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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2982 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1420 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 230)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Anaerobe
  [SJR: 1.066]   [H-I: 51]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1075-9964 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8274
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • A comparative study of Cutibacterium (Propionibacterium) acnes clones from
           acne patients and healthy controls
    • Authors: H.B. Lomholt; C.F.P. Scholz; H. Brüggemann; H. Tettelin; M. Kilian
      Pages: 57 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 47
      Author(s): H.B. Lomholt, C.F.P. Scholz, H. Brüggemann, H. Tettelin, M. Kilian
      Background Cutibacterium (Propionibacterium) acnes is assumed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of acne. Objectives To examine if clones with distinct virulence properties are associated with acne. Methods Multiple C. acnes isolates from follicles and surface skin of patients with moderate to severe acne and healthy controls were characterized by multilocus sequence typing. To determine if CC18 isolates from acne patients differ from those of controls in the possession of virulence genes or lack of genes conducive to a harmonious coexistence the full genomes of dominating CC18 follicular clones from six patients and five controls were sequenced. Results Individuals carried one to ten clones simultaneously. The dominating C. acnes clones in follicles from acne patients were exclusively from the phylogenetic clade I-1a and all belonged to clonal complex CC18 with the exception of one patient dominated by the worldwide-disseminated and often antibiotic resistant clone ST3. The clonal composition of healthy follicles showed a more heterogeneous pattern with follicles dominated by clones representing the phylogenetic clades I-1a, I-1b, I-2 and II. Comparison of follicular CC18 gene contents, allelic versions of putative virulence genes and their promoter regions, and 54 variable-length intragenic and inter-genic homopolymeric tracts showed extensive conservation and no difference associated with the clinical origin of isolates. Conclusions The study supports that C. acnes strains from clonal complex CC18 and the often antibiotic resistant clone ST3 are associated with acne and suggests that susceptibility of the host rather than differences within these clones may determine the clinical outcome of colonization.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 47 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of the routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing results of
           clinically significant anaerobic bacteria in a Slovenian tertiary-care
           hospital in 2015
    • Authors: Samo Jeverica; Urša Kolenc; Manica Mueller-Premru; Lea Papst
      Pages: 64 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 47
      Author(s): Samo Jeverica, Urša Kolenc, Manica Mueller-Premru, Lea Papst
      The aim of our study was to determined antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 2673 clinically significant anaerobic bacteria belonging to the major genera, isolated in 2015 in a large tertiary-care hospital in Slovenia. The species identification was performed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined immediately at the isolation of the strains against: penicillin, co-amoxiclav, imipenem, clindamycin and metronidazole, using gradient diffusion methodology and EUCAST breakpoints. The most frequent anaerobes were Bacteroides fragilis group with 31% (n = 817), Gram positive anaerobic cocci (GPACs) with 22% (n = 589), Prevotella with 14% (n = 313) and Propionibacterium with 8% (n = 225). Metronidazole has retained full activity (100%) against all groups of anaerobic bacteria intrinsically susceptible to it. Co-amoxiclav and imipenem were active against most tested anaerobes with zero or low resistance rates. However, observed resistance to co-amoxiclav (8%) and imipenem (1%) is worrying especially among B. fragilis group isolates. High overall resistance (23%) to clindamycin was detected in our study and was highest among the genera Prevotella, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, GPACs and Clostridium. Routine testing of antimicrobial susceptibility of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria is feasible and provides good surveillance data.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 47 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of the genus of Caldicellulosiruptor for production of
           1,2-propanediol from methylpentoses
    • Authors: Eva Maria Ingvadottir; Sean Michael Scully; Johann Orlygsson
      Pages: 86 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 47
      Author(s): Eva Maria Ingvadottir, Sean Michael Scully, Johann Orlygsson
      Caldicellulosiruptor species degrade l-rhamnose and l-fucose to 1,2-propanediol. Six of the nine species within the genus produced 1,2-propanediol from l-rhamnose and three utilized l-fucose to produce the compound. Yields of 1,2-propanediol up to 40.5% of the theoretical yield were observed from methylpentoses catabolism.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T12:45:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.015
      Issue No: Vol. 47 (2017)
       
  • Stress hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
           effects on the anaerobic bacteria
    • Authors: Lyudmila Boyanova
      Pages: 13 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 44
      Author(s): Lyudmila Boyanova
      Microbial endocrinology is a relatively new research area that already encompasses the anaerobes. Stress hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, can affect the growth of anaerobic bacteria such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella spp., Porhyromonas spp., Tanerella forsythia and Propionibacterium acnes and can increase virulence gene expression, iron acquisition and many virulence factors of some anaerobic species such as Clostridium perfringens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Brachyspira pilosicoli. Epinephrine and norepinephrine effects can lead to a growth increase or decrease, or no effect on the growth of the anaerobes. The effects are species-specific and perhaps strain-specific. Discrepancies in the results of some studies can be due to the different methods and media used, catecholamine concentrations, measurement techniques and the low number of strains tested. Biological effects of the stress hormones on the anaerobes may range from halitosis and a worsening of periodontal diseases to tissue damages and atherosclerotic plaque ruptures. Optimizations of the research methods and a detailed assessment of the catecholamine effects in conditions mimicking those in affected organs and tissues, as well as the effects on the quorum sensing and virulence of the anaerobes and the full spectrum of biological consequences of the effects are interesting topics for further evaluation.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T19:43:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
       
  • Isolation of Clostridium perfringens type A from wild bharals (Pseudois
           nayaur) following sudden death in Tibet, China
    • Authors: Lingwei Zhu; Wei Zhou; Tiecheng Wang; Haiyang Xiang; Xue Ji; Yixiao Han; Yuan Tian; Yang Sun; Jun Liu; Xuejun Guo
      Pages: 20 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 44
      Author(s): Lingwei Zhu, Wei Zhou, Tiecheng Wang, Haiyang Xiang, Xue Ji, Yixiao Han, Yuan Tian, Yang Sun, Jun Liu, Xuejun Guo
      Dozens of wild bharals died suddenly in Tibet. Necropsy showed severe congestion and hemorrhage in multiple organs, with large numbers of Gram-positive bacilli. Strains of Clostridium perfringens type A were isolated from the different organs and the intestinal contents. The other possible pathogens were ruled out by PCR.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T19:43:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
       
  • Antimicrobial activity of stable hemiaminals against Porphyromonas
           gingivalis
    • Authors: Teresa Olczak; Michał Śmiga; Anna Kwiecień; Marcin Bielecki; Robert Wróbel; Mariusz Olczak; Zbigniew Ciunik
      Pages: 27 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 44
      Author(s): Teresa Olczak, Michał Śmiga, Anna Kwiecień, Marcin Bielecki, Robert Wróbel, Mariusz Olczak, Zbigniew Ciunik
      Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major etiologic agent and a key pathogen responsible for the development and progression of chronic periodontitis. Controlling the number of periodontal pathogens is one of the primary actions for maintaining oral health; therefore, active compounds with a capacity to exert antimicrobial activity have received considerable attention as they may represent potential new therapeutic agents for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Heterocyclic compounds possessing 1,2,4- or 1,2,3-triazoles are known for several biological activities, including antibacterial properties. Among them are stable hemiaminals which can be obtained in reaction between nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives and 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole or 4-amino-3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazole. In this study, we selected two relatively stable hemiaminals: (2,4-dinitrophenyl)(4H-1,2,4-triazole-4-ylamino)methanol (24DNTAM) and (2,4-dinitrophenyl)(4H-3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazole-4-ylamino)methanol (24DNDMTAM). Both compounds showed promising anti-P. gingivalis activity, higher against ATCC 33277 strain as compared to A7436 strain. The lowest hemiaminal concentration inhibiting visible planktonic bacterial growth under high-iron/heme conditions was ∼0.06 mg/ml, and the lowest hemiaminal concentration showing killing of bacteria was ∼0.25 mg/ml. Antimicrobial activity was also observed against P. gingivalis grown on blood agar plates. Slightly higher antimicrobial activity of both compounds was observed when P. gingivalis was grown in co-cultures with epithelial HeLa cells under low-iron/heme conditions, which mimic those occurring in vivo. 24DNTAM was more effective against P. gingivalis, but exhibited higher cytotoxic activity against epithelial and red blood cells, as compared with 24DNDMTAM. We conclude that both hemiaminals might originate a novel group of biologically important molecules.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T20:32:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
       
  • C. difficile PCR-ribotype 023 might go undetected when using ChromId
           C. difficile agar
    • Authors: E. Reigadas; L. Alcalá; M. Marín; A. Martín; E. Bouza
      Pages: 34 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 44
      Author(s): E. Reigadas, L. Alcalá, M. Marín, A. Martín, E. Bouza
      We compared the performance of the new chromogenic medium ChromID C. difficile with that of CLO agar. ChromID C. difficile agar is a sensitive medium that can accelerate the presumptive identification of C. difficile, however ribotype 023 might go undetected when using this chromogenic medium.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T20:32:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
       
  • Prevalence and molecular typing of Clostridium perfringens in captive
           wildlife in India
    • Authors: Arockiasamy Arun Prince Milton; Rajesh Kumar Agarwal; Govindarajan Bhuvana Priya; Mani Saminathan; Manivasagam Aravind; Avinash Reddy; C.K. Athira; Thadiyampuram Ramees; Anil Kumar Sharma; Ashok Kumar
      Pages: 55 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 44
      Author(s): Arockiasamy Arun Prince Milton, Rajesh Kumar Agarwal, Govindarajan Bhuvana Priya, Mani Saminathan, Manivasagam Aravind, Avinash Reddy, C.K. Athira, Thadiyampuram Ramees, Anil Kumar Sharma, Ashok Kumar
      The prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in captive wildlife in India has not been reported. The objective of the study was to determine the fecal prevalence of C. perfringens in captive wildlife in India. The prevalence in captive wild ruminants, non-ruminants, birds and caretakers were 34.1%, 36%, 22.5% and 6.7%, respectively. Toxinotyping of C. perfringens indicated that the predominant type was type A with a prevalence rate of 69.7%, followed by type A with cpb2 gene (28.3%) and type B (2.%).

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T21:42:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
       
  • Olegusella massiliensis gen. nov., sp. nov., strain KHD7T, a new bacterial
           genus isolated from the female genital tract of a patient with bacterial
           vaginosis
    • Authors: Khoudia Diop; Awa Diop; Florence Bretelle; Frédéric Cadoret; Caroline Michelle; Magali Richez; Jean-François Cocallemen; Didier Raoult; Pierre-Edouard Fournier; Florence Fenollar
      Pages: 87 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Khoudia Diop, Awa Diop, Florence Bretelle, Frédéric Cadoret, Caroline Michelle, Magali Richez, Jean-François Cocallemen, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Florence Fenollar
      Strain KHD7T, a Gram-stain-positive rod-shaped, non-sporulating, strictly anaerobic bacterium, was isolated from the vaginal swab of a woman with bacterial vaginosis. We studied its phenotypic characteristics and sequenced its complete genome. The major fatty acids were C16:0 (44%), C18:2n6 (22%), and C18:1n9 (14%). The 1,806,744 bp long genome exhibited 49.24% G+C content; 1549 protein-coding and 51 RNA genes. Strain KHD7T exhibited a 93.5% 16S rRNA similarity with Olsenella uli, the phylogenetically closest species in the family Coriobacteriaceae. Therefore, strain KHD7T is sufficiently distinct to represent a new genus, for which we propose the name Olegusella massiliensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is KHD7T.

      PubDate: 2017-02-23T16:39:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 44 (2017)
       
  • Molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance profile of
           Clostridium perfringens type A isolates from humans, animals, fish and
           their environment
    • Authors: Jay Prakash Yadav; Suresh Chandra Das; Pankaj Dhaka; Deepthi Vijay; Manesh Kumar; Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay; Goutam Chowdhury; Pranav Chauhan; Rahul Singh; Kuldeep Dhama; Satya Veer Singh Malik; Ashok Kumar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Jay Prakash Yadav, Suresh Chandra Das, Pankaj Dhaka, Deepthi Vijay, Manesh Kumar, Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay, Goutam Chowdhury, Pranav Chauhan, Rahul Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Satya Veer Singh Malik, Ashok Kumar
      The study was aimed to characterize, and determine antibiogram of C. perfringens type A isolated from the feces of human and animal diarrhoeal cases, as well as healthy animals, meat of pigs and goats, gills and intestine of fish and samples from fish pond. A total of 460 samples, including human diarrhoeal cases (n = 130); diarrhoeal cases of pig (n = 52) and goat (n = 50); fecal samples from healthy pig (n = 50) and goat (n = 50); meat samples viz. pork meat (n = 52); goat meat (n = 50) and fish including their environmental sources (n = 26) were used for isolation and identification of C. perfringens type A. All the biochemically confirmed isolates were positive for species-specific 16S rRNA and cpa genes by PCR assays. Toxinotyping of C. perfringens type A isolates showed that overall prevalence of C. perfringens type A with only cpa + gene was 43.2%; with cpa + and cpb2 + genes was 45.4%; with cpa + and cpe + genes was 4.9%; however, with cpa + , cpb2 + and cpe + genes was 6.6%. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that 83.7% of isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T12:57:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.009
       
  • Mixed species biofilms of Fusobacterium necrophorum and Porphyromonas
           levii impair the oxidative response of bovine neutrophils in vitro
    • Authors: Joey S. Lockhart; Andre G. Buret; Howard Ceri; Douglas G. Storey; Stefanie J. Anderson; Douglas W. Morck
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Joey S. Lockhart, Andre G. Buret, Howard Ceri, Douglas G. Storey, Stefanie J. Anderson, Douglas W. Morck
      Biofilms composed of anaerobic bacteria can result in persistent infections and chronic inflammation. Host immune cells have difficulties clearing biofilm-related infections and this can result in tissue damage. Neutrophils are a vital component of the innate immune system and help clear biofilms. The comparative neutrophilic response to biofilms versus planktonic bacteria remains incompletely understood, particularly in the context of mixed infections. The objective of this study was to generate mixed species anaerobic bacterial biofilms composed of two opportunistic pathogens, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Porphyromonas levii, and evaluate neutrophil responses to extracellular fractions from both biofilms and planktonic cell co-cultures of the same bacteria. Purified bovine neutrophils exposed to culture supernatants from mixed species planktonic bacteria showed elevated oxidative activity compared to neutrophils exposed to biofilms composed of the same bacteria. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide plays a significant role in the stimulation of neutrophils; biofilms produced substantially more lipopolysaccharide than planktonic bacteria under these experimental conditions. Removal of lipopolysaccharide significantly reduced neutrophil oxidative response to culture supernatants of planktonic bacteria. Oxidative responses to LPS-removed biofilm supernatants and LPS-removed planktonic cell supernatants were similar. The limited neutrophil response to biofilm bacteria observed in this study supports the reduced ability of the innate immune system to eradicate biofilm-associated infections. Lipopolysaccharide is likely important in neutrophil response; however, the presence of other extracellular, immune modifying molecules in the bacterial media also appears to be important in altering neutrophil function.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T12:57:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.008
       
  • Clostridium perfringens - A bacterial pathogen gaining recognition in
           necrotizing pancreatitis
    • Authors: Rakhi Biswas; Deepika K; Sujatha Sistla; Sarath Chandra Sistla; Anandhi Amaranathan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Rakhi Biswas, Deepika K, Sujatha Sistla, Sarath Chandra Sistla, Anandhi Amaranathan
      We report an interesting case of necrotizing pancreatitis due to Clostridium perfringens in an elderly man who came to the hospital with complaints of severe abdominal pain. The infection further worsened with the dissemination to other internal organs. The patient did not show any improvement despite intensive care and treatment. This emphasizies the fact that early diagnosis and appropriate treatment would reduce the morbidity associated with necrotizing pancreatitis.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T12:57:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.006
       
  • Susceptibility of bacterial vaginosis (BV)-associated bacteria to
           secnidazole compared to metronidazole, tinidazole and clindamycin
    • Authors: Melinda A.B. Petrina; Lisa A. Cosentino; Lorna K. Rabe; Sharon L. Hillier
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Melinda A.B. Petrina, Lisa A. Cosentino, Lorna K. Rabe, Sharon L. Hillier
      Secnidazole, a 5-nitroimidazole with a longer half-life, is structurally related to metronidazole and tinidazole. For treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV), secnidazole is a suitable single-dose oral drug having a longer serum half-life than metronidazole. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of vaginal isolates of facultative and anaerobic bacteria to secnidazole, metronidazole, tinidazole and clindamycin. A total of 605 unique BV-related bacteria and 108 isolates of lactobacilli recovered from the human vagina of US women during the years 2009–2015 were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by the agar dilution CLSI reference method to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The MIC90 (μg/mL) for secnidazole was similar to metronidazole and tinidazole for Anaerococcus tetradius (secnidazole: MIC90 2; metronidazole: MIC90 2; tinidazole: MIC90 4), Atopobium vaginae (32; >128; 128), Bacteroides species (2; 2; 2), Finegoldia magna (2; 2; 4), Gardnerella vaginalis (128; 64; 32), Mageeibacillus indolicus (2; 2; 2), Megasphaera-like bacteria (0.5; 0.25; 0.5), Mobiluncus curtisii (128; >128; >128) and Mobiluncus mulieris (>128; >128; >128), Peptoniphilus lacrimalis (4; 4; 4) and Peptoniphilus harei (2; 2; 4), Porphyromonas species (0.25; 0.5; 0.25), Prevotella bivia (8; 8; 8), Prevotella amnii (2; 1; 2) and Prevotella timonensis (2; 2; 2). In this evaluation, 14 (40%) of 35 P. bivia, 5 (14%) of 35 P. amnii and 21 (58%) of 36 P. timonensis isolates were resistant to clindamycin with MIC values of >128 μg/mL. Secnidazole, like metronidazole, was superior to clindamycin for Prevotella spp., Bacteroides spp., Peptoniphilus spp., Anaerococcus tetradius and Finegoldia magna. Clindamycin had greater activity against Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Mobiluncus spp. compared to the nitroimidazoles. All 27 Lactobacillus crispatus, 26 (96%) of 27 L. jensenii, 5 (19%) of 27 L. gasseri and 18 (67%) of 27 L. iners isolates were susceptible to clindamycin (MIC ≤2) while the MIC90 for all lactobacilli tested was >128 μg/mL for secnidazole, metronidazole and tinidazole. Secnidazole has similar in vitro activity against the range of microorganisms associated with BV compared to metronidazole or tinidazole. Further, secnidazole spares lactobacilli, a characteristic which is desirable in drugs used to treat bacterial vaginosis.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T12:57:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.005
       
  • A bloodstream infection by Ruminococcus gnavus in a patient with a gall
           bladder perforation
    • Authors: Young Jin Kim; Hee Yoon Kang; Yujin Han; Mi Suk Lee; Hee Joo Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Young Jin Kim, Hee Yoon Kang, Yujin Han, Mi Suk Lee, Hee Joo Lee
      Ruminococcus gnavus is frequently found among human gut microbiome. However, human bloodstream infections by R. gnavus have been reported only three times. Clinical details were lacking for one case; the other two cases with concurrent bacteremia in patients with diverticulitis. We report a case of R. gnavus bloodstream infection in a patient with a gall bladder perforation suggesting its association with damage to the gastrointestinal tract. R. gnavus was misidentified using biochemical test but 16S rRNA sequencing and Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were useful for correct identification. With the advancement of identification method in clinical laboratory, more frequent identification of R. gnavus from clinical specimens is expected.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T12:57:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.007
       
  • Molecular typing of Clostridium difficile isolates cultured from patient
           stool samples and gastroenterological medical devices in a single Iranian
           hospital
    • Authors: Masoumeh Azimirad; Marcela Krutova; Otakar Nyc; Zahra Hasani; Leili Afrisham; Masoud Alebouyeh; Mohammad Reza Zali
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Masoumeh Azimirad, Marcela Krutova, Otakar Nyc, Zahra Hasani, Leili Afrisham, Masoud Alebouyeh, Mohammad Reza Zali
      This study aimed to characterize Clostridium difficile isolates cultured from stool samples of patients with C. difficile infection (CDI) and swabs from a medical environment in a gastroenterology centre in Tehran, Iran. A total of 158 samples (105 stool samples from hospitalized patients and 53 swabs from medical devices and the environment) were collected from January 2011 to August 2011 and investigated for the presence of C. difficile by direct anaerobic culture on a selective media for C. difficile. C. difficile isolates were further characterized by capillary electrophoresis (CE) ribotyping and toxin gene multiplex PCR. Of 158 samples, C. difficile was cultured in 19 of 105 stool samples (18%) and in 4 of 53 swabs (7.5%). C. difficile PCR ribotype (RT) 126 was the most common RT in the study (21.7%). Further RTs were: 001, 003, 014, 017, 029, 039, 081, 103 and 150. RTs 126, 001, 150 were cultured from both the stool samples and swabs of medical devices and the hospital environment which suggest a possible route of transmission.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T12:54:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.004
       
  • Bio-methane from an-aerobic digestion using activated carbon adsorption
    • Authors: Muhammad Farooq; Alexandra H. Bell; M.N. Almustapha; John M. Andresen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Muhammad Farooq, Alexandra H. Bell, M.N. Almustapha, John M. Andresen
      There is an increasing global demand for carbon-neutral bio-methane from an-aerobic digestion (AD) to be injected into national gas grids. Bio-gas, a methane -rich energy gas, is produced by microbial decomposition of organic matter through an-aerobic conditions where the presence of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide affects its performance. Although the microbiological process in the AD can be tailored to enhance the bio-gas composition, physical treatment is needed to convert the bio-gas into bio-methane. Water washing is the most common method for upgrading bio-gas for bio-methane production, but its large use of water is challenging towards industrial scale-up. Hence, the present study focuses on scale-up comparison of water washing with activated-carbon adsorption using HYSYS and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. The models show that for plants processing less than 500 m3/h water scrubbing was cost effective compared with activated carbon. However, against current fossil natural-gas cost of about 1 p/kWh in the UK both relied heavily on governmental subsidies to become economically feasible. For plants operating at 1000 m3/hr, the treatment costs were reduced to below 1.5 p/kWh for water scrubbing and 0.9 p/kWh for activated carbon where the main benefits of activated carbon were lower capital and operating costs and virtually no water losses. It is envisioned that this method can significantly aid the production of sustainable bio-methane.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T12:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.003
       
  • Introduction to the special issue highlighting Anaerobe 2016
    • Authors: Laura M. Cox; Casey M. Theriot; Raina N. Fichorova
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Laura Cox, Raina N. Fichorova, Casey M. Theriot


      PubDate: 2017-05-07T12:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.002
       
  • Tolerance mechanisms of human-residential bifidobacteria against lysozyme
    • Authors: Takuma Sakurai; Nanami Hashikura; Junichi Minami; Akio Yamada; Toshitaka Odamaki; Jin-zhong Xiao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Takuma Sakurai, Nanami Hashikura, Junichi Minami, Akio Yamada, Toshitaka Odamaki, Jin-zhong Xiao
      We previously reported that lysozyme present in breast milk is a selection factor for bifidobacterial colonization in infant human intestines. This study is aimed at examining their underlying mechanisms. Human-residential bifidobacteria (HRB) generally exhibited higher tolerance than non-HRB to lysozymes, except B. bifidum subspecies. To assess the involvement of enzymatic activity of lysozyme, peptidoglycan (PG) was isolated and the degree of O-acetylation (O-Ac) in 19 strains, including both HRB and non-HRB, was determined. Variety in the degree of O-Ac was observed among each of the Bifidobacterium species; however, all purified PGs were found to be tolerant to lysozyme, independent of their O-Ac degree. In addition, De-O-Ac of PGs affected the sensitivity to lysozyme of only B. longum-derived PG. To examine the non-enzymatic antibacterial activity of lysozyme on bifidobacteria, lysozyme was heat-denatured. The HRB and non-HRB strains exhibited similar patterns of susceptibility to intact lysozyme as they did to heat-denatured lysozyme. In addition, strains of B. bifidum (30 strains), which showed various tolerance of lysozyme, also exhibited similar patterns of susceptibility to intact lysozyme as they did to heat-denatured lysozyme. These results suggest that bifidobacteria are resistant to the peptidoglycan-degrading property of lysozyme, and the tolerance to lysozyme among some HRB strains is due to resistance to the non-enzymatic antibacterial activity of lysozyme.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T12:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.05.001
       
  • A combination of the probiotic and prebiotic product can prevent the
           germination of Clostridium difficile spores and infection
    • Authors: M. Rätsep; S. Kõljalg; E. Sepp; I. Smidt; K. Truusalu; E. Songisepp; J. Stsepetova; P. Naaber; R.H. Mikelsaar; M. Mikelsaar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): M. Rätsep, S. Kõljalg, E. Sepp, I. Smidt, K. Truusalu, E. Songisepp, J. Stsepetova, P. Naaber, R.H. Mikelsaar, M. Mikelsaar
      Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most prevalent healthcare associated infections in hospitals and nursing homes. Different approaches are used for prevention of CDI. Absence of intestinal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria has been associated with C. difficile colonization in hospitalized patients. Our aim was to test a) the susceptibility of C. difficile strains of different origin and the intestinal probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Inducia (DSM 21379) to various antimicrobial preparations incl. metronidazole, vancomycin; b) the susceptibility of C. difficile strains to antagonistic effects of the probiotic L. plantarum Inducia, prebiotic xylitol (Xyl) and their combination as a synbiotic (Syn) product; c) the suppression of germination of C. difficile spores in vitro and in vivo in animal model of C. difficile infection with Inducia, Xyl and Syn treatment. The VPI strain 10463 (ATCC 43255), epidemic strain (M 13042) and clinical isolates (n = 12) of C. difficile from Norway and Estonia were susceptible and contrarily L. plantarum Inducia resistant to vancomycin, metronidazole and ciprofloxacin. The intact cells of Inducia, natural and neutralized cell free supernatant inhibited in vitro the growth of tested C. difficile reference strain VPI and Estonian and Norwegian clinical isolates of C. difficile after co-cultivation. This effect against C. difficile sustained in liquid media under ampicillin (0.75 μg/ml) and Xyl (5%) application. Further, incubation of Inducia in the media with 5% Xyl fully stopped germination of spores of C. difficile VPI strain after 48 h. In infection model the 48 hamsters were administered ampicillin (30 mg/kg) and 10–30 spores of C. difficile VPI strain. They also received five days before and after the challenge a pretreatment with a synbiotic (single daily dose of L. plantarum Inducia 1 ml of 1010 CFU/ml and 20% xylitol in 1 ml by orogastric gavage). The survival rate of hamsters was increased to 78% compared to 13% (p = 0.003) survival rate of specimens who received no treatment. When administered Xyl the survival rate of hamsters reached 56% vs.13% (p = 0.06). In both Syn (6/9, p = 0.003) and Xyl (3/9, p = 0.042) groups the number of specimens not colonized with C. difficile significantly increased. In conclusion, the combination of xylitol with L. plantarum Inducia suppresses the germination of spores and outgrowth into vegetative toxin producing cells of C. difficile and reduces the colonization of gut with the pathogen. Putative therapeutical approach includes usage of the synbiotic during antimicrobial therapy for prevention of CDI and its potential to reduce recurrences of CDI.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T12:45:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.019
       
  • Characteristics of on-demand biogas production by using sugar beet silage
    • Authors: Sharif Ahmed; Marian Kazda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Sharif Ahmed, Marian Kazda
      On-demand electricity generation can be achieved by just-in-time biogas production instantly utilized in co-generation units. For this goal, easily degradable substrates like sugar beet silage have a high potential. Potential for on-demand biogas production from co-digestion of sugar beet silage (SS) with grass silage (GS) was evaluated in two experiments at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 1.5 kgVS m−3 day−1 and 2.5 kgVS m−3 day−1, respectively. Each experiment was fed with intermittent feeding system at 8hrs interval at the same feedstock ratios (volatile solids based) of GS:SS-1:0, 3:1 and 1:3, respectively. Modelling by Gaussian equation was performed in order to understand the effects of SS on biogas production. Addition of sugar beet silage led to maximum biogas production within a short time, but it differed significantly depending on feedstock ratios and OLRs, respectively. At OLR 1.5 kgVS m−3 day−1, during mono fermentation of grass silage maximum biogas production rate of 0.27 lN hr−1 was reached at 2.74 h. Production rate did not change at feedstock ratio of GS:SS-3:1 but increased to 0.64 lN hr−1 at GS:SS-1:3 within a shorter time span (1.58 h). On the contrary, at OLR of 2.5 kgVS m−3 day−1 time span between feedstock input and maximum biogas production did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) among the reactors. Biogas production rates were 0.60 lN hr−1 within 2.27 h and 0.82 lN hr−1 within 2.30 h at GS:SS-3:1 and GS:SS-1:3, respectively. Surprisingly, there was no time lag between maximum biogas and methane production rates, irrespectively of OLR. This implies that once the whole microbial community is adapted to intermittent substrate input, the metabolic products are instantly utilized through the all steps of anaerobic substrate degradation. Applying this finding opens new perspectives for on-demand biogas energy production.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T12:45:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.016
       
  • Vaginal ecosystem modeling of growth patterns of anaerobic bacteria in
           microaerophilic conditions
    • Authors: Audrie A. Medina-Colorado; Kathleen L. Vincent; Aaron L. Miller; Carrie A. Maxwell; Lauren N. Dawson; Trevelyn Olive; Elena V. Kozlova; Marc M. Baum; Richard B. Pyles
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Audrie A. Medina-Colorado, Kathleen L. Vincent, Aaron L. Miller, Carrie A. Maxwell, Lauren N. Dawson, Trevelyn Olive, Elena V. Kozlova, Marc M. Baum, Richard B. Pyles
      The human vagina constitutes a complex ecosystem created through relationships established between host mucosa and bacterial communities. In this ecosystem, classically defined strict bacterial aerobes and anaerobes thrive as communities in the microaerophilic environment. Levels of CO2 and O2 present in the vaginal lumen are impacted by both the ecosystem's physiology and the behavior and health of the human host. Study of such complex relationships requires controlled and reproducible causational approaches that are not possible in the human host that, until recently, was the only place these intact bacterial communities thrived. To address this need we have utilized our ex vivo human vaginal mucosa culture system to support controlled, reproducible colonization by vaginal microbiomes (VMB) collected from healthy and symptomatic donors. Parallel vaginal epithelial cells (VEC)-VMB co-cultures were exposed to increasingly microaerophilic conditions to study the impact of CO2 concentrations upon the anaerobic bacteria associated with dysbiosis and inflammation. Our data suggest that in the context of intact VMBs, increased CO2 concentrations favored specific lactobacilli species defined as aerobes or microaerophiles when grown as monocultures. The observed community changes also led to shifts in host VEC phenotypes with significant changes in the host transcriptome, including altered expression of select molecular transporter genes. These findings support the need for additional study of the environmental changes associated with behavior and health upon the symbiotic and adversarial relationships that are formed in microbial communities present in the human vaginal ecosystem.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T12:45:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.014
       
  • Tropism and virulence of Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes
           involved in implant-associated infection
    • Authors: Guillaume Ghislain Aubin; Jean-Philippe Lavigne; Yohan Foucher; Sarah Dellière; Didier Lepelletier; François Gouin; Stéphane Corvec
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Guillaume Ghislain Aubin, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Yohan Foucher, Sarah Dellière, Didier Lepelletier, François Gouin, Stéphane Corvec
      The recognition of the pathogenicity of Cutibacterium acnes in implant-associated infection is not always obvious. In this paper, we aimed to distinguish pathogenic and non-pathogenic C. acnes isolates. To reach this goal, we investigated the clonal complex (CC) of a large collection of C. acnes clinical isolates through Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), we established a Caenorhabditis elegans model to assess C. acnes virulence and we investigated the presence of virulence factors in our collection. Ours results showed that CC36 and CC53 C. acnes isolates were more frequently observed in prosthetic joint infections (PJI) than CC18 and CC28 C. acnes isolates (p = 0.021). The C. elegans model developed here showed two distinct virulence groups of C. acnes (p < 0.05). These groups were not correlated to CC or clinical origin. Whole genome sequencing allowed us to identify a putative gene linked to low virulent strains. In conclusion, MLST remains a good method to screen pathogenic C. acnes isolates according to their clinical context but mechanisms of C. acnes virulence need to be assess thought transcriptomic analysis to investigate regulatory process.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.009
       
  • Are anaerobes a major, underappreciated cause of necrotizing
           infections?
    • Authors: Hannah Zhao-Fleming; Sharmila Dissanaike; Kendra Rumbaugh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Hannah Zhao-Fleming, Sharmila Dissanaike, Kendra Rumbaugh
      Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are the most severe and rapidly progressing class of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). They are a surgical emergency and are associated with high mortality and morbidity. While NSTIs remain relatively rare, their incidence is steadily rising. Earlier diagnosis and more focused antibiotic treatments can potentially improve patient outcome, but both of these solutions require a more accurate understanding of the microbial component of these infections. While molecular detection methods, namely 16S sequencing, have not been traditionally used to identify the causative microorganisms in NSTIs, they are becoming more commonplace for other types of SSTIs, especially for chronic wound infections. In chronic wound infections, 16S sequencing has revealed a higher than previously detected prevalence of obligate anaerobes. Therefore, it is possible that 16S sequencing may also detect a higher than expected proportion of obligate anaerobes in NSTIs. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge concerning the diagnosis and treatment of NSTIs and present reasons why the role of anaerobes may be significantly underestimated.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.012
       
  • Distinct roles for dietary lipids and Porphyromonas gingivalis infection
           on atherosclerosis progression and the gut microbiota
    • Authors: Carolyn D. Kramer; Alexandra M. Simas; Xianbao He; Robin R. Ingalls; Ellen O. Weinberg; Caroline Attardo Genco
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Carolyn D. Kramer, Alexandra M. Simas, Xianbao He, Robin R. Ingalls, Ellen O. Weinberg, Caroline Attardo Genco
      Mounting evidence in humans supports an etiological role for the microbiota in inflammatory atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease characterized by accumulation of inflammatory cells and lipids in vascular tissue. While retention of lipoprotein into the sub-endothelial vascular layer is believed to be the initiating stimulus leading to the development of atherosclerosis, activation of multiple pathways related to vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction sustain the process by stimulating recruitment of leukocytes and immune cells into the sub-endothelial layer. The Gram-negative oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has been associated with the development and acceleration of atherosclerosis in humans and these observations have been validated in animal models. It has been proposed that common mechanisms of immune signaling link stimulation by lipids and pathogens to vascular inflammation. Despite the common outcome of P. gingivalis and lipid feeding on atherosclerosis progression, we established that these pro-atherogenic stimuli induced distinct gene signatures in the ApoE−/- mouse model of atherosclerosis. In this study, we further defined the distinct roles of dietary lipids and P. gingivalis infection on atherosclerosis progression and the gut microbiota. We demonstrate that diet-induced lipid lowering resulted in less atherosclerotic plaque in ApoE−/- mice compared to ApoE−/- mice continuously fed a Western diet. However, the effect of diet-induced lipid lowering on plaque accumulation was blunted by P. gingivalis infection. Using principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering, we demonstrate that dietary intervention as well as P. gingivalis infection result in distinct bacterial communities in fecal and cecal samples of ApoE−/- mice as compared to ApoE−/- mice continuously fed either a Western diet or a normal chow diet. Collectively, we identified distinct microbiota changes accompanying atherosclerotic plaque, suggesting a future avenue for investigation on the impact of the gut microbiota, diet, and P. gingivalis infection on atherosclerosis.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.011
       
  • Antimicrobial resistance in the Bacteroides fragilis group in faecal
           samples from patients receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics
    • Authors: Kia Cirkeline Møller Hansen; Simon A.F. Schwensen; Daniel Pilsgaard Henriksen; Ulrik Stenz Justesen; Thomas Vognbjerg Sydenham
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Kia Cirkeline Møller Hansen, Simon A.F. Schwensen, Daniel Pilsgaard Henriksen, Ulrik Stenz Justesen, Thomas Vognbjerg Sydenham
      Members of the Bacteroides fragilis group are opportunistic pathogens and cause severe infections including bacteraemia. As increased levels of antimicrobial resistance in B. fragilis group bacteria can be detected years after administration of specific antibiotics, monitoring antimicrobial susceptibility in the gut microbiota could be important. The objectives of this study were to 1) investigate the distribution of species and the occurrence of reduced antimicrobial susceptibility in the B. fragilis group from patients treated at departments with a high level of antibiotic use, 2) to determine the prevalence of the carbapenem resistance gene cfiA in B. fragilis in this patient group, and 3) to determine the association between previous antibiotic treatment and reduced susceptibility to clindamycin, meropenem, metronidazole, and piperacillin-tazobactam. Consecutive faecal samples (n = 197) were collected from patients at the departments of haematology, oncology, and infectious diseases at Odense University Hospital, Denmark. Three colonies from each sample were identified by Matrix Assisted Lazer Desorption Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and isolates were screened for resistance to clindamycin, meropenem, metronidazole, and piperacillin-tazobactam. B. fragilis isolates were tested for the cfiA metallo-beta-lactamase gene. Fisher's Exact test was used to test for correlation between antimicrobial exposure and reduced susceptibility. A total of 359 isolates were tested for reduced susceptibility. Of these 28%, 5%, <1%, and 11% were intermediate susceptible or resistant to clindamycin, meropenem, metronidazole, and piperacillin-tazobactam respectively. Three metronidazole resistant Bacteroides spp. were isolated. The proportion of B. fragilis belonging to division II (cfiA+) was 5.3%. Previous exposure to meropenem was associated with reduced susceptibility to meropenem (p= 0.001). In conclusion, antimicrobial resistance is prevalent and the distribution of species appears to be affected in the B. fragilis group from patients receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics, with meropenem exposure being associated with meropenem resistance.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.013
       
  • Eggerthella lenta bacteremia in solid tumor cancer patients: Pathogen or
           witness of frailty?
    • Authors: Paul-Louis Woerther; Sami Antoun; Elisabeth Chachaty; Mansouria Merad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Paul-Louis Woerther, Sami Antoun, Elisabeth Chachaty, Mansouria Merad
      Eggerthella lenta is increasingly found in patients with severe comorbidities. Because oncologic patients are exposed to emerging pathogens, we aimed to describe the factors associated with E. lenta bacteremia in this immunosuppressed population. Oncology patients with blood cultures positive for E. lenta were retrospectively recorded from 2009 to 2015. Socio-demographic and medical/biological data as well as potential risk factors and mortality were recorded and analyzed. Twenty-three patients were included. Gastro intestinal (GI) and gynecological cancers were reported in 12/23 (52%) and 7/23 cases (30%), respectively. Eleven/23 patients (48%) had metastatics lesions and 5/23 (22%) had peritoneal carcinomatosis. No associated tissue infection was found in 14/23 cases (61%). Blood cultures yielded at least one other species in addition to E. lenta in 10/23 cases (43%). Mortality associated with E. lenta bacteremia was 22% (5/23). E. lenta bacteremia often occurred in patients with advanced cancer disease without documented infection. In most of the cases, intestinal obstruction and/or isolated fever were the only recorded symptoms. In these cases, the damages of intestinal barrier induced by the cancer and/or its specific treatments may be the cause of bacterial translocation.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.010
       
  • Ribotypes associated with Clostridium difficile outbreaks in Brazil
           display distinct surface protein profiles
    • Authors: Thais Gonçalves Ferreira; Hercules Moura; John R. Barr; Regina M.C. Pilotto Domingues; Eliane de Oliveira Ferreira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Thais Gonçalves Ferreira, Hercules Moura, John R. Barr, Regina M.C. Pilotto Domingues, Eliane de Oliveira Ferreira
      Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming anaerobic intestinal pathogen that causes Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). C. difficile is the leading cause of toxin-mediated nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The pathogenesis of CDI is attributed to two major virulence factors, TcdA and TcdB toxins, that cause the symptomatic infection. C. difficile also expresses a number of key proteins, including cell wall proteins (CWPs). S-layer proteins (SLPs) are CWPs that form a paracrystalline surface array that coats the surface of the bacterium. SLPs have a role in C. difficile binding to the gastrointestinal tract, but their importance in virulence need to be better elucidated. Here, we describe bottom-up proteomics analysis of surface-enriched proteins fractions obtained through glycine extraction of five C. difficile clinical isolates from Brazil using gel-based and gel-free approaches. We were able to identify approximately 250 proteins for each strain, among them SlpA, Cwp2, Cwp6, CwpV and Cwp84. Identified CWPs presented different amino acid coverage, which might suggest differences in post-translational modifications. Proteomic analysis of SLPs from ribotype 133, agent of C. difficile outbreaks in Brazil, revealed unique proteins and provided additional information towards in depth characterization of the strains causing CDI in Brazil.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.001
       
  • Performance of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of oral Prevotella species
    • Authors: Mervi Gürsoy; Inka Harju; Jaakko Matomäki; Anne Bryk; Eija Könönen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Mervi Gürsoy, Inka Harju, Jaakko Matomäki, Anne Bryk, Eija Könönen
      During the past decade, the clinically relevant genus Prevotella has expanded considerably. Prevotella species can be isolated from nearly all types of oral infections but also from various non-oral infections. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been introduced in clinical microbiology laboratories as a convenient method for identifying bacterial isolates from clinical specimens. Here we tested the diagnostic accuracy of a total of 123 oral Prevotella isolates, selected based on their biochemical profile, by Bruker MALDI-TOF MS. Partial 16S rRNA sequencing was used as a reference method. The performance of MALDI-TOF MS to identify the isolates to the genus level was excellent with 100.0% accuracy, while a good identification rate of 88.6% was achieved to the species level with a log score of ≥2.0. The isolates representing P. aurantiaca and P. jejuni, which are currently missing from the MALDI BioTyper database, were identified correctly to the genus level. Of the 123 isolates, one P. pallens isolate (0.8%) was identified with a score variation of 1.7–1.999. Overall, biochemical testing produced a high proportion (70.7%) of incorrect identifications within different species. MALDI-TOF MS offers a reliable and rapid method for the identification of Prevotella species included in the database.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T12:31:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.008
       
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacteroides fragilis group organisms in
           Hong Kong by the tentative EUCAST disc diffusion method
    • Authors: Pak-Leung Ho; Chong-Yee Yau; Lok-Yan Ho; Eileen Ling-Yi Lai; Melissa Chun-Jiao Liu; Cindy Wing-Sze Tse; Kin-Hung Chow
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Pak-Leung Ho, Chong-Yee Yau, Lok-Yan Ho, Eileen Ling-Yi Lai, Melissa Chun-Jiao Liu, Cindy Wing-Sze Tse, Kin-Hung Chow
      This study used a recently developed EUCAST disc diffusion method to measure the susceptibility of 741 B. fragilis group isolates to six antibiotics. Isolates nonsusceptible to imipenem and metronidazole by the disc method were further investigated by E-test. Species identification was obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), PCR assays and 16S rRNA sequencing. The most common species were B. fragilis (n = 424, including 81 division II and 343 division I isolates), B. thetaiotaomicron (n = 111), B. ovatus (n = 53) and B. vulgatus (n = 46). Overall, metronidazole following by imipenem and amoxicillin-clavulanate are the most active agents with over 90% of all the isolates being susceptible at the tentative disc breakpoints. Susceptibility rates for moxifloxacin (69.5%), piperacillin-tazobactam (58.2%) and clindamycin (37.2%) were much lower. Metronidazole is the only agent active against >90% of B. fragilis, non-fragilis Bacteroides and Parabacteroides isolates. With the exception of B. fragilis division II, imipenem was active against 88.0%–98.3% of isolates of the other species. Susceptibility rates for clindamycin (14.4%–54.3%) and moxifloxacin (33.3%–80.6%) were low across all species and many isolates had no inhibition zone around the discs. E-test testing confirmed 8.2% (61/741) and 1.6% (12/741) isolates as nonsusceptible to imipenem and metronidazole, respectively with B. fragilis and B. thetaoiotaomicron accounting for a large share of the observed resistance to both agents. Two imipenem-resistant and one metronidazole-resistant B. dorei were misidentified as B. vulgatus by MALDI-TOF MS. These data highlights the importance anaerobic susceptibility testing in clinical laboratories to guide therapy.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:09:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.005
       
  • Bifidobacterium longum vertebrodiscitis in a patient with cirrhosis and
           prostate cancer
    • Authors: Heather L. Wilson; Chong Wei Ong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Heather L. Wilson, Chong Wei Ong
      Bifidobacterium species are anaerobic, Gram-positive bacilli that colonize the human intestinal tract and oral cavity. They are an infrequent cause of invasive human infection. We report a case of Bifidobacterium longum lumbar vertebrodiscitis in a 71 year old man who was subsequently diagnosed with liver cirrhosis and prostate cancer. The clinical outcome was good following antibiotic treatment with penicillin and clindamycin. The laboratory identification of Bifidobacterium species and risk factors for invasive infection are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T11:45:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.004
       
  • Rumen microbial and fermentation characteristics are affected differently
           by acarbose addition during two nutritional types of simulated severe
           subacute ruminal acidosis in vitro
    • Authors: Yue Wang; Junhua Liu; Yuyang Yin; Weiyun Zhu; Shengyong Mao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Yue Wang, Junhua Liu, Yuyang Yin, Weiyun Zhu, Shengyong Mao
      Little information is available on whether or not the effect of an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor on the prevention of ruminal acidosis is influenced by the type of diet during ruminant feeding. This study was conducted to explore the effect of acarbose addition on the prevention of severe subacute ruminal acidosis induced by either cracked wheat or beet pulp in vitro. Cracked wheat and beet pulp were fermented in vitro by rumen microorganisms obtained from three dairy cows. When cracked wheat was used as the substrate and fermented for 24 h, compared with the control, acarbose addition decreased the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, total volatile fatty acids, and lactate (P < 0.05), while linearly increasing the ratio of acetate to propionate, pH value and, the ammonia-nitrogen level (P < 0.05). Applying Illumina MiSeq sequencing of a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as well as the ACE (abundance-based coverage estimator) value, Chao 1 value, and Shannon index increased significantly (P < 0.05), while there was a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the relative abundance of Tenericutes as well as Proteobacteria after adding acarbose compared to the control. On the other hand, when beet pulp was used as the substrate, acarbose addition had no significant effects (P > 0.05) on the fermentation parameters and the Chao 1 value, the Shannon index, and the proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. In general, these findings indicate that acarbose had more effects on ruminal fermentation when wheat was used as the substrate, whereas it exhibited little effect on ruminal fermentation when beet pulp was used as the substrate.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T11:45:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.003
       
  • Endocarditis caused by anaerobic bacteria
    • Authors: M. Kestler; P. Muñoz; M. Marín; M.A. Goenaga; P. Idígoras Viedma; A. de Alarcón; J.A. Lepe; D. Sousa Regueiro; J.M. Bravo-Ferrer; M. Pajarón; C. Costas; M.V. García-López; C. Hidalgo-Tenorio; M. Moreno; E. Bouza
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): M. Kestler, P. Muñoz, M. Marín, M.A. Goenaga, P. Idígoras Viedma, A. de Alarcón, J.A. Lepe, D. Sousa Regueiro, J.M. Bravo-Ferrer, M. Pajarón, C. Costas, M.V. García-López, C. Hidalgo-Tenorio, M. Moreno, E. Bouza
      Background Infective endocarditis (IE) caused by anaerobic bacteria is a rare and poorly characterized disease. Most data reported in the literature are from case reports [1–3]. Therefore, we assessed the situation of anaerobic IE (AIE) in Spain using the database of the Spanish Collaboration on Endocarditis (GAMES). Methods We performed a prospective study from 2008 to 2016 in 26 Spanish centers. We included 2491 consecutive cases of definite IE (Duke criteria). Results Anaerobic bacteria caused 22 cases (0.9%) of definite IE. Median age was 66 years (IQR, 56–73), and 19 (86.4%) patients were men. Most patients (14 [63.6%]) had prosthetic valve IE and all episodes were left-sided: aortic valves, 12 (54.5%); and mitral valves, 8 (36.4%). The most common pathogens were Propionibacterium acnes (14 [63.6%]), Lactobacillus spp (3 [13.63%]), and Clostridium spp. (2 [9.0%]), and the infection was mainly odontogenic. Fifteen of the 22 patients (68.2%) underwent cardiac surgery. Mortality was 18.2% during admission and 5.5% after 1 year of follow-up. When patients with AIE were compared with the rest of the cohort, we found that although those with AIE had a similar age and Charlson comorbidity index, they were more likely to have community-acquired IE (86.4% vs. 60.9%, p = 0.01), have undergone cardiac surgery (68.2% vs 48.7% p = 0.06), and have had lower mortality rates during admission (18.2% vs. 27.3%). Conclusion IE due to anaerobic bacteria is an uncommon disease that affects mainly prosthetic valves and frequently requires surgery. Otherwise, there are no major differences between AIE and IE caused by other microorganisms.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T11:45:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.04.002
       
  • The effect of penicillin administration in early life on murine gut
           microbiota and blood lymphocyte subsets
    • Authors: Jaroslaw Daniluk; Urszula Daniluk; Malgorzata Rusak; Milena Dabrowska; Joanna Reszec; Magdalena Garbowicz; Kinga Humińska; Andrzej Dabrowski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Jaroslaw Daniluk, Urszula Daniluk, Malgorzata Rusak, Milena Dabrowska, Joanna Reszec, Magdalena Garbowicz, Kinga Humińska, Andrzej Dabrowski
      Background and aim Antibiotics have many beneficial effects but their uncontrolled use may lead to increased risk of serious diseases in the future. Our hypothesis is that an early antibiotic exposition may affect immune system by altering gut microbiota. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the effect of penicillin treatment on gut microorganisms and immune system of mice. Methods: 21-days old C57BL6/J/cmdb male mice were treated with low-dose of penicillin (study group) or water only (control group) for 4 weeks. Tissue and stool samples for histology or microbiome assessment and peripheral blood for CBC and flow cytometry evaluation were collected. Results: We found high variability in microbiota composition at different taxonomic levels between littermate mice kept in the same conditions, independently of treatment regimen. Interestingly, low-dose of penicillin caused significant increase of Parabacteroides goldsteinii in stool and in colon tissue in comparison to control group (9.5% vs. 4.9%, p = 0.008 and 10.7% vs. 6.1%, p = 0.008, respectively). Moreover, mice treated with penicillin demonstrated significantly elevated percentage of B cells (median 10.5% vs 8.0%, p = 0.01) and decrease in the percentage of total CD4+ cell (median 75.4% vs 82.5%, p = 0.0039) with subsequent changes among subsets - increased percentage of regulatory T cells (Treg), T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) cells. Conclusion: Our study showed significant effect of penicillin on B and T cells in peripheral blood of young mice. This effect may be mediated through changes in gut microbiota represented by the expansion of Parabacteroides goldsteinii.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T21:19:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.015
       
  • Effect of operating temperature on anaerobic digestion of the Brazilian
           waterweed Egeria densa and its microbial community
    • Authors: Keiko Watanabe; Mitsuhiko Koyama; Junko Ueda; Syuhei Ban; Norio Kurosawa; Tatsuki Toda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Keiko Watanabe, Mitsuhiko Koyama, Junko Ueda, Syuhei Ban, Norio Kurosawa, Tatsuki Toda
      To develop an effective treatment for the globally invasive Brazilian waterweed Egeria densa, anaerobic digestion was observed at 37 °C, 55 °C, and 65 °C. The average methane production rate at 55 °C was 220 mL L−1 day−1, which was two-fold that at 37 °C and 65 °C. Volatile fatty acid accumulation was detected under thermophilic conditions; however, although there was methane production, the system did not shutdown. The microbial communities differed between mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C and 65 °C) conditions. A bacterial community consisting of the phyla Bacteroidetes (43%), Firmicutes (37%), Proteobacteria (9%), Synergistetes (5%), Spirochaetes (1%), and unclassified bacteria (5%) were detected under mesophilic condition. In contrast, the phylum Firmicutes was dominant under thermophilic conditions. In the archaeal community, Methanosaeta concilii (40%), Methanolinea sp. (17%), and unclassified euryarchaeota (43%) were detected under mesophilic condition. Methanosarcina thermophila (87% at 55 °C, 54% at 65 °C) and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (13% at 55 °C, 46% at 65 °C) were detected under thermophilic conditions. At both 37 °C and 55 °C, acetoclastic methanogenesis likely occurred because of the lower abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. At 65 °C, the growth of the acetoclastic methanogen Methanosarcina thermophila was limited by the high temperature, therefore, acetate oxidation and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis may have occurred.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T21:19:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.014
       
  • Characterization of vaginal Lactobacillus species by rplK -based multiplex
           qPCR in Russian women
    • Authors: Vladimir V. Demkin; Stanislav I. Koshechkin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Vladimir V. Demkin, Stanislav I. Koshechkin
      We describe a multiplex qPCR assay for identification and quantitative assessment of a set of vaginal Lactobacillus species, including L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. helveticus, L. iners, and L. jensenii. The assay extends the previously developed qPCR method for Lactobacillus detection and total quantification based on targeting the rplK gene. Both assays use only single pair of primers and a set of probes combined in three reactions, comprising a vaginal Lactobacillus diagnostic assay panel. The utility of the diagnostic panel was evaluated by analyzing of vaginal swab specimens from 145 patients with different status of vaginal health. Most frequently, only one Lactobacillus species was dominant (68,9%), mostly L. crispatus (18,6%) or L. iners (33,1%), but two or three Lactobacillus species were also being simultaneously detected (24,9%). The diagnostic panel will facilitate investigations of the role of Lactobacillus species in the health of the female reproductive system and promote studies of variability of the vaginal microbiota.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T21:19:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.011
       
  • Distribution and phylogeny of Brachyspira spp. in human intestinal
           spirochetosis revealed by FISH and 16S rRNA-gene analysis
    • Authors: Pablo Rojas; Annett Petrich; Julia Schulze; Alexandra Wiessner; Christoph Loddenkemper; Hans-Jörg Epple; William Sterlacci; Michael Vieth; Judith Kikhney; Annette Moter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Pablo Rojas, Annett Petrich, Julia Schulze, Alexandra Wiessner, Christoph Loddenkemper, Hans-Jörg Epple, William Sterlacci, Michael Vieth, Judith Kikhney, Annette Moter
      During six years as National Reference Laboratory for Spirochetes we investigated 149 intestinal biopsies from 91 patients, which were histopathologically diagnosed with human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS), using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) combined with 16S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing. Aim of this study was to complement histopathological findings with FISH and PCR for definite diagnosis and species identification of the causative pathogens. HIS is characterized by colonization of the colonic mucosa of the human distal intestinal tract by Brachyspira spp. Microbiological diagnosis of HIS is not performed, because of the fastidious nature and slow growth of Brachyspira spp. in culture. In clinical practice, diagnosis of HIS relies solely on histopathology without differentiation of the spirochetes. We used a previously described FISH probe to detect and identify Brachyspira spp. in histological gut biopsies. FISH allowed rapid visualization and identification of Brachyspira spp. in 77 patients. In most cases, the bright FISH signal already allowed rapid localization of Brachyspira spp. at 400× magnification. By sequencing, 53 cases could be assigned to the B. aalborgi lineage including “B. ibaraki” and “B. hominis”, and 23 cases to B. pilosicoli. One case showed mixed colonization. The cases reported here reaffirm all major HIS Brachyspira spp. clusters already described. However, the phylogenetic diversity seems to be even greater than previously reported. In 14 cases, we could not confirm HIS by either FISH or PCR, but found colonization of the epithelium by rods and cocci, indicating misdiagnosis by histopathology. FISH in combination with molecular identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing has proved to be a valuable addition to histopathology. It provides definite diagnosis of HIS and allows insights into phylogeny and distribution of Brachyspira spp. HIS should be considered as a differential diagnosis in diarrhea of unknown origin, particularly in patients from risk groups (e.g. patients with colonic adenomas, inflammatory polyps, inflammatory bowel disease or HIV infection and in men who have sex with men).

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T17:58:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.012
       
  • Periprosthetic joint infection by Propionibacterium acnes: Clinical
           differences between monomicrobial versus polymicrobial infection
    • Authors: Raúl Figa; David Muñetón; Lucía Gómez; A. Matamala; Mayli Lung; Eva Cuchi; Pablo S. Corona
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Raúl Figa, David Muñetón, Lucía Gómez, A. Matamala, Mayli Lung, Eva Cuchi, Pablo S. Corona
      Objective To compare a series of monomicrobial Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) knee and hip periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) cases with cases of polymicrobial PJI which included P. acnes. We hypothesized that the presence of a polymicrobial P. acnes infection would lead to worse outcomes than those in cases of monomicrobial P. acnes PJI. Methods Retrospective multicentre study. All patients with hip or knee PJIs including P. acnes diagnosed from August-2002 to July-2013 in two university hospitals were included. We collected demographic data, McPherson classification, local signs of infection (swelling or wound drainage), laboratory and histological data, surgical management, antibiotic treatment and outcomes. Data were compared between two groups: cases of monomicrobial P. acnes PJI, and cases of polymicrobial PJI involving P. acnes. Results Thirty-eight patients who presented with 38 PJIs were included; median age was 71 (IQR:62.5–79); 21 were men (55%); median follow-up was 42 months (IQR:17.5–58). Local signs of infection were present in 14 patients (36.8%); ESR>30 mm/h in 14 patients (36.8%); CRP>1 mg/dl in 15 patients (39.5%); 11 out of 25 patients (44%) had positive preoperative cultures from joint aspiration. Positive histologic studies (Feldman's criteria) were found in 5 out of 28 patients (17.8%). Twenty-four patients (63%) had monomicrobial PJIs; 14 patients (37%) had polymicrobial PJIs. There were no significant outcome differences between monomicrobial and polymicrobial PJIs cases; overall, the success rates were 79.2% and 85.7% respectively (P > 0.05). Conclusions We did not find any significant differences between monomicrobial and polymicrobial P. acnes PJI outcomes. ESR, CRP and histologic study are established parameters for diagnosing PJI which did not prove useful in P. acnes PJI.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T17:44:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.008
       
  • Characterization of isolates of Eisenbergiella tayi, a strictly anaerobic
           Gram-stain variable bacillus recovered from human clinical materials in
           Canada
    • Authors: Kathryn Bernard; Tamara Burdz; Deborah Wiebe; Brittany M. Balcewich; Tina Zimmerman; Philippe Lagacé-Wiens; Linda M.N. Hoang; Anne-Marie Bernier
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Kathryn Bernard, Tamara Burdz, Deborah Wiebe, Brittany M. Balcewich, Tina Zimmerman, Philippe Lagacé-Wiens, Linda M.N. Hoang, Anne-Marie Bernier
      Eisenbergiella gen. nov. was proposed in 2014 to describe an obligate anaerobic, structurally Gram-positive but Gram-stain-negative-appearing bacillus recovered from the blood culture of an elderly Israeli man. Here, we describe features for eight blood culture isolates as well one appendix-derived isolate, recovered from seven patients located in two Canadian provinces, which by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were identifiable as Eisenbergiella tayi, the sole validly- named species in this genus. After whole genome sequencing, isolates were found to be essentially identical (96.8–98.7% identity) to each other and to E. tayi DSM 26961T, after comparison using the ANIb tool and in silico DNA-DNA hydridization. All isolates were observed to have remarkably large genomes (7.1–8.3 Mb) with a G + C content of 46.5%–46.9%.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T17:44:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.005
       
  • First report of human infection by Christensenella minuta, a
           gram-negative, strickly anaerobic rod that inhabits the human intestine
    • Authors: Beatriz Lopez Alonso; Alvaro Irigoyen von Sierakowski; Juan Antonio Sáez Nieto; Antonio Beltran Rosel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Beatriz Lopez Alonso, Alvaro Irigoyen von Sierakowski, Juan Antonio Sáez Nieto, Antonio Beltran Rosel
      Christensenella minuta is a Gram-negative strictly anaerobic short rod that inhabits the human gut. This bacterium was isolated in a mixed infection with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans from the blood of a patient with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The strain was identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. As far as we know, this is the first time C.minuta has been isolated from a human clinical specimen.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T17:44:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.007
       
  • Factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection: A nested
           case-control study in a three year prospective cohort
    • Authors: Nagham Khanafer; Philippe Vanhems; Frédéric Barbut; Christine Luxemburger
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Nagham Khanafer, Philippe Vanhems, Frédéric Barbut, Christine Luxemburger
      Background Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a serious medical condition that is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Identification of risk factors associated with CDI and prompt recognition of patients at risk is key to successfully preventing CDI. Methods A 3-year prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted in a French university hospital and a nested case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for CDI. Inpatients aged 18 years or older, suffering from diarrhea suspected to be related to CDI, were asked to participate. Results A total of 945 patients were included, of which 233 cases had a confirmed CDI. CDI infection was more common in men (58.4%) (P = 0.04) compared with patients with diarrhea not related to C. difficile. Previous hospitalization (P < 0.001), prior treatment with antibiotics (P = 0.001) or antiperistaltics (P = 0.002), liver disease (P = 0.003), malnutrition (P < 0.001), and previous CDI (P < 0.001) were significantly more common in patients with CDI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that exposure to antibiotics in the last 60 days (especially third generation cephalosporins and penicillins with β-lactamase inhibitor), chronic renal or liver disease, malnutrition or previous CDI, were associated with an independent high risk of CDI. Age was not related with CDI. Conclusions This study showed that antibiotics and some comorbid conditions were predictors of CDI. Patients at high risk of acquiring CDI at the time of admission may benefit from careful monitoring of antibiotic prescriptions and early attention to infection control issues. In future, these "high-risk" patients may benefit from novel agents being developed to prevent CDI.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T17:44:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.003
       
  • Functional gene profiling through metaRNAseq approach reveals
           
    • Authors: Ankit T. Hinsu; Nidhi R. Parmar; Neelam M. Nathani; Ramesh J. Pandit; Anand B. Patel; Amrutlal K. Patel; Chaitanya G. Joshi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Ankit T. Hinsu, Nidhi R. Parmar, Neelam M. Nathani, Ramesh J. Pandit, Anand B. Patel, Amrutlal K. Patel, Chaitanya G. Joshi
      Recent advances in next generation sequencing technology have enabled analysis of complex microbial community from genome to transcriptome level. In the present study, metatranscriptomic approach was applied to elucidate functionally active bacteria and their biological processes in rumen of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) adapted to different dietary treatments. Buffaloes were adapted to a diet containing 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0 forage to concentrate ratio, each for 6 weeks, before ruminal content sample collection. Metatranscriptomes from rumen fiber adherent and fiber-free active bacteria were sequenced using Ion Torrent PGM platform followed by annotation using MG-RAST server and CAZYmes (Carbohydrate active enzymes) analysis toolkit. In all the samples Bacteroidetes was the most abundant phylum followed by Firmicutes. Functional analysis using KEGG Orthology database revealed Metabolism as the most abundant category at level 1 within which Carbohydrate metabolism was dominating. Diet treatments also exerted significant differences in proportion of enzymes involved in metabolic pathways for VFA production. Carbohydrate Active Enzyme(CAZy) analysis revealed the abundance of genes encoding glycoside hydrolases with the highest representation of GH13 CAZy family in all the samples. The findings provide an overview of the activities occurring in the rumen as well as active bacterial population and the changes occurring through different dietary treatments.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T17:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.02.021
       
  • Multilocus sequence typing analyses of Clostridium perfringens type a
           strains harboring tpeL and netB genes
    • Authors: V. Nakano; A. Ignacio; L. Llanco; V. Bueris; M.P. Sircili; M.J. Avila-Campos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): V. Nakano, A. Ignacio, L. Llanco, V. Bueris, M.P. Sircili, M.J. Avila-Campos
      Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic bacterium ubiquitous in various environments, especially in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans and animals. In this study, multilocus sequence typing protocol was used to investigate genotypic relationships among 40 C. perfringens strains isolated from humans and broiler chicken with necrotic enteritis [NE]. The results indicated a few clonal populations, mainly observed in human strains, with 32.5% of all strains associated with one of three clonal complexes and 30 sequences types. The CC-1 cluster showed an interesting and unexpected result because it contained seven strains [six from animals and one of human origin]. Detection assays for toxin genes tpeL and netB were also performed. The netB gene was only observed in 7.5% of the strains from healthy human. The toxin gene tpeL was detected in 22.5% of the C. perfringens strains isolated from three individuals and in six broilers with NE. Our study describes the role of some C. perfringens strains of human origin acting as reservoirs of virulence genes and sources of infection. In addition, the strains of human and animal origin were found to be genetically distinct but phylogenetically close, and the human strains showed more diversity than the animal strains.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T17:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.02.017
       
  • Association of periodontopathic anaerobic bacterial co-occurrence to
           atherosclerosis-a cross - Sectional study
    • Authors: Krishnan Mahalakshmi; Dr Padma Krishnan; Mylapore Ganesan Krishna Baba; Vaithiyanathan Dhivyapriya; Sarasa Bharathi Arumugam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Krishnan Mahalakshmi, Dr Padma Krishnan, Mylapore Ganesan Krishna Baba, Vaithiyanathan Dhivyapriya, Sarasa Bharathi Arumugam
      Background Epidemiological studies have shown a link between periodontitis and atherosclerosis. Hence the present study was chosen to assess the presence of eight anaerobic periodontal pathogens and their virulence genes in subgingival plaque (SGP) and atherosclerotic plaque (AP) of patients who underwent Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Methods SGP and AP collected from 65 CABG patients were screened for the presence of periodontal bacterial pathogens by Polymerase chain reaction. The samples positive for Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia were screened for virulence genes. Chronic periodontitis patients (ChP) without any systemic disease (n = 59) and healthy subjects free of both periodontitis and systemic disease were included as control groups (n = 100). Results and Discussion Statistical significance was observed for the prevalence of 16S rRNA of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola and P. nigrescens both in SGP and AP. Nine different periodontal bacterial co-occurrences were observed in SGP and AP of CABG patients. Besides, the prevalence of these nine different bacterial co-occurrence was high in SGP OF CABG patients compared to ChP without systemic disease. Among the nine different bacterial co-occurrence, only four were observed in SGP of ChP without systemic disease in spite of high prevalence of these anaerobic bacterial species. While, bacterial co-occurrences was completely absent among healthy subjects. Significant odds and risk ratio to atherosclerosis were observed for P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola and P. nigrescens. Among the virulence genes, significance to atherosclerosis was observed for P. gingivalis type II fimA and T. forsythia bspA. Conclusion The results of this study strongly correlate periodontal bacterial co-occurrence and periodontal bacterial adhesion factor to atherosclerosis.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T15:44:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.02.003
       
  • Effects of dietary supplementation of active dried yeast on fecal
           methanogenic archaea diversity in dairy cows
    • Authors: Dingxing Jin; Kun Kang; Hongze Wang; Zhisheng Wang; Bai Xue; Lizhi Wang; Feng Xu; Quanhui Peng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Dingxing Jin, Kun Kang, Hongze Wang, Zhisheng Wang, Bai Xue, Lizhi Wang, Feng Xu, Quanhui Peng
      This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of different dosages of active dried yeast (ADY) on the fecal methanogenic archaea community of dairy cattle. Twelve multiparous, healthy, mid-lactating Holstein dairy cows (body weight: 584 ± 23.2 kg, milk produced: 26.3 ± 1.22 kg/d) were randomly assigned to one of three treatments (control, ADY2, and ADY4) according to body weight with four replicates per treatment. Cows in the control group were fed conventional rations without ADY supplementation, while cows in the ADY2 and ADY4 group were fed rations supplemented with ADY at 2 or 4 g/d/head. Real-time PCR analysis showed the populations of total methanogens in the feces were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the ADY4 group compared with control. High-throughput sequencing technology was applied to examine the differences in methanogenic archaea diversity in the feces of the three treatment groups. A total of 155,609 sequences were recovered (a mean of 12,967 sequences per sample) from the twelve fecal samples, which consisted of a number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) ranging from 1451 to 1,733, were assigned to two phyla, four classes, five orders, five families and six genera. Bioinformatic analyses illustrated that the natural fecal archaeal community of the control group was predominated by Methanobrevibacter (86.9% of the total sequence reads) and Methanocorpusculum (10.4%), while the relative abundance of the remaining four genera were below 1% with Methanosphaera comprising 0.8%, Thermoplasma composing 0.4%, and the relative abundance of Candidatus Nitrososphaera and Halalkalicoccus being close to zero. At the genus level, the relative abundances of Methanocorpusculum and Thermoplasma were increased (P < 0.05) with increasing dosage of ADY. Conversely, the predominant methanogen genus Methanobrevibacter was decreased with ADY dosage (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation of ADY had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the abundances of genera unclassified, Candidatus Nitrososphaera, and Halalkalicoccus. In conclusion, supplementation of ADY to the rations of dairy cattle could alter the population sizes and composition of fecal methanogenic archaea in the feces of dairy cattle. The decrease in Methanobrevibacter happened with a commensurate increase in the genera Methanocorpusculum and Thermoplasma.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T15:44:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.02.007
       
  • Comparison of Clostridium difficile minimum inhibitory concentrations
           obtained using agar dilution vs broth microdilution methods
    • Authors: Christine J. Hastey; Suzanne E. Dale; Julia Nary; Diane Citron; Jennifer H. Law; Darcie E. Roe-Carpenter; Laurent Chesnel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Christine J. Hastey, Suzanne E. Dale, Julia Nary, Diane Citron, Jennifer H. Law, Darcie E. Roe-Carpenter, Laurent Chesnel
      Due to increasing antibiotic resistance among anaerobic bacteria, routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). This study compared the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) from 920 Clostridium difficile isolates tested against seven antimicrobial agents using the two current CLSI reference methodologies, agar dilution method, vs broth microdilution method. A subset of isolate testing was performed independently by two laboratories to evaluate reproducibility. A negative bias was noted for MICs generated from broth microdilution compared to agar dilution and the reproducibility was variable and drug dependent. Therefore, broth microdilution is not recommended as an alternative to agar dilution for C. difficile antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T15:44:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.02.006
       
  • Dairy propionibacteria prevent the proliferative effect of plant lectins
           on SW480 cells and protect the metabolic activity of the intestinal
           microbiota in vitro
    • Authors: Gabriela Zárate; Gabriel D. Saez; Adriana Pérez chaia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Gabriela Zárate, Gabriel D. Saez, Adriana Pérez chaia
      Plant lectins are specific carbohydrate-binding proteins that are widespread in legumes such as beans and pulses, seeds, cereals, and many plants used as farm feeds. They are highly resistant to cooking and digestion, reaching the intestinal lumen and/or blood circulation with biological activity. Since many legume lectins trigger harmful local and systemic reactions after their binding to the mucosal surface, these molecules are generally considered anti-nutritive and/or toxic substances. In the gut, specific cell receptors and bacteria may interact with these dietary components, leading to changes in intestinal physiology. It has been proposed that probiotic microorganisms with suitable surface glycosidic moieties could bind to dietary lectins, favoring their elimination from the intestinal lumen or inhibiting their interaction with epithelial cells. In this work, we assessed in vitro the effects of two representative plant lectins, concanavalin A (Con A) and jacalin (AIL) on the proliferation of SW480 colonic adenocarcinoma cells and metabolic activity of colonic microbiota in the absence or presence of Propionibacterium acidipropionici CRL 1198. Both lectins induced proliferation of colonic cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas ConA inhibited fermentative activities of colonic microbiota. Pre-incubation of propionibacteria with lectins prevented these effects, which could be ascribed to the binding of lectins by bacterial cells since P. acidipropionici CRL 1198 was unable to metabolize these proteins, and its adhesion to colonic cells was reduced after reaction with Con A or AIL. The results suggest that consumption of propionibacteria at the same time as lectins could reduce the incidence of lectin-induced alterations in the gut and may be a tool to protect intestinal physiology.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T21:42:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.012
       
  • Development of Clostridium difficile R20291ΔPaLoc model strains and in
           vitro methodologies reveals CdtR is required for the production of CDT to
           cytotoxic levels
    • Authors: T.W. Bilverstone; N.L. Kinsmore; N.P. Minton; S.A. Kuehne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): T.W. Bilverstone, N.L. Kinsmore, N.P. Minton, S.A. Kuehne
      Assessing the regulation of Clostridium difficile transferase (CDT), is complicated by the presence of a Pathogenicity locus (PaLoc) which encodes Toxins A and B. Here we developed R20291ΔPaLoc model strains and cell-based assays to quantify CDT-mediated virulence. Their application demonstrated that the transcriptional regulator, CdtR, was required for CDT-mediated cytotoxicity.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T20:32:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.009
       
  • Diversity of the subspecies Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis
    • Authors: Vera Bunesova; Jiri Killer; Barbora Javurkova; Eva Vlkova; Vaclav Tejnecky; Sarka Musilova; Vojtech Rada
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Vera Bunesova, Jiri Killer, Barbora Javurkova, Eva Vlkova, Vaclav Tejnecky, Sarka Musilova, Vojtech Rada
      Strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are well-known health-promoting probiotics used commercially. B. animalis subsp. lactis has been isolated from different sources, and little is known about animal isolates of this taxon. The aim of this study was to examine the genotypic and phenotypic diversity between B. animalis subsp. lactis strains different animal hosts including Cameroon sheep, Barbary sheep, okapi, mouflon, German shepard) and to compare to BB12, food isolates and the collection strain DSM 10140. Ten strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis from different sources were characterised by phenotyping, fingerprinting, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Regardless of origin, MLST and phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship between strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis with commercial and animal origin with the exception of isolates from ovine cheese, mouflon and German Shepard dog. Moreover, isolates from dog and mouflon showed significant differences in fermentation profiles and peptide mass fingerprints (MALDI-TOF). Results indicated phenotypic and genotypic diversity among strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T20:32:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.006
       
  • The role of gut microbiota in health and disease: In vitro modeling of
           host-microbe interactions at the aerobe-anaerobe interphase of the human
           gut
    • Authors: Julius Z.H. von Martels; Mehdi Sadaghian Sadabad; Arno R. Bourgonje; Tjasso Blokzijl; Gerard Dijkstra; Klaas Nico Faber; Hermie J.M. Harmsen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Anaerobe
      Author(s): Julius Z.H. von Martels, Mehdi Sadaghian Sadabad, Arno R. Bourgonje, Tjasso Blokzijl, Gerard Dijkstra, Klaas Nico Faber, Hermie J.M. Harmsen
      The microbiota of the gut has many crucial functions in human health. Dysbiosis of the microbiota has been correlated to a large and still increasing number of diseases. Recent studies have mostly focused on analyzing the associations between disease and an aberrant microbiota composition. Functional studies using (in vitro) gut models are required to investigate the precise interactions that occur between specific bacteria (or bacterial mixtures) and gut epithelial cells. As most gut bacteria are obligate or facultative anaerobes, studying their effect on oxygen-requiring human gut epithelial cells is technically challenging. Still, several (anaerobic) bacterial-epithelial co-culture systems have recently been developed that mimic host-microbe interactions occurring in the human gut, including 1) the Transwell “apical anaerobic model of the intestinal epithelial barrier”, 2) the Host-Microbiota Interaction (HMI) module, 3) the “Human oxygen-Bacteria anaerobic” (HoxBan) system, 4) the human gut-on-a-chip and 5) the HuMiX model. This review discusses the role of gut microbiota in health and disease and gives an overview of the characteristics and applications of these novel host-microbe co-culture systems.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T16:33:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.01.001
       
 
 
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