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BIOLOGY (1422 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 311)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover American Journal of Primatology
  [SJR: 1.197]   [H-I: 63]   [15 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0275-2565 - ISSN (Online) 1098-2345
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1580 journals]
  • Infant mortality in white-faced capuchins: The impact of alpha male
    • Authors: Lauren F. Brasington; Eva C. Wikberg, Shoji Kawamura, Linda M. Fedigan, Katharine M. Jack
      Abstract: Infanticide is common in the context of alpha male replacements (AMR), particularly in groups where alpha males experience high reproductive skew and the infants are unlikely to be related to a new alpha male. We examined the relationship between the rate of infant mortality, infant age, and the occurrence and type of AMR in white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus imitator) of the Santa Rosa population in Sector Santa Rosa, Área de Conservación Guanacaste. Specifically, we investigated how the source of the new alpha male (coresident or extragroup) and relative aggression level during AMRs influenced infant mortality in this species. Between 1986 and 2015, we recorded 221 births in five study groups. Infants present at the time of an AMR, or born within 5.5 months following an AMR (i.e., conceived prior to AMR), experienced significantly higher mortality than those born during periods of group stability. Infant age was a significant predictor of infant survival, with the probability of surviving increasing by 0.4% for each additional day older an infant was at the time of the AMR. Infant mortality rates did not differ between AMRs by coresident males and extragroup males, possibly because the degree of relatedness between infants and new alphas did not significantly differ between coresident and extragroup AMRs. Infant mortality rates did not differ significantly between aggressive AMRs and more peaceful AMRs. Our results are consistent with predictions derived from the sexual selection hypothesis (SSH) of infanticide and suggest that future studies examine the role of testosterone as an underlying proximate mechanism for the aggression leading to this behavior. We argue that the sexual selection and generalized aggression hypotheses (GAH) of infanticide are best considered as different levels of analysis rather than competing hypotheses.
      PubDate: 2017-11-15T11:34:24.008613-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22725
  • “Stink flirting” in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta): Male olfactory
           displays to females as honest, costly signals
    • Authors: Amber D. Walker-Bolton; Joyce A. Parga
      Abstract: Sexual selection for honest behavioral displays of quality has driven the development of remarkably complex courtship behavior in many animal species. Olfactory displays are often overlooked as an area of inquiry compared to auditory and visual displays. Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) scent marking of substrates has been studied extensively, although the male olfactory displays of anointing and wafting tails to females has received relatively little attention. We studied the role of male olfactory displays to females, evaluating whether such signals function as honest, costly signals of male dominance status in two groups of wild L. catta at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar. Our results suggest that male tail anointing and tail wafting displays to pre-estrous and estrous females are correlated with male dominance rank, and moreover appear to operate as costly signals, as such displays increase aggression received from males and females while other types of scent marking do not. Furthermore, females showed greater mating preference (as measured by sexual presents) for resident males who performed the “anoint tail” and “waft tail” displays towards them. When males perform the “anoint tail” and “waft tail” displays to females, they receive higher levels of aggression than if they were to perform other types of scent marking. Interestingly, immigrating (peripheral) males performed the “anoint tail” and “waft tail” displays at higher rates than resident males, which could honestly indicate their quality or may simply be associated with the alternative mating strategy of transferring between groups to gain mating opportunities. Our finding that tail anointing and tail wafting displays function as honest signals of dominance for resident males—and that these costly displays appear to positively affect female mate choice—is the first evidence of this function for this particular olfactory signal in L. catta.
      PubDate: 2017-11-15T10:39:28.445294-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22724
  • The influence of phylogeny, social style, and sociodemographic factors on
           macaque social network structure
    • Authors: Krishna N. Balasubramaniam; Brianne A. Beisner, Carol M. Berman, Arianna De Marco, Julie Duboscq, Sabina Koirala, Bonaventura Majolo, Andrew J. MacIntosh, Richard McFarland, Sandra Molesti, Hideshi Ogawa, Odile Petit, Gabriele Schino, Sebastian Sosa, Cédric Sueur, Bernard Thierry, Frans B. M. de Waal, Brenda McCowan
      Abstract: Among nonhuman primates, the evolutionary underpinnings of variation in social structure remain debated, with both ancestral relationships and adaptation to current conditions hypothesized to play determining roles. Here we assess whether interspecific variation in higher-order aspects of female macaque (genus: Macaca) dominance and grooming social structure show phylogenetic signals, that is, greater similarity among more closely-related species. We use a social network approach to describe higher-order characteristics of social structure, based on both direct interactions and secondary pathways that connect group members. We also ask whether network traits covary with each other, with species-typical social style grades, and/or with sociodemographic characteristics, specifically group size, sex-ratio, and current living condition (captive vs. free-living). We assembled 34–38 datasets of female-female dyadic aggression and allogrooming among captive and free-living macaques representing 10 species. We calculated dominance (transitivity, certainty), and grooming (centrality coefficient, Newman's modularity, clustering coefficient) network traits as aspects of social structure. Computations of K statistics and randomization tests on multiple phylogenies revealed moderate-strong phylogenetic signals in dominance traits, but moderate-weak signals in grooming traits. GLMMs showed that grooming traits did not covary with dominance traits and/or social style grade. Rather, modularity and clustering coefficient, but not centrality coefficient, were strongly predicted by group size and current living condition. Specifically, larger groups showed more modular networks with sparsely-connected clusters than smaller groups. Further, this effect was independent of variation in living condition, and/or sampling effort. In summary, our results reveal that female dominance networks were more phylogenetically conserved across macaque species than grooming networks, which were more labile to sociodemographic factors. Such findings narrow down the processes that influence interspecific variation in two core aspects of macaque social structure. Future directions should include using phylogeographic approaches, and addressing challenges in examining the effects of socioecological factors on primate social structure.
      PubDate: 2017-11-15T10:39:09.871893-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22727
  • A decade as Executive Editor of the American Journal of Primatology
    • Authors: Paul A. Garber
      PubDate: 2017-11-11T07:40:29.959679-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22722
  • Social hair pulling in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)
    • Authors: Allison Heagerty; Rebecca A. Wales, Kamm Prongay, Daniel H. Gottlieb, Kristine Coleman
      Abstract: Alopecia is common among captive populations of nonhuman primates. There are many potential causes of alopecia, including physiological conditions such as hormonal imbalance and infection, features of the captive environment such as housing type, ground substrate, and group density, as well as behavioral abnormalities such as self-plucking. A potential behavioral cause of alopecia in group-housed primates is social hair pulling, where one animal pulls hair from a conspecific. While social hair pulling has been conflated with overgrooming in some of the alopecia literature, other authors have categorized it as a form of aggression rather than a form of excessive grooming. In this study, we examined social hair pulling, grooming, and aggression within seven groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) (N = 319). We took weekly 30-min behavioral observations on each group for one year to assess the patterns of hair pulling and grooming, which monkeys were receiving and initiating these behaviors, as well as aggression and other behaviors indicating dominance. We also assessed the amount of alopecia on each individual monthly. While grooming tended to be directed “up” the hierarchy (i.e., monkeys were more likely to groom animals of a higher rank than lower rank), most hair pulling was directed “down” the hierarchy. Further, hair pulling seldom co-occurred with aggressive behaviors, suggesting that it was not a form of aggression. Hair pulling also usually resulted in ingestion of the pulled hair. Hair pulling was correlated with alopecia; monkeys who were frequent recipients of hair pulling scored higher on monthly alopecia ratings than those who were less often observed having hair pulled. Our results suggest that social hair pulling is a behavior distinct from either grooming or aggressive behavior, and that it may contribute to alopecia in socially housed macaques.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:36:42.297568-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22720
  • Genetic analysis of samples from wild populations opens new perspectives
           on hybridization between long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus
           macaques (Macaca mulatta)
    • Authors: Srichan Bunlungsup; Sree Kanthaswamy, Robert F. Oldt, David Glenn Smith, Paul Houghton, Yuzuru Hamada, Suchinda Malaivijitnond
      Abstract: In the past decade, many researchers have published papers about hybridization between long-tailed and rhesus macaques. These previous works have proposed unidirectional gene flow with the Isthmus of Kra as the zoogeographical barrier of hybridization. However, these reports analyzed specimens of unknown origin and/or did not include specimens from Thailand, the center of the proposed area of hybridization. Collected specimens of long-tailed and rhesus macaques representing all suspected hybridization areas were examined. Blood samples from four populations each of long-tailed and rhesus macaques inhabiting Thailand, Myanmar, and Laos were collected and analyzed with conspecific references from China (for rhesus macaques) and multiple countries from Sundaic regions (for long-tailed macaques). Ninety-six single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers specifically designed to interrogate admixture and ancestry were used in genotyping. We found genetic admixture maximized at the hybrid zone (15–20°N), as well as admixture signals of varying strength in both directions outside of the hybrid zone. These findings show that the Isthmus of Kra is not a barrier to gene flow from rhesus to long-tailed populations. However, to precisely identify a southernmost barrier, if in fact a boundary rather than simple isolation by distance exists, the samples from peninsular Malaysia must be included in the analysis. Additionally, a long-tailed to rhesus gene flow boundary was found between northern Thailand and Myanmar. Our results suggest that selection of long-tailed and rhesus macaques, the two most commonly used non-human primates for biomedical research, should take into account not only the species identification but also the origin of and genetic admixture within and between the species.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:36:03.665783-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22726
  • Through the eyes of children: Drawings as an evaluation tool for
           children's understanding about endangered Mexican primates
    • Authors: Montserrat Franquesa-Soler; Juan Carlos Serio-Silva
      Abstract: This study seeks to understand children's perceptions and knowledge of endangered Mexican primates. The black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) is a charismatic species endemic to Southern Mexico, Northern Belize, and Guatemala and is a symbol of the region that fosters a sense of local pride. Therefore, it can be considered a flagship species for the forests of Southern Mexico. We evaluated the perception and knowledge that 297 Mexican elementary school children (8–10 years old) have about black howler monkeys. Specifically, we analyzed and categorized drawings made by these children based on gender, geographic context (rural or urban), and residence within or outside of Protected Areas (PAs). Student drawings were categorized into three levels of knowledge (no familiarity, basic knowledge, and sophisticated knowledge). Common misconceptions and important landscape elements for black howler conservation were gathered from these visual representations. Children were largely unfamiliar with black howlers, despite sharing the same geographical location. Knowledge was affected by context and residence, with students living within PAs more aware of black howlers than students living outside of PAs. However, overall the children showed a deep understanding of the current forest conservation situation in Southern Mexico; meaning they could be presenting a shifting baseline syndrome. The study highlights the value of assessing children's drawings as a tool that can be used to help policy makers and educational practitioners in fine-tuning educational, environmental, and marketing programs. More importantly, it is a methodology that can be applied in future research for understanding children's perceptions and knowledge about endangered species and environmental change in deciding how to improve the effectiveness of conservation messaging.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:35:55.202702-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22723
  • The evolution of cranial base and face in Cercopithecoidea and Hominoidea:
           Modularity and morphological integration
    • Authors: Antonio Profico; Paolo Piras, Costantino Buzi, Fabio Di Vincenzo, Flavio Lattarini, Marina Melchionna, Alessio Veneziano, Pasquale Raia, Giorgio Manzi
      Abstract: The evolutionary relationship between the base and face of the cranium is a major topic of interest in primatology. Such areas of the skull possibly respond to different selective pressures. Yet, they are often said to be tightly integrated. In this paper, we analyzed shape variability in the cranial base and the facial complex in Cercopithecoidea and Hominoidea. We used a landmark-based approach to single out the effects of size (evolutionary allometry), morphological integration, modularity, and phylogeny (under Brownian motion) on skull shape variability. Our results demonstrate that the cranial base and the facial complex exhibit different responses to different factors, which produces a little degree of morphological integration between them. Facial shape variation appears primarily influenced by body size and sexual dimorphism, whereas the cranial base is mostly influenced by functional factors. The different adaptations affecting the two modules suggest they are best studied as separate and independent units, and that—at least when dealing with Catarrhines—caution must be posed with the notion of strong cranial integration that is commonly invoked for the evolution of their skull shape.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:35:45.573579-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22721
  • The grand challenge of great ape health and conservation in the
    • Authors: Dominic A. Travis; Elizabeth V. Lonsorf, Thomas R. Gillespie
      Abstract: “Ecosystem Health recognizes the inherent interdependence of the health of humans, animals and ecosystems and explores the perspectives, theories and methodologies emerging at the interface between ecological and health sciences.” This broad focus requires new approaches and methods for solving problems of greater complexity at larger scales than ever before. Nowhere is this point more salient than the case of disease emergence and control at the human-non human primate interface in shrinking tropical forests under great anthropogenic pressure. This special edition brings together transdisciplinary experts who have created successful partnerships leading to advances in ecosystem approaches to health for wild ape populations with relevance to all developing country tropical forest environments. It is no coincidence that the advances herein highlight two long term health projects—the Gombe Ecosystem Health Project (Gombe National Park, Tanzania), and the Taï Chimpanzee Project (TCP) in Côte d'Ivoire—since standardizing and validating noninvasive disease surveillance, risk assessment and management methods presents a special series of challenges where time is a major factor. Advances highlighted in this addition include: health surveillance and monitoring, health risk analysis, field immobilization and interventions, human-NHP networks/interfaces, diagnostic tool development, and cutting edge molecular and genetic techniques.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:35:32.729043-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22717
  • Genetic assessment for the endangered black lion tamarin Leontopithecus
           chrysopygus (Mikan, 1823), Callitrichidae, Primates
    • Authors: Paola A. Ayala-Burbano; Lucas Caldano, Pedro Manoel Galetti Junior, Alcides Pissinatti, Mara Cristina Marques, Dominic Wormell, Patrícia Domingues de Freitas
      Abstract: This is the first study analyzing genetic diversity in captive individuals of the endangered black lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus, and also comparing genetic diversity parameters between wild populations and captive groups using the same set of molecular markers. We evaluated genetic diversity and differentiation for the Brazilian and European captive groups and a wild population through 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers. The genetic diversity levels were similar among Brazilian captive, European captive and wild animals from the National Forest of Capão Bonito. Expected heterozygosity showed values ranging from 0.403 to 0.462, and significant differences were not observed among the populations. Different allele frequencies were observed among the groups, which showed the presence of distinct private alleles. The PCoA analysis evidenced three main clusters suggesting that the captive Brazilian and European groups are markedly differentiated both from one another and from the wild population of Capão Bonito. Likewise, the most likely number of genetic clusters (K) revealed by Structure was three. Such a structure is probably the result of the strength of drift and non-random reproduction in these small and isolated groups. Despite this differentiation, all groups still have similar genetic diversity levels, comparable to other callitrichids. The data obtained herein are important to increasing knowledge of the genetics of tamarins and supporting breeding programs to prevent loss of genetic diversity and inbreeding depression.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:35:30.218018-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22719
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2017-10-30T11:36:09.567129-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22607
  • Spatial distribution of buffy-tufted-ear (Callithrix aurita) and invasive
           marmosets (Callithrix spp.) in a tropical rainforest reserve in
           southeastern Brazil
    • Authors: Nathalia Detogne; Átilla C. Ferreguetti, José Henrique F. Mello, Marcelo C. Santana, Aline da Conceição Dias, Natalia C. J. da Mota, Andressa Esteves da Cruz Gonçalves, Cristiane P. de Souza, Helena G. Bergallo
      Abstract: We investigated the spatial distribution of native and invasive marmoset species (Callithrix), as well as their hybrids, in the Serra dos Órgãos National Park (PARNASO) and surrounding area in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. To estimate occupancy and the detection probability, we surveyed 56 sites within the park and 52 sites outside its limits using vocal playbacks, as well as by interviewing local residents in the surrounding area. We estimated the occupancy and detection probability of Callithrix aurita and the observed groups composed of Callithrix jacchus, Callithrix penicillata, and their hybrids. We also recorded the presence or absence of mixed groups of native and exotic species, and their hybrids. We recorded similar occupancy rates and detection probabilities for both native and invasive species within the national park. C. aurita was found more often within the areas of the park located furthest from access roads and with the least human interference, while invasive species were more likely to be found along the edge of the park and in areas with greater human interference. In the area surrounding the park, invasive marmosets were recorded at seven sites, and a mixed group of native and invasive marmosets was observed at one site, but non-hybrid C. aurita groups were not recorded. The occupancy probability of C. aurita in the study area is relatively low, which may indicate a low population density, with groups restricted to a small region within the PARNASO in the proximity of groups of invasive marmosets.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T06:35:52.622294-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22718
  • Thyroid hormone fluctuations indicate a thermoregulatory function in both
           a tropical (Alouatta palliata) and seasonally cold-habitat (Macaca
           fuscata) primate
    • Authors: Cynthia L. Thompson; Brianna L. Powell, Susan H. Williams, Goro Hanya, Kenneth E. Glander, Christopher J. Vinyard
      Abstract: Thyroid hormones boost animals’ basal metabolic rate and represent an important thermoregulatory pathway for mammals that face cold temperatures. Whereas the cold thermal pressures experienced by primates in seasonal habitats at high latitudes and elevations are often apparent, tropical habitats also display distinct wet and dry seasons with modest changes in thermal environment. We assessed seasonal and temperature-related changes in thyroid hormone levels for two primate species in disparate thermal environments, tropical mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata), and seasonally cold-habitat Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). We collected urine and feces from animals and used ELISA to quantify levels of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (fT3). For both species, fT3 levels were significantly higher during the cooler season (wet/winter), consistent with a thermoregulatory role. Likewise, both species displayed greater temperature deficits (i.e., the degree to which animals warm their body temperature relative to ambient) during the cooler season, indicating greater thermoregulatory pressures during this time. Independently of season, Japanese macaques displayed increasing fT3 levels with decreasing recently experienced maximum temperatures, but no relationship between fT3 and recently experienced minimum temperatures. Howlers increased fT3 levels as recently experienced minimum temperatures decreased, although demonstrated the opposite relationship with maximum temperatures. This may reflect natural thermal variation in howlers’ habitat: wet seasons had cooler minimum and mean temperatures than the dry season, but similar maximum temperatures. Overall, our findings support the hypothesis that both tropical howlers and seasonally cold-habitat Japanese macaques utilize thyroid hormones as a mechanism to boost metabolism in response to thermoregulatory pressures. This implies that cool thermal pressures faced by tropical primates are sufficient to invoke an energetically costly and relatively longer-term thermoregulatory pathway. The well-established relationship between thyroid hormones and energetics suggests that the seasonal hormonal changes we observed could influence many commonly studied behaviors including food choice, range use, and activity patterns.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T09:25:28.561228-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22714
  • The role of intragroup agonism in parent-offspring relationships and natal
           dispersal in monogamous owl monkeys (Aotus azarae) of Argentina
    • Authors: Margaret K. Corley; Siyang Xia, Eduardo Fernandez-Duque
      Abstract: Agonistic behaviors are common in many group-living taxa and may serve a variety of functions, ranging from regulating conflicts over reproduction to defending food resources. However, high rates of agonism are not expected to occur among close relatives or individuals in established mating relationships, which are characteristics of monogamous groups. To contribute to our understanding of agonism within socially monogamous groups, we collected behavioral and demographic data from Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarae) in the Gran Chaco of Argentina over 14 years. We examined factors related to age, sex, kinship, and behavioral context to evaluate predictions of the hypotheses that agonism functions to regulate dispersal and that it mediates competition for food and/or mates. Intragroup agonism was relatively rare: the group rate was approximately one event every three and a half hours. Rates of agonism were generally similar for both sexes, but there were marked differences among age categories. Agonism performed by adults was more frequently directed at subadults than at younger offspring. In contrast, agonistic interactions involving infants were very rare. Among interactions between adults and subadults, adults were much more frequently the actors than the recipients, suggesting that agonism from adults may influence natal dispersal of subadults. Agonistic events were most frequent during foraging, but also occurred more frequently than expected during bouts of social behavior. Overall, our results suggest that agonism in owl monkeys serves as a mechanism for regulating dispersal, and also likely plays a role in mediating mating and feeding competition.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T06:00:49.05387-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22712
  • Applying systems thinking to inform studies of wildlife trade in primates
    • Authors: Mary E. Blair; Minh D. Le, Hoàng M. Thạch, Anna Panariello, Ngọc B. Vũ, Mark G. Birchette, Gautam Sethi, Eleanor J. Sterling
      Abstract: Wildlife trade presents a major threat to primate populations, which are in demand from local to international scales for a variety of uses from food and traditional medicine to the exotic pet trade. We argue that an interdisciplinary framework to facilitate integration of socioeconomic, anthropological, and biological data across multiple spatial and temporal scales is essential to guide the study of wildlife trade dynamics and its impacts on primate populations. Here, we present a new way to design research on wildlife trade in primates using a systems thinking framework. We discuss how we constructed our framework, which follows a social-ecological system framework, to design an ongoing study of local, regional, and international slow loris (Nycticebus spp.) trade in Vietnam. We outline the process of iterative variable exploration and selection via this framework to inform study design. Our framework, guided by systems thinking, enables recognition of complexity in study design, from which the results can inform more holistic, site-appropriate, and effective trade management practices. We place our framework in the context of other approaches to studying wildlife trade and discuss options to address foreseeable challenges to implementing this new framework.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T06:00:20.998111-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22715
  • Durability and flexibility of chimpanzee grooming patterns during a period
           of dominance instability
    • Authors: Nicola F. Koyama; Kirsty Ronkainen, Filippo Aureli
      Abstract: Growing evidence from studies on primates and other taxa has shown that the maintenance of long-term affiliative patterns influences fitness. Thus, understanding how individuals regulate social interactions in response to environmental and social factors contributes to our understanding of the evolutionary basis of sociality. We investigated the durability of affiliation patterns in chimpanzees across three 3-month periods of varying social uncertainty depending on the degree of stability in the male hierarchy, with a 2-year gap between each period. Periods were unstable (no clear alpha male), recently stable (new alpha male just established) and stable (alpha male in place for 2 years). We focused on three features of social exchange shared by human and non-human primates: consistency of exchanges across periods, durability of preferred partners, and degree of reciprocity in each period. We compared male-to-male, female-to-female, male-to-female, and female-to-male grooming patterns. Overall, more grooming was exchanged in the stable period. Grooming patterns were not consistent across the three periods, but were only consistent between the recently stable and stable periods for female-to-female and male-to-female dyads. As predicted from the opportunistic nature of male relationships, male-to-male grooming was least likely to be correlated across all periods and males had relatively fewer durable (i.e., preferred partners in all periods) same-sex partners than females. Our predictions that grooming reciprocity would be less likely during the unstable period and in male–male dyads were only partially supported. We found grooming reciprocity in all periods for female–female dyads but only in the stable period for male–male and female–male dyads. Although long-term affiliative patterns are well studied in primates, this is the first study to investigate the association between social uncertainty and durability of affiliative patterns. Our findings suggest social uncertainty influences social exchange and highlight the importance of considering group instability in studies of social relationships.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T09:55:47.676363-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22713
  • Multidisciplinary studies of wildlife trade in primates: Challenges and
    • Authors: Mary E. Blair; Minh D. Le, Eleanor J. Sterling
      Abstract: Wildlife trade is increasingly recognized as an unsustainable threat to primate populations and informing its management is a growing focus and application of primatological research. However, management policies based on ecological research alone cannot address complex socioeconomic or cultural contexts as drivers of wildlife trade. Multidisciplinary research is required to understand trade complexity and identify sustainable management strategies. Here, we define multidisciplinary research as research that combines more than one academic discipline, and highlight how the articles in this issue combine methods and approaches to fill key gaps and offer a more comprehensive understanding of underlying drivers of wildlife trade including consumer demand, enforcement patterns, source population status, and accessibility of targeted species. These articles also focus on how these drivers interact at different scales, how trade patterns relate to ethics, and the potential effectiveness of different policy interventions in reducing wildlife trade. We propose priorities for future research on primate trade including expanding from multidisciplinary to interdisciplinary research questions and approaches co-created by research teams that integrate across different disciplines such as cultural anthropology, ecology, economics, and public policy. We also discuss challenges that limit the integration of information across disciplines to meet these priorities.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T07:02:49.163773-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22710
  • Social interactions and activity patterns of old Barbary macaques: Further
           insights into the foundations of social selectivity
    • Authors: Laura Almeling; Holger Sennhenn-Reulen, Kurt Hammerschmidt, Alexandra M. Freund, Julia Fischer
      Abstract: Human aging is accompanied by a decrease in social activity and a narrowing in social networks. Studies in nonhuman primates may provide valuable comparative insights in which way aging impacts social life, in the absence of cultural conventions and an awareness of a limited lifetime. For female Barbary macaques at “La Forêt des Singes” in Rocamadour, France, we previously reported an age-associated decrease in active grooming time and network size. Here, we aimed to extend these findings by investigating in which way physical decline, spatial proximity, and aggression vary with age in female Barbary macaques. We analyzed>1,200 hr of focal observations for 46 females aged 5–29 years. As expected, older females engaged less frequently in challenging locomotor activity, such as climbing or running, than younger ones. The previously reported decrease in grooming time was not due to shorter grooming bout duration. Instead, active grooming bouts lasted even longer, which discounts the idea that manual fatigue explains the shift in grooming pattern. We found that older females tended to be spatially reclusive and that they were less frequently the targets of aggression. Although older females showed aggressive behaviors at similar rates as younger females, the proportion of low-level aggression (i.e., threats) increased with age. We suggest that these threats are not simply a signal of dominance, but also function to deter approaches by others. Overall, these findings are in line with the idea that older females aim to avoid potentially negative interactions, specifically if these are costly. In sum, these findings support the idea that shifts in female Barbary macaques' grooming activity, do not simply result from physical deterioration, but are instead due to a higher selectivity in the choice of social partners.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T08:20:25.995761-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22711
  • Orangutan trade, confiscations, and lack of prosecutions in Indonesia
    • Authors: Vincent Nijman
      Abstract: Prosecuting and sentencing law breakers punishes the offender and acts as a deterrent for future law breakers. With thousands of Sumatran and Bornean orangutans (Pongo abelii and P. pygmaeus) having entered private and government rescue centers and facilities, I evaluate the role of successful prosecution in orangutan conservation in Indonesia. Orangutans have been protected in Indonesian since 1931 and they are not allowed to be traded or to be kept as pets. In the period 1993–2016 at least 440 orangutans were formally confiscated, and many more were “donated” to law enforcement agencies. This resulted in seven (7) successful prosecutions by six different courts. Sentencing was lenient (median fine US$ 442 out of a possible US$ 7,600, median prison sentence 8 months out of a possible 5 years) and certainly too low to act as a deterrent. A paradigm shift within government authorities, conservation organizations, the judiciary, and by the general public is needed where trade in orangutans is no longer seen as a crime against an individual animal but as an economic crime that negatively affects society as a whole. Prosecuting offenders for tax evasion, corruption, endangering public health, animal cruelty, and smuggling, in addition to violating protected species laws, would allow for an increase in sentencing, resulting in a stronger deterrent, and greater public support. Conservation and welfare NGOs have a duty to become more proactive in a drive to increase enforcement; rescuing orangutans always has to coincide with prosecuting offenders and failures, and successes of these prosecutions have to be vigorously publicized. Despite numerous commitments made by Indonesia to orangutan conservation, and clear failures to deliver on almost all components, international donors have increased their funding year on year; it is time that this changes to a system where not failure is rewarded but success.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T08:54:44.524665-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22652
  • Conservation strategies for understanding and combating the primate
           bushmeat trade on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea
    • Authors: Drew T. Cronin; Paul R. Sesink Clee, Matthew W. Mitchell, Demetrio Bocuma Meñe, David Fernández, Cirilo Riaco, Maximiliano Fero Meñe, Jose Manuel Esara Echube, Gail W. Hearn, Mary Katherine Gonder
      Abstract: Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea is among the important places in Africa for the conservation of primates, but a cultural preference for bushmeat and a lack of effective law enforcement has encouraged commercial bushmeat hunting, threatening the survival of the remaining primate population. For over 13 years, we collected bushmeat market data in the Malabo market, recording over 35,000 primate carcasses, documenting “mardi gras” consumption patterns, seasonal carcass availability, and negative effects resulting from government intervention. We also conducted forest surveys throughout Bioko's two protected areas in order to localize and quantify primate populations and hunting pressure. Using these data, we were able to document the significant negative impact bushmeat hunting had on monkey populations, estimate which species are most vulnerable to hunting, and develop ecological niche models to approximate the distribution of each of Bioko's diurnal primate species. These results also have allowed for the identification of primate hotspots, such as the critically important southwest region of the Gran Caldera Scientific Reserve, and thus, priority areas for conservation on Bioko, leading to more comprehensive conservation recommendations. Current and future efforts now focus on bridging the gap between investigators and legislators in order to develop and effectively implement a management plan for Bioko's Gran Caldera Scientific Reserve and to develop a targeted educational campaign to reduce demand by changing consumer attitudes toward bushmeat. Using this multidisciplinary approach, informed by biological, socioeconomic, and cultural research, there may yet be a positive future for the primates of Bioko.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T14:50:38.873813-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22663
  • Human quarantine: Toward reducing infectious pressure on chimpanzees at
           the Taï Chimpanzee Project, Côte d'Ivoire
    • Authors: Kim Grützmacher; Verena Keil, Vera Leinert, Floraine Leguillon, Arthur Henlin, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Sophie Köndgen, Alexander Lang, Tobias Deschner, Roman M. Wittig, Fabian H. Leendertz
      Abstract: Due to their genetic relatedness, great apes are highly susceptible to common human respiratory pathogens. Although most respiratory pathogens, such as human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV), rarely cause severe disease in healthy human adults, they are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in wild great apes habituated to humans for research or tourism. To prevent pathogen transmission, most great ape projects have established a set of hygiene measures ranging from keeping a specific distance, to the use of surgical masks and establishment of quarantines. This study investigates the incidence of respiratory symptoms and human respiratory viruses in humans at a human-great ape interface, the Taï Chimpanzee Project (TCP) in Côte d'Ivoire, and consequently, the effectiveness of a 5-day quarantine designed to reduce the risk of potential exposure to human respiratory pathogens. To assess the impact of quarantine as a preventative measure, we monitored the quarantine process and tested 262 throat swabs for respiratory viruses, collected during quarantine over a period of 1 year. Although only 1 subject tested positive for a respiratory virus (HRSV), 17 subjects developed symptoms of infection while in quarantine and were subsequently kept from approaching the chimpanzees, preventing potential exposure in 18 cases. Our results suggest that quarantine—in combination with monitoring for symptoms—is effective in reducing the risk of potential pathogen exposure. This research contributes to our understanding of how endangered great apes can be protected from human-borne infectious disease.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T16:50:21.112546-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22619
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