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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3310 journals)
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    - BIOLOGY (1577 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1577 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Biologica Venezuelica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 80)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 379)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Anaerobe
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.144
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1075-9964 - ISSN (Online) 1095-8274
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3181 journals]
  • Biotransformation of organic acids to their corresponding alcohols by
           Thermoanaerobacter pseudoethanolicus
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 57Author(s): Sean M. Scully, Aaron Brown, Andrew B. Ross, Johann Orlygsson Higher order alcohols, such as 1-butanol and 1-hexanol, have a large number of applications but are currently prepared from non-renewable feedstocks. Here, the ability of Thermoanaerobacter pseudoethanolicus to reduce short-chain fatty acids to their corresponding alcohols using reducing potential generated by glucose catabolism with yields between 21.0 and 61.0%. 13C-labelled acetate, 1-propionate and 1-butyrate demonstrates that exogenously added fatty acids are indeed reduced to their corresponding alcohols. This mode of producing primary alcohols from fatty acids using a thermophilic anaerobe opens the door for the production of such alcohols from low-value materials using an inexpensive source of reducing potential.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Dietary therapy for clostridium difficile colonization: A case series
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 57Author(s): David L. Suskind, Dale Lee, Peggy Solan, Ghassan Wahbeh, Hillary Hayden, Mitch Brittnacher, Mason Nuding, Samuel Miller Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is an important nosocomial pathogen in adults and children. Roughly 4–5% of non hospitalized healthy adults carry the organism in their intestinal flora while adults in long term care facilities have asymptomatic carriage rates estimated at 20–50%. C. difficile colonization results in a spectrum of clinical conditions from asymptomatic carrier state to fulminant colitis.Changes in the fecal microbiome are central in the development of C. difficile colonization and disease pathogenesis. C. difficile infection has been shown to be associated with reduced biodiversity of the gut microbiome and intestinal dysbiosis. With the importance of the intestinal microbiota in development of CDI and with the known impact of diet on the intestinal microbiota, we report the first known case of C. difficile colonization/recurrence successful treated by dietary modification.
       
  • Effects of the supplementation of plant-based formulations on microbial
           fermentation and predicted metabolic function in vitro
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 57Author(s): Renée Maxine Petri, Elsayed Mickdam, Fenja Klevenhusen, Birgit Beyer, Qendrim Zebeli This study aimed at testing the effects of three different formulations of feed supplements based on three different combinations of plant derived alkaloids, prebiotics, tannins, vitamins and minerals on rumen fermentation and the microbiome in vitro. A Rusitec experiment was conducted in 2 identical runs using a complete randomized design with 3 replicates per treatment resulting in total of 6 treatment combinations (n = 6). Each run lasted 12 d with sampling occurring in the last 5 d. Diets were a standard dairy ration (60:40; concentrate:forage) supplemented with one of 3 different plant-based combinations (PI, PII, and PIII) at a level of 100 mg/l and a non-supplemented control (basal diet, control). Microbial DNA samples were taken on the last day of each run and the 16S rRNA target gene sequenced using Illumina MiSeq technology. The supplementations had no effect on the pH, methane and carbon dioxide production. However, both total SCFA (P = 0.08) and molar concentrations of acetate (P = 0.06) tended to be increased in the treatment groups in comparison to control, with PII having the highest overall values (102.7 mmol/L and 43.3 mmol/L, respectively). Alpha diversity indices Shannon, Simpson and Chao1 showed no effect of supplementations or combinations. The addition of PII increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes compared to all other treatments (P = 0.05). Supplementation with plant-based combinations reduced the relative abundance of Pyramidobacter from the family Dethiosulfovibrionaceae in comparison with the control diet (P = 0.05). Evaluation of predicted gene function through PICRUSt analysis showed variation in predicted cellular function and metabolism between bacterial communities supplemented with plant-based combinations compared to the control diet. This shows that the addition of plant-based combinations can have the potential to modulate the metabolic function of rumen microbes, and likely the production of small-sized rumen metabolites, without disrupting the rumen microbial community structure and diversity.
       
  • Purified thioredoxin reductase from O2-sensitive Bifidobacterium bifidum
           degrades H2O2 by interacting with alkyl hydroperoxide reductase
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 57Author(s): Takumi Satoh, Mitsunori Todoroki, Kazuya Kobayashi, Youichi Niimura, Shinji Kawasaki Bifidobacterium is beneficial for host health and exhibits different O2 sensitivity levels among species or strains via unknown mechanisms. Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM1255T, a type species of Bifidobacterium, is an O2-sensitive bacterium that can grow under low-O2 (5%) conditions, and the growth of this species is inhibited under high-O2 conditions (10% ∼) with accumulation of H2O2. We previously reported that NADH or NAD(P)H oxidase-active fractions were detected during purification using microaerobically grown B. bifidum cells, and the active enzyme was purified from the NADH oxidase-active fraction. The purified enzyme was identified as b-type dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODb) and characterized as a dominant H2O2 producer in B. bifidum. In this study, we performed further purification of the enzyme from the NAD(P)H oxidase-active fraction and characterized the purified enzyme as a part of the H2O2 degradation system in B. bifidum. This purified enzyme was identified as thioredoxin reductase (TrxR); the NAD(P)H oxidase activity of this enzyme was not expressed in anaerobically grown B. bifidum, and mRNA expression was induced by O2 exposure. Furthermore, the purified B. bifidum TrxR interacted with recombinant alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (rAhpC) and exhibited NAD(P)H peroxidase activity. These results suggest that TrxR responds to O2 and protects B. bifidum from oxidative stress by degrading H2O2 via the TrxR-AhpC system.
       
  • Wastewater biofilm formation on self-assembled monolayer surfaces using
           elastomeric flow cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 57Author(s): Arslan Siddique, Benjaphon Suraraksa, Mati Horprathum, Sukunya Oaew, Sarawut Cheunkar In anaerobic wastewater treatment, microbial biofilm is beneficial for efficient substrate utilization and for preventing the wash-out of key microorganisms. By providing solid supports, biofilm formation can be accelerated due to the early initial adhesion of residing microbes. Alteration in surface properties is therefore one such approach that helps us understand microbial interfacial interaction. Here, self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols with carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-OH), and amine (-NH2) terminal moieties on gold (Au) substrates were employed to study the initial adhesion of wastewater microbes. An elastomeric flow cell was also utilized to simulate the environment of wastewater bioreactor. Results from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) portrayed more enhanced microbial adhesion after 2 h on -NH2 functional group with the calculated surface coverage of 12.8 ± 2.4% as compared to 7.7 ± 1.6% on -COOH, 11.0 ± 2.0% on -OH, and 1.2% on unmodified Au surfaces. This might be because of concomitant electrostatic attraction between negatively-charged bacteria and positively-charged (-NH3+) functional groups. Nevertheless, the average surface coverage by individual biofilm clusters was 28.0 ± 5.0 μm2 and 32.0 ± 9.0 μm2 on -NH2 and -OH surfaces, respectively, while -COOH surfaces resulted in higher value (60.0 ± 5.0 μm2) and no significant cluster formation was observed on Au surfaces. Accordingly, the average inter-cluster distance observed on -NH2 surfaces was relatively smaller (3.0 ± 0.6 μm) as compared to that on other surfaces. Overall, these data suggest favorable initial biofilm growth on more hydrophilic and positively-charged surfaces. Furthermore, the analysis of the mean fluorescence intensity revealed preferred initial adhesion of key microbes (archaea) on -OH and -NH2 surfaces. Indeed, results obtained from this study would be beneficial in designing selective biointerfaces for certain biofilm carriers in a typical wastewater bioreactor. Importantly, our elastomeric flow cell integrated with SAM-modified surfaces demonstrated an ideal platform for high-throughput investigation of wastewater biofilm under controlled environments.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile shedding by polar bears (Ursus
           maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 57Author(s): J Scott Weese, Fernando Salgado-Bierman, Maja Rupnik, Dale A. Smith, Peter van Coeverden de Groot Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile has been identified in humans and a wide range of animal species, but there has been little study of remote animal populations with limited human contact. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and types of C. difficile in wild and captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus).Fecal samples were collected from two populations of wild polar bears in Nunavut Canada; M’Clintock Channel and Hudson Strait (Davis Strait or Foxe Basin), as well as from a facility (PBJ) in Churchill, Manitoba that temporarily houses nuisance polar bears and from captive bears in a zoological park. Enrichment culture was performed and isolates were characterized by ribotyping and toxinotyping.Clostridium difficile was isolated from 24/143 (16.8%) of samples; 18/120 (15%) wild bear samples, 4/7 (57%) from the PBJ and 2/16 (13%) samples from three zoo bears. The prevalence of C. difficile was significantly higher in bears that were housed at the PBJ vs wild bears (P = 0.0042), but there was no difference between wild bears from M’Clintock Channel (14/100, 14%) and those from Hudson Strait (4/20, 20%) (P = 0.50).Fourteen of the 24 (58%) isolates were toxigenic; 13/18 (72%) wild bear isolates, 0/4 PBJ isolate and 1/2 zoo isolates. Four toxigenic ribotypes were identified, with one that possessed tcdB and cdtA predominating. None of the toxigenic isolates were ribotypes that have been identified previously by the authors. There was no overlap in toxigenic ribotypes between the different populations.Clostridium difficile was not uncommonly identified in polar bears, with differences in type distribution amongst the different regions. The presence of strains that have not been identified in humans or domestic animals suggests that polar bears may be a natural reservoir of unique strains of this important bacterium.
       
  • Clostridium septicum arthritis in a young infant: A case report
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 57Author(s): Pragati Grover, Kiran Bala, Jayashree Muralidharan, Archana Angrup, Pallab Ray Septic arthritis is one of the most serious conditions leading to grave consequences in all age groups, with a number of cases seen in infancy and childhood. Although septic arthritis in neonates is a known clinical entity, it is a diagnostic dilemma for the paediatricians. Of the reported causes of bacterial arthritis, anaerobic bacteria account for only 1%. Anaerobic bacterial septic arthritis may be more common than appreciated and therefore anaerobic as well as aerobic cultures should be done in all cases of septic arthritis. We report the first documented case of spontaneous septic arthritis due to Clostridium septicum in an infant with successful outcome.
       
  • Exopolysaccharides synthesized by Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis
           interact with TLR4 in intestinal epithelial cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 56Author(s): Nuria Castro-Bravo, Abelardo Margolles, Jerry M. Wells, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo The toll-like receptors involved in recognition of the exopolysaccharide produced by two isogenic, ropy and non-ropy, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains were investigated. Both strains interact with human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells via TLR2, whereas purified EPSs specifically stimulate TLR4 regardless their molar mass.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Skin and soft tissue infection caused by Cutibacterium (formerly
           Propionibacterium) avidum: Report of eleven cases
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 56Author(s): Daniel Tena, Luciano Saa We describe the characteristics of 11 cases of skin and soft tissue infections due to Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) avidum. This microorganism should be considered a potential skin pathogen especially in patients with breast infections. The clinical outcome is usually good but serious infections such as necrotizing infections may occur.
       
  • Clostridioides difficile ribotypes isolated from domestic environment and
           from patients in Bangladesh
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 56Author(s): Mohammad Aminul Islam, Nayel D. Kabir, M. Moniruzzaman, Khurshida Begum, Dilruba Ahmed, A.S.G. Faruque, Kevin W. Garey, M. Jahangir Alam Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is an emerging but often understudied infectious disease in developing countries. This study was aimed to isolate and characterize C. difficile from shoe sole swabs and diarrheal patient's stool samples in Bangladesh. We collected 94 shoe sole swabs samples from urban communities in Dhaka and 208 diarrheal stool samples from hospitalized patients over a period of 4 months. Samples were incubated anaerobically for C. difficile growth, confirmed toxigenic, and PCR-ribotyped. Eleven of 94 (11.7%) shoe sole swabs and 4 of 208 (1.9%) stool samples were culture positive of which 9 shoe sole isolates were toxigenic. Six PCR ribotypes from the 9 toxigenic isolates were identified with ribotype F014-020 being the most common (n = 4; 44%). The recently identified ribotype 106 strain was also identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. difficile culture, isolation and characterization from environmental sources in Bangladesh.
       
  • Genomic analysis of three C lostridioides difficile isolates from urban
           water sources
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 56Author(s): Daniela Numberger, Thomas Riedel, Gayle McEwen, Ulrich Nübel, Martinique Frentrup, Isabel Schober, Boyke Bunk, Cathrin Spröer, Jörg Overmann, Hans-Peter Grossart, Alex D. Greenwood We investigated inflow of a wastewater treatment plant and sediment of an urban lake for the presence of Clostridioides difficile by cultivation and PCR. Among seven colonies we sequenced the complete genomes of three: two non-toxigenic isolates from wastewater and one toxigenic isolate from the urban lake. For all obtained isolates, a close genomic relationship with human-derived isolates was observed.
       
  • Slackia exigua, an anaerobic Gram-positive rod and part of human oral
           microbiota associated with periprosthetic joint infection of the hip.
           First case and review of the literature
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 56Author(s): Heime Rieber, Andre Frontzek, Hubertus Schmitt We report on the first case of a periprosthetic joint infection with the anaerobic Gram-positive rod Slackia exigua as the causative agent. The bacterium is part of human oral microbiota and has so far mainly been associated with periodontal diseases.
       
  • Late ascending aortic prosthesis infection by Porphyromonas pogonae: An
           unexpected infectious complication
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 56Author(s): Anna Romero de Oliveira, Jussimara Monteiro Nürmberger, Mário Issa, Virginia Pinto, Marina Macedo Kuenzer Bond, Janayna T. Rabelato, Matheus B. Meirelles, Lisia Miglioli, Cely S. Abboud Late complications in ascending aortic surgeries are uncommon and may occur by infectious processes, usually caused by gram positive bacteria. We report a case of aortic prosthesis infection by Porphyromonas pogonae, an anaerobic gram-negative coccobacillus that can grow under microaerobic conditions, three years after ascending aortic reconstruction surgery.
       
  • Polymicrobial anaerobic meningitis caused by Bacteroides fragilis,
           Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Slackia exigua
           in a patient with mastoiditis following otitis media
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 56Author(s): G.N. Kalay, N. Dalgic, T. Bozan, N. Ulger- Toprak, B. Bayraktar, G. Soyletir We have reported a case of mastoiditis which progressed to meningitis in a 16-year old male patient. CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) anaerobic culture revealed four species of isolated anaerobic bacteria. This is the first case in the literature in which a patient survived childhood polymicrobial anaerobic meningitis diagnosed by MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry).
       
  • Finegoldia magna causing intramedullary thoracic spinal cord abscess in an
           infant
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 56Author(s): Sarah Alsubaie, Saeed Dolgum, Khalifa Binkhamis, Ikhlass Alweijri, Amani Bugshan, Fahad Alzamil Spinal intramedullary abscesses are rare and potentially devastating lesions. Infection is mostly caused by staphylococci. Anaerobes are rare and often polymicrobial. We report an unusual case of spinal cord intramedullary abscess in a 7-month-old infant with monomicrobial infection due to Finegoldia magna. She was found to have a missed congenital thoracic dermal sinus. The patient was treated with metronidazole and ceftriaxone for 8 weeks, and improvement of the infection was documented. Clinical awareness of patients at risk is crucial for early diagnosis and intervention. As detection methods continue to improve for Finegoldia magna, it is important to increase awareness of the pathogenic role of this organism.
       
  • Is botulism type C transmissible to human by consumption of contaminated
           poultry meat' Analysis of a suspect outbreak in French Guyana
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 56Author(s): Arnaud Martrenchar, Félix Djossou, Cécile Stagnetto, Céline Dupuy, Elodie Brulez, Christiane Attica, Gerald Egmann, Jérome Gruenfeld, Jean-Michel Fontanella, Michel-Robert Popoff Botulism type C was suspected in a 46-year old man after consumption of sick poultry from a flock where botulism type C was confirmed. The patient developed characteristic signs of botulism, but investigation of biological samples did not confirm the presence of Clostridium botulinum or botulinum toxin. Despite having classical botulism symptoms, the man recovered very quickly. This raises the question of botulism transmission to humans by ingestion of contaminated poultry.
       
  • Native joint septic arthritis due to Clostridium tarantellae
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 56Author(s): Aurélie Cointe, Gauthier Péan de Ponfilly, Anne-Lise Munier, Marwa Bachir, Hanaa Benmansour, Anne-Claude Crémieux, Marine Forien, Aline Frazier, Elie Krief, Emmanuelle Cambau, Hervé Jacquier Clostridium is a diverse genus including more than 200 species involved in varied clinical presentations in infectious diseases. Septic arthritis caused by Clostridium sp. are however uncommon. We report here the first septic arthritis due to Clostridium tarantellae, formerly called Eubacterium tarantellae, in a patient under anti-TNF therapy.
       
  • Isolation, characterization, and genome insights into an anaerobic
           sulfidogenic Tissierella bacterium from Cu-bearing coins
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 56Author(s): Polina A. Bukhtiyarova, Dmitry V. Antsiferov, Gael Brasseur, Marat R. Avakyan, Yulia A. Frank, Olga P. Ikkert, Nikolay V. Pimenov, Olli H. Tuovinen, Olga V. Karnachuk Recent reports on antimicrobial effects of metallic Cu prompted this study of anaerobic microbial communities on copper surfaces. Widely circulating copper-containing coinage was used as a potential source for microorganisms that had had human contact and were tolerant to copper. This study reports on the isolation, characterization, and genome of an anaerobic sulfidogenic Tissierella sp. P1from copper-containing brass coinage. Dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase dsrAB present in strain P1 genome and the visible absorbance around 630 nm in the cells suggested the presence of a desulfoviridin-type protein. However, the sulfate reduction rate measurements with 35SO42− did not confirm the dissimilatory sulfate reduction by the strain. The P1 genome lacks APS reductase, sulfate adenylyltransferase, DsrC, and DsrMK necessary for dissimilatory sulfate reduction. The isolate produced up to 0.79 mM H2S during growth, possibly due to cysteine synthase (CysK) and/or cysteine desulfhydrase (CdsH) activities, encoded in the genome. The strain can tolerate up to 2.4 mM Cu2+(150 mg/l) in liquid medium, shows affinity to metallic copper, and can survive on copper-containing coins up to three days under ambient air and dry conditions. The genome sequence of strain P1 contained cutC, encoding a copper resistance protein, which distinguishes it from all other Tissierella strains with published genomes.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Isolation, characterization and conjugated linoleic acid production
           potential of bifidobacterial isolates from ruminal fluid samples of Murrah
           buffaloes
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 56Author(s): Neeru Jaglan, Sachin Kumar, Prasanta Kumar Choudhury, Bhawna Tyagi, Amrish Kumar Tyagi In the present study, we investigated the potential of Bifidobacterium spp., isolated from ruminal fluid samples from buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production. A total of 294 isolates were obtained from 86 ruminal fluid samples using Bifidus Selective Medium (BSM) medium, and based on phospoketolase assay, 24 isolates were presumptively confirmed to be Bifidobacterium species. Further, the isolates were confirmed morphologically, biochemically and by PCR assays for genus specific (16s rDNA) and transaldolase genes. All 24 strains were positive for conversion of linoleic acid (LA) to CLA by spectrophotometric screening. Gas chromatographic analysis showed that the strains produced cis9, trans11 and tran10, cis12 CLA isomers in LA-supplemented deMan-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) broth. The strains were identified as B. thermophilum (n = 21) and B. pseudolongum (n = 3) based on 16 rDNA sequence analysis. The study shows that Bifidobacterium spp., present in the rumens of buffaloes produce CLA from LA and the strains may have the potential to be used as probiotics to enhance the nutraceutical value of ruminant food products.
       
  • Nexus between the microbial diversity level and the stress tolerance
           within the biogas process
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 56Author(s): Johanna Klang, Ulrich Szewzyk, Daniel Bock, Susanne Theuerl To investigate whether there is a nexus between the microbial diversity level (taxonomic, functional and ecological) and the stress tolerance potential of the microbial community, the impact of different ammonium sources was evaluated. Therefore reactors adapted either to the anaerobic digestions of sugar beet silage or maize silage (SBS/MS) were supplemented with animal manure (M) or ammonium carbonate (A).The results showed that increasing concentrations of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) were not the only reason for community changes: the bacterial community in the reactors given animal manure became more similar over time compared to the reactors given ammonium carbonate. However, this study revealed that a bacterial community with a few dominant members led to a functional more flexible archaeal community (SBS reactors) which was more stress resistant under the experimental conditions. This indicates that a higher functional diversity within a certain part of the community, in the present study the archaeal community, is one important factor for process stability due to a higher tolerance to increasing amounts of process-inhibiting metabolites such as TAN. Compared to this a bacterial community with higher amount of more evenly distributed community members combined with a more rigid archaeal community (MS reactors) showed a lower stress tolerance potential.Moreover it was observed that the disappearance of members of the phylum Cloacimonetes can be used as an indicator for an upcoming process disturbance due to increasing TAN concentrations.
       
  • The prevalence of plasmid-coded cpe enterotoxin, β2 toxin, tpeL toxin,
           and tetracycline resistance in Clostridium perfringens strains isolated
           from different sources
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 56Author(s): Miseon Park, Fatemeh Rafii Clostridium perfringens, an anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium, causes infections in humans and animals by producing several toxins encoded by genes found either on the chromosomes or on diverse plasmids. The plasmids may code for more than one toxin gene or antimicrobial-resistance gene. In this study, the prevalence of the β2, cpe and tpeL toxin genes and the tetA(P), tetB(P) and tetM tetracycline-resistance genes, in 56 strains of C. perfringens type A isolated from diseased domestic animals and 15 strains isolated from chickens, was compared with that in 74 strains isolated from other sources. The frequency of chromosome-associated cpe enterotoxin genes was higher in strains not isolated from diseased domestic animals; however, plasmid-associated cpe genes were found in strains from some animal sources more than others. Enterotoxin production was detected in some strains that had chromosomal or plasmid cpe genes, but not in all. The percentages of strains carrying β2 toxin genes among chicken, swine, human patient and soil isolates were higher than those among bovine, canine and food isolates. The incidence of the tpeL toxin gene was lower than that of the β2 gene. Phenotypic resistance to tetracycline was found in more than 50% of the porcine, bovine, and canine isolates, which carried a wide range of plasmids of 2–100 kb size, most of which had the tcpH clostridial transfer gene. PCR amplified tetA(P) and tetB(P) genes from most isolates from diseased animals. Some strains that carried
       
  • Epidemiological investigation of Clostridioides difficile colonization in
           Chinese community infants
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 56Author(s): Qing-qing Cui, Jing Yang, Ya-nan Niu, Cui-xin Qiang, Zhi-rong Li, Kai-yue Xu, Ru-xin Li, Dong-yan Shi, Hong-lian Wei, Xing-zhen Zhao, Xiao-ming Wang, Su-ju Sun, Jian-hong Zhao Clostridioides difficile is a colonizer of the human gut; asymptomatic colonization has been reported to be more common in infants and is highly variable across regions even with no symptoms of diarrhea or death. Antibiotic treatment strategies might increase the antibiotic resistance of C. difficile. We performed a one-point study involving 1098 healthy infants (0–36 months) to address the deficiency of reports on C. difficile colonization in Chinese community infants. The C. difficile colonization rate was 22.8% (250/1098), and more than half of the strains (55.2%) were toxigenic isolates. Among the 138 toxigenic isolates, 111 were of the A+B+CDT– genotype, 26 strains were A–B+CDT–, and one strain was A+B+CDT+. Fifteen different PCR ribotypes were found among the 250 isolates, and PCR-ribotype HB03 appeared to be dominant type, accounting for 19.6% (49/250). High levels of resistance to antimicrobial agents were observed. Our study showed that age and hospitalization before stool collection were positively correlated with the C. difficile colonization rate, whereas the delivery term was negatively related to the colonization rate. Particular attention should be paid to the increasing resistance of C. difficile to rifamycin.
       
  • Fecal calprotectin and fecal indole predict outcome of fecal microbiota
           transplantation in subjects with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 56Author(s): J. Hibbard, Z.-D. Jiang, H.L. DuPont Fecal calprotectin and indole were studied in 134 subjects with recurrent CDI before and after FMT. Reduced fecal calprotectin (p = 0.0353, 95% CI 0.1305–0.1439) and rising levels of indole (p 
       
  • The presence of antibiotic resistance genes and bft genes as well as
           antibiotic susceptibility testing of Bacteroides fragilis strains isolated
           from inpatients of the Infant Jesus Teaching Hospital, Warsaw during
           2007–2012
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 56Author(s): Marta Kierzkowska, Anna Majewska, Ksenia Szymanek-Majchrzak, Anna Sawicka-Grzelak, Andrzej Mlynarczyk, Grazyna Mlynarczyk The purpose of this study was to assess drug susceptibility of clinical B. fragilis strains and to determine any correlation between drug resistance and the presence of specific genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed using E-tests. All isolates were analyzed with the PCR technique for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (cepA, cfxA, cfiA, ermF, ermB, ermG, nim), insertion sequences elements (IS1186, IS1187, IS1188, IS942), and enterotoxin-encoding genes (bft). Susceptibility tests yielded the following rates of resistance to the evaluated antibiotics: penicillin G (100%), clindamycin (22.5%), cefoxitin (6.3%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1.8%). All strain were susceptible to imipenem, and metronidazole. The following antibiotic resistance genes were detected in the evaluated isolates: cepA (in 96.4% of isolates), cfxA (in 12.6%), cfiA (in 1.8%), and ermF (in 25.2%). Genes ermB, ermG, and nim were not found. The presence of the cepA gene showed no correlation with the penicillin G MIC. However, we observed a high correlation between cefoxitin MIC values and the presence of gene cfxA as well as a nearly complete correlation between clindamycin MIC values and the presence of gene ermF. The presence of a bft gene was detected in 14.4% of the analyzed B. fragilis isolates; with the bft-1 allele found in 75%, bft-2 in 25%, and bft-3 in none of the isolates. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of enterotoxin gene-positive isolates in our study did not differ from those of enterotoxin gene-negative isolates.
       
  • Leukotoxic activity of Fusobacterium necrophorum of cattle origin
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 56Author(s): Deepti K. Pillai, Raghavendra G. Amachawadi, Giovanna Baca, Sanjeev Narayanan, T.G. Nagaraja Fusobacterium necrophorum is a Gram negative, rod-shaped and aero tolerant anaerobe. In animals, it is an opportunistic pathogen frequently associated with necrotic infections, generally called necrobacillosis, such as calf diphtheria, foot rot and liver abscesses in cattle. Two subspecies exist: subsp. necrophorum and subsp. funduliforme. Among several virulence factors, leukotoxin (Lkt) is considered to be a major factor and a protective antigen. The objective of the study was to utilize BL3 cells and measure the release of lactic dehydrogenase to quantify Lkt activity of F. necrophorum. The assay was used to examine the effects of storage and handling conditions, growth media, polymyxin B addition on the cytotoxicity and evaluate Lkt activities of F. necrophorum strains isolated from bovine liver abscesses and foot rot. The Lkt activity peaked at 9 h of incubation. There was a significant decrease in the cytotoxicity measured in the samples after each freeze and thaw cycle. No difference was observed in the cytotoxicity for the samples handled aerobically versus anaerobically. Lkt activities of strains grown in anaerobic Brain-Heart Infusion broth were higher compared to Vegitone broth. A small reduction in the cytotoxicity activity was observed after the addition of polymyxin. The Lkt activity was consistently higher in strains of subsp. necrophorum than subsp. funduliforme of liver abscess origin. Among the strains isolated from cattle foot rot, Lkt activities of subsp. necrophorum strains appear to be much more variable. Use of BL3 cells in combination of lactic acid dehydrogenase assay appears to be a simple and valid assay to measure Lkt activity of F. necrophorum.
       
  • Phenotypic, molecular and genomic characterization of Actinobaculum suis
           isolated from swine in Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 56Author(s): Cristina Román Amigo, Luisa Zanolli Moreno, Thais Sebastiana Porfida Ferreira, Vasco Túlio de Moura Gomes, André Pegoraro Poor, Carolina Helena de Oliveira, Beatriz Martins Parra, Ana Paula Santos Silva, Andrea Micke Moreno Urinary tract infections (UTI) are considered one of the most important diseases of sows due to its close relationship with reproductive problems such as reduced litter size, increase in the rate of return to estrous, vulvar discharge, abortion, mastitis and anestrus. Actinobaculum suis is one of the main agents involved in porcine urinary tract infection and is responsible for the most severe and fatal cases in sows. In the present report, 23 A. suis strains isolated from a sow and boars in Brazil were identified by PCR and further characterized by broth microdilution, molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), single-enzyme amplified fragment length polymorphism (SE-AFLP), and whole-genome sequencing. All strains were sensitive to ceftiofur, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, quinupristin-dalfopristin and vancomycin. Ciprofloxacin, daptomycin, lincomycin, erythromycin and tylosin resistance was observed in 100% of tested strains. Tetracycline and tigecycline also presented high resistance rates (87% and 30.4%, respectively). PFGE with eight different restriction enzymes and three programs did not enable strain characterization; however, all strains were typed by SE-AFLP that clustered strains according to their origin, thus proving an effective tool for A. suis genotyping. Whole-genome sequencing and comparative analysis enabled species differentiation from closely related genus. This is the first report of genomic characterization of A. suis.
       
  • Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans adhesion to epithelial cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 56Author(s): Diego Javier Grilli, Maria Eugenia Mansilla, María Cecilia Giménez, Noelia Sohaefer, María Soledad Ruiz, Mauricio R. Terebiznik, Miguel Sosa, Graciela Nora Arenas The ruminal bacteria Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans strain 2 (P. xylanivorans 2), that mediates the digestion of plant fiber, is considered an attractive candidate for probiotics. Adherence to the epithelium of the digestive tract of the host is one of the major requirements for probiotics. In this study, we assessed the adhesion of P. xylanivorans 2 to SW480 cells and characterized this process utilizing multiple microscopy approaches. Our results indicate that a multiplicity of infection of 200 CFU/cell allows the highest bacteria to cell binding ratio, with a lower percentage of auto-agglutination events. The comparison of the adherence capacity subjected heat-shock treatment (100 °C, 1 min), which produces the denaturalization of proteins at the bacterial surface, as opposed untreated P. xylanivorans, suggested that this bacteria may attach to SW480 cells utilizing a proteinaceous structure. Confocal microscopy analyses indicate that P. xylanivorans 2 attachment induces the formation of F-actin-enriched areas on the surface of SW480 cells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the formation of a structure similar to a pedestal in the area of the epithelial cell surface, where the bacterium rests. Finally, a casual finding of TEM analysis of transverse and longitudinal thin-sections of P. xylanivorans 2, revealed irregular intra-cytoplasmic structures compatibles with the so-called bacterial microcompartments. This is the first ultrastructural description of bacterial microcompartments-like structures in the genus Pseudobutyrivibrio.
       
  • Production of neutralizing antibodies against the secreted Clostridium
           chauvoei toxin A (CctA) upon blackleg vaccination
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: Anaerobe, Volume 56Author(s): Pamela Nicholson, Julia Furrer, Michael Hässig, Christian Strauss, Manfred Heller, Sophie Braga-Lagache, Joachim Frey Clostridium chauvoei is the etiologic agent of blackleg in cattle, inducing fever, severe myonecrosis, oedemic lesions and ultimately death of infected animals. The pathogen often results in such rapid death that antibiotic therapy is futile and thus vaccination is the only efficient strategy in order to control the disease. The β-barrel pore forming leucocidin Clostridium chauvoei toxin A (CctA) is one of the best characterised toxins of C. chauvoei and has been shown to be an important virulence factor. It has been reported to induce protective immunity and is conserved across C. chauvoei strains collected from diverse geographical locations for more than 50 years. The aim of this study was to identify the location of the CctA toxin during liquid culture fermentation and to use CctA to develop an in vitro assay to replace the current guinea pig challenge assay for vaccine potency in standard batch release procedures. We report that CctA is fully secreted in C. chauvoei culture and show that it is found abundantly in the supernatant of liquid cultures. Sera from cattle vaccinated with a commercial blackleg vaccine revealed strong haemolysin-neutralizing activity against recombinant CctA which reached titres of 1000 times 28 days post-vaccination. Similarly, guinea pig sera from an official potency control test reached titres of 600 times 14 days post-vaccination. In contrast, ELISA was not able to specifically measure anti-CctA antibodies in cattle serum due to strong cross-reactions with antibodies against other proteins present pre-vaccination. We conclude that haemolysin-neutralizing antibodies are a valuable measurement for protective immunity against blackleg and have the potential to be a suitable replacement of the guinea pig challenge potency test, which would forego the unnecessary challenge of laboratory animals.
       
  • Detection of Clostridium difficile in the environment in a
           Veterinary Teaching Hospital
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019Source: AnaerobeAuthor(s): Sandra Villagómez-Estrada, José L. Blanco, Diego Melo-Duran, Carmen Martín, Celine Harmanus, Ed J. Kuijper, Marta E. García The present study focused on detecting the presence of Clostridium difficile on veterinary hospital surfaces of large and small animal areas at the Universidad Complutense of Madrid. Isolated C. difficile strains were further characterized and investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Of n=23 sampling area, 17% were positive for the presence of C. difficile.The isolates belonged to PCR ribotypes 078, 014, 039, and 154, of which RT 078 and 014 are also frequently found as human pathogens. Two isolates had high level resistance to metronidazole. These results suggest that the veterinary hospital environment constitutes a potential reservoir of zoonotical transferable C. difficile.Graphical abstractImage 10911
       
  • The epidemiology of Clostridioides difficile infection in Brazil:
           A systematic review covering thirty years
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: AnaerobeAuthor(s): C.N.R. Trindade, Regina Maria C.P. Domingues, E.O. Ferreira Clostridioides difficile is considered one of the main etiological agents of bacterial diarrhea associated with the use of antibiotics. It is an important nosocomial pathogen and the main cause of morbidity and mortality. In recent years, infections associated with C. difficile have led to numerous investigations. It is well known that C. difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) is favored by the suppression or imbalance of the intestinal microbiome during or after antibiotic therapy. Other risk factors are, for instance, advanced age, long periods of hospitalization, chemotherapy, and other gastrointestinal infections. In the 2000′s, the number of CDAD cases largely increased due to the emergence of the epidemic clone named BI/NAP1 ribotype 027, responsible for causing several outbreaks in developed countries, such as Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The presence of the epidemic clone has been reported in Asia, Latin America and Australia, however, infections associated with C. difficile (CDI) in these geographic regions are usually caused by other ribotypes. In Brazil, for instance, epidemiological data on the incidence of CDI are still limited, especially regarding the spread of C. difficile within hospital units, the spectrum of toxigenic genes and the antimicrobial resistance profile. Some studies have demonstrated the importance of notifying cases related to CDI and taking special care measures in order to minimize the spread of epidemic strains in Brazil. Finally, epidemiological analysis of the prevalent and/or exclusive ribotypes circulating in Brazil can contribute to understand and to correlate characteristics associated with the biology of this pathogen with other globally circulating ribotypes. This review aimed to summarize all published work related to the isolation of C. difficile from human patients in Brazil, being the main focus, the methodologies used for identification of prevalent ribotypes, the antimicrobial susceptibility profile, and the diseases associated with the acquisition of CDI.
       
  • Challenges of next-generation sequencing targeting anaerobes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2019Source: AnaerobeAuthor(s): Georg Conrads, Mohamed M.H. Abdelbary Next-generation sequencing allows for investigating the composition of microbiomes that are associated with infection (clinical microbiology) or dysbiosis (microbial ecology). The most commonly applied short-read sequencing technologies are Illumina MiSeq/HiSeq and Ion Torrent PGM, however, other platforms that generate long-reads are under way and optimized.A pre-condition for representative results is an appropriate method for contamination-free collection, homogenization, storage of specimens and a subsequent efficient DNA extraction protocol. As some of the anaerobes such as Clostridia or anaerobe Archaea are robust while others of the same environment, such as spirochetes, possess a very thin cell wall, a chemico-mechanical lysing strategy is recommended but with some precautions to avoid DNA-sheering and overheating. For amplicon sequencing, the Silva-TestPrime online tool helps to find the optimal 16S directed primers for individual studies. For metagenome profiling, the classifier tool has to be selected with helpful decision trees available but a combination based on different strategies seems to be indispensable. Further development of both hard- and software is needed before microbiome results become free of a substantial technology-dependent bias.
       
  • Methodologic variables that impact growth of Clostridium difficile in a
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2019Source: AnaerobeAuthor(s): Jennifer L. Cadnum, Curtis J. Donskey
       
  • Response to methodologic variables that impact growth of Clostridium
           difficile in a broth culture medium without requirement for anaerobic
           culture conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2019Source: AnaerobeAuthor(s): Mairéad C. Connor, John W. McGrath, Geoff McMullan, Nikki Marks, Derek J. Fairley
       
  • Atopobium vaginae intrapartum bacteremia: A case report with a
           literature review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2018Source: AnaerobeAuthor(s): Nicolas Dauby, Delphine Martiny, Laurent Busson, Alexandra Cogan, Alaeddine Meghraoui, Maria Angeles Argudín, Claire Nonhoff, Marie Hallin, Déborah Konopnicki Atopobium vaginae is an anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium recognized as a causative agent of bacterial vaginosis and associated with preterm delivery. Invasive infection and bacteremia have been rarely reported. We describe the case of a woman expecting her firstborn child who presented with a A. vaginae bacteremia during labor. Identification was performed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Both maternal and fetal outcomes were favorable due to the maternal treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. We identified three other cases in the literature with different fetal outcome. The genetic diversity of A. vaginae should be further explored in order to reveal potential strains with differential pathogenic potential.
       
  • Capnocytophaga spp. infection causing chorioamnionitis: an
           unusual suspect”
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2018Source: AnaerobeAuthor(s): Logan Felix, Amy Rosenberg, Karina Auffant Caraballo, Deborah Patricia Taborga, Camille Hamula
       
  • Erratum to “Investigation of Clostridium botulinum group III's mobilome
           content” [Anaerobe 49 (2018) 71–77]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2018Source: AnaerobeAuthor(s): Cédric Woudstra, Caroline Le Maréchal, Rozenn Souillard, Fabrizio Anniballi, Bruna Auricchio, Luca Bano, Marie-Hélène Bayon-Auboyer, Miriam Koene, Isabelle Mermoud, Roseane B. Brito, Francisco C.F. Lobato, Rodrigo O.S. Silva, Martin B. Dorner, Patrick Fach
       
 
 
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