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BIOLOGY (1442 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 287)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover American Journal of Primatology
  [SJR: 1.197]   [H-I: 63]   [15 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0275-2565 - ISSN (Online) 1098-2345
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1592 journals]
  • Hand preference on unimanual and bimanual tasks in Barbary macaques
           (Macaca sylvanus)
    • Authors: Barbara Regaiolli; Caterina Spiezio, William D. Hopkins
      Abstract: The presence of group-level handedness in non-human primates remains controversial, as different studies have produced inconsistent results. Bimanual coordinated tasks have been found to elicit more pronounced hand preferences than simple unimanual tasks. The aim of this study was to examine manual lateralization in a group of 15 Barbary macaques during unimanual and bimanual tasks. In the unimanual task, data on simple food reaching in a foraging context were collected. During the bimanual task, macaques had to use one hand to hold a tube-shaped apparatus while reaching with the other hand to retrieve the food inside it. Data on the hand use to retrieve food were collected. First, no significant group-level hand preference was found for the unimanual task. However, a significant right hand bias was evident for the bimanual task. At the individual-level, approximately 47% and 67% of the subjects had a significant hand preference in the unimanual and bimanual task respectively. The strength of the hand preference was greater in the bimanual than in the unimanual task. Findings of this study add Macaca sylvanus to the other species showing a right hand preference for coordinated bimanual tasks. Moreover, our results add to the growing body of evidence that bimanual tasks are more suitable and valid measures to investigate handedness in non-human primates.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T05:40:54.887816-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22745
  • Non-invasive genetic censusing and monitoring of primate populations
    • Authors: Mimi Arandjelovic; Linda Vigilant
      Abstract: Knowing the density or abundance of primate populations is essential for their conservation management and contextualizing socio-demographic and behavioral observations. When direct counts of animals are not possible, genetic analysis of non-invasive samples collected from wildlife populations allows estimates of population size with higher accuracy and precision than is possible using indirect signs. Furthermore, in contrast to traditional indirect survey methods, prolonged or periodic genetic sampling across months or years enables inference of group membership, movement, dynamics, and some kin relationships. Data may also be used to estimate sex ratios, sex differences in dispersal distances, and detect gene flow among locations. Recent advances in capture-recapture models have further improved the precision of population estimates derived from non-invasive samples. Simulations using these methods have shown that the confidence interval of point estimates includes the true population size when assumptions of the models are met, and therefore this range of population size minima and maxima should be emphasized in population monitoring studies. Innovations such as the use of sniffer dogs or anti-poaching patrols for sample collection are important to ensure adequate sampling, and the expected development of efficient and cost-effective genotyping by sequencing methods for DNAs derived from non-invasive samples will automate and speed analyses.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T05:40:49.866242-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22743
  • Rhesus macaque personality, dominance, behavior, and health
    • Authors: Lauren M. Robinson; Kristine Coleman, John P. Capitanio, Daniel H. Gottlieb, Ian G. Handel, Mark J. Adams, Matthew C. Leach, Natalie K. Waran, Alexander Weiss
      Abstract: Previous studies of nonhuman primates have found relationships between health and individual differences in personality, behavior, and social status. However, despite knowing these factors are intercorrelated, many studies focus only on a single measure, for example, rank. Consequently, it is difficult to determine the degree to which these individual differences are independently associated with health. The present study sought to untangle the associations between health and these individual differences in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We studied 85 socially housed macaques at the Oregon and California National Primate Research Centers, and used veterinary records to determine the number of injuries and illnesses for each macaque. We measured personality using 12 items from a well-established primate personality questionnaire, performed focal observations of behaviors, and calculated dominance status from directional supplant data. All twelve personality questionnaire items were reliable and were used to represent five of the six personality dimensions identified in rhesus macaques—Dominance, Confidence, Openness, Anxiety, and Friendliness (also known as Sociability). Following this, we fit generalized linear mixed effects models to understand how these factors were associated with an animal's history of injury and history of illness. In the models, age was an offset, facility was a random effect, and the five personality dimensions, behavior, sex, and dominance status were fixed effects. Number of injuries and illnesses were each best represented by a negative binomial distribution. For the injury models, including the effects did improve model fit. This model revealed that more confident and more anxious macaques experienced fewer injuries. For the illness models, including the fixed effects did not significantly improve model fit over a model without the fixed effects. Future studies may seek to assess mechanisms underlying these associations.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T05:40:25.189342-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22739
  • Intranasal oxytocin modulates neural functional connectivity during human
           social interaction
    • Authors: James K. Rilling; Xiangchuan Chen, Xu Chen, Ebrahim Haroon
      Abstract: Oxytocin (OT) modulates social behavior in primates and many other vertebrate species. Studies in non-primate animals have demonstrated that, in addition to influencing activity within individual brain areas, OT influences functional connectivity across networks of areas involved in social behavior. Previously, we used fMRI to image brain function in human subjects during a dyadic social interaction task following administration of either intranasal oxytocin (INOT) or placebo, and analyzed the data with a standard general linear model. Here, we conduct an extensive re-analysis of these data to explore how OT modulates functional connectivity across a neural network that animal studies implicate in social behavior. OT induced widespread increases in functional connectivity in response to positive social interactions among men and widespread decreases in functional connectivity in response to negative social interactions among women. Nucleus basalis of Meynert, an important regulator of selective attention and motivation with a particularly high density of OT receptors, had the largest number of OT-modulated connections. Regions known to receive mesolimbic dopamine projections such as the nucleus accumbens and lateral septum were also hubs for OT effects on functional connectivity. Our results suggest that the neural mechanism by which OT influences primate social cognition may include changes in patterns of activity across neural networks that regulate social behavior in other animals.
      PubDate: 2018-02-10T01:55:35.820457-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22740
  • Trauma rates and patterns in specific pathogen free (SPF) rhesus macaque
           (Macaca mulatta) groups
    • Authors: Ronda C. Stavisky; Jacklyn K. Ramsey, Tracy Meeker, Melissa Stovall, Maria M. Crane
      Abstract: There are some predictable patterns of trauma in captive rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) social groups. Several factors have been documented to contribute to these patterns, including group formation of unrelated animals, and the establishment of dominance ranks. Here, we report on how socially induced trauma in groups of rhesus monkeys is influenced by the breeding season, numbers of matrilines per group and matriline size. We analyzed 3 years of data collected from veterinary admittance logs for four groups in our specific pathogen free (SPF) breeding colony. Since the groups differed in time from formation, both the numbers of matrilines and the composition of those matrilines were different. Across the four groups, trauma rates were significantly higher during the fall breeding season than the spring and summer months when births occur. The group that was formed most recently, comprised of the greatest number of matrilines but fewest related animals, showed significantly higher rates of trauma than the older social groups. Further, the middle and lowest ranking families received signifincantly higher rates of trauma than the highest ranking families, suggesting a rank–related phenomenon. Additionally, there was a significant negative correlation between numbers of adult females in a matriline and rates of trauma observed in each matriline, but the numbers of adult females are significantly higher in the top ranked families compared to all of the other matrilines. These findings suggest that trauma rates increase during the breeding season and may be exacerbated in recently formed breeding groups that have smaller matrilines and reduced opportunities for social support to mitigate rank-related aggression. Management practices should be devised to ensure adequate matrilineal size to decrease rates of trauma in captive rhesus macaque groups.
      PubDate: 2018-02-08T08:35:33.291294-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22742
  • Parentage complexity in socially monogamous lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer):
           Integrating genetic and observational data
    • Authors: Rachel L. Jacobs; David C. Frankel, Riley J. Rice, Vera J. Kiefer, Brenda J. Bradley
      Abstract: Genetic analyses of parentage sometimes reveal that “socially monogamous” (pair-living) species do not reside in strict family groups. Circumstances such as adult turnovers and extra-pair copulations, among others, may result in non-nuclear families. These genetic relationships within groups have implications for interpreting social behaviors. Red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer) live in groups generally comprising an adult male-female pair plus immatures, and early genetic analyses of parentage in a relatively small sample suggested they mate monogamously. However, previous research on this taxon has also identified scenarios in which non-nuclear families might result, such as adult turnovers. To assess the potential occurrence of non-nuclear families in this “socially monogamous” taxon, as well as the social conditions under which they might occur, we combined behavioral observations of wild red-bellied lemurs in Ranomafana National Park with genetic parentage analysis of immatures from 17 groups. We found that the majority of groups (75%) represented nuclear family groups. However, 25% of groups represented non-nuclear families at some point during the study. The social factors that resulted in non-nuclear families were varied and included at least one adult turnover, and potentially delayed female dispersals and extra-pair copulations. Our results suggest that red-bellied lemurs are generally reproductively monogamous, with only limited evidence that non-nuclear families result from non-monogamous reproduction. However, similar to other pair-living primates, red-bellied lemurs appear to exhibit flexibility in their social organization and mating strategies. Multiple lines of evidence should be considered when inferring parent-offspring relationships within pair-living groups.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06T02:40:40.917865-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22738
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2018-01-24T12:31:16.38951-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22698
  • Salivary tannin-binding proteins are a pervasive strategy used by the
           folivorous/frugivorous black howler monkey
    • Authors: Fabiola Carolina Espinosa-Gómez; Juan Carlos Serio-Silva, Juan Diego Santiago-García, Carlos Alfredo Sandoval-Castro, Laura Teresa Hernández-Salazar, Fernando Mejía-Varas, Javier Ojeda-Chávez, Colin Austin Chapman
      Abstract: Dietary tannins can affect protein digestion and absorption, be toxic, and influence food selection by being astringent and bitter tasting. Animals that usually ingest tannins may regularly secrete tannin-binding salivary proteins (TBSPs) to counteract the negative effects of tannins or TBSPs production can be induced by a tannin-rich diet. In the wild, many primates regularly eat a diet that contains tannin-rich leaves and unripe fruit and it has been speculated that they have the physiological ability to cope with dietary tannins; however, details of their strategy remains unclear. Our research details the salivary protein composition of wild and zoo-living black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) feeding on natural versus manufactured low-tannin diets, and examines differences in TBSPs, mainly proline-rich proteins (PRPs), to determine whether production of these proteins is dependent on the tannin content of their food. We measured the pH, flow rate, and concentration of total protein and trichloroacetic acid soluble proteins (an index of PRPs) in saliva. Howler monkeys produced slightly alkaline saliva that may aid in the binding interaction between tannin and salivary proteins. We used gel electrophoresis to describe the salivary protein profile and this analysis along with a tannin-binding assay allowed us to detect several TBSPs in all individuals. We found no differences in the characteristics of saliva between wild and zoo-living monkeys. Our results suggest that black howler monkeys always secrete TBSPs even when fed on foods low in tannins. This strategy of constantly using this salivary anti-tannin defense enables them to obtain nutrients from plants that sometimes contain high levels of tannins and may help immediately to overcome the astringent sensation of their food allowing howler monkeys to eat tanniferous plants.
      PubDate: 2018-01-24T05:40:49.518697-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22737
  • Gastrointestinal protists and helminths of habituated agile mangabeys
           (Cercocebus agilis) at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic
    • Authors: Barbora Pafčo; Zuzana Tehlárová, Kateřina Jirků Pomajbíková, Angelique Todd, Hideo Hasegawa, Klára J. Petrželková, David Modrý
      Abstract: Infectious diseases including those caused by parasites can be a major threat to the conservation of endangered species. There is thus a great need for studies describing parasite infections of these species in the wild. Here we present data on parasite diversity in an agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) group in Bai Hokou, Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas (DSPA), Central African Republic. We coproscopically analyzed 140 mangabey fecal samples by concentration techniques (flotation and sedimentation). Agile mangabeys hosted a broad diversity of protistan parasites/commensals, namely amoebas (Entamoeba spp., Iodamoeba buetschlli), a Buxtonella-like ciliate and several parasitic helminths: strongylid and spirurid nematodes, Primasubulura sp., Enterobius sp., and Trichuris sp. Importantly, some of the detected parasite taxa might be of potential zoonotic importance, such as Entamoeba spp. and the helminths Enterobius sp., Trichuris sp., and strongylid nematodes. Detailed morphological examination of ciliate cysts found in mangabeys and comparison with cysts of Balantioides coli from domestic pigs showed no distinguishing structures, although significant differences in cyst size were recorded. Scanning or transmission electron microscopy combined with molecular taxonomy methods are needed to properly identify these ciliates. Further studies using molecular epidemiology are warranted to better understand cross-species transmission and the zoonotic potential of parasites in sympatric non-human primates and humans cohabiting DSPA.Amoebas and strongylids were the most prevalent parasites. Several found parasite taxa might have a zoonotic potential. Ciliate cysts in mangabeys do not possess any structures distinguishing them from cysts of Balantioides coli from pigs.
      PubDate: 2018-01-19T05:03:28.01245-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22736
  • An integrated framework for the role of oxytocin in multistage social
    • Authors: Matthew Piva; Steve W.C. Chang
      Abstract: Interest in the effects of oxytocin on social behavior has persisted even as an overarching theory describing these effects has remained largely elusive. Some of the earliest studies on the effects of oxytocin on social decision-making indicated that oxytocin might enhance prosocial actions directed toward others. This led to development of the prosocial hypothesis, which stipulates that oxytocin specifically enhances prosocial choices. However, further work indicated that oxytocin administration could elicit antisocial behaviors as well in certain social situations, highlighting the importance of context-dependent effects. At least two prominent hypotheses have been used to explain these seemingly contradictory findings. The social salience hypothesis indicates that the effects of oxytocin can be conceptualized as a general increase in the salience of social stimuli in the environment. Distinctly, the approach/withdrawal hypothesis stipulates that oxytocin enhances approach behaviors and decreases withdrawal behaviors. These phenomenologically motivated hypotheses regarding the effects of oxytocin on social behavior have created controversies in the field. In this review, we present a multistage framework of social decision-making designed to unify these disparate theories in a process common to all social decisions. We conceptualize this process as involving multiple distinct computational steps, including sensory input, sensory perception, valuation, decision formulation, and behavioral output. Iteratively, these steps generate social behaviors, and oxytocin could be acting on any of these steps to exert its effects. In support of this framework, we examine both behavioral and neural evidence across rodents, non-human primates, and humans, determining at what point in our multistage framework oxytocin could be eliciting its socially relevant effects. Finally, we postulate based on our framework that the prosocial, social salience, and approach/withdrawal hypotheses may not be mutually exclusive and could explain the influence of oxytocin on social behavior to different extents depending on context.Research on oxytocin thus far has involved multiple distinct theories for its effects on social behavior. We provide a multistage framework to integrate these hypotheses and conceptualize the seemingly divergent results across both behavioral and neural studies of oxytocin.
      PubDate: 2018-01-19T05:02:42.747947-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22735
  • The effects of social context and food abundance on chimpanzee feeding
    • Authors: Rebecca Koomen; Esther Herrmann
      Abstract: Feeding competition is thought to play a role in primate social organization as well as cognitive evolution. For chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), social and ecological factors can affect competition, yet how these factors interact to affect feeding behavior is not fully understood; they can be difficult to disentangle in wild settings. This experiment investigated the differential effects of food quantity, the presence of a co-feeding partner, and the contestability of a food patch on feeding rate. We presented tolerant pairs of chimpanzees from a semi-captive social group with an apparatus comprising a matrix of transparent tubes between two adjacent rooms, of which, either all (abundant condition) or only a small proportion (scarce condition) were baited with peanuts. Dyads were either grouped into the competitive treatment, in which peanuts were accessible from both sides of the apparatus simultaneously, or the non-competitive treatment, in which the peanuts were pre-divided; half of the tubes were accessible to one chimpanzee from one side, and the other half were accessible only from the opposite side of the apparatus. We compared dyadic tolerance levels with individual feeding rates across quantity conditions and between competitive treatments. While tolerance and food quantity had no effect on feeding rate, partner presence significantly increased feeding rate relative to individual feeding. This increase was much larger when the dyads directly competed over the peanuts than when they were co-feeding on a pre-divided set of peanuts. Thus, in a co-feeding situation, the presence of another individual and, to an even larger extent, the contestability of the food source play a larger role in chimpanzee feeding behavior than dyadic tolerance or food quantity. These findings highlight the relative impact of social facilitation and direct competition on co-feeding behavior between pairs of chimpanzees.
      PubDate: 2018-01-13T05:05:21.321379-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22734
  • American Journal of Primatology: Goals and priorities of a new editor
    • Authors: Karen L. Bales
      PubDate: 2017-12-26T02:50:53.403973-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22732
  • The influence of age on wild rhesus macaques' affiliative social
    • Authors: Zhijie Liao; Sebastian Sosa, Chengfeng Wu, Peng Zhang
      Abstract: The social relationships that individuals experience at different life stages have a non-negligible influence on their lives, and this is particularly true for group living animals. The long lifespan of many primates makes it likely that these animals have various tactics of social interaction to adapt to complex changes in environmental or physical conditions. The different strategies used in social interaction by individuals at different life stages, and whether the position (central or peripheral) or role (initiator or recipient) of an individual in the group social network changes with age, are intriguing questions that remain to be investigated. We used social network analysis to examine age-related differences in social interaction patterns, social roles, and social positions in three affiliative social networks (approach, allogrooming, and social play) in a group of wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Our results showed that social interaction patterns of rhesus macaques differ between age classes in the following ways: i) young individuals tend to allocate social time to a high number of groupmates, older individuals prefer to focus on fewer, specific partners; ii) as they grow older, individuals tend to be recipients in approach interactions and initiators in grooming interactions; and iii) regardless of the different social interaction strategies, individuals of all ages occupy a central position in the group. These results reveal a possible key role played by immature individuals in group social communication, a little-explored issue which deserves closer investigation in future research.Social relationships at different life stages have non-negligible influence on current and future life of group-living primates. There are questions still waiting for further exploration: what strategies do individuals of different life stages use in social interaction in response to the changing of environmental or physical condition, and whether individual's position or role in group social network will change through life span or not' Here We used social network analysis to examine age-related differences in social interaction patterns, social roles (initiator or recipient), and social positions (central or peripheral) in three affiliative social networks (approach, allogrooming, and social play) in a group of wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Our study revealed that individual initiative in social activity decline with age. Combining weighted and unweighted social metrics, we found that rhesus monkeys in different age groups had different social tactics: young monkeys prefer to allocate their limited social time on many partners, which may help them to acquire survival skills; while the old ones prefer to focus on fewer, specific partners to build strong relationship. Regardless of the different social tactics used, both old and young individuals occupied a central position in social networks to benefit from group living. This study also revealed a possible key role played by immature individuals in group social communication, a little-explored issue which deserves closer investigation in future research.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T04:01:47.154248-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22733
  • The effect of extreme weather events on hair cortisol and body weight in a
           wild ring-tailed lemur population (Lemur catta) in southwestern Madagascar
    • Authors: Sara Fardi; Michelle. L. Sauther, Frank P. Cuozzo, Ibrahim A. Y. Jacky, Robin M. Bernstein
      Abstract: Madagascar is known for its hypervariable climate with periodic droughts and cyclones, but little is known of the impact of such events on lemur physiology. We examined the effects of sequential weather periods, drought, normal, cyclone and post-cyclone, on hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) and body weight in wild ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta (n = 185), at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve in southwestern Madagascar. Data were modeled and analyzed by sex, age, and troop. Given the ecological consequences of extreme climatic perturbations, we hypothesized that drought and cyclone would significantly impact lemur HCC. Among adults, drought was associated with higher HCC than other periods and the lowest HCC was associated with the post-cyclone period. Adult females had greater variation in HCC during drought and males had greater variation during cyclone and Post-cyclone periods, suggesting sexes were differentially affected in terms of how individuals responded to extreme weather events. Low HCC in the post-cyclone period followed a 12-month period of reduced availability of primary and fallback food resources. Based on the known extreme and chronic nutritional stress during this time, our results indicate hypocortisolism in the animals included in our analysis. Higher HCC in sub-adults during the cyclone also suggests that immature lemurs may experience extreme weather events differently than adults. Body weight, used as a gauge for environmental stress, was lowest during the post-cyclone for sub-adults, young adults, and adults. Body weight did not differ by sex among adults across any of the weather events. Overall, ring-tailed lemur's HCC appear to be more immediately impacted by drought, or stressors associated with that specific weather event, and influenced by the long-term impact of cyclones on resource availability evidenced by data from the post-cyclone period.We examined the effects of sequential weather events and longer term climatic perturbations (drought, normal, cyclone, post-cyclone) on hair cortisol concentration (HCC) and body weight in wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur Catta) (n = 185 samples from 125 individuals). Drought was associated with higher HCC among adults; the lowest HCC and body weight were in association with the post-cyclone period. Extreme and chronic nutritional stress in the post-cyclone period suggests hypocortisolism. Cyclones may have long-term effects on the stress response system, which can impact how primates cope with (and potentially adapt to) environmental stressors through time. Extreme weather events have implications for endangered primate conservation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T04:01:38.763548-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22731
  • Cranial shape variation in adult howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus)
    • Authors: Luca Fiorenza; Emiliano Bruner
      Abstract: Howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) display a distinctive cranial architecture characterized by airorhynchy (or retroflexion of the facial skeleton on the cranial base), a small braincase, and a posteriorly oriented foramen magnum. This configuration has been associated with distinct factors including a high folivory diet, locomotion, and the presence of a specialized vocal tract characterized by large hyoid bone. However, the morphological relationships between the facial and neurocranial blocks in Alouatta have been scarcely investigated. In this study we quantitatively analyzed the cranial shape variation in Alouatta seniculus, to evaluate possible influences and constraints in face and braincase associated with airorhynchy. We also considered the structural role of the pteric area within the cranial functional matrix. We applied landmark-based analysis and multivariate statistics to 31 adult crania, computing shape analyses based on 3D coordinates registration as well as the analysis of the Euclidean distance matrix to investigate patterns of intraspecific morphological variability. Our results suggest that allometry is the main source of variation involved in shaping cranial morphology in howlers, influencing the degree of facial proportions and braincase flattening, and generating the main sexual differences. Larger individuals are characterized by a higher degree of airorhynchy, neurocranial flattening, and expansion of the zygomatic arch. Allometric variations influence the skull as a whole, without distinct patterns for face and braincase, which behave as an integrated morphological unit. A preliminary survey on the pteric pattern suggests that the morphology of this area may be the result of variations in the vertical growth rates between face and braincase. Future studies should be dedicated to the ontogenetic series and focus on airorhynchy in terms of differential growth among distinct cranial districts.
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T08:40:47.088087-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22729
  • Social play among juvenile wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)
           strengthens their social bonds
    • Authors: Masaki Shimada; Cédric Sueur
      Abstract: Social play and grooming are typical affiliative interactions for many primate species, and are thought to have similar biological functions. However, grooming increases with age, whereas social play decreases. We proposed the hypothesis that both social grooming and social play in juveniles strengthen their social bonds in daily activities. We carried out field research on the social relationships among juvenile wild Japanese macaques in a troop in Kinkazan, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, from fall 2007 to spring 2008 to investigate this hypothesis. We evaluated three relationships among juveniles, play indices (PI), grooming indices (GI), and 3-m-proximity indices (3mI) of each dyad (i.e., interacting pair), and compared these social networks based on the matrices of the indices. The play and grooming networks were correlated with the association network throughout the two research periods. The multiple network level measurements of the play network, but not the grooming network, resembled those of the association network. Using a causal step approach, we showed that social play and grooming interactions in fall seem to predict associations in the following spring, controlling for the PI and GI matrix in spring, respectively. Social play and grooming for each juvenile were negatively correlated. The results partially support our predictions; therefore, the hypothesis that the biological function of social play among immature Japanese macaques is to strengthen their social bonds in the near future and develop their social life appears to be correct. For juvenile macaques, social play, rather than grooming, functions as an important social mechanism to strengthen affiliative relationships.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30T04:27:00.253549-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22728
  • The influence of phylogeny, social style, and sociodemographic factors on
           macaque social network structure
    • Authors: Krishna N. Balasubramaniam; Brianne A. Beisner, Carol M. Berman, Arianna De Marco, Julie Duboscq, Sabina Koirala, Bonaventura Majolo, Andrew J. MacIntosh, Richard McFarland, Sandra Molesti, Hideshi Ogawa, Odile Petit, Gabriele Schino, Sebastian Sosa, Cédric Sueur, Bernard Thierry, Frans B. M. de Waal, Brenda McCowan
      Abstract: Among nonhuman primates, the evolutionary underpinnings of variation in social structure remain debated, with both ancestral relationships and adaptation to current conditions hypothesized to play determining roles. Here we assess whether interspecific variation in higher-order aspects of female macaque (genus: Macaca) dominance and grooming social structure show phylogenetic signals, that is, greater similarity among more closely-related species. We use a social network approach to describe higher-order characteristics of social structure, based on both direct interactions and secondary pathways that connect group members. We also ask whether network traits covary with each other, with species-typical social style grades, and/or with sociodemographic characteristics, specifically group size, sex-ratio, and current living condition (captive vs. free-living). We assembled 34–38 datasets of female-female dyadic aggression and allogrooming among captive and free-living macaques representing 10 species. We calculated dominance (transitivity, certainty), and grooming (centrality coefficient, Newman's modularity, clustering coefficient) network traits as aspects of social structure. Computations of K statistics and randomization tests on multiple phylogenies revealed moderate-strong phylogenetic signals in dominance traits, but moderate-weak signals in grooming traits. GLMMs showed that grooming traits did not covary with dominance traits and/or social style grade. Rather, modularity and clustering coefficient, but not centrality coefficient, were strongly predicted by group size and current living condition. Specifically, larger groups showed more modular networks with sparsely-connected clusters than smaller groups. Further, this effect was independent of variation in living condition, and/or sampling effort. In summary, our results reveal that female dominance networks were more phylogenetically conserved across macaque species than grooming networks, which were more labile to sociodemographic factors. Such findings narrow down the processes that influence interspecific variation in two core aspects of macaque social structure. Future directions should include using phylogeographic approaches, and addressing challenges in examining the effects of socioecological factors on primate social structure.
      PubDate: 2017-11-15T10:39:09.871893-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22727
  • The grand challenge of great ape health and conservation in the
    • Authors: Dominic A. Travis; Elizabeth V. Lonsorf, Thomas R. Gillespie
      Abstract: “Ecosystem Health recognizes the inherent interdependence of the health of humans, animals and ecosystems and explores the perspectives, theories and methodologies emerging at the interface between ecological and health sciences.” This broad focus requires new approaches and methods for solving problems of greater complexity at larger scales than ever before. Nowhere is this point more salient than the case of disease emergence and control at the human-non human primate interface in shrinking tropical forests under great anthropogenic pressure. This special edition brings together transdisciplinary experts who have created successful partnerships leading to advances in ecosystem approaches to health for wild ape populations with relevance to all developing country tropical forest environments. It is no coincidence that the advances herein highlight two long term health projects—the Gombe Ecosystem Health Project (Gombe National Park, Tanzania), and the Taï Chimpanzee Project (TCP) in Côte d'Ivoire—since standardizing and validating noninvasive disease surveillance, risk assessment and management methods presents a special series of challenges where time is a major factor. Advances highlighted in this addition include: health surveillance and monitoring, health risk analysis, field immobilization and interventions, human-NHP networks/interfaces, diagnostic tool development, and cutting edge molecular and genetic techniques.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:35:32.729043-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22717
  • Human quarantine: Toward reducing infectious pressure on chimpanzees at
           the Taï Chimpanzee Project, Côte d'Ivoire
    • Authors: Kim Grützmacher; Verena Keil, Vera Leinert, Floraine Leguillon, Arthur Henlin, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Sophie Köndgen, Alexander Lang, Tobias Deschner, Roman M. Wittig, Fabian H. Leendertz
      Abstract: Due to their genetic relatedness, great apes are highly susceptible to common human respiratory pathogens. Although most respiratory pathogens, such as human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV), rarely cause severe disease in healthy human adults, they are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in wild great apes habituated to humans for research or tourism. To prevent pathogen transmission, most great ape projects have established a set of hygiene measures ranging from keeping a specific distance, to the use of surgical masks and establishment of quarantines. This study investigates the incidence of respiratory symptoms and human respiratory viruses in humans at a human-great ape interface, the Taï Chimpanzee Project (TCP) in Côte d'Ivoire, and consequently, the effectiveness of a 5-day quarantine designed to reduce the risk of potential exposure to human respiratory pathogens. To assess the impact of quarantine as a preventative measure, we monitored the quarantine process and tested 262 throat swabs for respiratory viruses, collected during quarantine over a period of 1 year. Although only 1 subject tested positive for a respiratory virus (HRSV), 17 subjects developed symptoms of infection while in quarantine and were subsequently kept from approaching the chimpanzees, preventing potential exposure in 18 cases. Our results suggest that quarantine—in combination with monitoring for symptoms—is effective in reducing the risk of potential pathogen exposure. This research contributes to our understanding of how endangered great apes can be protected from human-borne infectious disease.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T16:50:21.112546-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22619
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