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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3190 journals)
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    - BIOLOGY (1522 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1522 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Biology     Open Access  
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 315)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
Amphibia-Reptilia
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.692
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0173-5373 - ISSN (Online) 1568-5381
Published by Brill Academic Publishers Homepage  [229 journals]
  • Genetic structure of natterjack toad () populations in Flanders, Belgium,
           and its implications for conservation (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Joke Maes; Arend Raoul Van Oosten, Natalie Van Houtte Erik Matthysen
      Abstract: Source: Page Count 13Unique evolutionary potential could be lost when a population goes extinct or when individuals are translocated to other existing populations. Therefore, in order to identify priorities and to predict the efficiency and consequences of conservation actions, information is needed on the genetic structure of natural populations. In the urbanized and diverse landscapes of Flanders, Belgium, natterjack toad (Epidalea calamita) populations have been declining over the last decades. Therefore, this species is subjected to a wide range of different types of conservation measures (e.g. habitat management, corridor development, translocations). However, more information is needed on its genetic population structure. In this study, we sampled egg clutches from six populations and studied their genetic structure with six microsatellite markers. In total, 184 samples from 99 different egg strings were genotyped. Observed heterozygosity was generally high, even for the small and isolated populations (overall mean H O = 0.43). The weak clustering by the Bayesian analyses (STRUCTURE, Adegenet and BAPS) does not allow us to make strong conclusions on the population structure. However, the significant ΦST values between the populations underline the importance of genetic information when conservation priorities are discussed. Unique evolutionary potential could be lost when one or more natterjack toad populations would go extinct, and translocation of individuals to other existing populations should be considered with caution.
      PubDate: 2018-10-19T00:00:00Z
       
  • SEH News
    • Abstract: Source: Page Count 2
      PubDate: 2018-10-12T00:00:00Z
       
  • Melting pots and hotspots: genetic variation within (Reptilia: Lacertidae)
           from the Iberian Peninsula (Advance Article)
    • Authors: D. James Harris; Josabel Belliure José Javier Cuervo
      Abstract: Source: Page Count 7Identification of high levels of intraspecific genetic variability is common among assessments of reptiles from the Iberian Peninsula, conforming to the “refugia within refugia” hypothesis. Divergent genetic lineages are often found to be allopatric, or with limited contact or hybrid zones; such zones are more widely reported in Northern Europe, leading to the “melting pots not hotspots” hypothesis. However, population level sampling is needed to determine if divergent lineages overlap, something that is often missing in phylogenetic studies. Mitochondrial genetic diversity was assessed within the lacertid lizard Acanthodactylus erythrurus across the Iberian Peninsula. Not only were highly divergent lineages recovered in the southern region, but also considerable admixture of these was identified, particularly in northern populations. This has implications for biogeographic scenarios, with patterns typically identified at a larger scale emerging within a single European southern refugium. It also indicates that divergent mtDNA lineages appear to freely mix, at least within this species, which has taxonomic implications.
      PubDate: 2018-10-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • Cryptic diversity in the smooth snake ()
    • Authors: Daniel Jablonski; Zoltán T. Nagy, Aziz Avcı, Kurtuluş Olgun, Oleg V. Kukushkin, Barbod Safaei-Mahroo David Jandzik
      Abstract: Source: Page Count 14The smooth snake, Coronella austriaca, is a common snake species widespread in the Western Palearctic region. It does not form conspicuous morphological variants and, although several evolutionary lineages have been distinguished based on the analyses of the mitochondrial DNA sequences, only two subspecies with very limited distribution have been traditionally recognized. Here we present an mtDNA phylogeography of the species using geographically extended sampling while incorporating biogeographically important areas that have not been analyzed before, such as Anatolia, Crimea, and Iran. We find that the smooth snake comprises 14 distinct phylogenetic clades with unclear mutual relationships, characterized by complex genetic structure and relatively deep divergences; some of them presumably of Miocene origin. In general, the biogeographic pattern is similar to other Western Palearctic reptiles and illustrates the importance of the main European peninsulas as well as the Anatolian mountains, Caucasus, and Alborz Mts. in Iran for the evolution of the present-day diversity. Considerable genetic structure present in the smooth snake populations within these large areas indicates the existence of several regional Plio-Pleistocene refugia that served as reservoirs for dispersal and population expansions after the glacial periods. The current taxonomy of C. austriaca does not reflect the rich genetic diversity, deep divergences, and overall evolutionary history revealed in our study and requires a thorough revision. This will only be possible with an even higher-resolution sampling and integrative approach, combining analyses of multiple genetic loci with morphology, and possibly other aspects of the smooth snake biology.
      PubDate: 2018-09-28T00:00:00Z
       
  • Invasive mosquitofish () affect egg-laying and behaviour of Spanish pygmy
           newts ()
    • Authors: Elisa Cabrera-Guzmán; Carmen Díaz-Paniagua Ivan Gomez-Mestre
      Abstract: Source: Page Count 10Invasive species are one of the main causes of amphibian declines worldwide, often through direct predation. Even species or life stages that may not be prone to predation by invasive animals can be affected through alterations of their reproductive behaviour and/or performance. This aspect is less commonly investigated, and may be important for understanding the full impact of invasive species on local amphibian populations. We used laboratory experiments to measure effects of the invasive Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) on gravid pygmy newts (Triturus pygmaeus) from southern Spain. Gravid newts altered their position in the water column by moving from the bottom of the aquaria to the surface when in the presence of free-swimming mosquitofish, presumably to reduce physical contact with them. Newts also detected and consumed less prey in presence of free mosquitofish. Newts exposed to caged or free-swimming mosquitofish laid fewer eggs than newts not exposed to the invasive species, suggesting that chemical or visual cues alone were sufficient to alter the behaviour of gravid newts. Our results suggest that mosquitofish can reduce the reproductive success of native pygmy newts in the wild, highlighting the need for management efforts to mitigate this impact.
      PubDate: 2018-09-25T00:00:00Z
       
  • Phylogeographic evidence for multiple long-distance introductions of the
           common wall lizard associated with human trade and transport (Advance
           Article)
    • Authors: Joana L. Santos; Anamarija Žagar, Katarina Drašler, Catarina Rato, César Ayres, D. James Harris, Miguel A. Carretero Daniele Salvi
      Abstract: Source: Page Count 7The common wall lizard has been widely introduced across Europe and overseas. We investigated the origin of putatively introduced Podarcis muralis populations from two southern Europe localities: (i) Ljubljana (Slovenia), where uncommon phenotypes were observed near the railway tracks and (ii) the port of Vigo (Spain), where the species was recently found 150 km far from its previously known range. We compared cytochrome-b mtDNA sequences of lizards from these populations with published sequences across the native range. Our results support the allochthonous status and multiple, long-distance origins in both populations. In Ljubljana, results support two different origins, Serbia and Italy. In Vigo, at least two separate origins are inferred, from western and eastern France. Such results confirm that human-mediated transport is promoting biological invasion and lineage admixture in this species. Solid knowledge of the origin and invasion pathways, as well as population monitoring, is crucial for management strategies to be successful.
      PubDate: 2018-09-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • Conspecifics of the Striped Lava Lizard are able to distinguish sex and
           male colour morphs in apparently homogeneous dull dorsal colouration
    • Authors: Andre C. Bruinjé; Mauricio O. Moura, Bruno S. Maggi, Vinicius A. São-Pedro, Daniel M.A. Pessoa Gabriel C. Costa
      Abstract: Source: Page Count 14Animal colouration plays a key role in inter and intraspecific interactions, pre-eminently in mate signalling. When multiple types of colouration occur within sexes it is possible that they show alternative reproductive strategies. In lizards, most colouration studies do not incorporate how colour is perceived by conspecifics. Here, we used unbiased colour analysis methods (spectrophotometry and visual modelling) to test for sexual dimorphism and within male dichromatism in the Striped Lava Lizard. We found that males express two distinct colourations that are different from females in several dorsal and ventral body regions. Our results showed UV reflection at the throat, an important body region for signalling. Ventral patches, the coloured badge seen in adult males of Tropidurus spp., have two distinct colour classes within males (Y and B males). Morphs are best discriminated by blue and yellow chroma, and brightness. Body size had little influence on colouration, suggesting that colour may be linked to inheritance rather than growth. Our study clearly shows sexual dichromatism and the existence of colour morphs in this species. Moreover, morph differences in colouration are perceptible by conspecifics. These differences are not only between ventral patches, but also in other body parts such as the dorsum, previously considered as cryptic by human observers. We suggest that colouration at the ventral patches and throat might play a role in intraspecific interactions. Patches increase colour intensity during breeding season and are likely to be costly by pigment-based expression, whereas throat’s UV reflection might have a cost infringed by conspicuousness.
      PubDate: 2018-09-19T00:00:00Z
       
  • Space fit for a king: spatial ecology of king cobras () in Sakaerat
           Biosphere Reserve, Northeastern Thailand (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Benjamin Michael Marshall; Colin Thomas Strine, Max Dolton Jones, Taksin Artchawakom, Ines Silva, Pongthep Suwanwaree Matt Goode
      Abstract: Source: Page Count 16A species’ spatial ecology has direct implications for that species’ conservation. Far-ranging species may be more difficult to conserve because their movements increase their chances of encountering humans. The movements can take them out of protected areas, which is especially risky for species that are routinely persecuted. The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), a large venomous elapid, is subject to anthropogenic pressures, such as persecution and habitat loss. Here we present results from a study using radio telemetry to quantify movements and habitat use of nine king cobras in and around a protected area in Northeast Thailand. This study is the first investigation into the movements and habitat use of king cobras outside of the Western Ghats, India. On average, the tracked king cobra’s use areas of 493.42 ± 335.60 ha (95% fixed kernel), moving 183.24 ± 82.63 m per day. King cobras did not remain in intact forested area. Five of the individuals frequently used the human-dominated agricultural areas surrounding the protected area, appearing to make regular use of irrigation canals. Two adult males showed increases in movements during the breeding season. One male’s increased breeding season range caused him to venture beyond the protected area, shifting his habitat use from intact forests to scrub in human-dominated areas. King cobras’ large home range and willingness to use anthropogenic landscapes merits special consideration from conservation planners.
      PubDate: 2018-09-17T00:00:00Z
       
  • Taxonomic and nomenclatural status of Iberian (Lacertidae) (Advance
           Article)
    • Authors: Alberto Sánchez-Vialas; Marta Calvo-Revuelta Mario García-París
      Abstract: Source: Page Count 12The taxonomy and nomenclature of Iberian Algyroides are problematic. The first taxon described, A. hidalgoi Boscá, 1916, was based on a single specimen that was subsequently lost. The description of the second taxon, A. marchi Valverde, 1958, was based on the comparison of a newly discovered population with the original description of A. hidalgoi. However, A. hidalgoi specimens have never been recorded since for any locality. Therefore, three questions need to be addressed: Is A. hidalgoi Boscá, 1916 a morphologically diagnosable taxon different from all non-Iberian species of Algyroides' are A. hidalgoi and A. marchi conspecific' And if so, which is the correct name for the species' To clarify the taxonomic status of the Iberian Algyroides we (1) compare Boscá’s A. hidalgoi original description against the descriptions of all other species of Algyroides, (2) test the accuracy of Boscá’s A. hidalgoi by comparing it against 204 Iberian museum specimens, and (3) designate a neotype of A. hidalgoi that fits the head pholidosis described in the original description. We show that none of the diagnostic characters used by Valverde to differentiate between A. hidalgoi and A. marchi are actually diagnostic, as we found high levels of variability on those characters in the studied specimens. Our results validate Boscá’s description of A. hidalgoi, which fits within the morphological variability observed for southern Iberian Algyroides. As a result, we propose the strict synonymy of A. marchi Valverde, 1958 with A. hidalgoi Boscá, 1916.
      PubDate: 2018-09-13T00:00:00Z
       
  • Morphometric characteristics of Alpine salamanders: a support for
           subspecies validation and conservation'
    • Authors: Emina Šunje; Raoul Van Damme, Dušan Jelić, Maria Mueller, Rifat Škrijelj Véronique Helfer
      Abstract: Source: Page Count 11The subspecies concept is not only useful to assess the evolutionary history of species and therefore describe their evolutionary potential, but it also has corollaries for defining conservation units and their management. Within Alpine salamanders, the subspecies status of Salamandra atra prenjensis, isolated in the Dinarides from its nominal subspecies Salamandra atra atra that occurs in the Alps, has been under debate. To remediate this fuzzy taxonomy, the present study investigates 14 morphological traits of Alpine salamanders originating from Austria and from Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Multivariate analyses support a geographical structuring of morphological variation and the differentiation between the Dinaric (B&H) and Alpine (Austrian) populations. Within populations, a different correlation pattern among traits is registered, reflecting the distinct genetic architecture of multivariate phenotypes. This morphometric study supports recent molecular evidences of a strong differentiation between the Dinaric and Alpine populations and pleads in favour of the separate subspecies status, although a wider sampling of other populations and the inclusion of additional characters would be necessary to reinforce this conclusion. The recognition of Salamandra atra prenjensis as a distinct subspecies would highly contribute to the better conservation of this emblematic salamander.
      PubDate: 2018-09-12T00:00:00Z
       
  • Detection of elusive fire salamander larvae () in streams via
           environmental DNA
    • Authors: Kathleen Preißler; Alexander Dennis Watzal, Miguel Vences Sebastian Steinfartz
      Abstract: Source: Page Count 10In the face of the global biodiversity crisis, the monitoring of species richness and diversity is experiencing an increased demand entailing a raise in cost and time investment. The analysis of species-specific DNA fragments in environmental samples (eDNA) such as from water or soil, facilitate the molecular detection of species without the specific sampling of individuals. The invasive chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is infecting natural fire salamander populations (Salamandra salamandra) and causes chytridiomycosis resulting in infrequent regional extinctions of populations across Central Europe. With regard to the expanding distribution of Bsal over the last years, cost-effective monitoring of fire salamanders is important for the conservation of this species. Based on a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay, we developed a new protocol to detect S. salamandra larvae in streams via eDNA, using species-specific primers of the mitochondrial control region (D-loop). We tested the efficiency of qPCR primer sets for six combinations of DNA extraction kits coupled with subsequent PCR inhibitor removal kits for obtaining qPCR-detectable S. salamandra eDNA from water filters, that were taken both from natural streams and artificial water tanks in the laboratory as positive controls. We found that the DNeasy Blood & Tissue Kit in combination with the DNeasy PowerClean CleanUp Kit performed best for detecting salamander larvae from natural streams. Our experimental protocol paves the way for resource-saving approaches to monitor S. salamandra larvae, but also confirms the limits to this eDNA approach in that it requires optimized laboratory protocols.
      PubDate: 2018-08-20T00:00:00Z
       
  • The relationship of head morphology and diet among three sympatric
           watersnake species (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Micah W. Perkins; Perri K. Eason
      Abstract: Source: Page Count 13Investigating dietary resource utilization and head morphology of gape-limited predators can provide a basis for understanding interspecific competition and species coexistence. For sympatric species, convergence of head morphology can indicate similar prey or foraging strategies while divergence can suggest competition, resource partitioning or expansion into new habitats. Sexual dimorphism can further complicate the head morphology-diet relationship by potentially reducing intraspecific competition. To understand the relationship between head morphology and diet, we studied three sympatric species, the plain-bellied (Nerodia erythrogaster), diamondback (N. rhombifer), and northern (N. sipedon) watersnakes in western Kentucky. All three species inhabit similar wetlands and feed on amphibians and fishes. The anurophagous plain-bellied watersnakes had longer, narrower heads that likely allow snakes to capture anuran metamorphs and froglets while facilitating movement through dense vegetation. The piscivorous diamondback watersnake had a wider head, which would enhance contact with prey in this open-mouth forager, and smaller interocular distance, resulting in dorsally placed eyes that facilitate seeing fish prey from below. The mostly piscivorous northern watersnake had an intermediate, generalized head shape, which may reflect the typically wide diet range of this species. Head shape did not differ between snake sexes but diamondback and northern females had larger heads than males and fed more frequently on fishes. The relationship between head morphology and diet highlights potential interspecific and intersexual competition and aids in the understanding of species coexistence patterns.
      PubDate: 2018-08-10T00:00:00Z
       
  • Life histories, demographies and population dynamics of three sympatric
           chameleon species ( spp.) from western Madagascar (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Falk Eckhardt; Cornelia Kraus Peter M. Kappeler
      Abstract: Source: Page Count 14The life histories and population dynamics of chameleons remain poorly known, most likely due to practical challenges related to their cryptic nature. However, several studies have indicated that some of these reptiles have unusually brief life histories. Specifically, one Madagascan chameleon (Furcifer labordi) was found to have an annual life cycle characterized by population-wide survival of the austral winter in the egg stage; a unique life history among tetrapods. In this study, we compare the life history of F. labordi with two locally sympatric congeners (F. cf. nicosiai and F. oustaleti) in Kirindy forest, western Madagascar, to determine how these species adjust their life histories to a highly seasonal and unpredictable climate. We found differences in lifespan, timing of hatching, growth rates, survival, reproductive rates, adult body size, and roosting heights among all three species. Moreover, two species exhibited relatively short lifespans: 6-9 months in F. labordi and 16-18 months in F. cf. nicosiai. In contrast, F. oustaleti is perennial and large-sized juveniles and adults aestivate during the dry season, but survival rates of adults seemed relatively low. Strikingly, the annual cohort of F. labordi was already adult when hatchlings of F. oustaleti and subsequently F. cf. nicosiai emerged. Our study suggests the co-existence of three different life histories with seasonal adjustment that might be related to the partitioning of overall food availability and contributes valuable life history data on enigmatic chameleon species.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01T00:00:00Z
       
  • prefers abandoned citrus orchards in Eastern Spain. Ecological insights
           from a radio-tracking survey
    • Authors: Fernando Martinez-Freiria; Marcial Lorenzo Miguel Lizana
      Abstract: Source: Page Count 7Zamenis scalaris is a generalist active forager Mediterranean snake for which knowledge on spatial ecology is very limited. We report insights into the spatial and temporal patterns, and habitat use of four snakes, obtained through one-year radio-tracking monitoring in a citrus orchard landscape, in Eastern Iberia. Snakes showed a highly secretive behaviour, remaining hidden most of the annual cycle (>96% of records). Annual home ranges and movements were reduced in contrast to the expected energetic requirements of the species. Despite a similar pattern of non-activity during winter and a subsequent increase of movement rate and home range size in spring, each snake adopted a distinct spatial behaviour in summer and autumn. Abandoned citrus orchards and accessory constructions were the most frequent habitats selected by snakes, offering abundant prey and shelter. These resources are likely playing a crucial role in the spatial ecology of Z. scalaris.
      PubDate: 2018-07-24T00:00:00Z
       
  • Detectability vs. time and costs in pooled DNA extraction of cutaneous
           swabs: a study on the amphibian chytrid fungi (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Joana Sabino-Pinto; E. Tobias Krause, Molly C. Bletz, An Martel, Frank Pasmans, Sebastian Steinfartz Miguel Vences
      Abstract: Source: Page Count 11Epidemiology relies on understanding the distribution of pathogens which often can be detected through DNA-based techniques, such as quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). Typically, the DNA of each individual sample is separately extracted and undergoes qPCR analysis. However, when performing field surveys and long-term monitoring, a large fraction of the samples is generally expected to be negative, especially in geographical areas still considered free of the pathogen. If pathogen detection within a population – rather than determining its individual prevalence – is the focus, work load and monetary costs can be reduced by pooling samples for DNA extraction. We test and refine a user-friendly technique where skin swabs can be pooled during DNA extraction to detect the amphibian chytrid fungi, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and B.salamandrivorans (Bsal). We extracted pools with different numbers of samples (from one to four swabs), without increasing reaction volumes, and each pool had one sample inoculated with a predetermined zoospore amount. Pool size did not reduce the ability to detect the two fungi, except if inoculated with extremely low zoospore amounts (one zoospore). We confirm that pooled DNA extraction of cutaneous swabs can substantially reduce processing time and costs without minimizing detection sensitivity. This is of relevance especially for the new emerging pathogen Bsal, for which pooled DNA extraction had so far not been tested and massive monitoring efforts in putatively unaffected regions are underway.
      PubDate: 2018-07-18T00:00:00Z
       
  • Herps without borders: a new newt case and a review of transalpine alien
           introductions in western Europe (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Sylvain Dubey; Guillaume Lavanchy, Jacques Thiébaud Christophe Dufresnes
      Abstract: Source: Page Count 15Biogeographic processes have led to different evolutionary taxa occurring in the northern and southern edges of the Alpine Mountains in Western Europe. The integrity of this diversity is being challenged by frequent human-mediated trans-alpine translocations, sometimes leading to biological invasions. Several alien terrestrial vertebrates of south Alpine origins (Italy, Swiss Ticino) are causing damages to native north Alpine fauna. In this paper, we used molecular tools to characterize the understudied case of the Mediterranean smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris meridionalis) expanding in the outskirts of Geneva since its introduction before 1975. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequencing suggest that these exotic populations are a mixture between two diverged L. v. meridionalis lineages from central Italy, and traces of potential hybridization with the native L. v. vulgaris was detected. This situation echoes many other trans-alpine alien introductions. We review all comparable cases of southern to northern Alps introductions in vertebrates, including seven reptiles and four amphibians. The majority of south alpine alien lineages were presumably imported voluntarily by enthusiasts and appear to perform better in the disturbed habitats found in the anthropogenic landscapes of Western Europe compared to their native north Alpine counterparts. Most pose serious threats to related species of similar ecology, through direct competition, predation and introgressive hybridization. Difficulties to detect alien species on time lead to significant conservation costs. Better education together with more appropriate and reactive management plans will be necessary to limit the impact of future alien introductions.
      PubDate: 2018-07-12T00:00:00Z
       
  • Acoustic niche partitioning in five Cuban frogs of the genus
    • Authors: Irelis Bignotte-Giró; Ansel Fong G. Germán M. López-Iborra
      Abstract: Source: Page Count 11Acoustic segregation is a way to reduce competition and allows for species coexistence within anuran communities. Thus, separation in at least one acoustic niche dimension is expected, which also contributes to achieving effective communication among frogs. Here we studied an assemblage of five terrestrial egg-laying anuran species, all in the genus Eleutherodactylus, in a montane rainforest in eastern Cuba. Our aim was to determine if partitioning exists between these species in any dimension (time, signal frequency or space) of the acoustic niche. The studied assemblage had the following characteristics: (1) there was one diurnal species, two species with calling activity throughout the day and two species that call at night; (2) only two species overlapped in call frequencies and most had different calls, both in terms of dominant frequencies and in temporal characteristics; and (3) males of the species that overlapped in vocalizing time or signal frequency used different calling microhabitats or heights. This study provides evidence for the acoustic niche hypothesis in anurans, showing low probabilities of interference in sound communication among these frogs. The five species were separated in at least one of the three acoustic dimensions (calling time, frequency and site) as it occurs in mainland communities with more sympatric species of several genera. Conversely, species in single-genus communities studied in Puerto Rico overlapped completely in calling times. This seems to be due to the higher number of sympatric species at our site.
      PubDate: 2018-07-10T00:00:00Z
       
  • Immunocompetence and parasite infestation in a melanistic and
           normally-coloured population of the lacertid lizard, (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Simon Baeckens; Raoul Van Damme
      Abstract: Source: Page Count 7Melanism is the occurrence of individuals that are darker in skin pigmentation than their conspecifics, which is a common colour polymorphism among vertebrates. Due to the pleotropic effects of the POMC gene that is responsible for melanin-based colouration, dark pigmentation often co-varies with a range of other phenotypic traits. Still, not much is known on the link between melanin-based colouration and immunity in lizards. In this study, we examined and compared the immunocompetence and degree of ectoparasite infestation of Podarcis siculus lizards from a fully melanistic population on an islet in the Tyrrhenian Sea, with conspecifics from a ‘normally’-coloured population on the mainland. Our findings show that both males and females from the melanistic population were less parasitized by ectoparasites and had a greater cellular immune response to a phytohemagglutinin injection than normally-coloured conspecifics. This outcome is in line with the “genetic link hypothesis”, which predicts that melanistic individuals will be more resistant to parasites than non-melanistic individuals due to the pleiotropic POMC gene. In addition, we found correlative evidence for a link between ectoparasite load and PHA immune response, but this was only true for males from the normally-coloured population. Immunological data on additional melanistic and non-melanistic populations of Podarcis siculus in the Mediterranean basin would provide us better insight into patterns of co-variation between immunity and melanism in lizards.
      PubDate: 2018-07-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • The relationship between generation gland morphology and armour in Dragon
           Lizards (): a reassessment of ancestral states for the Cordylidae
           (Advance Article)
    • Authors: le Fras Mouton; Alexander Flemming, Michael Bates Chris Broeckhoven
      Abstract: Source: Page Count 14To substantiate the claim of a relationship between generation gland morphology and degree of body armour in cordylid lizards, we studied the nine species in the genus Smaug. We predicted that well armoured species in this clade will have multi-layer generation glands, and lightly armoured species two-layer glands. Gland type was determined using standard histological techniques after sectioning a glandular patch of one adult male per species. A total of 133 specimens were examined for data on tail and occipital spine lengths (which were used as indicators of armour). We found that species with multi-layer generation glands (S. giganteus, S. breyeri, and S. vandami) have relatively long tail and occipital spines, while species with two-layer glands (S. mossambicus, S. regius, S. barbertonensis, S. warreni, and an undescribed species) have relatively short spines. Smaug depressus possesses both multi-layer and two-layer glands, and this variation was linked to regional variation in spine length. An ancestral state reconstruction for the Cordylidae showed that the two-layer state always results from the reduction of layers from a multi-layer precursor, and that reduction always culminates in two-layer glands and not in one-layer glands. This finding suggests that the one-layer state in the Ninurta-Chamaesaura-Pseudocordylus clade is most probably plesiomorphic, and therefore the ancestral state at the Cordylidae and Cordylinae nodes. Given the observed relationship between type of generation gland and body armour, this finding would suggest that the most recent common ancestor of the Cordylidae was lightly armoured.
      PubDate: 2018-07-09T00:00:00Z
       
  • You are what, where, and when you eat: seasonal and ontogenetic changes
           in a tropical tadpole’s diet
    • Authors: Jéssica S. Kloh; Cleber C. Figueredo Paula C. Eterovick
      Abstract: Source: Page Count 12Tadpole diet is likely to vary in response to environmental conditions and nutritional needs throughout growth and development. We investigated seasonal variation in diet composition of Bokermannohyla saxicola tadpoles and compared diets between two developmental stages with a significant difference in size. We found that the diet of B. saxicola tadpoles was dominated by periphytic algae, in accordance with their benthic habits. Considering number of cells ingested, tadpole trophic niches were broader in more advanced developmental stages. Tadpole trophic niches were narrower during the summer (wet season) than during the winter (dry season), which may reflect increased consumption of more energetic food items during the warm period when primary productivity is expected to be higher. Tadpole metabolism is likely to be higher in the summer and increased energetic needs might be supplied in this manner. However, results differed when biovolume was considered instead of number of cells ingested, with larger items assuming a greater importance and niches being usually larger in the summer. In these cases, the increased ingestion of diatoms (likely to be more nutritive) in the summer may decrease the relative importance of large algae (e.g., Mougeotia sp.) that form the bulk of the diet. Both food availability/accessibility and tadpole feeding behaviour driven by nutritional needs may influence patterns of food acquisition. Given the importance of biofilms to tadpole diet, studies on the mechanisms by which tadpole nutritional needs and environmental conditions interact are likely to provide important insights into the dynamics of aquatic food webs.
      PubDate: 2018-06-25T00:00:00Z
       
 
 
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