a cadaveric
    • Abstract: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the sectorial and segmental arterial branching (second- and third-order branching) in the right and left hemilivers, as knowledge of this branching should lead to improved vascular mapping for various endovascular procedures in the liver. The study was conducted on 100 formalin-fixed adult cadaveric livers. The arterial anatomy of the liver was dissected from the origin of the hepatic arteries to their segmental branches. Conventional segmental branching of both the right and the left hepatic arteries was seen in only 25% of the livers. In the remaining livers, the segmental branching of one or both of the hepatic arteries was different from that given in anatomy texts. The branching of the right and left hepatic arteries was anatomically classified into seven and six patterns, respectively, mainly on the basis of their sectorial and segmental anatomy. The present study details the highly diverse segmental arterial anatomy of the liver. The information provided here has important implications for procedures that involve selective catheterization of segmental arteries.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Gross morphological and ultrastructural characterization of the
           oropharyngeal cavity of the Eurasian hoopoe captured from Egypt
    • Abstract: The present study aimed to give full morphological insight into the oropharyngeal cavity of Eurasian hoopoe at the level of gross morphology in addition to ultrastructural inspection including light- and scanning electron microscopy. The oropharyngeal cavity has a triangular appearance with a very long rostrally located beak, helping the bird achieve its feeding mechanism. The floor of the oropharyngeal cavity is divided into three parts; a pre-lingual part with a pre-lingual fold, a lingual part containing a rudimentary triangular tongue, and a laryngeal part, which contains a small elevated laryngeal mound. There are four giant papillae and numerous openings of lingual salivary glands on the root. The roof is divided into the pre-choanal and the choanal region. The pre-choanal region has two parallel palatine ridges, while the choanal region had an ovoid-shaped choanal cleft rostrally, followed caudally by a narrow infundibular slit. The mechanical papillae on the roof are arranged in two rows directed caudally; one row is located on the free border of rostral half of the choanal cleft, while the other row is located between the pharynx cavity and the esophagus. The histological study showed that the tongue was covered dorsally and ventrally by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium and supported centrally by entoglossum, which extends from the root until the rostral tip of the tongue. The entoglossum was mainly cartilaginous rostrally in the apex and ossified caudally in the lingual body and root. Numerous mucous glands scattered in the sub mucosa of the lingual root as well as in the palatine region convey their secretions to the surface through a duct guarded by diffuse lymphocytic infiltration.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Nisin, a food preservative produced by Lactococcus lactis , affects the
           localization pattern of intermediate filament protein in HaCaT cells
    • Abstract: Nisin is a food preservative produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Previous blood biochemical research revealed that nisin has physiological effects in mammals; although the site of action has yet to be identified, keratinocytes have been proposed as a possible target. In this study, we investigated whether nisin affects keratinocytes by examining the effects on eukaryotic intermediate filaments in HaCaT human keratinocytes. Treatment with 93 μg/ml nisin for 24 h decreased the localization of the intermediate filament proteins cytokeratin (CK)5 and CK17 at the cell periphery, which were distributed in a limited area in a ring- or net-like shape. However, this was not observed upon treatment for 6 h. The results of a serial dilution assay revealed that the effect on CK17 localization depends on the nisin concentration and were observed at ≥47 μg/ml. Moreover, this effect was partially blocked by treatment with the calcium channel blocker bepridil. Thus, despite the long history of nisin as being safe for humans, it has measurable effects on the keratinocyte cytoskeleton. Our findings also indicate that CK5 and CK17 can serve as markers for evaluating the effects of nisin on keratinocytes.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Quick visualization of neurons in brain tissues using an optical clearing
    • Abstract: Neurons are classified into several morphological types according to the locations of their somata and the branching patterns of their axons and dendrites. Recent studies suggest that these morphological features are related to their physiological properties, including firing characteristics, responses to neuromodulators, and wiring patterns. Therefore, rapid morphological identification of electrophysiologically recorded neurons promises to advance our understanding of neuronal circuits. One of the most common anatomical cell identification methods is neuronal reconstruction with biocytin delivered through whole-cell patch-clamp pipettes. However, conventional reconstruction methods usually take longer than 24 h and limit the throughput of electrophysiological experiments. Here, we developed a quick, simple cell reconstruction method by optimizing the tissue clearing protocol ScaleSQ. We found that adding 200 mM NaCl almost entirely prevented tissue swelling without compromising optical clearing ability. This solution, termed IsoScaleSQ, allowed us to increase the transparency of the gray matter of 500-µm-thick slices within 30 min, meaning that the total time required to reconstruct whole-cell recorded neurons was reduced to 1 h. This novel method will improve the efficacy and effectiveness of electrophysiological experiments linked to cell morphology.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Spraying urea solution reduces formaldehyde levels during gross anatomy
    • Abstract: Formaldehyde (FA) is frequently used to embalm human cadavers that are employed to teach gross anatomy to medical and dental students. However, exposure to FA is harmful to both students and educators. The aim of this study was to reduce the FA levels in the anatomy dissection hall by spraying an FA scavenger solution. We measured the changes in FA levels after administering FA scavenger solutions to liquid, wet paper towels, organs, and cadavers containing FA. Among l-cysteine, N-ethyl urea, and urea, the latter was found to have the strongest scavenging power towards the FA in the liquid. The molar concentration of urea that most efficiently reduced the levels of volatilized FA from the wet paper towels was the same as that of the FA. After spraying the urea solution, the volatilized FA levels immediately decreased, reaching their minimum at 60 min, and remained low even after 240 min. Spraying the urea solution onto the organs reduced the levels of FA volatilized from the surfaces of organs but not those from the insides of the organs. In the dissection hall used for the gross anatomy course at Tokyo Medical University, the FA levels were significantly decreased after spraying the urea solution onto the cadavers. Moreover, dissection could be performed without the cadavers putrefying during the 4-month course. These results indicate that various institutes could use urea solution spray to effectively reduce the FA levels in the dissection hall and thus ensure the safety of students and educators.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Ontogenic development of the digestive tract in larval and juvenile Vimba
           bream, Vimba vimba
    • Abstract: In this study we examined the ontogenic development of the digestive tract of Vimba bream (Vimba vimba, Family: Cyprinidae) during the first 60 days of life (hatching to 60 days after hatching [DAH]). Samples of developing Vimba bream were randomly selected at various stages of development: 1–8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, and 60 DAH. For the histological and histochemical studies on the development of the alimentary canal, tissue sections prepared from the sampled hatchlings were stained with hematoxylin–eosin and periodic acid–Schiff and observed under a light microscope. The histological structures of both the mouth and esophagus were fully developed at 5 and 7 DAH, respectively. Intestinal differentiation was observed at 2 DAH, while mucosal folds appeared on the intestinal bulb at 7 DAH. At 5 DAH, with the appearance of goblet cells in the epithelium of the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus, the larvae showed secretion activity in these organs. At 6 DAH, secretion was observed in the intestine; at this stage of development, the surface of the gastrointestinal tract was covered in a neutral mucous-like layer of polysaccharide. The histological observations indicate that the early development of the digestive tract in Vimba vimba enables larvae to efficiently ingest and digest exogenous feed very quickly after hatching.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Existence and features of the myodural bridge in Gallus domesticus :
           indication of its important physiological function
    • Abstract: The myodural bridge (MDB) is a dense connective tissue that connects muscles with the cervical spinal dura mater via the posterior atlanto-occipital and atlato-axial interspaces. To date, the physiological function of the MDB has not been fully elucidated. Recent studies have identified the presence of the MDB in mammals, but very little information is available on the existence of the MDB in avifauna. We selected Gallus domesticus to explore the existence and the fiber property of the MDB in avifauna. We found that in this species, fibers originating from the ventral aspect of the rectus capitis dorsal minor are fused with the dorsal atlanto-occipital membrane and that numerous trabeculae connect the dorsal atlanto-occipital membrane with the cervical spinal dura mater. Furthermore, the occipital venous sinus is located between the trabeculae. The MDB is mainly composed of collagen type I fibers. Our results show that the MDB is present in G. domesticus and lead us to infer that the MDB is a highly conservative evolutionary structure which may play essential physiological roles.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Incidence of vertebral artery of aortic arch origin, its level of entry
           into transverse foramen, length, diameter and clinical significance
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to show the incidence of vertebral artery of aortic arch origin, its level of entry into transverse foramen, including extra- and intracranial morphometry, and clinical significance. A total of 266 embalmed cadavers were studied. We found 14 left vertebral arteries (5.3%) emerging from aortic arch. Most of the left vertebral arteries of aortic arch origin (78.6%) entered the fifth cervical transverse foramina, whereas most of the vertebral arteries of subclavian origin (94.7% left and 99.2% right) entered the sixth cervical transverse foramina. Their average prevertebral length was 8.24 ± 1.09 cm ,which was about twice as long as the right vertebral artery (3.88 ± 1.14 cm). The average outer diameters of the prevertebral part and ensuing intracranial part of the left vertebral artery of aortic arch origin were 4.36 ± 0.93 and 3.62 ± 0.62 mm, respectively. The mean corresponding diameters of the vertebral artery of subclavian origin were 5.06 ± 1.04 and 3.87 ± 0.83 mm, respectively. All of the vertebral arteries decreased significantly in size after entering the cranial cavity. The reduction in caliber of the intracranial part of the vertebral artery compared with the prevertebral part of its own vessel has never been reported elsewhere. Knowledge of such anatomical variations is important in interpreting CT angiography, anterior cervical decompression and aortic arch surgery to prevent iatrogenic injury of the vertebral artery.
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
  • Cone-beam computed tomographic evaluation of accessory mental foramen in a
           Turkish population
    • Abstract: Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and location of accessory mental foramen (AMF) in a Turkish population using cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT). Method CBCT images of 1005 patients were retrospectively reviewed from the archive of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Izmir Katip Celebi University. The prevalence, size, and localization of AMFs were assessed according to gender and age. In addition, the vertical and horizontal dimension of the mental foramen (MF) with and without AMF was measured to investigate the relationship between MF dimensions and the presence and absence of AMF. The average distance between the MF and AMF was also calculated. All measurements were then analyzed statistically. Results A total of 149 AMFs in 123 (12.23%) patients were identified on the CBCT images of the 1005 patients reviewed. There was no significant correlation between presence of AMF and gender (p  = 0.152). The most common localization of an AMF with respect to the MF was posterio-inferior (n = 52; 34.89%). A statistically significant difference was also found between the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the MF with and without AMF (p  < 0.05). Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate the high prevalence of AMF in the studied Turkish population. Considering the high prevalence and the structures passing through it, recognition of AMF and its detection using CBCT is important to prevent complications that may occur during and after surgical procedures.
      PubDate: 2019-02-21
  • A rare variation of the hemiazygos vein draining into the persistent left
           superior vena cava
    • Abstract: During an educational dissection of a 72-year-old Chinese male cadaver, the hemiazygos vein (HAV) coursing the left side that drains into the persistent left superior vena cava was observed. The HAV was formed at the junction of the 9th to 11th right posterior intercostal veins, right subcostal vein, 5th to 11th left posterior intercostal veins, and left subcostal vein; it then ascended posteriorly to the thoracic aorta. After collecting the accessory hemiazygos vein, it crossed over the aorta and the pedicle of the left lung via the hemiazygos arch, then converged with a communicative branch (vein of Marshall) that emerged from the left brachiocephalic vein to form the persistent left superior vena cava and entered the pericardium at the level of the sixth thoracic vertebra. Upon opening the pericardium of our cadaver, the persistent left superior vena cava was found to drain directly into the significantly dilated coronary sinus at the level of the eighth thoracic vertebra. The azygos vein was formed by the union of the first to eighth right posterior intercostal veins and appeared to be finer and shorter than the HAV. The persistent left superior vena cava might be the result of incomplete degeneration of the left posterior cardinal vein. Knowledge of such variations could be of great value to surgeons placing peripherally inserted central catheters because incorrect placement of the azygos venous system can be detrimental to the patient. In addition, during heart surgery, awareness of such variations may prevent major complications, such as hemorrhage or damage to vascular structures, and possibly also provide new insights and perspectives to cardiovascular surgeries.
      PubDate: 2019-02-18
  • Can feline ( Felis catus ) flat and long bone morphometry predict sex or
           skull shape'
    • Abstract: This study demonstrates sexual dimorphism in feline bones based on morphometric analysis of dried flat bones (scapula and os coxa) and long bones (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, and fibula) of 92 felines (50 male, 42 female). A total of 58 parameters (flat bones: scapula = 4 and os coxa = 7; long bones: humerus = 8, radius = 9, ulna = 10, femur = 9, tibia = 7, and fibula = 4) were measured using a digital vernier caliper. Twenty-three parameters were found to be significantly different between cats of different sexes and skull shapes. The correlation between the cephalic index and most parameters was negative. Analysis of bone morphometry enabled us to estimate both sex and skull shape with accuracy of up to 96 % and 71 %, respectively, through a stepwise logistic regression model and a stepwise discriminative analysis model. The stepwise logistic regression model was determined to be most suitable for classifying two categories of data and had higher prediction accuracy rate.
      PubDate: 2019-02-15
  • Comparative morphology of the lingual papillae and their connective tissue
           cores in the tongue of the Abyssinian black-and-white colobus ( Colobus
           guereza )
    • Abstract: We observed the morphology of the lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, foliate, and vallate) and their underlying connective tissue cores (CTCs) in Abyssinian black-and-white colobus monkeys using light and scanning electron microscopy. The tongues of both juvenile and senescent individuals were relatively short in the rostro-caudal direction, with a rounded apex. Lingual tori were absent. Numerous filiform papillae were distributed over the entire tongue, except at the lingual root. A pair of foliate papillae was present on both the lateral and caudal margins of the corpus. Three vallate papillae were distributed on the boundary between the caudal part of the body and the root in both juvenile and senescent individuals. Based on scanning electron microscopy observations, the morphologies of the filiform papillae differed between juvenile and senescent individuals. The epithelial surface of juvenile filiform papillae had a main process, but the associated processes were weak and the underlying CTCs displayed immature morphology. In contrast, the epithelial surface of senescent filiform papillae was associated with several accessory processes, and their underlying CTCs consisted of several auxiliary cores that nearly encircled the main core, forming a concavity in the papilla. CTCs of the filiform papillae showed variable morphology. Juvenile filiform CTCs exhibited a rather primitive morphology, resembling those of the hamster, mole, and Cape hyrax while, conversely, despite the basically folivorous diet of the Abyssinian black-and-white colobus, senescent filiform CTCs resembled those found in omnivorous primates, including members of the Callitrichinae and Homoidea, and also those in Carnivora (e.g., Canidae and Felidae).
      PubDate: 2019-02-14
  • Effect of advanced platelet-rich fibrin on accelerating alveolar bone
           formation in dogs: a histological and immunofluorescence evaluation
    • Abstract: Several methods have been developed to regenerate lost alveolar bone. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a useful adjunct for new bone formation in dentistry. To elucidate the effect of advanced PRF (A-PRF) on bone formation, we inserted A-PRF clots in sockets after tooth extraction. Premolars were extracted from beagle dogs, and A-PRF was applied to the socket. New bone formation was assessed using histological and immunofluorescence examinations, and the bone formation ratio was evaluated 14 and 30 days postoperatively. Histological examination revealed newly formed bone filling the sockets up to the center in the A-PRF group at 14 days postoperatively, while thick and regular bone trabeculae were arranged in porous bone after 30 days. Higher expressions of osteocalcin and osteopontin were observed in newly formed bone in the A-PRF group, compared to the control group. The bone formation ratio was also higher in the A-PRF group than in the control group. Thus, A-PRF application may result in enhanced new bone formation and may aid in accelerating bone formation. A-PRF was more rapid than a self-limiting process during induction of bone formation by enhancing osteoblast activity and may be useful for bone formation in clinical medicine.
      PubDate: 2019-02-12
  • Nerve to mylohyoid branched from the lingual nerve: previously undescribed
    • Abstract: The lingual nerve is a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. It descends medial and anterior to the inferior alveolar nerve through the pterygomandibular space, runs by the lingual plate and lingual crest at the lower third molar closely, and supplies sensory fibers to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. Therefore, injury of this nerve is occasionally induced by wisdom tooth extraction and could lead to paralysis of the tongue. The inferior alveolar nerve gives rise to the nerve to mylohyoid just before entering the mandibular foramen, which supplies the mylohyoid and anterior belly of the digastric muscle. We present an extremely rare anatomical variation where the nerve to mylohyoid arose from the lingual nerve near the submandibular duct during routine oral dissection.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
  • Correction to: Prevalence of wormian bones in dried adult human skulls: an
           osteo-morphometric study in Nepal
    • Abstract: In the original publication of the article, the affiliation of the coauthor Subash Sapkota and the formula of the cranial index were published incorrectly. The correct affiliation is provided in this correction.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
  • A Gantzer muscle arising from the brachialis and flexor digitorum
           superficialis: embryological considerations and implications for median
           nerve entrapment
    • Abstract: Gantzer muscles are variant muscles in the anterior forearm inserting into the flexor pollicis longus or, less often, the flexor digitorum profundus. The presence of Gantzer muscles can cause a compressive neuropathy affecting the anterior interosseous nerve (Kiloh–Nevin syndrome). These muscles must also be considered when anterior forearm fasciotomies are performed for the management of acute compartment syndrome. In this case report, a novel Gantzer muscle originated from the flexor digitorum superficialis as well as the investing fascia of the brachialis muscle; the latter site is a novel proximal attachment not previously reported. In addition, the Gantzer muscle possessed rare characteristics because it (1) possessed a split tendinous distal insertion into both the flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus, (2) exhibited a triangular morphology, and (3) was innervated by the median nerve. Most importantly, the dual origin of this Gantzer muscle formed a tunnel containing branches of the median nerve; therefore, this report documents a unique anatomical scenario in which the Gantzer muscle may compress and cause entrapment of aspects of the median nerve.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
  • Untreated incomplete isolated cleft palate: cadaveric findings
    • Abstract: Isolated cleft palate without cleft lip is a rare deformity. Cleft lip and cleft palate can sometimes develop in combination with a syndrome due to genetic causes. Affected patients have morbidity through life from birth and experience comprehensive treatment for such clefts including surgery. It is extremely rare that the untreated clefts are found during routine cadaveric dissection, since many patients have treatment for clefts in developed countries. Herein, we present a case of an untreated incomplete isolated cleft palate on the right side of the maxilla. An oronasal fistula was found in the same location as the missing right maxillary lateral incisor, and the soft palate was considerably intruding into the hard palate but without penetration into the nasal cavity. The right incisivus labii superioris muscle forming the oral vestibule was incompletely torn with two fistulae. An incomplete bony defect was found on the right maxilla without oronasal or oroantral fistula. This paper may contribute to evaluating the disturbed site of the incomplete isolated cleft palate with no treatment.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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