Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3397 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (264 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (141 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1617 journals)
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    - BOTANY (249 journals)
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    - ENTOMOLOGY (75 journals)
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    - ORNITHOLOGY (28 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (72 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (146 journals)

BIOLOGY (1617 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 801 - 1000 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
IRBM     Full-text available via subscription  
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription  
iScience     Open Access  
Islets     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Istituto Lombardo - Accademia di Scienze e Lettere - Incontri di Studio     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Mycology     Open Access  
ITBM-RBM     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ITBM-RBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
IUBMB Life     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
IUFS Journal of Biology     Open Access  
Izvestiya Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Jahangirnagar University Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
JCI Insight     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JDREAM : Journal of interDisciplinary REsearch Applied to Medicine     Open Access  
JETP Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Jornal Interdisciplinar de Biociências     Open Access  
Journal Biastatistics : Biomedics, Industry & Business And Social Statistics     Open Access  
Journal of Bacteriology & Parasitology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Bioanalysis & Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bioequivalence & Bioavailability     Open Access  
Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computer Science & Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Agricultural, Biological & Environmental Statistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Amino Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Anatomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of AOAC International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Applied Bioinformatics & Computational Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Life Sciences International     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Applied Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Aquatic Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Arachnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity     Open Access  
Journal of Astrobiology & Outreach     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Avian Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Basic Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bio-Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biogeography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Bioinformatics and Intelligent Control     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bioinformatics and Sequence Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biological Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biological Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biological Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biological Methods     Open Access  
Journal of Biological Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biological Research - Thessaloniki     Open Access  
Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biological Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biology and Life Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Journal of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biomedical Informatics     Partially Free   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Biomedical Informatics : X     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B : Applied Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bionic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Bioresource Management     Open Access  
Journal of Biorheology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity     Open Access  
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biosocial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Bryology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Cell Death     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Cell Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Cellular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chromatography B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Clinical Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Clinical Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Communications Technology and Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Contemporary Physics (Armenian Academy of Sciences)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Crustacean Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Education, Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Environment and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Environment and Sociobiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Environmental Analysis and Progress     Open Access  
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Environmental Science and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ethnobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of Ethology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Evolutionary Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Evolutionary Biology Research     Open Access  
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Life Science     Open Access  
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Journal of Fish Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Functional Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Fungi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Great Lakes Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Green Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Health and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Heredity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Human Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Hymenoptera Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ichthyology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Insect Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Insect Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Insect Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Institute of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated OMICS     Open Access  
Journal of Integrated Pest Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems: Technology, Planning, and Operations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Landscape Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Law and the Biosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Leukocyte Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Life and Earth Science     Open Access  
Journal of Life Sciences Research     Open Access  
Journal of Lipid Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Lipids     Open Access  
Journal of Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Mammalian Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Mammalian Ova Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Mammalogy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine and Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Marine Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Medical Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medical Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medicinal Botany     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Melittology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Membrane Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Membrane Computing     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Membrane Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Molecular Evolution     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Molecular Signaling     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Molluscan Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Natural Products     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Natural Sciences and Mathematics Research     Open Access  
Journal of Natural Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine     Open Access  
Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of New Results in Science     Open Access  
Journal of New Seeds     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Nucleic Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Phycology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Physics D : Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Physics: Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Phytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Plankton Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Plant Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Plasma Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Pollination Ecology     Open Access  
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Progressive Research in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Proteome Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Izvestiya Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.354
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1531-8443 - ISSN (Online) 0001-4338
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2570 journals]
  • Characteristics of the Short-Period S -Wave Attenuation Field in the
           Source Zone of the Strongest Tohoku Earthquake of March 11, 2011 ( M w =
           9.0)
    • Abstract: The characteristics of the short-period S-wave attenuation field in the source zone of the strongest Tohoku earthquake of March 11, 2011 in the northeast of Japan are considered (Mw = 9.0). The records of shallow local earthquakes obtained by the MAJO station at distances of 250 to 700 km are processed. A method based on the analysis of the ratio of the maximum amplitudes of the Sn and Pn waves (the Sn/Pn parameter) is used. The source zone is divided into four regions bounded by coordinates 36°–37°, 37°–38°, 38°–39°, and 39°–40°18′ N; and 140°30ʹ–145° E. It is established that all the regions contain segments of a rapid decrease in the Sn/Pn values, which are followed by segments of their sharp growth at small epicentral distances in all the areas. Another segment of rapid decrease in the Sn/Pn parameter is identified in all regions at relatively large distances. It is assumed that the first segments of rapid decrease in the Sn/Pn values are related to the gradual sinking of the S-wave rays in the mantle wedge. In this case, the minimum values of the parameter correspond to rays partly moving along the foot of this wedge. Such an effect is explained by the fact that the biggest content of the deep-seated fluids ascending due to the dehydration of the oceanic crust rocks correspond to the bottom of the mantle wedge. The segments of a sharp increase in the Sn/Pn values are likely to correspond to the propagation of rays within the upper part of the plate characterized by very weak attenuation. The second segments of the rapid decrease in the Sn/Pn parameter are related to the ray penetration into the waveguide formed in the bottom part of the plate formed as a result of the dehydration of the mantle rocks. The mean values Sn/Pn(Δ) in the four areas are much lower than in the source zone of the strongest Maule earthquake of February 27, 2010 (Chile, Mw = 8.8). This effect agrees with the earlier assumption about the larger fluid content in the subduction zones in the west of the Pacific Ocean compared to the east. Furthermore, this allows us to explain the features of the aftershock processes in these two enormous regions of the Pacific Ring.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Seismic Activation in the Eastern Part of the Southern Slope of the Great
           Caucasus in the Late XX to Early XXI Centuries
    • Abstract: In this paper, we consider a series of strong earthquakes that occurred on the central and eastern segments of the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus recorded in the late XX to early XXI centuries. We present a complex analysis of seismological manifestations, based on of which the seismological and geodynamic situation of the region in the early XXI century are a generalized and interpreted.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Amplitude–Frequency Characteristics of Geomagnetic Noise at Low
           Frequencies
    • Abstract: The features of the geomagnetic noise distribution over frequencies in different bandwidths and in the signal accumulation mode are investigated. It is shown that the amplitude of geomagnetic noise, measured by a magnetomodulation magnetometer in the passband of 0.1 to 230 Hz at the latitude of the Middle Urals in a quiet geomagnetic field can vary from 0.2 to ~2 nT from peak-to-peak, depending on the time and place of the measurement. The conditions for measuring a weak magnetic field against a background of geomagnetic noise and the limitations associated with the random nature of the changes in the amplitude of geomagnetic noise and the lack of correlation of its amplitude at various measurement points are considered. The obtained data can be used to estimate the amplitude of a weak external magnetic field, which can be recorded in an undisturbed geomagnetic field in unshielded space, which is of interest in magnetobiology and biomedicine.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Approximation of the High-Temperature Fire Zone Based on Terra/MODIS Data
           in the Problem of Subpixel Analysis
    • Abstract: In this work, an improved approach of the pixel-based analysis of the Terra/MODIS imagery is proposed. The approach allows us to improve the accuracy in estimating characteristics of the combustion zone when detecting thermal anomalies. The investigation is carried out based on the imagery of active vegetation fires in Siberian forests by the MODIS radiometer in the spectral ranges of 3930 to 3990 and 10 780 to 11 280 μm (bands 21 and 31, respectively). It is proposed to describe the approximation of the temperature profile of the fire front using an exponential function. Using the nonuniform approximation of the temperature distribution on the surface in the vicinity of the active combustion zone allows us to determine the portion of the active pixel of the Terra/MODIS image with the given temperature excess over the background temperature in it. This improves the accuracy in extracting active combustion zones and classifying the heat release rate at the subpixel level. This approach is applicable to monitoring fire development phases in the near real time mode.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Statistical Analysis of Monitoring the Results of the Radon Level and
           Meteorological Parameters in the Buildings of Geophysical Stations in
           Azerbaijan
    • Abstract: In this paper, we present a statistical analysis of the results of monitoring the radon content and meteorological parameters (atmospheric pressure, temperature, and humidity) in the buildings of three stationary geophysical stations in Azerbaijan (Sheki, Shamakhi, and Kurdemir) from April 1, 2016 to September 30, 2017 and the level of their interrelation. The studied database included 13 152 measurement complexes with an hourly interval. Short-term (intraday) and medium-term (intra-annual) changes in the parameters and the correlation dependence between them are considered. Radon fluctuations at various stations are generally ambiguous due to the different geological conditions at their location and the building construction. The statistical analysis of the data for the entire observation period showed a weak correlation between the radon content and climatic parameters. However, according to the monthly average values for 2017, there is a positive correlation between changes in the radon levels and the humidity in the air at all three stations during the year while, a decrease in atmospheric pressure and an increase in air temperature are accompanied by an increase in the radon concentration in the buildings of the Shamakhi and Sheki stations.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • A Volcano in the Alps'
    • Abstract: This paper analyzes the article published in Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti (SPV) and a number of foreign studies addressing the natural cataclysm that occurred in Savoy (Western Alps) in 1751 and was recognized by witnesses as a volcanic eruption. This event was observed by V. Donati, a famous natural sc-ientist of the 18th century, and described by H.B. de Saussure, a prominent researcher of the Alps. Other evidence of similar phenomena in the Alps is presented from the historical data. It is suggested that a special type of explosive eruption, not accompanied by lava pouring out but still very dangerous may occur in the Alps.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Amplitude Delta Factors and Phase Shifts of Tidal Waves for the Earth with
           the Ocean on the Territory of Russia
    • Abstract: The results of the calculation of the amplitude delta factors and phase shifts of semidiurnal and diurnal tidal waves for a rotating self-gravitating ellipsoidal inelastic Earth with the ocean are presented, and the method used to calculate them is briefly described. The maps of distribution of the considered tidal parameters are constructed for the M2 and K1 waves over the territory of Russia; the zones with extreme and generally accepted values are identified. A discussion of the revealed features of the distribution of the amplitude factors and phase shifts on the territory of the Russian Federation is presented.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Holocenic Geological and Seismic Activity of the Fault System in
           Northeastern Bulgaria by the Complex of Geological-Geomorphological and
           Archeoseismological Methods
    • Abstract: The structure of the fault system of northeastern Bulgaria and, in particular, of the Intramoesian fault, is examined in order to assess their current activity. The Intramoesian fault and its branch disjunctives have not been sufficiently studied from the geological-geomorphological and seismological points of view. The authors conduct a complex of geophysical investigations and obtain an idea of their deep structure. The system of these faults is a key element in solving the problem of assessing the seismic hazard of the region, since recent studies of this territory indicate the existence of traces of relatively young seismotectonic processes. There is also an opinion that the zone of the two Intramoesian faults disturbs the eastern part of the tectonic plate, which is subducted under the Carpathian fold system in the region of the Vrancea Mountains. The results of the field study of the southeastern Bulgarian part of these fault systems by a complex of geological-geomorphological, paleoseismological, and archeoseismological methods are presented. The zone of the Intramoesian fault is structurally segmented and the features of its intersection with the disjunctives of another structural orientation are revealed based on this. The data that determine the degree of its geological and seismic activity are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Lake Sevan (Armenia) Deposits as Indicator of Paleoclimate and Neotectonic
           Processes
    • Abstract: The history of lacustrine sedimentation in the Sevan depression is traced. The potential of using lacustrine sediments for the analysis of paleoclimate and neotectonic development of the region is shown. The long-term preservation of the lacustrine regime in the Sevan depression is mainly due to large lava flows that repeatedly create dams in the northwestern part of the depression. A coupled analysis of three dated sections of sediments near the coast of Lake Sevan (Dzknaget, Norashen, and Argichi) shows that the main factor determining the lake level fluctuations in the Holocene is the climate: the alternation of eras with varying moisture amounts. Transgression periods are characterized by the accumulation of shallow–lake and beach facies and regression periods are characterized by alluvial and subaerial technogenic (cultural layers) facies. Holocene sediments of Lake Sevan contain synchronous transgressions of the Subarctic, Atlantic and Sub-Atlantic periods and regressions of the Boreal and Subboreal periods. The transgression periods are associated with climate moistening and the development of tree–shrub vegetation in its watershed area, and the regressions correspond to epochs of a decrease in humidity and a reduction of this type of vegetation. The minimum lacustrine sedimentation rates are typical for beach facies that are remote from river mouths (0.1–0.3 mm/year), and the maximum values are typical for delta facies (0.7–1.5 mm/year). The results can be used to analyze and forecast long-term trends in the development of the natural environment in the watershed area of Lake Sevan and changes in its level.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Relationship of the V p / V s Parameter with the State of the Magmatic
           Substance and Activity of the Northern Group of Volcanoes in Kamchatka
    • Abstract: — The dynamics of the volcanic activity, magmatic feeding system, accumulation, movement, and composition of magmas, and structure of the roots of the Northern group of volcanoes (NGV) in Kamchatka are considered. The results of monitoring the field of the ratio of seismic P- and S-wave velocities, the VP/VS parameter in the region of the Klyuchevskaya volcanic group based on the data of the volcanic earthquakes registered by a network of telemetric seismic stations are presented. The parameter changes in space and time during the periods of volcanic activity development. Each segment of the volcanic structure and period of activity is characterized by the own behavior of the field of VP/VS values. In the intermediate magmatic chamber, low VP/VS values are observed beneath the Klyuchevskoi volcano at a depth of 8 to 10 km and beneath Plosky Tolbachik at a depth of 3 to 5 km, which is related to the state of the substance and temperature in these areas, and the entry of a new melt portion of magma and the fluid-gas component from the crust and the mantle. The relation of volcanic earthquakes and earthquakes in the focal zone of Kamchatka, i.e., the ratio of the subduction zone (the sinking Pacific Ocean Plate) and the feeding source of volcanoes, is considered. It is shown that the Klyuchevskoi peripheral chamber is not the only area feeding the NGV. According to the values of the VP/VS parameter, the volcanoes have different magma compositions, which is determined by the physicochemical and temperature features of the medium. In our opinion, the feeding area of volcanoes from the Northern group is a neutral layer that we have identified.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Two Stages of Thermal Evolution of the Continental Lithosphere
    • Abstract: — The evolution of the continental lithosphere, unlike the oceanic one, lasts more than 3.5 Ga. This evolution was largely determined by thermal factors, such as the removal of heat from the Earth’s surface, the interaction of the conductive layer of the lithosphere with mantle thermal convection, and the strong dependence of the viscosity of the upper layers of the Earth on temperature. The aim of this work was to simulate the long-term interaction of these factors over a period of several Ga on the basis of the whole-mantle thermal convection equations. In our evolutionary model, the nucleus of continental lithosphere with a thickness of 50 kilometers was inserted in the mantle, which then began to grow in depth due to the reorganization of convection under the continental lid with a conductive heat transfer mechanism. For the self-consistent modeling of the lithosphere thickness changes in time we set the condition of viscosity jump by three orders of magnitude with a decrease in local temperature below 1200°C. The results of successive calculations demonstrated that the initial period of growth of the continental lithosphere due to its cooling, which takes about one Ga, is subsequently replaced by its slow thinning due to the accumulation of heat under a thick heat-insulating lithospheric cover. The calculated maximum of the average thickness of the growing lithosphere, estimated by temperature and viscosity, is 162 kilometers, however, when estimated by the conventional point of intersection of the lithospheric geotherms with mantle adiabat, it is 100 kilometers more. The increase in the average mantle temperature from the heat-insulating effect is about 100 K/Ga and continues both at the stage of the lithosphere thickening and at the subsequent stage of its slow thinning. The mantle warming up due to the presence of continents is one of the competing factors in the global process of the Earth’s secular cooling. The conclusion about the presence of two stages in the evolution of the continental lithosphere clarifies existing ideas about the formation of the current state of the outer layers of the Earth.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Modern Horizontal Movements in the Zones of Strong and Moderate
           Earthquakes of the Early 21st Century in the Central Sector of the Greater
           Caucasus: Characteristics Inferred from GPS Observations and Connection
           with Neotectonics and Deep Structure of the Earth’s Crust
    • Abstract: Analysis of GPS-measurements made for the first time along the geodesic profile crossing all the main geological structures in the Ossetian region of the Greater Caucasus showed that significant jumps in the velocity of horizontal movements are observed in zones where strong earthquakes recently occurred. Interpretation of the measurement data is performed in comparison with the results of neotectonic and seismotectonic studies and data on deep structure of the region. The maximum decrease in the current transverse shortening rates is recorded in the zones of the Vladikavkaz and Kakheti–Lechkhum faults. The zone of the Vladikavkaz Fault hosted the source of the Khataldon earthquake of May 11, 2008, M = 4.5, I = 4 in the epicentral zone. Epicentral zones of earthquakes such as the 1991 Racha with М = 7.0, 1991 Dzhava with М = 6.2, Oni-I of February 6, 2006 with М = 5.0, and Oni-II of September 7, 2009 with М = 6.0 involved the upper crustal blocks within the limits of the Kakheti–Lechkhum suture zone at the base of the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus. The previously predicted significant decrease in the rate of horizontal movements after seismic activations in these areas of catastrophic seismic events of 1991, 2006, and 2009 on the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus is confirmed.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Revisiting the Origin of Seismicity in Fennoscandia
    • Abstract: — A review of the literature suggests that the seismic process in Fennoscandia (the Baltic Shield) is affected by at least four mechanisms: (1) northwest-to-southeast movement of the lithospheric plate under the Norwegian and Barents seas by spreading of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from Iceland to Spitsbergen; (2) postglacial isostatic uplift; (3) local recent neotectonic movements; and (4) gravitational bending deformations on continental contact with the sea shelf along the Norwegian coast due to strong erosion from the rising crystalline domain of the Baltic Shield. The current seismicity of Fennoscandia is relatively low. The strongest earthquake in this area over the last 1000 years was the earthquake of 1627 which had a magnitude of M ≈ 6.5 and occurred in the Kandalaksha graben in the White Sea. However, Fennoscandia, including the Kola Peninsula and eastern Karelia, has a reliable history of a significant number of Pleistocene and even Holocene paleoseismic dislocations, whose parameters allow them to be associated with strong earthquakes which occurred at that time with magnitudes of 7–8 and even higher. It is likely that these paleo-events occurred at the last stage of the glacial age (9000–10 000 years ago) during the intense postglacial isostatic uplift of the Fennoscandia domain. Their possible recurrence can be estimated as tens of thousands of years from the time interval between consecutive glaciations. One should therefore recognize that the nature of current seismicity of Fennoscandia is determined by tectonic stresses caused by both the global effect of the northwestern uplifting lithospheric plate under the Norwegian Sea (a constant source of tectonic stress accumulation) and local tectonic uplifts (the north coast of Norway) or lowerings (the Swedish coast of the Gulf of Bothnia), rather than by postglacial stresses. In addition, the increased seismicity of southwestern Norway and the adjacent North Sea shelf is most likely caused by the formation of crest-like structures under the action of tensile stresses revealed here.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Biosphere Conversion of Substances and Energy in the Formation of
           Continents
    • Abstract: — The sedimentary stratum of the oceanic crust with a thickness of up to 3 kilometers and younger than the Jurassic age deposits of organic matter (OM) sediments, is saturated with O2 absorbed and dissolved in the ocean with binding energy in the range of 5–15 kJ/mol. During subduction of the oceanic crust into the mantle with T = 170–500°C, fluids of O2, H2O, CO2 are released and are subsequently filtered to the surface of the suprasubduction roof. The fluid O2 oxidizes the matters of the sedimentary cover, the mantle and the roof with O2 energy release of 14.97 kJ/kg. This results in the formation of a magma chamber. The melts of the chamber are divided with respect to density and composition into light-acidic enriched in SiO2 and compact—basic enriched in Са, Мg, K. The discharged acidic melts form a crust of a continental type. Energy saturation of the magma chamber is increased by exogenic energy of OM pyrolysis. At depths of subduction at T = 500–1200°C, OM undergoes deep metamorphism with the release of oil and gas fluids which form a planetary system of hydrocarbons. The continental crust and the hydrocarbon system are formed in many respects due to the biosphere conversion of solar energy, oxygen, and OM to the composition of the Earth’s outer shells.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Applied Aspects of Different Frequency Bands of Seismic and Water Acoustic
           Investigations on the Shelf
    • Abstract: — This article focuses on the study of the information value of offshore technologies based on the generation of acoustic signals in water in a wide frequency band: from one-digit Hz to hundreds of KHz. The initial data for the studies were the experimental materials of marine seismic exploration, seismic acoustics and side-scan sonar, obtained in selected areas of the Russian Arctic shelf. This article analyzes applied methods based on the excitation of controlled sources.
      Authors differentiate them by dominant frequencies as follows: low frequency (digits and double-digits Hz); mid-frequency (hundreds of Hz to the first KHz); high and super high frequency (up to several hundreds of KHz), which form the basis of offshore seismic surveys, seismoacoustics and sonar detection. This article for the first time incorporates research methods which differ in practical application, but are similar in the physical sense. This indicates that there is a need for an integrated multi-disciplinary study of complex natural bodies at different levels of detail and the development of solution approaches for this problem. The authors believe that crucial scientific breakthroughs are feasible at the joint edge of different disciplines providing the exchange of methodologies and toolware applied by cross-experts. The authors also provide examples for each of three frequency intervals. The majority of experimental study results given in the article were obtained with direct involvement of the authors. They present a practical value in the context of the development of an integrated geophysical sedimentary mantle study methodology at different levels of detail aimed at the creation of an unbiased image of the structure and properties of complex shelf bodies.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Helicopter Crash on the Spitsbergen Archipelago: Infrasound and Seismic
           Signals Decryption
    • Abstract: — A Convers Avia Airline Mi-8 helicopter crashed near the Russian settlement of Barentsburg on October 26, 2017. The moment of impact was recorded by the Barentsburg seismo-infrasound array 2.5 km from the crash site. The seismo-infrasound array consists of a micro-aperture infrasound group, including three low-frequency microphones and a broadband seismic station located at the same site. A detailed analysis of the obtained records of the seismometer and the low-frequency microphones is presented here. Two types of signals determined by the helicopter fall are detected in seismic channels: a wave caused by the water impact of the helicopter and propagating through the earth, and an air wave that was also generated by the water impact but propagating through the atmosphere. The second type of wave was also recorded by low-frequency microphones from the infrasonic microgroup. The procedure for determining the source coordinate by the complex analysis of acoustic and seismic signals is described. The difference in arrival times of seismic and acoustic waves is used to determine the distance to the source, and the back azimuth is calculated using the differences in the arrival times of the acoustic wave to the spaced microphones of the infrasound microarray. The records of the acoustic signals associated with the operation of the helicopter rotor before the crash and at the moment of water impact are examined. A detailed analysis of the frequency and amplitude composition of the received seismic and infrasound signals has allowed us to not only determine the exact place and time of the helicopter crash, but also to estimate the expected trajectory of its movement before the fall, as well as to recreate some details of the accident.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Calculation of Tidal Displacements and Tilts for a Nonelastic Rotating
           Earth
    • Abstract: A technique for calculating tidal displacements and tilts for the Earth both with the ocean and without it is presented in this work. This technique mainly follows the technique described in the International Earth Rotation Service Conventions and differs from it in small corrections in formulas for the calculation of displacements for diurnal (21) and semidiurnal (22) waves, as well as in an another set of usual and load Love numbers. Values of the gamma factors for the Earth without the ocean are also presented. Our results can be used for the processing of GNSS and tilt-measuring observations. The obtained results are compared with works by other authors, and the calculation technique is implemented in the new version of the ATLANTIDA3.1_2017 program for predicting parameters of Earth tides.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Pollution of Russian Northern Seas with Heavy Metals: Comparison of
           Atmospheric Flux and River Flow
    • Abstract: Fluxes of anthropogenic heavy metals (Pb, Cd, As, Zn, Ni, Cr, and Cu) to the surface of four seas (White, Pechora, Kara, and Laptev seas) in the Russian Arctic have been estimated in this work using previously calculated concentrations of these elements in the surface atmosphere in some island and continental points of the Arctic Ocean. The obtained values were compared with the published data on the fluxes of the same components carried by waters flowing into the seas. Based on EMEP reports, we made some corrections for the data on lead and cadmium fluxes from the atmosphere to White and Pechora sea waters, taking into account pollution sources from European countries and the contribution of processes of the raising of dust and soil particles by wind to the pollution of the European part of Russia. On the whole, the contribution of atmospheric fluxes of HMs to the formation of the environment composition of northern Russian seas is significantly lower than that of the runoff of rivers flowing into the seas. The White Sea is the exception; it is exposed to numerous anthropogenic sources of HM emissions into the atmosphere. It is also reasonable to expect the atmospheric transport of HMs to make a significant contribution to these waters. One can also expect a significant contribution of the atmospheric transport of HMs to waters of distant seas (the Kara and Laptev seas), namely, in the parts of these seas where the influence of largest Siberian rivers (Ob, Yenisei, and Lena) is insignificant.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Some Characteristics of Moscow Acoustic Noise
    • Abstract: Instrumental observation data on acoustic oscillations in Moscow for 2014–2017 have been analyzed. The difference in amplitude and spectral characteristics of acoustic noise between the megalopolis and an outside area has been demonstrated. Data testifying to an increase in acoustic noise during strong atmospheric phenomena such as hurricanes and squalls are presented. Specific features of infrasound oscillations and acoustic–gravity waves have been considered separately.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
  • Seismic “Incident” of 1185 in the Northern Sea of Azov: Contemporary
           Analysis of the Earthquake in an Active Seismogenic Zone
    • Abstract: The earthquake and tsunami that occurred in 1185 in the North Azov region is considered here using the multidisciplinary approach for the first time in professional literature, based on indications from the Old Russian written source, The Tale of Igor’s Campaign. Problems such as the relationship between earthquake and tsunami, shaking intensity, geographic position, and other location conditions are addressed. The epicenter area is established to be the northeastern shore of the Sea of Azov. Information is given about earthquakes in the region for 200 years and their confinement to the sublatitudinally extending northeastern shore of the sea is found. The revealed seismogenic zone is correlated with the North-Azov fault, a large tectonic structure of the same orientation. Finally, based on archeoseismic data, which have not been previously employed in a seismic hazard assessment in the framework of making General Seismic Zoning maps, the question is raised of assessing the seismic potential of the zone.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
       
 
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