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BIOLOGY (1428 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 73)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 274)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Anaerobe
  [SJR: 1.066]   [H-I: 51]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1075-9964 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8274
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3089 journals]
  • In-vitro evaluation of marine derived fungi against Cutibacterium acnes
    • Authors: Shivankar Agrawal; Alok Adholeya; Colin J. Barrow; Sunil Kumar Deshmukh
      Pages: 5 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 49
      Author(s): Shivankar Agrawal, Alok Adholeya, Colin J. Barrow, Sunil Kumar Deshmukh
      Cutibacterium acnes (or Propionibacterium acnes) is the main target for the prevention and medical treatment of acne vulgaris. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-C. acnes and anti-S. epidermidis properties of some marine fungi isolated from different Indian marine environments. Seventy fungal isolates were obtained from samples collected from the west coasts and Andaman Island, India. Methanol extracts of 35 isolates were screened for their antibacterial properties and 5 out of the 35 isolates displayed significant inhibition as compared with tetracycline. DNA was successfully extracted from these five fungal isolates and phylogenetic analysis was performed. The methanol extracts possessed antibacterial activity against C. acnes and S. epidermidis with MIC values ranged from 0.8 mg/mL to 1 mg/mL. SEM analysis revealed that the extract induces deleterious morphological changes in the bacterial cell membrane. This study has identified some fungi extracts with significant antibacterial activity. The extracts may have potential for development as an antibacterial agent in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T09:44:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2017)
  • Detection and molecular characterization of Clostridium difficile ST 1 in
           Buenos Aires, Argentina
    • Authors: Daniela Cejas; Néstor Raúl Ríos Osorio; Rodolfo Quirós; Roxana Sadorin; María Alejandra Berger; Gabriel Gutkind; Liliana Fernández Canigia; Marcela Radice
      Pages: 14 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 49
      Author(s): Daniela Cejas, Néstor Raúl Ríos Osorio, Rodolfo Quirós, Roxana Sadorin, María Alejandra Berger, Gabriel Gutkind, Liliana Fernández Canigia, Marcela Radice
      Thirty one C. difficile isolates recovered in 2015 were characterized. Nineteen/31 were positive for tcdA/B, among them, 4 isolates were also positive for CDT coding genes. Two/4 cdtA/B positives isolates corresponded to ST 1 resembling BI/NAP1/027/ST 1 strain, while the others corresponded to ST 226 and ST 377.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:55:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.10.007
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2017)
  • Co-occurrence of early gut colonization in neonatal piglets with
           microbiota in the maternal and surrounding delivery environments
    • Authors: Xue Chen; Jumei Xu; Erdou Ren; Yong Su; Weiyun Zhu
      Pages: 30 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 49
      Author(s): Xue Chen, Jumei Xu, Erdou Ren, Yong Su, Weiyun Zhu
      The early development of gut microbiota plays a fundamental role in host health; so far, the main origins of the first colonization in newborn piglets are largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the early development of gut microbiota in newborn piglets during lactation and their co-occurrence with microbes in the maternal and surrounding environments by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. The results showed that the microbial richness and diversity in piglets' feces (PF) significantly increased from birth to weaning (21 d). The composition and function of microbiota in the feces of piglets after birth tended to be similar to those from the slatted floor (FL), sow's milk (SM) and nipple surface (SN), and lacter, the fecal microbial communities of piglets later during lactation were more similar to their mother's. SourceTracker analysis showed that the microbiota from the FL, SM and SN were most likely the earliest passengers to the neonatal gastrointestinal tract, but did not have a long stay during lactation. The sow's fecal microbiota were easier to colonize in newborn piglet's guts via the co-occurrence effect with former settlers. This study suggests that microbes from the maternal and surrounding environments may play an important role in the microbial succession of newborn piglets after birth.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T17:04:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2017)
  • Impact of the NAP-1 strain on disease severity, mortality, and recurrence
           of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection
    • Authors: Karri A. Bauer; Jessica E.W. Johnston; Eric Wenzler; Debra A. Goff; Charles H. Cook; Joan-Miquel Balada-Llasat; Preeti Pancholi; Julie E. Mangino
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Karri A. Bauer, Jessica E.W. Johnston, Eric Wenzler, Debra A. Goff, Charles H. Cook, Joan-Miquel Balada-Llasat, Preeti Pancholi, Julie E. Mangino
      Objectives Studies are conflicting regarding the association of the North American pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type 1 (NAP1) strain in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and outcomes. We evaluated the association of NAP1 with healthcare-associated CDI disease severity, mortality, and recurrence at our academic medical center. Methods Healthcare-associated CDI cases were identified from November 1, 2011 through January 31, 2013. Multivariable regression models were used to evaluate the associations of NAP1 with severe disease (based on the Hines VA severity score index), mortality, and recurrence. Results Among 5424 stool specimens submitted to the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, 292 (5.4%) were positive for C. difficile by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on or after hospital day 4; 70 (24%) of these specimens also tested positive for NAP1. During the study period, 247 (85%) patients had non-severe disease and 45 (15%) patients had severe disease. Among patients with non-severe disease, 65 (26%) had NAP1 and among patients with severe disease, 5 (11%) had NAP1. After controlling for potential confounders, NAP1 was not associated with an increased likelihood of severe disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13–0.93), in-hospital mortality (aOR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.53–1.96), or recurrence (aOR = 1.16, 95% CI, 0.36–3.77). Conclusions The NAP1 strain did not increase disease severity, mortality, or recurrence in this study, although the incidence of NAP1-positive healthcare associated-CDI was low. The role of strain typing in outcomes and treatment selection in patients with healthcare-associated CDI remains uncertain.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:55:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.06.009
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Development of a real-time PCR method for quantification of Prevotella
           histicola from the gut
    • Authors: Baskar Balakrishnan; David Luckey; Eric Marietta; Melissa Karau; Robin Patel; Joseph Murray; Veena Taneja
      Pages: 37 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Baskar Balakrishnan, David Luckey, Eric Marietta, Melissa Karau, Robin Patel, Joseph Murray, Veena Taneja
      We designed species-specific primers and developed a qPCR method for enumerating P. histicola from intestinal samples. The two designed primer sets showed specificity for the target 16S rRNA gene of P. histicola. The absolute qPCR method was sensitive to quantify as few as 103 colony-forming units (CFU) in the gut.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T08:44:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.06.019
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Clinical and molecular characteristics of community-acquired Clostridium
           difficile infections in comparison with those of hospital-acquired
           C. difficile
    • Authors: Soon Sung Kwon; Jung Lim Gim; Myung Sook Kim; Heejung Kim; Jun Yong Choi; Dongeun Yong; Kyungwon Lee
      Pages: 42 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Soon Sung Kwon, Jung Lim Gim, Myung Sook Kim, Heejung Kim, Jun Yong Choi, Dongeun Yong, Kyungwon Lee
      Community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) is a growing concern. CA-CDI differs from hospital-acquired C. difficile infection (HA-CDI) in its epidemiology, risk factors, severity, and outcomes. In this study, we investigated C. difficile infections in a tertiary care hospital in Seoul, Korea, and compared the CA-CDI and HA-CDI cases diagnosed in the same period. Total 593 cases were confirmed as CDI in 2014, of which CA-CDI accounted for 68 (11.5%) of the total CDI cases. Compared with HA-CDI, the mean age of CA-CDI cases was lower than that of HA-CDI (42.7 vs 60.4). In CA-CDI, antibiotic and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use in the 12 preceding weeks and concurrent chemotherapy and tube feeding were less frequent compared with HA-CDI. In most cases (63/68, 92.6%), patients with CA-CDI recovered without any complications or recurrence. The most prevalent C. difficile type in CA-CDI cases was PCR-ribotype 012, accounting for 18.3% of the total, followed by PCR-ribotype 018 (16.7%).

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:55:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.06.014
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Prevalence and characteristics of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium
           difficile in dogs and cats attended in diverse veterinary clinics from the
           Madrid region
    • Authors: Sergio Álvarez-Pérez; José L. Blanco; Celine Harmanus; Ed J. Kuijper; Marta E. García
      Pages: 47 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2017
      Author(s): Sergio Álvarez-Pérez, José L. Blanco, Celine Harmanus, Ed J. Kuijper, Marta E. García
      Despite extensive research on the epidemiology of pathogenic clostridia in dogs and cats, most published studies focus on a selected animal population and/or a single veterinary medical centre. We assessed the burden of Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile shedding by small animals in 17 veterinary clinics located within the Madrid region (Spain) and differing in size, number and features of animals attended and other relevant characteristics. In addition, we studied the genetic diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of recovered isolates. Selective culture of all fecal specimens collected during a single week from dogs (n = 105) and cats (n = 37) attended in participating clinics yielded C. perfringens/C. difficile from 31%, 4.8% of the dogs, and 20%, 0% of the cats analyzed, respectively, and three dogs yielded both species. Furthermore, 17 animals (15 dogs and two cats) that yielded a positive culture for either species were recruited for a follow-up survey and C. perfringens was again obtained from nine dogs. Considerable differences in prevalence were observed among participating clinics for both clostridial species. C. perfringens isolates (n = 109) belonged to toxinotypes A (97.2%) and E (three isolates from one dog), whereas C. difficile isolates (n = 18) belonged to the toxigenic ribotypes 106 (33.3%) and 154 (16.7%), a 009-like ribotype (33.3%) and an unknown non-toxigenic ribotype (16.7%). Amplified fragment length polymorphism-based fingerprinting classified C. perfringens and C. difficile isolates into 105 and 15 genotypes, respectively, and tested isolates displayed in vitro resistance to benzylpenicillin (2.8%, 88.8%), clindamycin (0%, 16.7%), erythromycin (0.9%, 16.7%), imipenem (1.8%, 100%), levofloxacin (0.9%, 100%), linezolid (5.5%, 0%), metronidazole (4.6%, 0%) and/or tetracycline (7.3%, 0%). All animals from which multiple isolates were retrieved yielded ≥2 different genotypes and/or antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Future studies should focus on the seasonal and geographical variations of prevalence and diversity patterns of clostridial species in small animals.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T08:44:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.06.023
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile in parvovirus-positive dogs
    • Authors: Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva; Fernanda Alves Dorella; Henrique Cesar Pereira Figueiredo; Érica Azevedo Costa; Vanessa Pelicia; Bruna Letícia Devidé Ribeiro; Marcio Garcia Ribeiro; Antonio Carlos Paes; Jane Megid; Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato
      Pages: 66 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Fernanda Alves Dorella, Henrique Cesar Pereira Figueiredo, Érica Azevedo Costa, Vanessa Pelicia, Bruna Letícia Devidé Ribeiro, Marcio Garcia Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos Paes, Jane Megid, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato
      The aim of this study was to investigate Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens in 82 diarrheic dogs positive for canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV). Enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A was isolated from three (3.6%) dogs. One (1.2%) strain was also positive for NetE- and NetF-encoding genes, which are commonly associated with diarrhea in dogs. Toxigenic C. difficile was isolated from one animal (1.2%), which was also positive for A/B toxins. The present study identified C. difficile and C. perfringens infection in CPV-positive dogs. Further studies are necessary to clarify if clostridial infections may predispose or potentiate CPV-infection in dogs or vice versa.

      PubDate: 2017-07-27T10:19:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Description of Absiella argi gen. nov., sp. nov., and transfer of
           Eubacterium dolichum and Eubacterium tortuosum to the genus Absiella as
           Absiella dolichum comb. nov. and Absiella tortuosum comb. nov
    • Authors: Jayoung Paek; Yeseul Shin; Joong-Su Kim; Hongik Kim; Joong-Ki Kook; Woon Kee Paek; Young-Hyo Chang
      Pages: 70 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Jayoung Paek, Yeseul Shin, Joong-Su Kim, Hongik Kim, Joong-Ki Kook, Woon Kee Paek, Young-Hyo Chang
      Gram-positive, straight or slightly curved rod-shaped bacteria, designated as strains N6H1-5T and N6H1-3, were isolated from fecal samples of old dog. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolates belonged to the Clostridium cluster XVI and were closely related to Eubacterium dolichum KCTC 5832T, Eubacterium tortuosum DSM 3987T, Clostridium innocuum KCTC 5183T, Allobaculum stecoricanis DSM 13633T, Eubacterium limosum KCTC 3266T, and Clostridium butyricum KCTC 1871T, with 94.0%, 93.8%, 92.0%, 84.9%, 80.7%, and 80.0% sequence similarity, respectively. Chemotaxonomic data supported placement of the strains N6H1-5T and N6H1-3 in the new taxon. The strains contained m-diaminopimelic acid cell wall peptidoglycan; the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and glycolipids (GL); and the major fatty acids were C18:1 cis 9 (30.7%) and C16:0 (17.1%). The predominant metabolic end product was lactic acid. The G + C content was 35.8 mol%. The most closely related species, E. dolichum and E. tortuosum, were also assigned to the new taxon, based on the phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic data. Thus, the type strain N6H1-5T (=KCTC 15422 = JCM 30884) represents a novel genus and species, for which the name Absiella argi gen. nov., sp. nov is proposed. It is also proposed that E. dolichum KCTC 5832T and E. tortuosum DSM 3987T be transferred to this new genus, and named Absiella dolichum comb. nov. and Absiella tortuosum comb. nov., respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T19:42:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Comparative phenotypic analysis of “Clostridium neonatale” and
           Clostridium butyricum isolates from neonates
    • Authors: S. Schönherr-Hellec; G. Klein; J. Delannoy; L. Ferraris; I. Friedel; J.C. Rozé; M.J. Butel; J. Aires
      Pages: 76 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): S. Schönherr-Hellec, G. Klein, J. Delannoy, L. Ferraris, I. Friedel, J.C. Rozé, M.J. Butel, J. Aires
      “Clostridium neonatale” was recently described as a new species within the Cluster I of the Clostridium genus sensu stricto. In this study, we characterized “C. neonatale” isolates (n = 42) and compared their phenotypic properties with those of Clostridium butyricum (n = 26), a close related species. Strains isolated from fecal samples of healthy neonates were tested for different phenotypic characteristics. Compared to C. butyricum, “C. neonatale” showed a significant higher surface hydrophobicity (p = 0.0047), exopolysaccharide production (p = 0.0069), aero-tolerance (p = 0.0222) and viability at 30 °C (p = 0.0006). A lower swimming ability (p = 0.0146) and tolerance against bile (0.3%) (p = 0.0494), acid (pH 4.5) (p < 0.0001), osmolarity (NaCl 5%, p = 0.0188) and temperature at 50 °C (p = 0.0013) characterized “C. neonatale” strains. Our results showed that “C. neonatale” behaves very differently from C. butyricum and suggests specific responses to environmental changes. Besides it is the first study on clinical isolates for these two anaerobic members of the newborns' gut microbiota and broadens our knowledge about their phenotypic traits.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T19:42:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Effects of Clostridium perfringens iota toxin in the small intestine of
    • Authors: Leandro M. Redondo; Enzo A. Redondo; Gabriela C. Dailoff; Carlos L. Leiva; Juan M. Díaz-Carrasco; Octavio A. Bruzzone; Adriana Cangelosi; Patricia Geoghegan; Mariano E. Fernandez-Miyakawa
      Pages: 83 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Leandro M. Redondo, Enzo A. Redondo, Gabriela C. Dailoff, Carlos L. Leiva, Juan M. Díaz-Carrasco, Octavio A. Bruzzone, Adriana Cangelosi, Patricia Geoghegan, Mariano E. Fernandez-Miyakawa
      Iota toxin is a binary toxin solely produced by Clostridium perfringens type E strains, and is structurally related to CDT from C. difficile and CST from C. spiroforme. As type E causes hemorrhagic enteritis in cattle, it is usually assumed that associated diseases are mediated by iota toxin, although evidence in this regard has not been provided. In the present report, iota toxin intestinal effects were evaluated in vivo using a mouse model. Histological damage was observed in ileal loops treated with purified iota toxin after 4 h of incubation. Luminal iota toxin induced fluid accumulation in the small intestine in a dose dependent manner, as determined by the enteropooling and the intestinal loop assays. None of these changes were observed in the large intestine. These results suggest that C. perfringens iota toxin alters intestinal permeability, predominantly by inducing necrosis and degenerative changes in the mucosal epithelium of the small intestine, as well as changes in intestinal motility. The obtained results suggest a central role for iota toxin in the pathogenesis of C. perfringens type E hemorrhagic enteritis, and contribute to remark the importance of clostridial binary toxins in digestive diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T19:42:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight
    • Authors: Anne Jolivet-Gougeon; Nicolas Helsens; Elise Renard; Zohreh Tamanai-Shacoori; Martine Bonnaure-Mallet
      Pages: 89 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Anne Jolivet-Gougeon, Nicolas Helsens, Elise Renard, Zohreh Tamanai-Shacoori, Martine Bonnaure-Mallet
      Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was evaluated for rapid identification of cfxA PCR positive and negative Capnocytophaga strains. Colonies were grown on blood agar, incubated anaerobically at 37 °C for 48 h, and were then evaluated by MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Both methods identified all colonies to the genus level. The MALDI-TOF MS method gave the same result, at the species level, as 16S rRNA gene sequencing for 41/53 Capnocytophaga sp. strains (77.4%), but the limit of this technique was the absence of some species (C. leadbetteri, C. AHN) in the Biotyper-Bruker® database used in this study. Distinction between the cefotaxime resistant and susceptible strains was unsuccessful using the MALDI-TOF MS method. This technique had low discriminatory power to rapidly detect beta-lactamase-producing Capnocytophaga strains in clinical samples. However, the results from a score-oriented dendrogram confirmed MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid, inexpensive, and reliable method for Capnocytophaga species identification. Enrichment of the reference database used (Biotyper®) will improve future results.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T17:04:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • A multi-center ring trial for the identification of anaerobic bacteria
           using MALDI-TOF MS
    • Authors: A.C.M. Veloo; H. Jean-Pierre; U.S. Justesen; T. Morris; E. Urban; I. Wybo; H.N. Shah; A.W. Friedrich; T. Morris; H.N. Shah; H. Jean-Pierre; U.S. Justesen; E. Nagy; E. Urban; M. Kostrzewa; A. Veloo; A.W. Friedrich
      Pages: 94 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): A.C.M. Veloo, H. Jean-Pierre, U.S. Justesen, T. Morris, E. Urban, I. Wybo, H.N. Shah, A.W. Friedrich, T. Morris, H.N. Shah, H. Jean-Pierre, U.S. Justesen, E. Nagy, E. Urban, M. Kostrzewa, A. Veloo, A.W. Friedrich
      Inter-laboratory reproducibility of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of anaerobic bacteria has not been shown before. Therefore, ten anonymized anaerobic strains were sent to seven participating laboratories, an initiative of the European Network for the Rapid Identification of Anaerobes (ENRIA). On arrival the strains were cultured and identified using MALDI-TOF MS. The spectra derived were compared with two different Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS databases, the db5627 and the db6903. The results obtained using the db5627 shows a reasonable variation between the different laboratories. However, when a more optimized database is used, the variation is less pronounced. In this study we show that an optimized database not only results in a higher number of strains which can be identified using MALDI-TOF MS, but also corrects for differences in performance between laboratories.

      PubDate: 2017-08-15T20:13:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Detection of enterotoxin and protease genes among Hungarian clinical
           Bacteroides fragilis isolates
    • Authors: Károly Péter Sárvári; József Sóki; Miklós Iván; Cecília Miszti; Krisztina Latkóczy; Szilvia Zsóka Melegh; Edit Urbán
      Pages: 98 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Károly Péter Sárvári, József Sóki, Miklós Iván, Cecília Miszti, Krisztina Latkóczy, Szilvia Zsóka Melegh, Edit Urbán
      Bacteroides fragilis as a commensal bacterium is a member of the human intestinal flora, but as an opportunistic pathogen it can cause serious infections as well. Some of them, harbouring an enterotoxin gene (bft), may cause diarrhoea mainly in young children. Recently it has been shown that a member of C11 proteases called fragipain (fpn) can activate the enterotoxin, while C10 protease (bfp) is suspected of playing an important role in the invasiveness of the B. fragilis isolates. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and distribution of the bft isotypes in 200 Hungarian B. fragilis isolates collected recently; and in a subset of 72 strains, we wanted to determine the prevalence of bfp1-4 and fpn genes in bft-positive and bft-negative strains. Using the MALDI-TOF MS cfiA identification project file, 19 B. fragilis strains belonging to Division II were identified and the presence of the cfiA gene was confirmed by RT-PCR. Twenty six (13.0%) B. fragilis isolates turned out to be bft gene positive by RT-PCR; 20 isolates harboured bft-1 and six bft-2 isotypes, but no bft-3 isotype containing strains were found. A melting curve analysis and the PCR-RFLP were performed to differentiate between the bft-1 and bft-2 isotypes confirmed by sequencing. Thirty eight strains harboured bfp1, 58 isolates contained bfp2 gene, while 17 isolates proved positive for bfp3. Morever, no bfp4 positive isolate was found, and some of the B. fragilis strains tested harboured two or three bfp isotypes simultaneously. Among the 26 bft-positive strains, 24 contained the fpn gene, which confirms the role of fragipain in the activation of B. fragilis enterotoxin. In experiments, a significant negative correlation between fpn and cfiA was demonstrated (p < 0.000), a positive correlation was found between bfp2 and fpn genes (p = 0.0000803), and a negative correlation between bfp2 and cfiA genes (p = 0.011).

      PubDate: 2017-08-15T20:13:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Pro-inflammatory cytokine responses in human gingival epithelial cells
           after stimulation with cell wall extract of Aggregatibacter
           actinomycetemcomitans subtypes
    • Authors: Nuntiya Pahumunto; Pareena Chotjumlong; Anupong Makeudom; Suttichai Krisanaprakornkit; Gunnar Dahlen; Rawee Teanpaisan
      Pages: 103 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Nuntiya Pahumunto, Pareena Chotjumlong, Anupong Makeudom, Suttichai Krisanaprakornkit, Gunnar Dahlen, Rawee Teanpaisan
      Varying cytokine responses of human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans subtypes have been found. Most studies have used reference strains, whereas a few has evaluated the cytokine expression in response to clinical subtypes of this bacterial species. This study aimed to examine whether there was any difference in cytokine responses of HGECs stimulated with cell wall extract (CWE) from A. actinomycetemcomitans subtypes included clinical strains from Thai adult periodontitis, various serotypes and non-serotypeable strains, strains from deep or shallow pockets, and reference serotype strains. Totally 50 clinical strains and 7 reference strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans were analyzed for the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α mRNAs in HGECs by real time-PCR, and the IL-8 concentrations in cell-free supernatant measured using ELISA. An in vitro effect of released IL-8 on neutrophil migration was examined using transwell chambers. Result showed that among four cytokines studied, IL-8 mRNA was highly up-regulated by both clinical and reference strains. Serotype f revealed the highest expression compared to other serotypes. The JP2-like leukotoxin promoter gene and non-serotypeable (NS1 and NS2) demonstrated lower IL-8 responses compared to serotypeable strains, and IL-8 responses upon stimulation with clinical strains from deep pockets were also significantly lower than those isolated from shallow pockets (P < 0.01). Our findings suggest that the clinical isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans associating with deep pockets, JP2-like leukotoxin promoter gene, NS1, and NS2 may interfere neutrophil function via minimal and immunosuppressing IL-8 responses, which may enhance their survival and virulence.

      PubDate: 2017-08-15T20:13:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Stability and efficacy of frozen and lyophilized fecal microbiota
           transplant (FMT) product in a mouse model of Clostridium difficile
           infection (CDI)
    • Authors: Zhi-Dong Jiang; Ashley Alexander; Shi Ke; Evangelia M. Valilis; Shaofan Hu; Bingjie Li; Herbert L. DuPont
      Pages: 110 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Zhi-Dong Jiang, Ashley Alexander, Shi Ke, Evangelia M. Valilis, Shaofan Hu, Bingjie Li, Herbert L. DuPont
      Freezing donor fecal microbiota has simplified fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI). However, the optimal storage time for the frozen FMT products remains unknown. Using an established murine model of CDI, stability and efficacy of frozen and lyophilized FMT product was studied at time points from 2 months to 15 months. DNA was extracted from fecal samples from the mice with identification of specific bacterial species by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). FMT product stability and efficacy were measured by occurrence of diarrhea in the challenged mice together with stability of the microbiota composition. The results were analyzed and compared by SAS statistical software. All mice treated with only C. difficile developed diarrhea within 72 h. Mice treated with frozen (n = 5/group), lyophilized (n = 5/group) products stored for ≤ 7-month or fresh FMT product (n = 22) were protected from post C. difficile challenge diarrhea. There was no difference between frozen and lyophilized products (n = 5/group) stored for ≤ 7 months 95% CI 1.00 (0.38–2.64) and 1.00 (0.38–2.64), respectively. Prevention if CDI by frozen and lyophilized product was not different for storage of 9-, 11- and 15-months. qPCR results demonstrated there were no significant quantitative change in Bacteroides and Clostridium species during any of the storage times (P > 0.05). In the present study, frozen and lyophilized FMT products were stored up to 7 months without losing microbiota composition and therapeutic efficacy. The animal model described may be useful to study stability of human microbiota designed for FMT.

      PubDate: 2017-08-15T20:13:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Antitoxin therapy of natural avian botulism outbreaks occurred in Brazil
    • Authors: Rodrigo O.S. Silva; Sandra Y.M. Gómez; Lilian B. Medeiros; Marcus V.R. Marques; Aila S.G. Silva; Elisabeth N. Mureb; Carlos A. Oliveira Junior; Samantha M. Favoretto; Francisco C.F. Lobato; Nelson R.S. Martins
      Pages: 115 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Rodrigo O.S. Silva, Sandra Y.M. Gómez, Lilian B. Medeiros, Marcus V.R. Marques, Aila S.G. Silva, Elisabeth N. Mureb, Carlos A. Oliveira Junior, Samantha M. Favoretto, Francisco C.F. Lobato, Nelson R.S. Martins
      Botulism commonly affects water birds and it has recently been observed to be emerging in poultry production. In the present work, outbreaks of botulism in wild native species, such as the black-fronted Piping-guan (Aburria jacutinga), wild duck (Cairina moschata) and its crosses with mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) are described. Following treatments with a commercial botulism antitoxin CD, 28 (96.5%) out of 29 animals fully recovered after 24–72 h. The antitoxin therapy was shown to be a useful option for the treatment of affected birds, including those that were severely affected.

      PubDate: 2017-08-26T20:44:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Establishment of valnemulin susceptibility breakpoint against Clostridium
           perfringens in rabbits
    • Authors: Meng-Ting Tao; Yu-Feng Zhou; Jian Sun; Ya-Hong Liu; Xiao-Ping Liao
      Pages: 118 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Meng-Ting Tao, Yu-Feng Zhou, Jian Sun, Ya-Hong Liu, Xiao-Ping Liao
      Susceptibility breakpoints provide fundamental information for rational administration of antibiotics. The present investigation reports the first valnemulin susceptibility breakpoint (MIC<0.25 μg/mL) against Clostridium perfringens infections in rabbits based on the wild-type cutoff (COWT) and the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) cutoff (COPD). The established susceptibility breakpoint of valnemulin might be useful in resistance surveillance of pleuromutilins and development of clinical breakpoints.

      PubDate: 2017-08-26T20:44:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Community-associated Clostridium difficile infection in emergency
           department patients in Western Australia
    • Authors: Deirdre A. Collins; Linda A. Selvey; Antonio Celenza; Thomas V. Riley
      Pages: 121 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Deirdre A. Collins, Linda A. Selvey, Antonio Celenza, Thomas V. Riley
      Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is primarily associated with hospitalised patients, however, community-associated CDI (CA-CDI) has increased in Australia. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology and outcomes of CA-CDI cases presenting to hospital emergency departments in Western Australia (WA). A retrospective case-control study of CA-CDI cases presenting at six emergency departments in WA from July 2013 to June 2014 was performed. Clinical signs, recent medication, hospitalisations and potential risk factors for CA-CDI were investigated for cases (n = 34) and unmatched controls (n = 62) who were infected with another gastrointestinal pathogen, including Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Aeromonas spp., Shigella sonnei and Escherichia coli O157. Elevated white cell count (31.3% vs 8.2%, p < 0.01), female gender (67.6% vs 41.9%, p < 0.05), age ≥65 years (41.2% vs 21.0%, p < 0.05) and antimicrobial use in the previous month (41.2% vs 11.3%, p < 0.01) were significantly more frequent among cases compared to controls. After multivariable analysis, antibiotic use (odds ratio 8.49, 95% confidence interval 2.75–26.21) and age ≥65 years (3.03, 1.05–8.75) were significantly associated with CA-CDI. Ribotype (RT) 014/020 was most common (40.7%) among 27 C. difficile isolates followed by RTs 002 (14.8%), 001, 056 and 244 (all 7.4%). CA-CDI was associated with advanced age and recent antibiotic use compared to those infected with other gastrointestinal pathogens. RT 014 has also recently been found at high prevalence in public lawn spaces, and previously RT 014 strains from humans and pigs in Australia were closely genetically related, suggesting CA-CDI may be linked with these community reservoirs.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:55:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.08.008
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Identification and characterization of Clostridium botulinum group III
           field strains by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization
           time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)
    • Authors: Luca Bano; Ilenia Drigo; Elena Tonon; Simone Pascoletti; Cinzia Puiatti; Fabrizio Anniballi; Bruna Auricchio; Florigio Lista; Cesare Montecucco; Fabrizio Agnoletti
      Pages: 126 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Luca Bano, Ilenia Drigo, Elena Tonon, Simone Pascoletti, Cinzia Puiatti, Fabrizio Anniballi, Bruna Auricchio, Florigio Lista, Cesare Montecucco, Fabrizio Agnoletti
      Animal botulism is primarily due to botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) types C, D or their chimeric variants C/D or D/C, produced by Clostridium botulinum group III, which appears to include the genetically indistinguishable Clostridium haemolyticum and Clostridium novyi. In the present study, we used matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) to identify and characterize 81 BoNT-producing Clostridia isolated in 47 episodes of animal botulism. The instrument's default database, containing no entries for Clostridium botulinum, permitted reliable identification of 26 strains at the genus level. Although supplementation of the database with reference strains enhanced the instrument's ability to identify the neurotoxic strains at the genus level, resolution was not sufficient to recognize field strains at species level. Characterization by MALDI TOF confirmed the well-documented phenotypic and genetic differences between Clostridium botulinum strains of serotypes normally implicated in human botulism (A, B, E, F) and other Clostridium species able to produce BoNTs type C and D. The chimeric and non-chimeric field strains grouped separately. In particular, very low similarity was found between two non-chimeric type C field strains isolated in the same outbreak and the other field strains. This difference was comparable with the differences among the various Clostridia species included in the study. Characterization by MALDI TOF confirmed that BoNT-producing Clostridia isolated from animals are closely related and indistinguishable at the species level from Clostridium haemolyticum and Clostridium novyi reference strains. On the contrary, there seem to be substantial differences among chimeric and some non-chimeric type C strains.

      PubDate: 2017-08-26T20:44:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Clinical, epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of relapse
           and re-infection in Clostridium difficile infection
    • Authors: Sara Gómez; Fernando Chaves; M. Angeles Orellana
      Pages: 147 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Sara Gómez, Fernando Chaves, M. Angeles Orellana
      Recurrent diarrhea is a common complication of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Recurrent CDI (r-CDI) may be produced by the persistence of spores (relapse) or by the acquisition of a new strain (reinfection). In this study, we analyze epidemiological, clinical, microbiological and laboratory data from patients with r-CDI, relapse, and reinfection-CDI over 5 years and compared with a control group (non r-CDI). Among 60 patients with r-CDI, 36 patients had stool samples collected from two or more episodes, which were molecularly analyzed. Based on ribotyping, 63.9% of the samples were relapse, and 36.1% reinfection. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, previous antibiotic exposure was found to be a risk factor for r-CDI (OR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.0–4.9; p = 0.04). Patients with relapse had previous antibiotic exposure more frequently than did patients with reinfection (p = 0.03), and patients with reinfection suffered more frequently from chronic liver disease (p = 0.02) than did relapse patients. Relapse patients compared with the control group had a higher percentage of previous antibiotic exposure, although the difference was statistically no significant (73.9% vs. 91.3 p = 0.06). No significant differences for the selected variables were observed between the reinfection and control groups, although we observed a higher percentage of patients with chronic liver disease (30.8% vs 13.3%; p = 0.08). All isolates were sensitive to metronidazole and vancomycin. No significant differences in antibiotic susceptibility were found between the different groups. Sporulation and germination frequency of r-CDI were higher than non r-CDI (p = 0.02 and p < 0.01, respectively). Nevertheless, there were statistically not significant differences between the relapse and reinfection groups. Both frequencies were compared between the first and second episode of CDI for the relapse and reinfection groups, but differences were not observed to be statistically significant. In conclusion, our study showed that the recurrence of CDI was associated with antibiotic use and sporulation/germination frequency, regardless of relapse or reinfection. The use of antibiotics would produce a dysbiosis and favor the persistence of the C. difficile spores and relapse. A possible alteration of the intestinal microbiota and the bile salts produced by chronic liver disease could favor reinfection.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T17:04:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.08.012
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Dipeptidyl peptidase IV and quorum sensing signaling in biofilm-related
           virulence of Prevotella aurantiaca
    • Authors: Dareen Fteita; Ahmed Ali Musrati; Eija Könönen; Xiaochu Ma; Mervi Gürsoy; Markus Peurla; Eva Söderling; Herman O. Sintim; Ulvi Kahraman Gürsoy
      Pages: 152 - 159
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Dareen Fteita, Ahmed Ali Musrati, Eija Könönen, Xiaochu Ma, Mervi Gürsoy, Markus Peurla, Eva Söderling, Herman O. Sintim, Ulvi Kahraman Gürsoy
      Biofilm formation and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) enzyme activity contribute to the virulence of oral bacteria, and these virulence factors are partly regulated by quorum sensing signaling system. We recently demonstrated that estradiol regulates growth properties and DPPIV activity of Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, and Prevotella pallens. Here, we examined the DPPIV dependency of biofilm formation of Prevotella aurantiaca. Three strains (two clinical strains AHN 37505 and 37552 and the type strain CCUG 57723) were incubated in three estradiol concentrations (30, 90, and 120 nmol/L). Regulation of DPPIV activity, biofilm and fimbria formation, and coaggregation of bacterial strains were analyzed after incubation with four concentrations (10 nM, 100 nM, 1 μM, 10 μM) of dihydroxy-2,3-pentaedione (DPD), the universal precursor of autoinducer -2 (AI-2), and analogs (ethyl-DPD, butyl-DPD, and isobutyl-DPD) for 24 h. Estradiol enhanced the planktonic growth, coaggregation, and biofilm formation of P. aurantiaca strains. The whole cell extract of AHN 37505 had the highest DPPIV activity, followed by CCUG 57723 and AHN 37552. Inhibition of DPPIV activity with di-isopropylfluorophosphate suppressed the effect of estradiol on biofilm formation. At 100 nM and 10 μM concentrations of DPD, butyl DPD, and isobutyl DPD, biofilm formation of P. aurantiaca was significantly inhibited. Fimbriae formation was enhanced up to concentrations of 100 nM and 1 μM followed by a significant inhibition at higher concentrations of DPD and all analogs. A slight but significant inhibitory effect of DPD and analogs on DPPIV activity was observed. Our results indicate that DPPIV plays a key role in the estradiol-regulated biofilm formation of P. aurantiaca. Quorum sensing autoinducer DPD and C1-alkyl analogs could inhibit biofilm-related virulence of P. aurantiaca.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T17:04:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.08.009
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Preferential isolation of Megasphaera elsdenii from pig feces
    • Authors: Yu Kajihara; Shota Yoshikawa; Yuichiro Cho; Toshiyuki Ito; Hirokuni Miyamoto; Hiroaki Kodama
      Pages: 160 - 164
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Yu Kajihara, Shota Yoshikawa, Yuichiro Cho, Toshiyuki Ito, Hirokuni Miyamoto, Hiroaki Kodama
      Lactic acid produced by intestinal bacteria is fermented by lactate-utilizing bacteria. In this study, we developed a selective culture medium (KMI medium) for Megasphaera elsdenii, a lactate-utilizing bacterium that is abundant in pig intestines. Supplementation of the medium with lactate and beef extract powder was necessary for the preferential growth of M. elsdenii. In addition, we designed a species-specific primer set to detect M. elsdenii. When pig fecal samples were plated on KMI agar medium, approximately 60–100% of the resulting colonies tested positive using the M. elsdenii-specific PCR primers. In fact, nearly all of the large, yellow-white colonies that grew on the KMI agar medium tested positive by PCR with this primer set. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of three representative PCR-positive strains showed strong similarities to that of M. elsdenii ATCC 25940T (98.9–99.2% identity). These three strains were approximately 1.5 μm sized cocci that were primarily arranged in pairs, as was observed for M. elsdenii JCM 1772T. The selective KMI medium and species-specific primer set developed in this study are useful for the isolation and detection of M. elsdenii and will be useful in research aimed at increasing our understanding of intestinal short-chain fatty acid metabolism in pigs.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T17:04:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.08.013
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Spontaneous C. septicum gas gangrene: A literature review
    • Authors: Ira Srivastava; Michael J. Aldape; Amy E. Bryant; Dennis L. Stevens
      Pages: 165 - 171
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Ira Srivastava, Michael J. Aldape, Amy E. Bryant, Dennis L. Stevens
      As the infectious disease paradigm undergoes a subtle shift, unusual infections associated with malignancy and immunosuppression are being increasingly reported. Spontaneous or non-traumatic Clostridium septicum infection is one such unusual infection which has gained prominence. This article aims to understand the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and current trends in diagnosing and treating this rare but deadly infection. To understand the multifactorial causation of this infection a review of published cases of spontaneous C. septicum gas gangrene was performed and a total of 94 such cases were identified. Several factors were analyzed for each case: age, infection location and underlying illness, presenting signs and symptoms, neutropenia, gross pathology of the colon, antibiotic use, surgical intervention, and survival. A known or occult malignancy was present in 71% patients and an overall mortality of 67% was observed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T21:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.07.008
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Immune discrepancies during in vitro granuloma formation in response to
           Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes infection
    • Authors: Guillaume Ghislain Aubin; Grâce Ada Da Silva; Yoshinobu Eishi; Cédric Jacqueline; Frédéric Altare; Stéphane Corvec; Karim Asehnoune
      Pages: 172 - 176
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Guillaume Ghislain Aubin, Grâce Ada Da Silva, Yoshinobu Eishi, Cédric Jacqueline, Frédéric Altare, Stéphane Corvec, Karim Asehnoune
      Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes is involved in chronic/low-grade pathologies such as sarcoidosis or prosthetic joint infection (PJI). In these diseases, granulomatous structures are frequently observed. In this study, we induced a physiological granulomatous reaction in response to different well-characterized clinical C. acnes isolates in order to investigate the cellular process during granuloma formation. Three C. acnes isolates selected according to their origin (PJI, sarcoidosis and acne) were typed by MLST. All C. acnes isolates generated granulomatous structures in our experimental conditions. The bacterial burden was better controlled by granulomas induced by the sarcoidosis C. acnes isolate. The PJI C. acnes isolate, belonging to CC36, promoted the recruitment of CD8+ lymphocytes inside the granuloma. In contrast, the acne and sarcoidosis C. acnes isolates, belonging to phylotypes IA1/CC18 and IA2/CC28, respectively, generated a higher number of granulomas and promoted the recruitment of CD4+ lymphocytes inside the granuloma. Our results provide new evidence supporting the role of C. acnes in the development of sarcoidosis and new explanations concerning the mechanisms underlying PJI due to C. acnes.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T21:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.08.014
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Spatio-temporal variability of the epidemic 027 Clostridium difficile
           strains in France based on MLVA typing
    • Authors: Jeanne Couturier; Catherine Eckert; Frédéric Barbut
      Pages: 179 - 183
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Jeanne Couturier, Catherine Eckert, Frédéric Barbut
      MLVA analysis of 103 PCR ribotype 027 strains showed a regional specificity and the persistence of the same clone within a hospital several years apart. Capillary electrophoresis PCR ribotyping led to the identification of seven 027 variant strains and five 176 strains, four of them being implicated in an outbreak.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T21:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Dietary pomegranate extract and inulin affect gut microbiome
           differentially in mice fed an obesogenic diet
    • Authors: Song Zhang; Jieping Yang; Susanne M. Henning; Rupo Lee; Mark Hsu; Emma Grojean; Rita Pisegna; Austin Ly; David Heber; Zhaoping Li
      Pages: 184 - 193
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Song Zhang, Jieping Yang, Susanne M. Henning, Rupo Lee, Mark Hsu, Emma Grojean, Rita Pisegna, Austin Ly, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
      Growing evidence suggests that dysbiosis of gut microbiota is associated with pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Using dietary intervention to shape the composition and metabolism of the gut microbiota is increasingly recognized. In the present study, we investigated the effects of polysaccharide inulin and polyphenol-rich pomegranate extract (PomX) alone or in combination on the cecal microbiota composition and function in a diet induced obesity mouse model. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups and consumed either high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose, 17% energy from protein)] diet, HF/HS diet supplemented with PomX (0.25%), or inulin (9%) or PomX and inulin in combination for 4 weeks. In mice fed the PomX-diet the proportion of Turicibacteraceae and Ruminococcaceae was significantly increased compared to the control HF/HS diet. Supplementation with inulin alone and inulin + PomX combination significantly increased the proportion of Verrucomicrobiaceae (A. muciniphila) and decreased Clostridiaceae. Only mice fed the inulin diet experienced an increase in serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), which was reversed when feeding the inulin + PomX diet. Feeding the inulin + PomX diet was associated with a significant increase in Bifidobacteriaceae and Rikenellaceae, which may have contributed to the reduction of endotoxemia markers. Inulin supplementation showed lower species richness of gut microbiota compared to mice fed with HF/HS or HF/HS/PomX, and the reduction was reversed by the addition of PomX. Inulin alone and in combination with PomX had distinct microbial clusters determined by both weighted and unweighted UniFrac Beta-Diversity principle coordinate analysis. A total of 19 KEGG biological pathways were significantly regulated in the gut microbiota with PomX and inulin alone or combined treatment. Inulin significantly enhanced KEGG infectious disease-related pathway associated with increase of serum LPS and MCP-1. No changes in gene expression of ileal proinflammatory cytokine and tight junction genes were observed in mice treated with PomX and inulin. Our results demonstrated that the gut microbiota and their biological pathways were differentially effected by dietary PomX and inulin fed combined or alone. It is therefore very important to consider the interaction among bioactive components of food when evaluating potential prebiotic effects.

      PubDate: 2017-09-18T08:44:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.08.017
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Support material dictates the attached biomass characteristics during the
    • Authors: Jasmina Kerčmar; Albin Pintar
      Pages: 194 - 202
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Jasmina Kerčmar, Albin Pintar
      Hydrogen is considered to be an ideal energy alternative to replace environmentally burdensome fossil fuels. For its long-term production the immobilized biofilm system is the most promising and to choose the right support material the most challenging. In this respect, the anaerobic up-flow bioreactors packed with four most used support materials (polyethylene, polyurethane, activated carbon and expanded clay) were tested to investigate the crucial bacteria sensitive period-the immobilization process. Seven-day-operation was necessary and sufficient to reach metabolic and microbial stability regardless of support material used. The support material had an influence on the microbial metabolic activity as well as on quantity and quality characteristics of the immobilized microbial community, being polyethylene and expanded clay more appropriate as supports among the materials evaluated; this could be attributed to pH alteration. The obtained results suggest that the support material dictates the outcome of the immobilization process in the anaerobic continuous-flow bioreactor.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T08:53:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.06.007
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Improving gene transfer in Clostridium pasteurianum through the isolation
           of rare hypertransformable variants
    • Authors: Alexander Grosse-Honebrink; Katrin M. Schwarz; Hengzheng Wang; Nigel P. Minton; Ying Zhang
      Pages: 203 - 205
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Alexander Grosse-Honebrink, Katrin M. Schwarz, Hengzheng Wang, Nigel P. Minton, Ying Zhang
      Effective microbial metabolic engineering is reliant on efficient gene transfer. Here we present a simple screening strategy that may be deployed to isolate rare, hypertransformable variants. The procedure was used to increase the frequency of transformation of the solvent producing organism Clostridium pasteurianum by three to four orders of magnitude.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T08:53:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Fermentation properties of isomaltooligosaccharides are affected by human
           fecal enterotypes
    • Authors: Qinqin Wu; Xiong'e Pi; Wei Liu; Huahai Chen; Yeshi Yin; Hongwei D. Yu; Xin Wang; Liying Zhu
      Pages: 206 - 214
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Qinqin Wu, Xiong'e Pi, Wei Liu, Huahai Chen, Yeshi Yin, Hongwei D. Yu, Xin Wang, Liying Zhu
      Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOs) are enzymatically synthesized oligosaccharides that have potential prebiotic effects. Five IMO substrates with 2–16° of polymerization (DP) were studied for their fermentation capacities using human microbiomes in an in vitro batch fermentation model. Eleven fecal slurries belonging to three enterotypes, including the Bacteroides-, Prevotella- and Mixed-type, exhibited different degradation rates for long chain IMOs (DP 7 to 16). In contrast, the degradation rates for short chain IMOs (DP 2 to 6) were not affected by enterotypes. Both 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantitative PCR demonstrated that, after fermentation, the Bifidobacterium growth with IMOs was primarily detected in the Bacteroides- and Mixed-type (non-Prevotella-type), and to a lesser degree in the Prevotella-type. Interestingly, the Prevotella-type microbiome had higher levels of propionic acid and butyric acid production than non-Prevotella-type microbiome after IMOs fermentation. Moreover, principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of both denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiling and 16S rRNA sequencing data demonstrated that the microbiome community compositions were separately clustered based on IMO chain length, suggesting significant impact of DP on the bacterial community structure. The current results clearly demonstrated that the IMO chain length could modulate the structure and composition of the human colonic microbiome. Different responses to short and long chain IMOs were observed from three human enterotypes, indicating that IMOs may be used as therapeutic substrates for directly altering human colonic bacteria.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T08:53:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.08.016
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Genetic identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of clinically
           isolated anaerobic bacteria: A prospective multicenter surveillance study
           in Japan
    • Authors: Tomoyuki Yunoki; Yasufumi Matsumura; Masaki Yamamoto; Michio Tanaka; Kyoko Hamano; Satoshi Nakano; Taro Noguchi; Miki Nagao; Satoshi Ichiyama; Naohisa Fujita; Toshiaki Komori; Yukiji Yamada; Tsunehiro Shimizu; Akihiko Hayashi; Tamotsu Ono; Osamu Fukuda; Harumi Watanabe; Satoshi Ichiyama; Takeshi Higuchi; Shunji Takakura; Miki Nagao; Yasufumi Matsumura; Masaki Yamamoto; Kunihiko Moro; Tomomi Hasegawa; Takashi Yoshida; Masayo Shigeta; Hiromi Terada; Chiyoko Fukumoto; Yoshie Mitamura; Fusayuki Tsuboi
      Pages: 215 - 223
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Tomoyuki Yunoki, Yasufumi Matsumura, Masaki Yamamoto, Michio Tanaka, Kyoko Hamano, Satoshi Nakano, Taro Noguchi, Miki Nagao, Satoshi Ichiyama
      This prospective multicenter surveillance study was designed to provide antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of clinical anaerobic bacteria with genetic species identification in Japan. In 2014, a total of 526 non-duplicate clinical anaerobic isolates were collected from 11 acute-care hospitals in the Kyoto and Shiga regions of Japan. Genetic identification was performed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined in the central laboratory and were interpreted using the CLSI criteria. Genetic analysis provided species-level identification for 496 isolates (83 species in 40 genera) and genus-level identification for 21 isolates (13 genera). Among these 517 isolates, the most frequent anaerobes were Bacteroides spp. (n = 207), Prevotella spp. (n = 43), Clostridium spp. (n = 40), and Peptoniphilus spp. (n = 40). B. fragilis was the most common species (n = 107) and showed 91.6%–97.2% susceptibility to β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations (BLBLIs; ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and piperacillin-tazobactam) and carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem) as well as 100% susceptibility to metronidazole. Gram-negative anaerobes were highly susceptible to metronidazole (99.0%) followed by BLBLIs and carbapenems (>90% each). BLBLIs or carbapenems also retained activity against Gram-positive anaerobes (99.5%–100%) except Clostridioides difficile. All isolates were susceptible to combinations of metronidazole with BLBLIs or carbapenems. Thus, BLBLIs or carbapenems are first choices for empirical therapy of anaerobic infections in Japan, and these antimicrobials in combination with metronidazole should be reserved for very severe infections and targeted therapy.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:55:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Molecular analysis of three Clostridium difficile strain genomes isolated
           from pig farm-related samples
    • Authors: I. Martín-Burriel; S. Andrés-Lasheras; F. Harders; R.C. Mainar-Jaime; B. Ranera; P. Zaragoza; V. Falceto; Y. Bolea; E. Kuijper; R. Bolea; A. Bossers; M. Chirino-Trejo
      Pages: 224 - 231
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): I. Martín-Burriel, S. Andrés-Lasheras, F. Harders, R.C. Mainar-Jaime, B. Ranera, P. Zaragoza, V. Falceto, Y. Bolea, E. Kuijper, R. Bolea, A. Bossers, M. Chirino-Trejo
      Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic spore-forming bacillus that usually causes gastrointestinal disorders in man and other animal species. Most of the strains isolated from animals are toxigenic being the virulent ribotype (RT) 078 predominant in several animal species. Although C. difficile is pathogenic to both humans and animals, there is no direct evidence of zoonosis. Deep genome sequencing provides sufficient resolution to analyse which strains found in animals might be related to human pathogens. So far, there are only a few fully sequenced genomes of C. difficile strains isolated from domestic and wild animals. Using Illumina technology, we have sequenced the genome of three isolates; a strain isolated from the vagina of a sow (5754), one from rat (Rattus spp) intestinal content (RC10) and a third one isolated from environmental rat faeces (RF17). Both, rat and rat faeces were sampled in fattening pig farms. Our study reveals a close genetic relationship of two of these isolates with the virulent strain M120 (RT078) isolated from a human patient. The analysis of the sequences has revealed the presence of antibiotic resistance genes, mobile elements, including the transposon linked with virulence Tn6164, and the similarity of virulence factors between these isolates and human strains. This is the first study focused on the sequencing of C. difficile genomes obtained from wild animals like rats, which can be considered as potential reservoirs for humans and other animal species. This study can help to understand the genome composition and epidemiology of this bacterium species.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T09:30:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in a Brazilian
           cancer hospital
    • Authors: Cecília Leite Costa; Cibele Barreto Mano de Carvalho; Rafael Holanda González; Markus Andret Cavalcante Gifoni; Ronaldo de Albuquerque Ribeiro; Carlos Quesada-Gómez; Gerly Anne de Castro Brito
      Pages: 232 - 236
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Cecília Leite Costa, Cibele Barreto Mano de Carvalho, Rafael Holanda González, Markus Andret Cavalcante Gifoni, Ronaldo de Albuquerque Ribeiro, Carlos Quesada-Gómez, Gerly Anne de Castro Brito
      Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore forming anaerobic bacterium and the main cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea. This study aimed to perform the phenotypic characterization and molecular typing of Clostridium difficile isolates among patients at a cancer hospital in Brazil. During 18 months, 48 diarrheic fecal samples were collected, of these 48% were positive in either one or both of the performed tests: detection of toxins A/B and culture. Clostridium difficile was recovered from four samples (17%). All strains carried toxin A and B genes, and the isolates belonged to PCR-ribotype 014/020, PGFE-type NAP4 and toxinotype XVIII. On the other hand, one isolate belonged to a novel PCR-ribotype, and PFGE-type, likewise to toxinotype IXb. The isolates showed susceptibility to metronidazole, vancomycin and moxifloxacin, and were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Finally, the findings indicate high positivity between the samples tested, suggesting an expressive importance of this infection, including detection of a novel ribotype/PFGE-type of Clostridium difficile, and show for the first time the detection of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) in these patients in Northeast Brazil. These data emphasize the importance to a better understanding of the epidemiological situation of this infection in Brazilian hospitals.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T03:45:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • PCR-ribotype distribution of Clostridium difficile in Irish pigs
    • Authors: Katharina Stein; Sarah Egan; Helen Lynch; Céline Harmanus; Lorraine Kyne; Celine Herra; Sinead McDermott; Ed Kuijper; Fidelma Fitzpatrick; Susan FitzGerald; Lynda Fenelon; Denise Drudy
      Pages: 237 - 241
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Katharina Stein, Sarah Egan, Helen Lynch, Céline Harmanus, Lorraine Kyne, Celine Herra, Sinead McDermott, Ed Kuijper, Fidelma Fitzpatrick, Susan FitzGerald, Lynda Fenelon, Denise Drudy
      Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen in humans causing infections in the healthcare environment and the community. Carriage of C. difficile and C. difficile-related enterocolitis has been reported in piglets worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the rates of C. difficile isolation from pigs in Ireland. Faecal samples from piglet litters and sows were collected from six farms in 2015. The sows were non-diarrhoeal at the time of sampling. The diarrhoeal status of the piglets was unknown. C. difficile was isolated from 34/44 (77%) of piglet litter samples and from 33/156 (21%) of sow samples. The isolation rate in sows varied from 3 to 39% and in piglet litters from 72 to 86% depending on farm location. Toxin A and toxin B were present in 99% (66/67) of isolates; and binary toxin in 85% (57/67). Only PCR-ribotypes 078 (88%) and 193 (12%) were identified in piglets. Seven PCR-ribotypes were detected in sow C. difficile isolates: PCR-ribotypes 078 (67%), 050 (12%), 014/020 (6%), 015 (6%), 029 (3%), 035 (3%) and 193 (3%). This study shows that toxigenic C. difficile strains such as PCR-ribotype 078 can be commonly isolated from pigs at different geographical locations in Ireland. Since PCR-ribotype 078 is frequently found in humans in Ireland, this highlights the potential for interspecies transmission.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:55:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • Clostridium difficile causing pediatric infections: New findings from a
           hospital-based study in Italy
    • Authors: Patrizia Spigaglia; Fabrizio Barbanti; Elio Castagnola; Maria Cristina Diana; Luisa Pescetto; Roberto Bandettini
      Pages: 262 - 268
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Anaerobe, Volume 48
      Author(s): Patrizia Spigaglia, Fabrizio Barbanti, Elio Castagnola, Maria Cristina Diana, Luisa Pescetto, Roberto Bandettini
      Recent studies support a change of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) epidemiology in pediatric patients. Since limited information is available about C. difficile in this population, we investigated the epidemiology of CDI in a large pediatric hospital that acts as reference centre in Italy and analyzed C. difficile isolates to identify the prevalent PCR-ribotypes (RTs), the binary toxin (CDT)-positive strains and the antibiotic susceptibility patterns. The CDI incidence was 6.6 cases/1000 admissions and the majority (92%) of CDI were healthcare-associated (47% occurred in the Hematology-Oncology and in the Gastroenterology units). Most of symptomatic children <3 years with a positive culture for C. difficile were negative for other gastrointestinal pathogens, supporting C. difficile as cause of disease in these patients, including those showing recurrences. Strains RT020 (16%) and RT014 (14%) were identified as the main cause of infection, while RT356/607 and RT018, predominant in Italian adult patients, were absent (RT356/607) or rarely found (RT018) among children. CDT-positive strains represented the 20% of the total number of isolates analyzed. In particular, two emerging types, RT033 and RT442, were recognized as Toxin A-/Toxin B-/CDT+. Resistance to antibiotics characterized almost 50% of the toxigenic isolates analyzed in this study and, in particular, 20% of them were multidrug resistant (MDR). The emergence and circulation of strains with peculiar toxins profiles and/or MDR strongly highlight the necessity of a rapid CDI diagnosis, a careful monitoring of C. difficile in pediatric patients and a more strict control of antibiotics usage in the Italian pediatric hospitals.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T08:57:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2017)
  • The International Anaerobe Quality Assurance Scheme (IAQAS)
    • Authors: T. Morris; S. Copsey-Mawer; H. Hughes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017
      Author(s): T. Morris, S. Copsey-Mawer, H. Hughes

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T17:04:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.10.009
  • Hierarchical recognition of amino acid co-germinants during Clostridioides
           difficile spore germination
    • Authors: Ritu Shrestha; Joseph A. Sorg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Author(s): Ritu Shrestha, Joseph A. Sorg
      Bile acids are an important signal for germination of Clostridioides difficile spores; however, the bile acid signal alone is not sufficient. Amino acids, such as glycine, are another signal necessary for germination by C. difficile spores. Prior studies on the amino acid signal required for germination have shown that there is a preference for the amino acid used as a signal for germination. Previously we found that d-alanine can function as a co-germinant for C. difficile spores at 37 °C but not at 25 °C. Here, we tested the ability of other amino acids to act as co-germinants with taurocholate (TA) at 37 °C and found that many amino acids previously categorized as non-co-germinants are co-germinants at 37 °C. Based on the EC50 values calculated for two different strains, we found that C. difficile spores recognize different amino acids with varying efficiencies. Using this data, we ranked the amino acids based on their effect on germination and found that in addition to d-alanine, other D-forms of amino acids are also used by C. difficile spores as co-germinants. Among the different types of amino acids, ones with branched chains such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine are the poorest co-germinants. However, glycine is still the most effective amino acid signal for both strains. Our results suggest that the yet-to-be-identified amino acid germinant receptor is highly promiscuous.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T17:04:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.12.001
  • Developing an in vitro artificial sebum model to study Propionibacterium
           acnes biofilms
    • Authors: Karl-Jan Spittaels; Tom Coenye
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Author(s): Karl-Jan Spittaels, Tom Coenye
      Aim The aim of the present study was to develop a new model system to study Propionibacterium acnes biofilms. This model should be representative for the conditions encountered in the pilosebaceous unit. Methods and results The new model, consists of an artificial sebum pellet supported by a silicone disc. Sebum pellets were inoculated with various P. acnes strains isolated from both normal and acneic skin. Growth and biofilm formation was verified by conventional plating at different time points, as well as by resazurin assays and fluorescence microscopy after LIVE/DEAD staining. The artificial sebum pellets were also used in assays to measure the production of certain virulence factors implicated in the pathogenesis of acne, including lipase, protease and the presence of CAMP factors. Conclusion The artificial sebum model can sustain biofilm growth of P. acnes, as was determined by increasing CFU counts for up to 1 week after inoculation. Metabolic activity and biofilm formation were confirmed using resazurin staining and fluorescence microscopy respectively. The production of virulence factors in this model was demonstrated as well.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T16:42:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.11.002
  • Chorioamnionitis due to Leptotrichia trevisanii
    • Authors: Dionisia Fontanals; Carlos García-Miralles; Rosa Ballester; Belen Cochs; Ruth Orellana; Sílvia Capilla
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2017
      Author(s): Dionisia Fontanals, Carlos García-Miralles, Rosa Ballester, Belen Cochs, Ruth Orellana, Sílvia Capilla
      Very long fusiform gram-negative bacilli were observed after Gram staining of amniotic fluid from a 36-year-old multigravida woman. At 24 hours, pure, abundant growth of smooth, gray, only slightly convex catalase-positive and oxidase-negative colonies measuring about 2 mm were observed. Growth was greater in anaerobic than in aerobic conditions. The bacterium was identified as Leptotrichia trevisanii by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Ampicillin and gentamicin were prescribed for chorioamnionitis, and vaginal prostaglandins were administered to terminate the pregnancy. The patient remained afebrile throughout 48 hours and was discharged. Microscopic examination of the placenta revealed severe acute chorioamnionitis with a maternal inflammatory response and abundant bacillary-shaped microorganisms. To our knowledge, this isolate constitutes the first reported case of chorioamnionitis caused by L. trevisanii.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:55:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.11.001
  • A molecular technique to explore the relationship between Porphyromonas
           gingivalis and severity of chronic periodontitis: A clinical approach
    • Authors: J. Bagavad Gita; A.B. Aishwarya; N. Pavithra; S.C. Chandrasekaran; Ann V. George; A. Gnanamani
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Author(s): J. Bagavad Gita, A.B. Aishwarya, N. Pavithra, S.C. Chandrasekaran, Ann V. George, A. Gnanamani
      Relationship between clinical severities of periodontal disease and the expression of the associated pathogens serve as good indicators of real time disease activity and progression. A double blind study using Image J software carried out to assess the density of the amplified band for Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontally healthy and disease subjects. Results on image densities of P. gingivalis showed a statistical significance (p < 0.005) between healthy and diseased subjects and also within the various groups of periodontal disease severity. Thus, assessment of relative gel image density can be a simple yet valuable tool to monitor real time periodontal disease activity.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T09:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.10.011
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of oral Treponema species
    • Authors: Kazuko Okamoto-Shibayama; Jin Sekino; Kouki Yoshikawa; Atsushi Saito; Kazuyuki Ishihara
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Author(s): Kazuko Okamoto-Shibayama, Jin Sekino, Kouki Yoshikawa, Atsushi Saito, Kazuyuki Ishihara
      Treponemes occur in the microflora of the dental plaque. Certain Treponema species that are frequently isolated from chronic periodontitis lesions are involved in its initiation and progression. In addition to mechanical instrumentation, antimicrobial agents are used as an adjunctive treatment modality for periodontitis. Despite its importance for successful antimicrobial treatment, information about susceptibility is limited for Treponema species. The aim of this study was to assess the susceptibility of two Treponema denticola strains, Treponema socranskii, and Treponema vincentii to eleven antimicrobial agents. The minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations of these antimicrobial agents revealed strain-specific variation. Doxycycline, minocycline, azithromycin, and erythromycin were very effective against all Treponema species tested in this study, whereas fluoroquinolones only exhibited an equivalent effectiveness on T. socranskii. The susceptibility of one T. denticola strain, T. socranskii, and T. vincentii to kanamycin was influenced by prior exposure to aerobic conditions. The susceptibility to quinolone drugs varied among strains of T. denticola, although they share an amino acid sequence identity of greater than 99% for DNA gyrase (type II topoisomerase) subunit A. In addition, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter inhibitor assay for T. denticola indicated that the transport of quinolone drugs is partially related to this transporter, although there may be parallel transport mechanisms. Our results provide important insights into antimicrobial agent-Treponema dynamics and establish a basis for developing an appropriate adjunctive therapy for periodontal disease.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T03:45:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.10.005
  • The role of purified Clostridium difficile glucosylating toxins in disease
           pathogenesis utilizing a murine cecum injection model
    • Authors: Yongrong Zhang; Zhiyong Yang; Si Gao; Therwa Hamza; Harris G. Yfantis; Michael Lipsky; Hanping Feng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Author(s): Yongrong Zhang, Zhiyong Yang, Si Gao, Therwa Hamza, Harris G. Yfantis, Michael Lipsky, Hanping Feng
      Most pathogenic Clostridium difficile produce two major exotoxins TcdA and TcdB, in the absence of which the bacterium is non-pathogenic. While it is important to investigate the role of each toxin in the pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI) using isogenic strains, it is impossible to precisely control the expression levels of individual toxins and exclude bacterial factors that may contribute to the toxins' effects during infection. In this study, we utilized an acute intestinal disease model by injecting purified toxins directly into mouse cecum after a midline laparotomy. We evaluated the physical condition of mice by clinical score and survival, and the intestinal tissue damage and inflammation by histology. Depending on the dose of the toxins, mice developed mild to severe colitis, experienced diarrhea or rapidly died. We found that both purified TcdA and TcdB were able to induce clinical disease, intestinal inflammation, and tissue damage that resembled CDI. TcdA was significantly faster in inducing intestinal inflammation and tissue damage, and was approximately five times more potent than TcdB in terms of inducing severe gut disease and death outcomes in mice. Moreover, we found that the two toxins had significant synergistic effects on disease induction. Comparison of the in vivo toxicity of TcdB from clinical strains revealed that TcdB from an epidemic RT 027 strain was more toxic than the others. Our study thus demonstrates that both TcdA and TcdB, independent of other factors from C. difficile bacterium, are able to cause disease that resembles CDI and highlights the importance of targeting both toxins for vaccines and therapeutics against the disease.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T03:45:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.10.006
  • Identification of CfiA coding genes in Bacteroides fragilis isolates
           recovered in Argentina. Inconsistencies in CfiA organization and
    • Authors: Mirta R. Litterio; Daniela Cejas; Gabriel Gutkind; Marcela Radice
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Author(s): Mirta R. Litterio, Daniela Cejas, Gabriel Gutkind, Marcela Radice
      CfiA (CcrA) metallo-β-lactamase is the main carbapenem resistance mechanism in B. fragilis. From cfiA positive isolates detected in a previous surveillance study, 3 displayed resistance to imipenem while the remaining were susceptible. The aim of this study was to identify the cfiA alleles and to analyze the presence of IS elements in their upstream regions. CfiA-1, CfiA-4, CfiA-13, CfiA-19 and CfiA-22 were detected. IS elements belonging to IS21 family and IS942 group were identified upstream to cfiA in the 3 imipenem resistant isolates. We present an exhaustive analysis of cfiA/CfiA registers in databases, illustrating the inconsistencies in both organization and nomenclature. According to this analysis CfiA family comprises nowadays 15 different CfiA variants coded by 24 cfiA sequences. Curation of CfiA database is mandatory, if not new cfiA admission at GenBank will contribute to make this classification more complex.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T03:45:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.10.003
  • Rifaximin-resistant Clostridium difficile strains isolated from
           symptomatic patients
    • Authors: Reigadas Martin; Bouza
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Author(s): E. Reigadas, P. Muñoz-Pacheco, L. Alcalá, M. Marín, A. Martin, E. Bouza
      Background Rifaximin has been proposed as an alternative treatment for specific cases of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and intestinal decontamination. Rifaximin-resistant C. difficile has occasionally been reported. Antibiotic susceptibility testing relies on anaerobic agar dilution (reference method), which is cumbersome and not routinely used. There is no commercial test for detection of resistance to rifaximin. Objectives To assess resistance to rifaximin by C. difficile and to evaluate the correlation between the results of the rifampicin E-test and susceptibility to rifaximin. Methods We compared the in vitro susceptibility of clinical CDI isolates to rifaximin over a 6-month period using the agar dilution method with susceptibility to rifampicin using the E-test. All isolates were characterized using PCR-ribotyping. Clinical data were recorded prospectively. Results We recovered 276 consecutive C. difficile isolates and found that 32.2% of episodes were caused by rifaximin-resistant strains. The MICs for rifaximin ranged from <0.0009–256 mg/L, with a geometric mean (GM) of 0.256 mg/L, an MIC50/90 of 0.015/>256 mg/L. Rifaximin and rifampicin MICs were comparable, and all strains classed as resistant by agar dilution were correctly classified as resistant by E-test. The most common ribotypes were 001 (37.2%), 078/126 (14.3%), and 014 (12.0%). Ribotype 001 exhibited the highest MICs for rifaximin. Conclusions Resistance to rifaximin was common; resistance rates were higher in ribotype 001 strains. Susceptibility to rifaximin determined by agar dilution correlated with susceptibility to rifampicin determined using the E-test, including rifaximin-resistant strains. Our results suggest that the rifampicin E-test is a valid method for the prediction of rifaximin-resistant C. difficile.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T02:40:16Z
  • Is Clostridium difficile infection a risk factor for subsequent
           bloodstream infection'
    • Authors: Robert J. Ulrich; Kavitha Santhosh; Jill A. Mogle; Vincent B. Young; Krishna Rao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017
      Author(s): Robert J. Ulrich, Kavitha Santhosh, Jill A. Mogle, Vincent B. Young, Krishna Rao
      Background Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common nosocomial diarrheal illness increasingly associated with mortality in United States. The underlying factors and mechanisms behind the recent increases in morbidity from CDI have not been fully elucidated. Murine models suggest a mucosal barrier breakdown leads to bacterial translocation and subsequent bloodstream infection (BSI). This study tests the hypothesis that CDI is associated with subsequent BSI in humans. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 1132 inpatients hospitalized >72 h with available stool test results for toxigenic C. difficile. The primary outcome was BSI following CDI. Secondary outcomes included 30-day mortality, colectomy, readmission, and ICU admission. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were developed. Results CDI occurred in 570 of 1132 patients (50.4%). BSI occurred in 86 (7.6%) patients. Enterococcus (14%) and Klebsiella (14%) species were the most common organisms. Patients with BSI had higher comorbidity scores and were more likely to be male, on immunosuppression, critically ill, and have a central venous catheter in place. Of the patients with BSI, 36 (42%) had CDI. CDI was not associated with subsequent BSI (OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.44–1.08; P = 0.103) in unadjusted analysis. In multivariable modeling, CDI appeared protective against subsequent BSI (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.34–0.96; P = 0.036). Interaction modeling suggests a complicated relationship among CDI, BSI, antibiotic exposure, and central venous catheter use. Conclusions In this cohort of inpatients that underwent testing for CDI, CDI was not a risk factor for developing subsequent BSI.
      Teaser Key Points: Clostridium difficile infection is not associated with subsequent bloodstream infection. It is associated with male gender, immunosuppression, comorbid disease burden, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T15:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.06.020
  • Dose-response effects of dietary pequi oil on fermentation characteristics
           and microbial population using a rumen simulation technique (Rusitec)
    • Authors: Andrea Camacho Duarte; Zoey Durmic; Philip E. Vercoe; Alexandre V. Chaves
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2017
      Author(s): Andrea Camacho Duarte, Zoey Durmic, Philip E. Vercoe, Alexandre V. Chaves
      The effect of increasing the concentration of commercial pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) oil on fermentation characteristics and abundance of methanogens and fibrolityc bacteria was evaluated using the rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). In vitro incubation was performed over 15 days using a basal diet consisting of ryegrass, maize silage and concentrate in equal proportions. Treatments consisted of control diet (no pequi oil inclusion, 0 g/kg DM), pequi dose 1 (45 g/kg DM), and pequi dose 2 (91 g/kg DM). After a 7 day adaptation period, samples for fermentation parameters (total gas, methane, and VFA production) were taken on a daily basis. Quantitative real time PCR (q-PCR) was used to evaluate the abundance of the main rumen cellulolytic bacteria, as well as abundance of methanogens. Supplementation with pequi oil did not reduce overall methane production (P = 0.97), however a tendency (P = 0.06) to decrease proportion of methane in overall microbial gas was observed. Increasing addition of pequi oil was associated with a linear decrease (P < 0.01) in dry matter disappearance of maize silage. The abundance of total methanogens was unchanged by the addition of pequi oil, but numbers of those belonging to Methanomassiliicoccaceae decreased in liquid-associated microbes (LAM) samples (P < 0.01) and solid-associated microbes (SAM) samples (P = 0.09) respectively, while Methanobrevibacter spp. increased (P < 0.01) only in SAM samples. Fibrobacter succinogenes decreased (P < 0.01) in both LAM and SAM samples when substrates were supplemented with pequi oil. In conclusion, pequi oil was ineffective in mitigating methane emissions and had some adverse effects on digestibility and selected fibrolytic bacteria.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T15:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.06.013
  • Microbial analysis of root canal and periradicular lesion associated to
           teeth with endodontic failure
    • Authors: R.S. Pereira; V.A.A. Rodrigues; W.T. Furtado; S. Gueiros; G.S. Pereira; M.J. Avila-Campos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2017
      Author(s): R.S. Pereira, V.A.A. Rodrigues, W.T. Furtado, S. Gueiros, G.S. Pereira, M.J. Avila-Campos
      The quantification of ten microorganisms at the root ends and in the surrounding periradicular lesions was performed. Thirty 3 mm samples root ends and 30 samples of the surrounding chronic periapical infection were collected during apical microsurgery. Samples were triturated, and the bacterial DNA was obtained. The bacterial quantification was performed by using the SYBR Green system. At least one microorganism was detected in all patients. In both the root end and periapical samples, Fusobacterium nucleatum (71.6%), Dialister pneumosintes (58.3%) and Tannerella forsythia (48.3%) were the most prevalent species. Dialister pneumosintes showed statistically significant values in the root end, and F. nucleatum was also significant in the apical periodontitis samples. A statistically significant association between T. forsythia and Porphyromonas gingivalis in the root ends was observed. Bacterial associations from 2 to 7 species were observed in most samples. Extra-radicular and/or intra-radicular infections were present in all teeth with failed endodontic treatment, and showed polymicrobial infection in most cases, with a predominance of F. nucleatum, D. pneumosintes and T. forsythia. When present, Enterococcus faecalis was never found to be the most prevalent species. The presence of a microbial diversity in post-treatment apical periodontitis confirms the polymicrobial and synergistic characteristic of this process. Our results show that the bacterial array associated with the 3 mm root ends and periradicular lesions in post-treatment apical periodontitis are complex and with a high inter-individual variability. These results might be useful to delineate treatment strategies for microbial elimination in apical periodontitis. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of these microorganisms in endodontic treatment failures.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T15:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.06.016
  • Prevalence of Clostridium perfringens toxin in patients suspected of
           having antibiotic-associated diarrhea
    • Authors: Young Jin Kim; Si Hyun Kim; Junggu Ahn; Soongmoon Cho; Dongchun Kim; Kwanghyun Kim; Heegun Lee; Hyunwoo Son; Hee Joo Lee; Dongeun Yong; Jun Yong Choi; Hye Ran Kim; Jeong Hwan Shin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2017
      Author(s): Young Jin Kim, Si Hyun Kim, Junggu Ahn, Soongmoon Cho, Dongchun Kim, Kwanghyun Kim, Heegun Lee, Hyunwoo Son, Hee Joo Lee, Dongeun Yong, Jun Yong Choi, Hye Ran Kim, Jeong Hwan Shin
      Background Although Clostridium perfringens has been reported as a cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), it is uncommon to detect this pathogen in clinical microbiology laboratories in Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of C. perfringens toxin in patients suspected of having AAD. Methods A total of 135 stool specimens submitted to a clinical microbiology laboratory for C. difficile toxin assay were tested. We tried to detect both C. difficile and C. perfringens toxins using the Seeplex Diarrhea ACE Detection kit (Seegene, Seoul, Korea). We evaluated the prevalence of 10 bacteria and 5 viruses. Results A total of 40 Clostridium spp. were detected in 34 specimens (29.6%). The C. perfringens toxin was detected in 14 of 135 specimens (10.4%), while C. difficile toxin was detected in 26 specimens (19.3%). Other bacteria and viruses, including 8 Aeromonas spp., were detected in 15 specimens. All tests were negative in 92 of the 135 specimens (68.1%). Conclusion Clostridium. perfringens toxin is relatively common, and we should consider the possibility of its presence in patients suspected of having AAD, especially if C. difficile tests are negative.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T15:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.06.015
  • Actinomyces radicidentis and Actinomyces haliotis, coccoid Actinomyces
           species isolated from the human oral cavity
    • Authors: Rolf Claesson; Ulf Sjögren; Anders Esberg; Malin Brundin; Margareta Granlund
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2017
      Author(s): Rolf Claesson, Ulf Sjögren, Anders Esberg, Malin Brundin, Margareta Granlund
      There are few reports on the bacterial species Actinomyces radicidentis in the literature. In this study, putative A. radicidentis isolates were collected from 16 root canal samples from 601 examined patients. The isolates were examined by biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Arbitrarily-primed (AP-) PCR, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and MALDI-TOF analyses. In parallel, two A. radicidentis reference strains and two putative A. radicidentis isolates from United Kingdom were tested. Sixteen of the 18 isolates were confirmed as A. radicidentis. The remaining two isolates, both of which were isolated from root canals (one from Sweden and the other from the UK), but were identified as Actinomyces haliotis by sequencing ∼ 1300 base pairs of the 16S rRNA-gene. This isolates had a divergent, but between them similar, AP-PCR pattern, and a common distribution of sequence signatures in the 16S rRNA gene, but were not identified by MALDI-TOF. A. haliotis is a close relative to A. radicidentis, hitherto only been described from a sea-snail. The identity of A. haliotis was confirmed by a phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences with species specific sequences included, and by additional biochemical tests. The examined bacteria exhibited similar antibiotic susceptibility patterns when tested for 10 separate antibiotic classes with E-tests (bioMérieux). The MIC90 for β-lactams (benzylpenicillin and cefuroxime) and vancomycin was 0.5 mg/L, for colistin and ciprofloxacin 8 mg/mL and for the other antibiotic classes ≤ 25 mg/mL The isolation of A. haliotis from infected dental root canals cast doubt on the accepted opinion that all Actinomyces infections have an endogenous source.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T15:30:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.06.011
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