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BIOLOGY (1420 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 231)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover American Journal of Primatology
  [SJR: 1.197]   [H-I: 63]   [14 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0275-2565 - ISSN (Online) 1098-2345
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1583 journals]
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2017-05-23T09:57:12.518775-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22602
  • Comparison of male conflict behavior in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and
           bonobos (Pan paniscus), with specific regard to coalition and
           post-conflict behavior
    • Authors: Martin Surbeck; Christophe Boesch, Cédric Girard-Buttoz, Catherine Crockford, Gottfried Hohmann, Roman M. Wittig
      Abstract: Coalitions among males during within group conflicts have a strong influence on the competitive and social environment within social groups. To evaluate possible variation in the occurrence of such coalitions in our closest relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, we compared male aggression and coalitionary behavior in two natural communities, one of each species, with a similar size and composition. Furthermore we compared affiliative behavior that might be related to coalition formation among males. We found higher frequencies of aggression and a greater likelihood to form coalitions during within-group conflicts among wild male chimpanzees at Taï compared to wild male bonobos at LuiKotale. The species differed in the predominant sex of the male coalition partners, with male bonobos forming coalitions more often with females, while male chimpanzees formed coalitions more often with other males. Compared to male bonobos, male chimpanzees showed higher rates of grooming and tended to reconcile more conflicts with other males. Overall our results showed lower frequencies of reconciliation among bonobos than those described in captivity and at artificial feeding sites. These findings add to the evidence that male cooperation and conflict resolution are potentially very different in bonobos and chimpanzees, despite the fact that these two species are closely related, live in multi-male, multi-female communities with a high degree of fission-fusion dynamics and have female-biased migration patterns. Given the correlation between aggressive, cooperative and some affiliative patterns within the species in our study, we hypothesize that the fitness benefits of male relationships are greater in chimpanzees compared to bonobos.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T09:57:11.280689-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22641
  • Alpha male replacements in nonhuman primates: Variability in processes,
           outcomes, and terminology
    • Authors: Julie A. Teichroeb; Katharine M. Jack
      Abstract: Alpha male replacements occur in all primates displaying a dominance hierarchy but the process can be extremely variable. Here, we review the primate literature to document differences in patterns of alpha male replacements, showing that group composition and dispersal patterns account for a large proportion of this variability. We also examine the consequences of alpha male replacements in terms of sexual selection theory, infanticide, and group compositions. Though alpha male replacements are often called takeovers in the literature, this term masks much of the variation that is present in these processes. We argue for more concise terminology and provide a list of terms that we suggest more accurately define these events. Finally, we introduce the papers in this special issue on alpha male replacements in the American Journal of Primatology and discuss areas where data are still lacking.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T07:50:29.864527-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22674
  • Evaluating the effect of a year-long film focused environmental education
           program on Ugandan student knowledge of and attitudes toward great apes
    • Authors: Austin Leeds; Kristen E. Lukas, Corinne J. Kendall, Michelle A. Slavin, Elizabeth A. Ross, Martha M. Robbins, Dagmar van Weeghel, Richard A. Bergl
      Abstract: Films, as part of a larger environmental education program, have the potential to influence the knowledge and attitudes of viewers. However, to date, no evaluations have been published reporting the effectiveness of films, when used within primate range countries as part of a conservation themed program. The Great Ape Education Project was a year-long environmental education program implemented in Uganda for primary school students living adjacent to Kibale National Park (KNP) and Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP). Students viewed a trilogy of conservation films about great apes, produced specifically for this audience, and participated in complementary extra-curricular activities. The knowledge and attitudes of students participating in the program from KNP, but not BINP were assessed using questionnaires prior to (N = 1271) and following (N = 872) the completion of the program. Following the program, students demonstrated a significant increase in their knowledge of threats to great apes and an increase in their knowledge of ways that villagers and students can help conserve great apes. Additionally, student attitudes toward great apes improved following the program. For example, students showed an increase in agreement with liking great apes and viewing them as important to the environment. These data provide evidence that conservation films made specifically to address regional threats and using local actors and settings can positively influence knowledge of and attitudes toward great apes among students living in a primate range country.Mean proportion of desirable answers to the question “How can you conserve great apes” before and after the Great Ape Education Program by student population.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:35:31.557215-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22673
  • Erratum
    • PubDate: 2017-05-10T07:57:54.148546-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22675
  • Extraction of honey from underground bee nests by central African
           chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in Loango National Park, Gabon:
           Techniques and individual differences
    • Authors: Vittoria Estienne; Colleen Stephens, Christophe Boesch
      Abstract: A detailed analysis of tool use behaviors can disclose the underlying cognitive traits of the users. We investigated the technique used by wild chimpanzees to extract the underground nests of stingless bees (Meliplebeia lendliana), which represent a hard-to-reach resource given their highly undetectable location. Using remote-sensor camera trap footage, we analyzed 151 visits to 50 different bee nests by 18 adult chimpanzees of both sexes. We quantified the degree of complexity and flexibility of this technique by looking at the behavioral repertoire and at its structural organization. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models to test whether individuals differed in their action repertoire sizes and in their action sequencing patterns, as well as in their preferences of use of different behavioral elements (namely, actions, and grip types). We found that subjects showed non-randomly organized sequences of actions and that the occurrence of certain actions was predicted by the type of the previous action in the sequences. Subjects did not differ in their repertoire sizes, and all used extractive actions involving tools more often than manual digging. As for the type of grip employed, the grip involving the coordinated use of hands and feet together was most frequently used by all subjects when perforating, and we detected significant individual preferences in this domain. Overall, we describe a highly complex and flexible extractive technique, and propose the existence of inter-individual variation in it. We discuss our results in the light of the evolution of higher cognitive abilities in the human lineage.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:12:49.610342-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22672
  • Social networks dynamics revealed by temporal analysis: An example in a
           non-human primate (Macaca sylvanus) in “La Forêt des Singes”
    • Authors: Sebastian Sosa; Peng Zhang, Guénaël Cabanes
      Abstract: This study applied a temporal social network analysis model to describe three affiliative social networks (allogrooming, sleep in contact, and triadic interaction) in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus. Three main social mechanisms were examined to determine interactional patterns among group members, namely preferential attachment (i.e., highly connected individuals are more likely to form new connections), triadic closure (new connections occur via previous close connections), and homophily (individuals interact preferably with others with similar attributes). Preferential attachment was only observed for triadic interaction network. Triadic closure was significant in allogrooming and triadic interaction networks. Finally, gender homophily was seasonal for allogrooming and sleep in contact networks, and observed in each period for triadic interaction network. These individual-based behaviors are based on individual reactions, and their analysis can shed light on the formation of the affiliative networks determining ultimate coalition networks, and how these networks may evolve over time. A focus on individual behaviors is necessary for a global interactional approach to understanding social behavior rules and strategies. When combined, these social processes could make animal social networks more resilient, thus enabling them to face drastic environmental changes. This is the first study to pinpoint some of the processes underlying the formation of a social structure in a non-human primate species, and identify common mechanisms with humans. The approach used in this study provides an ideal tool for further research seeking to answer long-standing questions about social network dynamics.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02T10:12:11.527355-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22662
  • Feeding behavior and activity budget of the southern yellow-cheeked
           crested gibbons (Nomascus gabriellae) in a lowland tropical forest
    • Authors: Thanh H. Bach; Jin Chen, Minh D. Hoang, Kingsly C. Beng, Van T. Nguyen
      Abstract: The southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae), an endangered species native to Vietnam and Cambodia, lives exclusively in undisturbed tropical forests and depends primarily on ripe fruit for food. Although this species is highly threatened, its ecology and conservation status remain relatively unknown. In order to understand how this heavily frugivorous primate adapts to the seasonal fluctuation of fruit resources in the forest, we collected feeding behavior and ranging activity data on one group of southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbons in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, over 1-year period. We compared these data to information on phenological patterns at the site gleaned during a prior study. We found that the gibbons gathered most of their food from 69 different plant species and also consumed insects and bird eggs. Fruits were the main dietary item (43.3%), followed by leaves (38.4%), flowers (11.6%), and other plant parts (6.0%). A significant seasonal shift in diet was observed; fruit generally dominated the diet in the rainy season and leaves in the dry season. The gibbons often started daily activities very early (05:10 am) in the morning and also ended quite early (16:45 pm) in the afternoon. Socializing was concentrated in the early morning, feeding had a bimodal pattern of high activity levels in mid-morning and mid-afternoon, and resting was most intense at the earliest and latest hours of the day and at midday, with proportionally less time used for traveling at these times. Averaged over the annual cycle, the gibbons spent 45% of their time feeding, 31.9% resting, 14.1% traveling, and 9.0% socializing. The percentage of time allocated to different activities varied significantly across months and between the dry and rainy seasons. Monthly variation in the activity budget was strongly related to changes in diet. In the rainy season, when the gibbons ate a higher percentage of fruit, they decreased their feeding time, while increasing traveling time in search of food; conversely, in the dry season, when they fed on a higher percentage of leaves, they decreased traveling time. Overall, our results show that the activity budget and diet of the southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon are associated with seasonal shifts in climate. This study provides information relevant to the conservation and management of this endangered species by identifying important habitat conditions for reintroducing captive animals into the wild and providing insight into dietary needs, which may be relevant to the maintenance of animals in rescue centers.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T14:35:26.534101-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22667
  • Higher levels of submissive behaviors at the onset of the pairing process
           of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are associated with lower risk of
           wounding following introduction
    • Authors: Ori Pomerantz; Kate C. Baker
      Abstract: Social housing of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) is considered to be the cornerstone of behavioral management programs in biomedical facilities. However, it also involves the risk of socially inflicted trauma. The ability to avoid such trauma would contribute to the animals’ well-being and alleviate staff's concerns, thus paving the path for more introductions. Here, we sought to address the conflict between the need to socially house rhesus macaques and the need to bring social wounding to a minimum by identifying behaviors expressed early in social introductions, that may serve as predictors of later wounding events. We employed logistic regression analysis to predict the occurrence of wounding for 39 iso-sexual, adult pairs in the 30 days following the introduction into full contact using the levels of behaviors that were observed at the onset of the introduction. The results show that the levels of submissive behaviors were the only significant predictor to later stage wounding. Higher levels of submissive behaviors expressed during the early phases of the introduction were associated with a decreased likelihood of wounding. Interestingly, levels of affiliative behaviors have not added any power to the predictability of the statistical model. Therefore, it may be suggested that the exchange of submissive signals at the earliest stages of the introduction is critical in the determination of relative rank and preclude the need to establish dominance via aggression when allowed full contact. While the observation of clear-cut dominance relationships is commonly considered a harbinger of success, our findings suggest that it is the acknowledgment of subordination, rather than the expression of dominance that underlies this observed pattern. The value of our findings for guiding social housing decision-making may be strongest in situations in which the composition of potential partners is constrained, and therefore requiring that wise decisions be relied upon early behaviors.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T14:29:51.778701-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22671
  • Personality assessment and model comparison with behavioral data: A
           statistical framework and empirical demonstration with bonobos (Pan
    • Authors: Jordan S. Martin; Scott A. Suarez
      Abstract: Interest in quantifying consistent among-individual variation in primate behavior, also known as personality, has grown rapidly in recent decades. Although behavioral coding is the most frequently utilized method for assessing primate personality, limitations in current statistical practice prevent researchers’ from utilizing the full potential of their coding datasets. These limitations include the use of extensive data aggregation, not modeling biologically relevant sources of individual variance during repeatability estimation, not partitioning between-individual (co)variance prior to modeling personality structure, the misuse of principal component analysis, and an over-reliance upon exploratory statistical techniques to compare personality models across populations, species, and data collection methods. In this paper, we propose a statistical framework for primate personality research designed to address these limitations. Our framework synthesizes recently developed mixed-effects modeling approaches for quantifying behavioral variation with an information-theoretic model selection paradigm for confirmatory personality research. After detailing a multi-step analytic procedure for personality assessment and model comparison, we employ this framework to evaluate seven models of personality structure in zoo-housed bonobos (Pan paniscus). We find that differences between sexes, ages, zoos, time of observation, and social group composition contributed to significant behavioral variance. Independently of these factors, however, personality nonetheless accounted for a moderate to high proportion of variance in average behavior across observational periods. A personality structure derived from past rating research receives the strongest support relative to our model set. This model suggests that personality variation across the measured behavioral traits is best described by two correlated but distinct dimensions reflecting individual differences in affiliation and sociability (Agreeableness) as well as activity level, social play, and neophilia toward non-threatening stimuli (Openness). These results underscore the utility of our framework for quantifying personality in primates and facilitating greater integration between the behavioral ecological and comparative psychological approaches to personality research.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T17:57:34.283239-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22670
  • The relative effects of reproductive condition, stress, and seasonality on
           patterns of parasitism in wild female black howler monkeys (Alouatta
    • Authors: Rodolfo Martínez-Mota; Paul A. Garber, Rupert Palme, Thomas R. Gillespie
      Abstract: Parasitic infections in wildlife are shaped by host-related traits including individual reproductive condition. It has been argued that female primates are more susceptible to infectious diseases during pregnancy due to short-term changes in immune function that result in reduced ability to combat infections. Likewise, lactation, which is the most energetically expensive state, may affect immunity and infection risk due to tradeoffs between milk production and maintenance of immune function. Here, we examine the degree to which parasite prevalence and parasite richness are affected by female reproductive condition and stress levels in wild female black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra). Over the course of one year, we collected fresh fecal samples from 15 adult females belonging to seven black howler groups living in Escárcega, Mexico. Fecal samples were used for parasitological analysis and for measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (i.e., stress biomarker). We found that the prevalence of intestinal parasites and parasite richness did not differ among non-pregnant, pregnant, and lactating females. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels increased significantly during pregnancy and during the first month of lactation, and positively predicted the probability of Controrchis biliophilus infection. Parasite prevalence and richness decreased during the months of increased rainfall. We conclude that reproductive physiology has limited consequences on intestinal parasitic infection risk in female black howler monkeys and that seasonal environmental fluctuations have greater effects.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T08:56:06.726579-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22669
  • Distinctiveness enhances long-term event memory in non-human primates,
           irrespective of reinforcement
    • Authors: Amy Lewis; Josep Call, Dorthe Berntsen
      Abstract: Non-human primates are capable of recalling events that occurred as long as 3 years ago, and are able to distinguish between similar events; akin to human memory. In humans, distinctiveness enhances memory for events, however, it is unknown whether the same occurs in non-human primates. As such, we tested three great ape species on their ability to remember an event that varied in distinctiveness. Across three experiments, apes witnessed a baiting event in which one of three identical containers was baited with food. After a delay of 2 weeks, we tested their memory for the location of the baited container. Apes failed to recall the baited container when the event was undistinctive (Experiment 1), but were successful when it was distinctive (Experiment 2), although performance was equally good in a less-distinctive condition. A third experiment (Experiment 3) confirmed that distinctiveness, independent of reinforcement, was a consistent predictor of performance. These findings suggest that distinctiveness may enhance memory for events in non-human primates in the same way as in humans, and provides further evidence of basic similarities between the ways apes and humans remember past events.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T08:54:46.700759-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22665
  • Orangutan trade, confiscations, and lack of prosecutions in Indonesia
    • Authors: Vincent Nijman
      Abstract: Prosecuting and sentencing law breakers punishes the offender and acts as a deterrent for future law breakers. With thousands of Sumatran and Bornean orangutans (Pongo abelii and P. pygmaeus) having entered private and government rescue centers and facilities, I evaluate the role of successful prosecution in orangutan conservation in Indonesia. Orangutans have been protected in Indonesian since 1931 and they are not allowed to be traded or to be kept as pets. In the period 1993–2016 at least 440 orangutans were formally confiscated, and many more were “donated” to law enforcement agencies. This resulted in seven (7) successful prosecutions by six different courts. Sentencing was lenient (median fine US$ 442 out of a possible US$ 7,600, median prison sentence 8 months out of a possible 5 years) and certainly too low to act as a deterrent. A paradigm shift within government authorities, conservation organizations, the judiciary, and by the general public is needed where trade in orangutans is no longer seen as a crime against an individual animal but as an economic crime that negatively affects society as a whole. Prosecuting offenders for tax evasion, corruption, endangering public health, animal cruelty, and smuggling, in addition to violating protected species laws, would allow for an increase in sentencing, resulting in a stronger deterrent, and greater public support. Conservation and welfare NGOs have a duty to become more proactive in a drive to increase enforcement; rescuing orangutans always has to coincide with prosecuting offenders and failures, and successes of these prosecutions have to be vigorously publicized. Despite numerous commitments made by Indonesia to orangutan conservation, and clear failures to deliver on almost all components, international donors have increased their funding year on year; it is time that this changes to a system where not failure is rewarded but success.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T08:54:44.524665-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22652
  • Orangutans, enamel defects, and developmental health: A comparison of
           Borneo and Sumatra
    • Authors: Mark F. Skinner; Matthew M. Skinner
      Abstract: Orangutans (Pongo sp.) show among the highest occurrence of three types of developmental enamel defect. Two are attributed to nutritional factors that reduce bone growth in the infant's face early in development. Their timing and prevalence indicate that Sumatra provides a better habitat than does Borneo. The third type, repetitive linear enamel hypoplasia (rLEH) is very common but its etiology is not understood. Our objective is to draw attention to this enigmatic, episodic stressor in the lives of orangutans. We are concerned that neglect of this possible marker of ill health may be contributing, through inaction, to their alarming decline in numbers. Width and depth of an LEH are considered proxies for duration and intensity of stress. The hypothesis that Bornean orangutans would exhibit relatively wider and deeper LEH was tested on 163 independent episodes of LEH from 9 Sumatran and 26 Bornean orangutans measured with a NanoFocus AG “µsurf Mobile Plus” scanner. Non-normally distributed data (depths) were converted to natural logs. No difference was found in width of LEH among the two island taxa; nor are their differences in width or depth between the sexes. After controlling for significant differences in LEH depths between incisors and canines, defects are, contrary to prediction, significantly deeper in Sumatran than Bornean animals (median = 28, 18 µm, respectively). It is concluded that repetitive LEH records an unknown but significant stressor present in both Sumatra and Borneo, with an average periodicity of 6 months (or multiples thereof) that lasts about 6–8 weeks. It is worse in Sumatra. Given this patterning, shared with apes from a wide range of ecological and temporal sources, rLEH is more likely attributable to disease than to malnutrition.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T08:54:31.400312-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22668
  • Contexts and consequences of takeovers in hamadryas baboons: Female
           parity, reproductive state, and observational evidence of pregnancy loss
    • Authors: Alexis L. Amann; Mathew Pines, Larissa Swedell
      Abstract: The evolutionary consequences of sexual selection and sexual conflict are epitomized in the hamadryas baboon, a species characterized by strong sexual dimorphism and intense male–male competition. Hamadryas males coerce individual females into reproductively exclusive one-male units via aggressive takeovers, and infants involved in such takeovers are at least four times more likely to be killed (or otherwise die) after takeovers compared to other times. Here we examine female reproductive state before and after takeovers to further investigate the determinants of takeovers and their impact on female reproduction. Our data set consists of 162 takeovers over a period of 20 years in a population of wild hamadryas baboons at Filoha, Ethiopia. Results show that, in contrast to their polygynandrous relatives, hamadryas males show no bias with regard to female reproductive state at the time of the takeover, but are more likely to take over nulliparous compared to multiparous females. In addition, these results reinforce previous findings demonstrating the high likelihood of infant loss after hamadryas takeovers and suggest that females may use an additional strategy of pregnancy termination to curtail investment in offspring that are very likely to die anyway. Thus, hamadryas males may target females with high future reproductive value and hamadryas females may employ counterstrategies to help mitigate the effects of sexual coercion and infanticide on their own fitness.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T17:25:35.104828-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22649
  • Optimizing field and analytical procedures for estimating densities of
           arboreal and threatened primates in tropical rainforest
    • Authors: Nathalie Cavada; Marco Ciolli, Claudia Barelli, Francesco Rovero
      Abstract: The application of distance sampling to primate density estimation is challenging and susceptible to estimation biases, mainly due to the difficulties of properly accounting for variation in species’ detectability and of accurately sampling the spread of the social groups. We apply a hierarchical distance sampling approach to primate data, to account for a comprehensive set of environmental covariates of both detectability and abundance, and we propose a novel field routine to measure the spread of groups during transect sampling. We confirm the good potential of this approach, given we obtained refined estimates of primate density (as measured by the Akaike Information Criterion) in comparison to estimates from models without covariates.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T15:05:42.350269-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22666
  • Conservation strategies for understanding and combating the primate
           bushmeat trade on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea
    • Authors: Drew T. Cronin; Paul R. Sesink Clee, Matthew W. Mitchell, Demetrio Bocuma Meñe, David Fernández, Cirilo Riaco, Maximiliano Fero Meñe, Jose Manuel Esara Echube, Gail W. Hearn, Mary Katherine Gonder
      Abstract: Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea is among the important places in Africa for the conservation of primates, but a cultural preference for bushmeat and a lack of effective law enforcement has encouraged commercial bushmeat hunting, threatening the survival of the remaining primate population. For over 13 years, we collected bushmeat market data in the Malabo market, recording over 35,000 primate carcasses, documenting “mardi gras” consumption patterns, seasonal carcass availability, and negative effects resulting from government intervention. We also conducted forest surveys throughout Bioko's two protected areas in order to localize and quantify primate populations and hunting pressure. Using these data, we were able to document the significant negative impact bushmeat hunting had on monkey populations, estimate which species are most vulnerable to hunting, and develop ecological niche models to approximate the distribution of each of Bioko's diurnal primate species. These results also have allowed for the identification of primate hotspots, such as the critically important southwest region of the Gran Caldera Scientific Reserve, and thus, priority areas for conservation on Bioko, leading to more comprehensive conservation recommendations. Current and future efforts now focus on bridging the gap between investigators and legislators in order to develop and effectively implement a management plan for Bioko's Gran Caldera Scientific Reserve and to develop a targeted educational campaign to reduce demand by changing consumer attitudes toward bushmeat. Using this multidisciplinary approach, informed by biological, socioeconomic, and cultural research, there may yet be a positive future for the primates of Bioko.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T14:50:38.873813-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22663
  • Toughness of the Virunga mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) diet
           across an altitudinal gradient
    • Authors: Halszka Glowacka; Shannon C. McFarlin, Erin R. Vogel, Tara S. Stoinski, Felix Ndagijimana, Deo Tuyisingize, Antoine Mudakikwa, Gary T. Schwartz
      Abstract: The robust masticatory system of mountain gorillas is thought to have evolved for the comminution of tough vegetation, yet, compared to other primates, the toughness of the mountain gorilla diet is unremarkable. This may be a result of low plant toughness in the mountain gorilla environment or of mountain gorillas feeding selectively on low-toughness foods. The goal of this paper is to determine how the toughness of the mountain gorilla diet varies across their habitat, which spans a large altitudinal range, and whether there is a relationship between toughness and food selection by mountain gorillas. We collected data on the following variables to determine whether, and if so how, they change with altitude: leaf toughness of two plant species consumed by mountain gorillas, at every 100 m increase in altitude (2,600–3,700 m); toughness of consumed foods comprising over 85% of the gorilla diet across five vegetation zones; and toughness of unconsumed/infrequently consumed plant parts of those foods. Although leaf toughness increased with altitude, the toughness of the gorilla diet remained similar. There was a negative relationship between toughness and consumption frequency, and toughness was a better predictor of consumption frequency than plant frequency, biomass, and density. Consumed plant parts were less tough than unconsumed/infrequently consumed parts and toughness of the latter increased with altitude. Although it is unclear whether gorillas select food based on toughness or use toughness as a sensory cue to impart other plant properties (e.g., macronutrients, chemicals), our results that gorillas maintain a consistent low-toughness dietary profile across altitude, despite toughness increasing with altitude, suggest that the robust gorilla masticatory apparatus evolved for repetitive mastication of foods that are not high in toughness.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T14:50:34.181657-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22661
  • Social and demographic correlates of male androgen levels in wild
           white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus)
    • Authors: Franka S. Schaebs; Susan E. Perry, Don Cohen, Roger Mundry, Tobias Deschner
      Abstract: The Challenge Hypothesis, designed originally to explain the patterning of competitive behavior and androgen levels in seasonally breeding birds, predicts that males will increase their androgen levels in order to become more competitive in reproductive contexts. Here we test predictions derived from the Challenge Hypothesis in white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus), a species that has somewhat seasonal reproduction. We analyzed demographic and hormonal data collected over a 5.25-year period, from 18 males in nine social groups living in or near Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica. Alpha males had higher androgen levels than subordinates. Contrary to our predictions, neither the number of breeding-age males nor the number of potentially fertile females was obviously associated with androgen levels. Furthermore, male androgen levels were not significantly linked to social stability, as measured by stability of male group membership or recency of change in the alpha male position. Androgen levels changed seasonally, but not in a manner that had an obvious relationship to predictions from the Challenge Hypothesis: levels were generally at their lowest near the beginning of the conception season, but instead of peaking when reproductive opportunities were greatest, they were at their highest near the end of the conception season or shortly thereafter. This lack of correspondence to the timing of conceptions suggests that there may be ecological factors not yet identified that influence ifA levels. We expected that the presence of offspring who were young enough to be vulnerable to infanticide during an alpha male takeover might influence androgen levels, at least in the alpha male, but this variable did not significantly impact results.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T14:40:34.137678-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22653
  • How do rivers, geographic distance, and dispersal behavior influence
           genetic structure in two sympatric New World monkeys'
    • Authors: Emilie Lecompte; Mohand-Ameziane Bouanani, Benoît de Thoisy, Brigitte Crouau-Roy
      Abstract: Dispersal, one of the major factors affecting the gene flow between populations, shapes the spatial distribution of genetic diversity within species. Alouatta macconnelli and Saguinus midas are two Neotropical monkey species that sympatrically inhabit the Guiana shield in northern Amazonia and are likely to differ in their dispersal behavior and vagility. We took advantage of their sympatry to investigate, over a fine geographical scale (∼50 km long), the relationship between spatial genetic structure, on the one hand, and geographical features and the species’ dispersal behavior on the other. A total of 84 A. macconnelli individuals from 25 social units and 76 S. midas individuals from 19 social units were genotyped for nine microsatellite markers. Both species displayed high genetic diversity and allelic richness. However, patterns of genetic structure differed between the two species. In A. macconnelli, no genetic substructuring was observed, while in S. midas we detected significant structuring, but this structuring was not correlated with geographical features, such as the location of individuals relative to the river and/or the distance between them. Instead, the geographical distribution of genetic variation observed for each species is predominantly explained by each species’ dispersal pattern. We identified bisexual dispersal for both species, but with significant differences, either in the distance or in the rate of dispersal, between species and sexes. Genetic relatedness within social units was higher in S. midas than in A. macconnelli: gene flow between social units seems limited in S. midas, especially for females, while high dispersal characterizes A. macconnelli, where females seem to disperse at lower rate but at a longer distance than males.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T09:40:36.069566-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22660
  • How far do Neotropical primates disperse seeds'
    • Authors: Lisieux F. Fuzessy; Charles H. Janson, Fernando A. O. Silveira
      Abstract: Seed dispersal distance (SDD) is a vital component of vertebrate-mediated seed dispersal process: the average distance at which seeds are deposited away from the parent plant represents the starting template of plant regeneration. We present a simple model to explain and predict observed measures of average dispersal distance and we hypothesize that it is a consequence of how long seeds are retained in the disperser's gut, how rapidly the disperser moves per unit time and how twisted the animal travel path is relative to the straight-line distance moved away from the seed source. We retrieved data on dispersal distances from 26 published studies including nine primate species dispersing up to 112 plant species per study. We used gut transit time (TT) as a proxy for residence time inside the gut, the disperser's travel path per hour as proxy for movement rate, and the daily path length relative to the home range area as a correlate of path twisting (PT). We illustrate this model with comparative data on Neotropical primates. These three variables explained 90% of the variation in the average SDD. Path analysis indicates that additional variables exerted only indirect effects. Our model can be applied to primate populations for which detailed seed dispersal data are missing, and help evaluate conservation priorities for primate species according to the potential service they provide in terms of forest regeneration.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T09:30:47.025696-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22659
  • Reproductive status affects the feeding ecology and social association
           patterns of female squirrel monkeys (Saimiri collinsi) in an Amazonian
    • Authors: Luana V.P. Ruivo; Anita I. Stone, Matthew Fienup
      Abstract: When making foraging decisions, female primates may follow specific behavioral strategies that reflect their reproductive state. Lactation is considered the most energetically costly phase for females, but we argue that gestation is also energetically expensive for squirrel monkeys. In this study, we examined whether female squirrel monkeys (a seasonally breeding primate) in different reproductive phases showed significant differences in their foraging ecology. We sampled two wild groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri collinsi) using the focal animal method, during 12 months (June 2014 to May 2015). During this time, we quantified the effect of reproductive state (mating, gestation, and lactation) and sex (females vs. males) on activity budgets, foraging efficiency, dietary composition, and nearest neighbors. We found significant effects of both sex and reproductive phase on the mean proportion of time spent foraging, resting, traveling, and being social. Females consumed more insects than did males at all times; among females, time spent eating prey and fruit varied according to reproductive state. These data suggest that, due to their life history and seasonal breeding, reproduction is a costly activity for female Saimiri, and not only during lactation. Therefore, adopting the appropriate behavioral strategies is essential to reduce energetic deficits in females.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T09:25:58.079526-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22657
  • Overlooked small apes need more attention!
    • Authors: Pengfei Fan; Thad Q. Bartlett
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T09:25:21.769126-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22658
  • Embraces are lateralized in spider monkeys (Ateles fusciceps rufiventris)
    • Authors: Emily R. Boeving; Starlie C. Belnap, Eliza L. Nelson
      Abstract: Side biases observed in behavior are thought to reflect underlying asymmetric brain function or hemispheric specialization. Previous work in multiple species identified left side biases (associated with the right hemisphere) for processing social behavior. In highly social species such as primates, many behaviors may be categorized as social, yet differences between such behaviors have not been examined as a test of asymmetric brain function. Using Colombian spider monkeys (Ateles fusciceps rufiventris), we observed lateral positioning during two types of behaviors widely categorized as social affiliative: embracing and grooming, and identified a left bias for embracing, but not grooming. Our findings partially support prior research in hemispheric specialization, but suggest that there may be differences between social behaviors that drive specialization. We discuss these results in light of current theory on hemispheric specialization and highlight differences between embracing and grooming.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T09:21:32.785162-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22654
  • Vitamin D status in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) in Sri Lanka
    • Authors: Michael L. Power; Wolfgang P. J. Dittus
      Abstract: The vitamin D receptor is found on most cells, including active immune cells, implying that vitamin D has important biological functions beyond calcium metabolism and bone health. Although captive primates should be given a dietary source of vitamin D, under free-living conditions vitamin D is not a required nutrient, but rather is produced in skin when exposed to UV-B light. The circulating level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) considered adequate for humans is a topic of current controversy. Levels of circulating 25-OH-D sufficient for good health for macaques and other Old World anthropoids are assumed to be the same as human values, but data from free-living animals are scant. This study reports values for 25-OH-D and the active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2 D) for wild, forest-ranging toque macaques (Macaca sinica) in Sri Lanka. Plasma samples were obtained from eight adult males, seven juvenile males, six young nulliparous females, nine adult females not pregnant or lactating, eleven lactating adult females, and four pregnant females. Mean values for the complete sample were 61.3 ± 4.0 ng/ml for 25-OH-D and 155.6 ± 8.7 pg/ml for 1,25[OH]2 D. There were no significant differences for either metabolite among age and sex classes, nor between lactating and non-reproductive females. Values from the literature for circulating 25-OH-D in captive macaques are three times higher than those found in this wild population, however, 1,25[OH]2 D values in captive animals were similar to the wild values. The data from this study indicate that anthropoid primates exposed to extensive sunlight will have circulating values of 25-OH-D generally above 30 ng/ml, providing some support for the Endocrine Society recommendations for humans. Current dietary vitamin D supplementation of captive macaques likely exceeds requirement. This may affect metabolism and immune function, with possible consequences for macaque health and biomedical research results.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T09:21:28.350927-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22655
  • Obituary Robert H. Horwich (1940–2017)
    • Authors: Sam Shanee; Keefe Keeley, Noga Shanee
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T09:15:58.951492-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22651
  • Parasites of orangutans (primates: ponginae): An overview
    • Authors: Wisnu Nurcahyo; Veronika Konstanzová, Ivona Foitová
      Abstract: Wild orangutan populations exist in an increasingly fragile state. As numbers continue to decline and populations became fragmented, the overall health of remaining individuals becomes increasingly at risk. Parasitic infections can have a serious impact on the health of wild orangutans, and can be fatal. It has been reported that rehabilitated individuals demonstrate a higher prevalence of parasitic diseases, and it is possible that they may spread these infections to wild orangutans upon reintroduction. In order to ensure the success of reintroduction and conservation efforts, it is crucial to understand the potential risks by fully understanding what parasites they have been reported to be infected with. Using this knowledge, future conservation strategies can be adapted to minimize the risk and prevalence of parasite transmission in the remaining orangutan populations. There is still limited information available on orangutan parasites, with several still not identified to the species level. Based on comprehensive literature review, we found 51 parasite taxa known to infect wild, semi-wild, and captive orangutans, including newly reported species. Here, we summarize methods used to identify parasites and draw conclusions relative to their reported prevalence. We also recommend fecal sample preservation and analytical methods to obtain best result in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T05:17:55.559514-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22650
  • Stable carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, isotope analysis of plants from a
           South Asian tropical forest: Implications for primatology
    • Authors: Patrick Roberts; Scott A. Blumenthal, Wolfgang Dittus, Oshan Wedage, Julia A. Lee-Thorp
      Abstract: Stable isotope analysis of primate tissues in tropical forest contexts is an increasingly popular means of obtaining information about niche distinctions among sympatric species, including preferences in feeding height, forest canopy density, plant parts, and trophism. However, issues of equifinality mean that feeding height, canopy density, as well as the plant parts and plant species consumed, may produce similar or confounding effects. With a few exceptions, researchers have so far relied largely on general principles and/or limited plant data from the study area as references for deducing the predominant drivers of primate isotope variation. Here, we explore variation in the stable carbon (δ13C), nitrogen (δ15N), and oxygen (δ18O) isotope ratios of 288 plant samples identified as important to the three primate species from the Polonnaruwa Nature Sanctuary, Sri Lanka, relative to plant part, season, and canopy height. Our results show that plant part and height have the greatest effect on the δ13C and δ18O measurements of plants of immediate relevance to the primates, Macaca sinica, Semnopithecus priam thersites, and Trachypithecus vetulus, living in this monsoonal tropical forest. We find no influence of plant part, height or season on the δ15N of measured plants. While the plant part effect is particularly pronounced in δ13C between fruits and leaves, differential feeding height, and plant taxonomy influence plant δ13C and δ18O differences in addition to plant organ. Given that species composition in different regions and forest types will differ, the results urge caution in extrapolating general isotopic trends without substantial local baselines studies.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T04:52:29.878662-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22656
  • An empirical evaluation of camera trapping and spatially explicit
           capture-recapture models for estimating chimpanzee density
    • Authors: Marie-Lyne Després-Einspenner; Eric J. Howe, Pierre Drapeau, Hjalmar S. Kühl
      Abstract: Empirical validations of survey methods for estimating animal densities are rare, despite the fact that only an application to a population of known density can demonstrate their reliability under field conditions and constraints. Here, we present a field validation of camera trapping in combination with spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) methods for enumerating chimpanzee populations. We used 83 camera traps to sample a habituated community of western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of known community and territory size in Taï National Park, Ivory Coast, and estimated community size and density using spatially explicit capture-recapture models. We aimed to: (1) validate camera trapping as a means to collect capture-recapture data for chimpanzees; (2) validate SECR methods to estimate chimpanzee density from camera trap data; (3) compare the efficacy of targeting locations frequently visited by chimpanzees versus deploying cameras according to a systematic design; (4) evaluate the performance of SECR estimators with reduced sampling effort; and (5) identify sources of heterogeneity in detection probabilities. Ten months of camera trapping provided abundant capture-recapture data. All weaned individuals were detected, most of them multiple times, at both an array of targeted locations, and a systematic grid of cameras positioned randomly within the study area, though detection probabilities were higher at targeted locations. SECR abundance estimates were accurate and precise, and analyses of subsets of the data indicated that the majority of individuals in a community could be detected with as few as five traps deployed within their territory. Our results highlight the potential of camera trapping for cost-effective monitoring of chimpanzee populations.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T12:15:26.642913-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22647
  • Activity patterns in seven captive lemur species: Evidence of
           cathemerality in Varecia and Lemur catta'
    • Authors: Joel Bray; David R. Samson, Charles L. Nunn
      Abstract: Cathemerality, or activity throughout the 24-hr cycle, is rare in primates yet relatively common among lemurs. However, the diverse ecological conditions under which cathemerality is expressed complicates attempts to identify species-typical behavior. For example, Lemur catta and Varecia have historically been described as diurnal, yet recent studies suggest that they might exhibit cathemeral behavior under some conditions. To investigate this variation, we monitored activity patterns among lemurs that are exposed to similar captive environments. Using MotionWatch 8 ® actigraphy data loggers, we studied 88 lemurs across seven species at the Duke Lemur Center (DLC). Six species were members of the family Lemuridae (Eulemur coronatus, E. flavifrons, E. mongoz, L. catta, V. rubra, V. variegata), while a seventh was strictly diurnal and included as an out-group (Propithecus coquereli). For each 24-hr cycle (N = 503), we generated two estimates of cathemerality: mean night (MN) activity and day/night (DN) activity ratio (day and night cutoffs were based on astronomical twilights). As expected, P. coquereli engaged in the least amount of nocturnal activity according to both measures; their activity was also outside the 95% confidence intervals of all three cathemeral Eulemur species, which exhibited the greatest evidence of cathemerality. By these estimates, Varecia activity was most similar to Eulemur and exhibited substantial deviations from P. coquereli (β (MN) = 0.22 ± SE 0.12; β (DN) = −0.21 ± SE 0.12). L. catta activity patterns also deviated from P. coquereli (β (MN) = 0.12 ± SE 0.11; β (DN) = −0.15 ± SE 0.12) but to a lesser degree than either Varecia or Eulemur. Overall, L. catta displayed an intermediate activity pattern between Eulemur and P. coquereli, which is somewhat consistent with wild studies. Regarding Varecia, although additional observations in more diverse wild habitats are needed, our findings support the existence of cathemeral behavior in this genus.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T15:30:26.345685-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22648
  • Functional morphology of the douc langur (Pygathrix spp.) scapula
    • Authors: Katie E. Bailey; Susan E. Lad, James D. Pampush
      Abstract: Most colobine monkeys primarily move through their arboreal environment quadrupedally. Douc langurs (Pygathrix spp.), however, are regularly observed to use suspensory behaviors at the Endangered Primate Rescue Center (EPRC) in Northern Vietnam. Previous work has linked variation in scapular morphology to different modes of primate arboreal locomotion. Here we investigate whether the shape of the Pygathrix scapula resembles obligate brachiators (gibbons) or obligate arboreal quadrupeds (other cercopithecoids). Using a MicroScribe G2X 3D digitizer, the positions of 17 landmarks were recorded on 15 different species of nonhuman primates (n = 100) from three categories of locomotor behavior: brachiator, arboreal quadruped, and unknown (Pygathrix). All analyses were conducted in the R package geomorph. A Procrustes analysis uniformly scaled the shape data and placed specimens into the same morphospace. A Principal Component Analysis was used to examine scapular shape and a Procrustes ANOVA was conducted to test for shape difference in the scapulae. A pairwise analysis was used to compare the means of the locomotor categories and identify any statistically significant differences. A phylogenetically controlled Procrustes ANOVA was also conducted using a phylogeny from 10kTrees. Results show Pygathrix scapular morphology is significantly different from both arboreal colobine quadrupeds (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T15:15:26.229138-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22646
  • Impacts of habitat loss and fragmentation on the activity budget, ranging
           ecology and habitat use of Bale monkeys (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) in the
           southern Ethiopian Highlands
    • Authors: Addisu Mekonnen; Peter J. Fashing, Afework Bekele, R. Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Eli K. Rueness, Nga Nguyen, Nils Chr. Stenseth
      Abstract: Understanding the extent to which primates in forest fragments can adjust behaviorally and ecologically to changes caused by deforestation is essential to designing conservation management plans. During a 12-month period, we studied the effects of habitat loss and degradation on the Ethiopian endemic, bamboo specialist, Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) by comparing its habitat quality, activity budget, ranging ecology and habitat use in continuous forest and two fragments. We found that habitat loss and fragmentation resulted in major differences in vegetation composition and structure between forest types. We also found that Bale monkeys in continuous forest spent more time feeding and traveling and less time resting and socializing than monkeys in fragments. Bale monkeys in continuous forest also had higher movement rates (m/hr) than monkeys in fragments. Bale monkeys in continuous forest used exclusively bamboo and mixed bamboo forest habitats while conspecifics in fragments used a greater variety of habitats including human use areas (i.e., matrix). Our findings suggest that Bale monkeys in fragments use an energy minimization strategy to cope with the lower availability of the species' primary food species, bamboo (Arundinaria alpina). We contend that Bale monkeys may retain some of the ancestral ecological flexibility assumed to be characteristic of the genus Chlorocebus, within which all extant species except Bale monkeys are regarded as ecological generalists. Our results suggest that, like other bamboo eating primates (e.g., the bamboo lemurs of Madagascar), Bale monkeys can cope with a certain threshold of habitat destruction. However, the long-term conservation prospects for Bale monkeys in fragments remain unclear and will require further monitoring to be properly evaluated.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T20:01:18.660094-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22644
  • Socially transmitted diffusion of a novel behavior from subordinate
    • Authors: Stuart K. Watson; Lisa A. Reamer, Mary Catherine Mareno, Gillian Vale, Rachel A. Harrison, Susan P. Lambeth, Steven J. Schapiro, Andrew Whiten
      Abstract: Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) demonstrate much cultural diversity in the wild, yet a majority of novel behaviors do not become group-wide traditions. Since many such novel behaviors are introduced by low-ranking individuals, a bias toward copying dominant individuals (“rank-bias”) has been proposed as an explanation for their limited diffusion. Previous experimental work showed that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) preferentially copy dominant over low-rank models. We investigated whether low ranking individuals may nevertheless successfully seed a beneficial behavior as a tradition if there are no “competing” models. In each of four captive groups, either a single high-rank (HR, n = 2) or a low-rank (LR, n = 2) chimpanzee model was trained on one method of opening a two-action puzzle-box, before demonstrating the trained method in a group context. This was followed by 8 hr of group-wide, open-access to the puzzle-box. Successful manipulations and observers of each manipulation were recorded. Barnard's exact tests showed that individuals in the LR groups used the seeded method as their first-choice option at significantly above chance levels, whereas those in the HR groups did not. Furthermore, individuals in the LR condition used the seeded method on their first attempt significantly more often than those in the HR condition. A network-based diffusion analysis (NBDA) revealed that the best supported statistical models were those in which social transmission occurred only in groups with subordinate models. Finally, we report an innovation by a subordinate individual that built cumulatively on existing methods of opening the puzzle-box and was subsequently copied by a dominant observer. These findings illustrate that chimpanzees are motivated to copy rewarding novel behaviors that are demonstrated by subordinate individuals and that, in some cases, social transmission may be constrained by high-rank demonstrators.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T16:25:25.175248-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22642
  • Seminal coagulation and sperm quality in different social contexts in
           captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella)
    • Authors: Julianne S. Lima; Danuza L. Leão, Karol G. Oliveira, Adriel B. Brito, Wlaisa V. Sampaio, Regiane R. Santos, Helder L. Queiroz, Sheyla F. Domingues
      Abstract: In the present study, we aimed to assess the influence of different social contexts on the seminal coagulation and sperm quality in captive tufted capuchin monkeys. For this, males were housed either individually, in mixed-sex groups (with females), or in male-only groups. Monkeys were housed in cages and each cage type (i.e., individual or group cage) was placed in a different room. Forty-one males were subjected to semen collection by rectal electroejaculation. The degree of seminal coagulation was determined on a scale of I–IV. Seminal volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, vigor, and plasma membrane integrity were evaluated for all ejaculate samples. All ejaculates collected showed degrees of coagulation between II and IV, where the majority presented coagulation degree IV, when collected from animals housed in groups. No statistical differences among percentages of coagula degree when samples were collected from males housed individually. Animals housed in group cages (male-only groups and mixed-sex groups) showed a significantly higher percentage of ejaculates at degree IV than males housed individually. Seminal volume was not affected by the coagula degree but by the housing system, where animals housed individually showed the highest volume (543 μl) when compared with those animals from male (273 μl) and mixed-sex (318 μl) groups. No differences were observed in semen volume when comparing male-only groups with mixed-sex groups. Sperm motility was affected by both housing system and coagula degree. Samples with coagula degree IV from animals housed individually showed the highest (72%) sperm motility percentages. Sperm plasma membrane integrity was lower when samples were presenting coagula degree II + III and collected from male- (17%) or mixed-sex (23%) groups. However, this housing system effect was not observed when sperm was obtained from coagula degree IV semen. Sperm vigor was neither affect by housing system or coagula degree.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T16:20:26.643677-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22643
  • Investigating the dental toolkit of primates based on food mechanical
           properties: Feeding action does matter
    • Authors: Ghislain Thiery; Franck Guy, Vincent Lazzari
      Abstract: Although conveying an indisputable morphological and behavioral signal, traditional dietary categories such as frugivorous or folivorous tend to group a wide range of food mechanical properties together. Because food/tooth interactions are mostly mechanical, it seems relevant to investigate the dental morphology of primates based on mechanical categories. However, existing mechanical categories classify food by its properties but cannot be used as factors to classify primate dietary habits. This comes from the fact that one primate species might be adapted to a wide range of food mechanical properties. To tackle this issue, what follows is an original framework based on action-related categories. The proposal here is to classify extant primates based on the range of food mechanical properties they can process through one given action. The resulting categories can be used as factors to investigate the dental tools available to primates. Furthermore, cracking, grinding, and shearing categories assigned depending on the hardness and the toughness of food are shown to be supported by morphological data (3D relative enamel thickness) and topographic data (relief index, occlusal complexity, and Dirichlet normal energy). Inferring food mechanical properties from dental morphology is especially relevant for the study of extinct primates, which are mainly documented by dental remains. Hence, we use action-related categories to investigate the molar morphology of an extinct colobine monkey Mesopithecus pentelicus from the Miocene of Pikermi, Greece. Action-related categories show contrasting results compared with classical categories and give us new insights into the dietary adaptations of this extinct primate. Finally, we provide some possible directions for future research aiming to test action-related categories. In particular, we suggest acquiring more data on mechanically challenging fallback foods and advocate the use of other food mechanical properties such as abrasiveness. The development of new action-related dental metrics is also crucial for primate dental studies.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T02:46:57.096762-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22640
  • Human quarantine: Toward reducing infectious pressure on chimpanzees at
           the Taï Chimpanzee Project, Côte d'Ivoire
    • Authors: Kim Grützmacher; Verena Keil, Vera Leinert, Floraine Leguillon, Arthur Henlin, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Sophie Köndgen, Alexander Lang, Tobias Deschner, Roman M. Wittig, Fabian H. Leendertz
      Abstract: Due to their genetic relatedness, great apes are highly susceptible to common human respiratory pathogens. Although most respiratory pathogens, such as human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV), rarely cause severe disease in healthy human adults, they are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in wild great apes habituated to humans for research or tourism. To prevent pathogen transmission, most great ape projects have established a set of hygiene measures ranging from keeping a specific distance, to the use of surgical masks and establishment of quarantines. This study investigates the incidence of respiratory symptoms and human respiratory viruses in humans at a human-great ape interface, the Taï Chimpanzee Project (TCP) in Côte d'Ivoire, and consequently, the effectiveness of a 5-day quarantine designed to reduce the risk of potential exposure to human respiratory pathogens. To assess the impact of quarantine as a preventative measure, we monitored the quarantine process and tested 262 throat swabs for respiratory viruses, collected during quarantine over a period of 1 year. Although only 1 subject tested positive for a respiratory virus (HRSV), 17 subjects developed symptoms of infection while in quarantine and were subsequently kept from approaching the chimpanzees, preventing potential exposure in 18 cases. Our results suggest that quarantine—in combination with monitoring for symptoms—is effective in reducing the risk of potential pathogen exposure. This research contributes to our understanding of how endangered great apes can be protected from human-borne infectious disease.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T16:50:21.112546-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22619
  • Ten years of orangutan-related wildlife crime investigation in West
           Kalimantan, Indonesia
    • Authors: Cathryn Freund; Edi Rahman, Cheryl Knott
      Abstract: Poaching for the pet trade is considered one of the main threats to orangutan survival, especially to the Bornean species (Pongo pygmaeus). However, there have been few attempts to quantify the number of individuals taken from the wild or to evaluate the drivers of the trade. Most orangutan poaching is thought to be opportunistic in nature, occurring in conjunction with deforestation for large-scale agriculture. Using data from our long-term wildlife crime field investigation program collected from 2004 to 2014, we evaluated the prevalence of orangutan poaching and its spatial distribution in and around Gunung Palung National Park, in the regencies (districts) of Ketapang and Kayong Utara, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Over the project period, investigators uncovered 145 cases of orangutans being illegally held captive for the pet trade. There was a significant correlation between the extent of oil palm and the number of cases reported from each sub-district in the landscape, supporting the widely held hypothesis that orangutan poaching is opportunistic, and we found no evidence of orangutan trading rings (i.e., international traders) targeting Gunung Palung National Park. Over the past decade, there only has been one prosecution of orangutan trading in West Kalimantan, and weak law enforcement by Indonesian authorities remains the most significant challenge in addressing wildlife trade. We offer four recommendations to address this, including that Indonesia dedicate at least $3 million more to addressing orangutan poaching and trade in Kalimantan and that the country's wildlife protection laws be revised and strengthened, with the new laws socialized to a wide audience, including government officials and all aspects of civil society. As oil palm begins to expand into Africa, this study also may help predict how this will affect gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos, encouraging proactive conservation action.
      PubDate: 2016-12-13T14:00:41.404893-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22620
  • Oesophagostomiasis in non-human primates of Gombe National Park, Tanzania
    • Authors: Karen A. Terio; Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Michael J. Kinsel, Jane Raphael, Iddi Lipende, Anthony Collins, Yingying Li, Beatrice H. Hahn, Dominic A. Travis, Thomas R. Gillespie
      Abstract: Oesophagostomum sp. is a parasitic nematode that frequently infects wild chimpanzees. Although nodular lesions are commonly associated with infection, some wild chimpanzee populations seem to tolerate Oesophagostomum nodular lesions while those at Gombe and other sites suffer from associated morbidity and mortality. From August 2004 to December 2013, we examined demographic (i.e., age, sex) and individual correlates (i.e., fecal consistency, Oesophagostomum egg production) to Oesophagostomum-associated pathology in 14 individually recognized chimpanzees at Gombe Stream National Park, Tanzania. In addition, we characterized Oesophagostomum-associated pathology in 14 individual sympatric primates including baboons, colobus, and cercopithecid monkeys. In five chimpanzees, there was no evidence of any significant underlying disease aside from oesophagostomiasis to explain the thin condition or diarrhea. All five of these chimpanzees had moderate to numerous parasitic nodules. In general, nodules were more numerous in older chimpanzees. Three of four chimpanzees with the highest average Oesophagostomum egg counts in feces collected during the year prior to their death had numerous parasitic nodules at necropsy. In contrast, the four chimpanzees with the lowest egg counts had only moderate numbers of nodules. No association (P = 0.74) was noted between frequency of diarrhea in the year prior to death and the number of nodules noted at necropsy. Nodules were also present in all baboons examined documenting pathology associated with Oesophagostomum infection in wild baboons. In contrast, no lesions were noted in colobus or cercopithecid monkeys, although it is uncertain if they are infected as no fecal studies have been completed in these species to date at Gombe. Sequence of DNA isolated from nodules in chimpanzees matched (99%) Oesophagostomum stephanostomum. Further research is needed to identify the types of Oesophagostomum causing lesions in baboons and to determine if baboons suffer from these infections. Am. J. Primatol. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2016-06-16T14:30:40.529445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22572
  • Socioecological correlates of clinical signs in two communities of wild
           chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Gombe National Park, Tanzania
    • Authors: Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf; Thomas R. Gillespie, Tiffany M. Wolf, Iddi Lipende, Jane Raphael, Jared Bakuza, Carson M. Murray, Michael L. Wilson, Shadrack Kamenya, Deus Mjungu, D. Anthony Collins, Ian C. Gilby, Margaret A. Stanton, Karen A. Terio, Hannah J. Barbian, Yingying Li, Miguel Ramirez, Alexander Krupnick, Emily Seidl, Jane Goodall, Beatrice H. Hahn, Anne E. Pusey, Dominic A. Travis
      Abstract: Disease and other health hazards pose serious threats to the persistence of wild ape populations. The total chimpanzee population at Gombe National Park, Tanzania, has declined from an estimated 120 to 150 individuals in the 1960's to around 100 individuals by the end of 2013, with death associated with observable signs of disease as the leading cause of mortality. In 2004, we began a non-invasive health-monitoring program in the two habituated communities in the park (Kasekela and Mitumba) with the aim of understanding the prevalence of health issues in the population, and identifying the presence and impacts of various pathogens. Here we present prospectively collected data on clinical signs (observable changes in health) in the chimpanzees of the Kasekela (n = 81) and Mitumba (n = 32) communities over an 8-year period (2005–2012). First, we take a population approach and analyze prevalence of clinical signs in five different categories: gastrointestinal system (diarrhea), body condition (estimated weight loss), respiratory system (coughing, sneezing etc.), wounds/lameness, and dermatologic issues by year, month, and community membership. Mean monthly prevalence of each clinical sign per community varied, but typically affected
      PubDate: 2016-05-16T15:45:28.666578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22562
  • Non-invasive quantification of immunoglobulin A in chimpanzees (Pan
           troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Gombe National Park, Tanzania
    • Authors: Emma L. Lantz; Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Matthew R. Heintz, Carson M. Murray, Iddi Lipende, Dominic A. Travis, Rachel M. Santymire
      Abstract: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the primary antibody responsible for mucosal defense in mammals and has been used as a marker for chronic stress and immune status. Therefore, this antibody may provide a more reliable indicator of an individual's immunocompetence than is currently available through other methods. Immunoglobulin A has never before been quantified in a wild population of non-human primates using non-invasive sample collection techniques. In this study, we present methodology for non-invasive IgA extraction in the field and provide quantification of mean fecal IgA concentrations in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). During the study period (November 2009–October 2010), we collected fecal samples (N = 1463) from 59 individuals at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. We modified a field extraction technique for steroidal hormones to extract IgA from the fecal samples and then quantified mean IgA concentrations (ng/g) using a commercial human IgA enzyme immunoassay. Mean IgA concentration varied among individuals but not by sex or reproductive status. Mature animals tended toward higher mean IgA concentration than immature. Mean IgA concentration differed by quartile season, following a similar pattern previously observed for respiratory illness rates in this population, with the late dry season having significantly higher averages than the late wet. A circadian rhythm was also evident with mean IgA concentrations higher in samples collected in the latter half of the day. These demographic and temporal patterns of IgA concentration provide baseline values necessary to interpret future results, which may be combined with other health values to better understand the role of health and long-term stress in wild great ape populations. Am. J. Primatol. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T16:25:25.831998-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22558
  • Illegal captive lemurs in Madagascar: Comparing the use of online and
           in-person data collection methods
    • Authors: Kim E. Reuter; Melissa S. Schaefer
      Abstract: Although it is illegal to capture, sell, and trade lemurs, the live capture of lemurs in Madagascar is ongoing and may have impacted over 28,000 lemurs between 2010 and 2013. Only one study has examined this trade and did so using in-person interviews in northern Madagascar. The current study sought to expand this existing dataset and examine the comparability of online surveys to more traditional on-location data collection methods. In this study, we collected data through a web-based survey resulting in 302 sightings of 685 captive lemurs. We also collected data from 171 hotel and 43 restaurant websites and social media profiles. Survey submissions included sightings of 30 species from 10 genera, nearly twice as many species as identified via the in-person interviews. Lemur catta, Varecia variegata, and Eulemur fulvus were the most common species sighted in captivity. Captive lemurs were reported in 19 of Madagascar's 22 administrative regions and most were seen in urban areas near their habitat ranges. This represents a wider geographic distribution of captive lemurs than previously found through in-person interviews. The online survey results were broadly similar to those of the in-person surveys though greater in species and geographic diversity demonstrating advantages to the use of online surveys. The online research methods were low in cost (USD $100) compared to on-location data collection (USD $12,000). Identified disadvantages included sample bias; most of the respondents to the online survey were researchers and many captive sightings were near study sites. The results illustrate the benefits of incorporating a social science approach using online surveys as a complement to traditional fieldwork. Am. J. Primatol. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2016-02-29T14:36:31.080042-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22541
  • Consequences of a male takeover on mating skew in wild Sanje mangabeys
    • Authors: David Fernández
      Abstract: Among primate species living in multimale-multifemale groups, the number of receptive females may determine the rank of the lowest male that copulates (priority of access model, or PoA [Altmann SA. 1962. A field study of the sociobiology of rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 102:338–435]). Factors, such as temporary instability in the hierarchy and female behavior can, however, affect high-ranking males’ ability to monopolize females, reducing mating skew and causing the hierarchy to depart from predictions of PoA. Here, I use behavioral data collected over a 22-month period on a wild group of Sanje mangabeys (Cercocebus sanjei) to examine the effect of a takeover by two immigrating males who became α and β in the hierarchy, and of female behavior on male mating skew. Data on male agonistic interactions were collected on nine males using ad libitum observations, while information on male mating success (i.e., daily proportion of ejaculatory copulations with the focal female) was collected through focal follows of 12 sexually receptive females. Before the takeover, the hierarchy was stable and highly skewed, with the α-male monopolizing up to 75% of copulations. At this time, however, mating skew did not follow the predictions of PoA. During the takeover, from the time one of the newly immigrant males replaced the α until the second immigrant male became the new β, the stability of the hierarchy dropped significantly and mating was no longer skewed. Accordingly, the top two ranking males at that time (i.e., the new α and former β) accounted for only 33% of copulations. After the takeover, rank stability increased, and mating skew followed the PoA. Female mating solicitations also had a significant positive effect on male mating success, and may have contributed to the deviation from the PoA. This study demonstrates that temporary rank instability decreases high-ranking males’ ability to monopolize copulations, causing a departure from the predictions of the PoA. Am. J. Primatol. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28T19:39:05.270057-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22532
  • Maternal effects on offspring stress physiology in wild chimpanzees
    • Authors: Carson M. Murray; Margaret A. Stanton, Kaitlin R. Wellens, Rachel M. Santymire, Matthew R. Heintz, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf
      Abstract: Early life experiences are known to influence hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis development, which can impact health outcomes through the individual's ability to mount appropriate physiological reactions to stressors. In primates, these early experiences are most often mediated through the mother and can include the physiological environment experienced during gestation. Here, we investigate stress physiology of dependent offspring in wild chimpanzees for the first time and examine whether differences in maternal stress physiology are related to differences in offspring stress physiology. Specifically, we explore the relationship between maternal rank and maternal fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentration during pregnancy and early lactation (first 6 months post-partum) and examine whether differences based on maternal rank are associated with dependent offspring FGM concentrations. We found that low-ranking females exhibited significantly higher FGM concentrations during pregnancy than during the first 6 months of lactation. Furthermore, during pregnancy, low-ranking females experienced significantly higher FGM concentrations than high-ranking females. As for dependent offspring, we found that male offspring of low-ranking mothers experienced stronger decreases in FGM concentrations as they aged compared to males with high-ranking mothers or their dependent female counterparts. Together, these results suggest that maternal rank and FGM concentrations experienced during gestation are related to offspring stress physiology and that this relationship is particularly pronounced in males compared to females. Importantly, this study provides the first evidence for maternal effects on the development of offspring HPA function in wild chimpanzees, which likely relates to subsequent health and fitness outcomes. Am. J. Primatol. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2016-01-12T20:25:04.257251-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22525
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