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BIOLOGY (1425 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 308)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover American Journal of Human Biology
  [SJR: 1.018]   [H-I: 58]   [12 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1042-0533 - ISSN (Online) 1520-6300
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1577 journals]
  • Measuring arterial blood pressure in humans: Auscultatory and automatic
           measurement techniques for human biological field studies
    • Authors: Gary D. James; Linda M. Gerber
      Abstract: Human biologists have been examining arterial blood pressure since they began studying the effects of the environment and culture on the health of diverse populations. The Korotkoff auscultatory technique with a trained observer and aneroid sphygmomanometer is the method of choice for blood pressure measurement in many bioanthropological field contexts. Korotkoff sounds (the first and fifth phases) are the preferred determinants of systolic and diastolic pressure, even in infants, children, pregnant women, and the elderly. Training of observers, positioning of individuals, and selection of cuff size are all essential for obtaining standardized measurements. Automatic electronic devices are increasingly being used for blood pressure measurement in human biological studies. The automatic monitors often use the oscillometric method for measuring pressure, but must be validated before use. The emergence of automatic ambulatory blood pressure monitors has opened another avenue of research on blood pressure in human biology, where allostasis and circadian responses to environmental change and real life behavioral challenges can be defined and evaluated, largely because there is now the ability to make multiple measurements over time and in varying contexts. Stand-alone automatic monitors can also be substituted for manual auscultated readings in field contexts, although in studies where participants measure their own pressure, education about how the devices work and protocol specifics are necessary. Finally, computer-driven plethysmographic devices that measure pressure in the finger are available to evaluate short-term reactivity to specific challenges.
      PubDate: 2017-09-22T09:20:56.842742-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23063
  • Resemblance in physical activity levels: The Portuguese sibling study on
           growth, fitness, lifestyle, and health
    • Authors: S. Pereira; P. T. Katzmarzyk, T. N. Gomes, M. Souza, R. N. Chaves, F. K. Santos, D. Santos, A. Bustamante, T. V. Barreira, D. Hedeker, J. A. Maia
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo investigate the relationships of biological, behavioral, familial, and environmental characteristics with siblings´ physical activity (PA) levels as well as the intrapair resemblance in PA.MethodsThe sample comprises 834 (390 females) biological siblings [brother-brother (BB), sister-sister (SS), brother-sister (BS)] aged 9 to 20 years. Total PA index (TPAI) was estimated by questionnaire. Information on potential behavioral, familial, and environmental correlates was obtained by self-report; body mass index (BMI), biological maturation, and physical fitness were measured. Multilevel models were used to analyze siblings´ clustered data, and sibling resemblance was estimated with the intraclass correlation (ρ).ResultsOn average, younger sibs, those more physically fit, and those with more parental support had greater TPAI. Further, BB pairs had higher TPAI levels than SS or BS pairs, but also had greater within-pair variance. When adjusted for all covariates, SS pairs demonstrated greater resemblance in TPAI (ρ = 0.53, 95%CI = 0.38–0.68) than BS (ρ = 0.26, 95%CI = 0.14–0.43) or BB pairs (ρ = 0.18, 95%CI = 0.06–0.44).ConclusionsAge, physical fitness, and parental support were the best predictors of TPAI levels. A moderate level of resemblance in TPAI was observed in SS pairs, while lower resemblance was found for BS and BB pairs. These findings may be due to differences in the roles of shared genetic factors, familial, and environmental characteristics across different sibling types.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T06:10:59.192843-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23061
  • Child fosterage and sex-biased nutritional outcomes among Namibian
    • Authors: Sean P. Prall; Brooke A. Scelza
      Abstract: ObjectivesAcross cultures, fosterage has been shown to impact child health. Contextual factors, such as the reason for fosterage and the relationship between foster parent and child, are known to magnify variance in nutritional outcomes for foster children. Another important, but less studied, factor is the role of gender. Sex-biases in physiology and cultural norms are both known to affect child nutrition, and we posit these effects might be magnified in the presence of fosterage. In this study, we investigate how sex interacts with fosterage to affect nutritional outcomes among Namibian pastoralists.MethodsAnthropometrics for children and adults were collected using standard procedures, and linear models were used to predict the effects of age, sex, and fosterage on height, weight, and body mass index Z-scores. Semi-structured interviews with adults provided context for understanding sex specific reasons for fosterage and biases in investment.ResultsBoys in this population have lower nutritional scores than girls, and fostered boys have lower weight and BMI Z-scores than nonfostered boys. Fostered girls have lower height Z-scores and are more likely to be stunted and underweight than nonfostered girls. These effects extend into adulthood, with fostered women being shorter than their nonfostered counterparts.ConclusionsSex plays a role in the nutritional impact of fosterage among Himba children. These differences could be related to differential child labor demands, investment patterns, and the divergent reasons girls and boys are placed into fosterage. Future studies should consider how fosterage can magnify existing biases, like sex, when studying its impact on child health.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T03:03:14.043818-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23058
  • Child stunting is associated with weaker human capital among native
    • Authors: Eduardo A. Undurraga; Jere R. Behrman, Susan D. Emmett, Celeste Kidd, William R. Leonard, Steven T. Piantadosi, Victoria Reyes-García, Abhishek Sharma, Rebecca Zhang, Ricardo A. Godoy
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe assessed associations between child stunting, recovery, and faltering with schooling and human capital skills in a native Amazonian society of horticulturalists-foragers (Tsimane').MethodsWe used cross-sectional data (2008) from 1262 children aged 6 to 16 years in 53 villages to assess contemporaneous associations between three height categories: stunted (height-for-age Z score, HAZ–1), and three categories of human capital: completed grades of schooling, test-based academic skills (math, reading, writing), and local plant knowledge. We used annual longitudinal data (2002–2010) from all children (n = 853) in 13 villages to estimate the association between changes in height categories between the first and last years of measure and schooling and academic skills.ResultsStunting was associated with 0.4 fewer completed grades of schooling (∼24% less) and with 13–15% lower probability of showing any writing or math skills. Moderate stunting was associated with ∼20% lower scores in local plant knowledge and 9% lower probability of showing writing skills, but was not associated with schooling or math and writing skills. Compared with nonstunted children, children who became stunted had 18–21% and 15–21% lower probabilities of showing math and writing skills, and stunted children had 0.4 fewer completed grades of schooling. Stunted children who recovered showed human capital outcomes that were indistinguishable from nonstunted children.ConclusionsThe results confirm adverse associations between child stunting and human capital skills. Predictors of growth recovery and faltering can affect human capital outcomes, even in a remote, economically self-sufficient society.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T03:10:54.306208-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23059
  • Longitudinal patterns in BMI and percent total body fat from peak height
           velocity through emerging adulthood into young adulthood
    • Authors: Erin Barbour-Tuck; Marta Erlandson, Nazeem Muhajarine, Heather Foulds, Adam Baxter-Jones
      Abstract: ObjectivesEmerging adulthood, a potential critical period, is an understudied period of fat mass accrual. The aim of this study was to describe patterns of fat mass accrual, and weight status, from adolescence, through emerging adulthood, into young adulthood.MethodsOne-hundred-eighteen participants (59 male) were measured repeatedly for 20 years. Annual measures of height, weight, and body composition (DXA) were taken. Calculated measures included: peak height velocity (PHV), biological age (BA; years from PHV), body mass index (BMI), and percent total body fat (%TBF). Weight status groupings (normal NW, and overweight/obese OWO) were created using age and sex specific BMI and %TBF cut-offs. Analysis included t-tests and logistic regression.ResultsBMI and %TBF increased significantly until 8 years post PHV (P  .05), and then began increasing again (P  .05).ConclusionsDuring emerging adulthood, the prevalence of OWO increased. Being NW at PHV was not protective against being overweight in young adulthood. Emerging adulthood appears to be a potential critical period for fat accrual and warrants further attention.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T03:10:45.091038-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23056
  • American Journal Of Human Biology, Volume 29, Issue 5, September/October
    • PubDate: 2017-09-08T04:37:23.410216-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22914
  • Amerindian ancestry and extended longevity in Nicoya, Costa Rica
    • Authors: Jorge Azofeifa; Edward A. Ruiz-Narváez, Alejandro Leal, Hanna Gerlovin, Luis Rosero-Bixby
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to address the hypothesis that Amerindian ancestry is associated with extended longevity in the admixed population of Nicoya, Costa Rica. The Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica has been considered a “longevity island,” particularly for males.MethodsWe estimated Amerindian ancestry using 464 ancestral informative markers in 20 old Nicoyans aged ≥99 years, and 20 younger Nicoyans (60-65 years). We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the association of Amerindian ancestry and longevity.ResultsOlder Nicoyans had higher Amerindian ancestry compared to younger Nicoyans (43.3% vs 36.0%, P = .04). Each 10% increase of Amerindian ancestry was associated with more than twice the odds of being long-lived (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.03-5.25).Conclusions and ImplicationsTo our knowledge, this is the first time that ancestry is implicated as a likely determinant of extended longevity. Amerindian-specific alleles may protect against early mortality. The identification of these protective alleles should be the focus of future studies.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T04:30:28.743451-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23055
  • Use of iDXA spine scans to evaluate total and visceral abdominal fat
    • Authors: J. W. Bea; C-H Hsu, R. M. Blew, A. P. Irving, B. J. Caan, M. L. Kwan, I. Abraham, S. B. Going
      Abstract: ObjectivesAbdominal fat may be a better predictor than body mass index (BMI) for risk of metabolically-related diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. We sought to validate the percent fat reported on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) regional spine scans (spine fat fraction, SFF) against abdominal fat obtained from total body scans using the iDXA machine (General Electric, Madison, WI), as previously done on the Prodigy model.MethodsTotal body scans and regional spine scans were completed on the same day (N = 50). In alignment with the Prodigy-based study, the following regions of interest (ROI) were assessed from total body scans and compared to the SFF from regional spine scans: total abdominal fat at (1) lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 and (2) L2-Iliac Crest (L2-IC); (3) total trunk fat; and (4) visceral fat in the android region. Separate linear regression models were used to predict each total body scan ROI from SFF; models were validated by bootstrapping.ResultsThe sample was 84% female, a mean age of 38.5 ± 17.4 years, and mean BMI of 23.0 ± 3.8 kg/m2. The SFF, adjusted for BMI, predicted L2-L4 and L2-IC total abdominal fat (%; Adj. R2: 0.90) and total trunk fat (%; Adj. R2: 0.88) well; visceral fat (%) adjusted R2 was 0.83. Linear regression models adjusted for additional participant characteristics resulted in similar adjusted R2 values.ConclusionsThis replication of the strong correlation between SFF and abdominal fat measures on the iDXA in a new population confirms the previous Prodigy model findings and improves generalizability.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T04:30:21.928988-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23057
  • Fifty years of child height and weight in Japan and South Korea:
           Contrasting secular trend patterns analyzed by SITAR
    • Authors: T. J. Cole; H. Mori
      Abstract: Objectives Japanese and South Koreans have traditionally been shorter than Europeans, but have recently become appreciably taller. The aim was to quantify the secular trend patterns in height and weight growth in the two countries over 50 years using the SITAR growth curve model.Methods Data on mean height and weight by sex in 1-year age groups from 1 to 20 years were obtained by decade in South Korea (1965–2005) and Japan (1950–2010). The data were analyzed using SITAR (SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation), which estimates a mean curve and three adjustments–size, timing and intensity–reflecting how the individual surveys differ from the mean. A sensitivity analysis compared results for the Japanese data based on cohort as well as period.Results Growth patterns in the two countries changed dramatically over the study period, affecting not only height and weight but also developmental age, in that the growth period advanced in timing and shrank in duration. SITAR fitted the data well. The trends were larger in South Korea than Japan, and puberty timing in Japan stabilized by 1970. Most of the height increment seen in adults had already accrued by age 1.5 years, whereas the adult weight increment accrued throughout childhood.Conclusions The secular height trend in these countries represents increased growth in the long bones during infancy, so it can be viewed as the inverse of stunting. There are striking country differences in growth pattern, but they are not easily explained by differences in national income, diet or lifestyle.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T05:46:25.585039-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23054
           Blurton Jones 508 pp. (2016). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
           $130.00 (paperback)
    • Authors: Herman Pontzer
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T04:50:18.743693-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23053
           CONTACT AND COLONIALISM Melissa S. Murphy Haagen D. KlausUniversity Press
           of Florida, Gainsville, 2017. 464 pp. $120.00 (cloth)
    • Authors: Christina Torres-Rouff
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T04:25:18.992468-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23049
  • No change in energy efficiency in lactation: Insights from a longitudinal
    • Authors: Richard L. Bender; Heather S. Williams, Darna L. Dufour
      Abstract: ObjectivesLactation is the most energy-demanding phase of reproduction for human females, but it is still unclear how women in different environments are able to meet this additional energy demand. Previous studies have investigated whether changes in metabolism could have an energy-sparing effect in lactation, with conflicting results. Here, we asked whether increased energy efficiency in physical activity serves as an energy-sparing mechanism in lactation.MethodsWe used a longitudinal design with a control group. Participants were 33 well-nourished, exclusively breastfeeding women and 29 non-pregnant, non-lactating (NPNL) controls aged 32 ± 4 years. Lactating women were measured at peak- and post-lactation. NPNL controls completed a baseline measurement and a follow-up visit. Energy efficiency in physical activity was assessed using a graded submaximal exercise test and calculated as delta efficiency (change in work accomplished over change in energy expended) and gross efficiency (work accomplished over energy expended).ResultsThere was no significant change in either delta efficiency or gross efficiency from peak to post lactation in lactating women, and no significant difference in delta efficiency between lactating women and NPNL controls at any time period. However, lactating women showed greater between-visit variation in delta efficiency than the NPNL controls. Additionally, 79% of lactating participants lost weight between visits (mean weight loss −3.6 ± 2.3kg), consistent with a mobilization of body tissues to support lactation.ConclusionWe found no support for the idea that lactating women undergo an increase in energy efficiency to support the energy costs of lactation.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T06:00:23.724046-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23051
  • In memoriam Alexander Francis Roche (1921–2017)
    • Authors: Steven B. Heymsfield
      PubDate: 2017-08-11T04:35:18.358106-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23050
  • Secular trend and social variation in age at menarche among polish
           schoolgirls before and after the political transformation
    • Authors: Aleksandra Gomula; Slawomir Koziel
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo describe the biological results of the political and economic transformations that took place in Poland between 1966 and 2012, based on an analysis of age at menarche, and to determine changes across social groups.MethodsData were collected in 1966, 1978, 1988, and 2012 in several districts of Poland. The study included 34,940 schoolgirls. Age at menarche was assessed with the use of status quo method. Definition of socioeconomic status was based on 4 factors: urbanization level, mother and father education, and family size.ResultsWhen the political and economic situation in Poland improved, a decrease in age at menarche was observed, whereas in years of crisis it increased. The same social differentiation in menarcheal age observed before the political transformation continued to be present in 2012.DiscussionSocioeconomic changes were significantly associated with age at menarche. Social inequalities, reflected in menarcheal age, continue to be present in Poland.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T05:51:10.506522-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23048
  • Is early postnatal growth velocity, a proxy of minipubertal androgen
           action, related to adult second-to-fourth digit (2D:4D) ratios in men'
           A test in Cebu, Philippines
    • Authors: Alexander V. Georgiev; Calen P. Ryan, Judith B. Borja, Christopher W. Kuzawa
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe ratio of the length of the second to the fourth digit (2D:4D) of the hand is often used as an index of prenatal androgen exposure but it might also be affected by androgens during “minipuberty,” a period of temporarily high testosterone (T) production in the first few months of life. To examine this, we tested the prediction that men with lower 2D:4D ratios had greater weight growth velocities during the first months of life—a metric recently shown to correlate with concurrent T levels.MethodsWe related early growth data to 2D:4D ratios of both hands measured in 756 men (25–26 years) from Cebu, The Philippines.ResultsBirth-to-fourth-month (B4M) weight gain velocity (a proxy of early postnatal androgen action) was not associated with adult 2D:4D ratios of either hand, when the latter was measured continuously. When comparing men with more male-typical digit ratios (
      PubDate: 2017-07-31T08:02:58.976631-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23047
  • Genetic-genealogy approach reveals low rate of extrapair paternity in
           historical Dutch populations
    • Authors: Maarten H. D. Larmuseau; Sofie Claerhout, Leen Gruyters, Kelly Nivelle, Michiel Vandenbosch, Anke Peeters, Pieter van den Berg, Tom Wenseleers, Ronny Decorte
      Abstract: ObjectiveEvolutionary theory has shown that seeking out extrapair paternity (EPP) can be a viable reproductive strategy for both sexes in pair-bonded species, also in humans. As yet, estimates of the contemporary or historical EPP rate in human population are still rare. In the present study, we estimated the historical EPP rate in the Dutch population over the last 400 years and compared the rate with those obtained for other human populations to determine the evolutionary, cultural, and socio-demographic factors that influence human cuckoldry behavior.MethodsWe estimated the historical EPP rate for the Dutch population via the “genealogical pair method”, in which the EPP rate is derived from Y-chromosome mismatches between pairs of individuals that, based on genealogical evidence, share a common paternal ancestor.ResultsBased on the analysis of 68 representative genealogical pairs, separated by a total of 1013 fertilization events, we estimated that the historical EPP rate for the Dutch population over the last 400 years was 0.96% per generation (95% confidence interval 0.46%-1.76%).ConclusionThe Dutch EPP rate fits perfectly within the range reported for other contemporary and historical populations in Western Europe and was highly congruent with that estimated for neighboring Flanders, despite the socio-economic and religious differences between both populations. The estimated low EPP rate challenges the “dual mating strategy hypothesis” that states that women could obtain fitness benefits by securing investment from one man while cuckolding him to obtain good genes from an affair partner.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T08:50:21.503227-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23046
  • Household fear of deportation in Mexican-origin families: Relation to body
           mass index percentiles and salivary uric acid
    • Authors: Airín D. Martínez; Lillian Ruelas, Douglas A. Granger
      Abstract: ObjectiveFear of deportation (FOD) is a prevalent concern among mixed-status families. Yet, our understanding of how FOD shapes human health and development is in its infancy. To begin to address this knowledge gap, we examined the relationship between household FOD, body mass index (BMI) percentiles and salivary uric acid (sUA), a biomarker related to oxidative stress/hypertension/metabolic syndrome, among 111 individuals living in Mexican-origin families.MethodsParticipants were 65 children (2 months-17 years, 49% female) and 46 adults (20-58 years, 71% female) living in 30 Mexican-origin families with at least one immigrant parent in Phoenix, AZ. We recruited families using cluster probability sampling of 30 randomly selected census tracts with a high proportion of Hispanic/Latino immigrants. The head of household completed a survey containing demographic, FOD, and psychosocial measures. All family members provided saliva (later assayed for sUA) and anthropometric measures. Relationships between household FOD, BMI percentile, and sUA levels were estimated using multilevel models.ResultsHigher levels of household FOD were associated with lower BMI percentiles and lower sUA levels between families, after controlling for social support and socioeconomic proxies.ConclusionKey features of the social ecology in which mixed-status families are embedded are associated with individual differences in biological processes linked to increased risk for chronic disease.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T03:35:56.173091-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23044
  • Antioxidant defense and oxidative damage vary widely among high-altitude
    • Authors: Allison J. Janocha; Suzy A. A. Comhair, Buddha Basnyat, Maniraj Neupane, Amha Gebremedhin, Anam Khan, Kristin S. Ricci, Renliang Zhang, Serpil C. Erzurum, Cynthia M. Beall
      Abstract: ObjectivesPeople living at high altitude experience unavoidable low oxygen levels (hypoxia). While acute hypoxia causes an increase in oxidative stress and damage despite higher antioxidant activity, the consequences of chronic hypoxia are poorly understood. The aim of the present study is to assess antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in high-altitude natives and upward migrants.MethodsIndividuals from two indigenous high-altitude populations (Amhara, n = 39), (Sherpa, n = 34), one multigenerational high-altitude population (Oromo, n = 42), one upward migrant population (Nepali, n = 12), and two low-altitude reference populations (Amhara, n = 29; Oromo, n = 18) provided plasma for measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as a marker of antioxidant capacity, and urine for measurement of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a marker of DNA oxidative damage.ResultsHigh-altitude Amhara and Sherpa had the highest SOD activity, while highland Oromo and Nepalis had the lowest among high-altitude populations. High-altitude Amhara had the lowest DNA damage, Sherpa intermediate levels, and high-altitude Oromo had the highest.ConclusionsHigh-altitude residence alone does not associate with high antioxidant defenses; residence length appears to be influential. The single-generation upward migrant sample had the lowest defense and nearly the highest DNA damage. The two high-altitude resident samples with millennia of residence had higher defenses than the two with multiple or single generations of residence.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T03:35:39.298696-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23039
           Rene J. HerreraRalph Garcia-BertrandFrancisco M. Salzano Hoboken: Wiley
           Blackwell, 2016. 254 pp, $67.00 (Cloth)
    • Authors: Douglas E. Crews
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T03:35:23.607814-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23045
  • Associations between neighborhood food environments and deficient protein
           intake among elderly people in a metropolitan suburb: A case study in
           Kisarazu city, Japan
    • Authors: Yuri Hamamatsu; Chiho Goto, Masaru Nishitani, Riko Shimadate, Junko Ueno, Yoko Kusakari, Masahiro Umezaki
      Abstract: ObjectivesLiving in a poor food environment and its association with an increased risk of inadequate nutrient intake are increasingly important issues in Japan due to an increase in the elderly population.MethodsThe present study examined the relationships between neighborhood food environment and the protein and fat intakes of elderly Japanese individuals (n = 181) living in the metropolitan Tokyo suburb of Kisarazu.ResultsA logistic regression analysis adjusted for sociodemographic and shopping behavior variables revealed associations between subjectively evaluated poor neighborhood food environment and deficient protein intake. However, there was no significant association between excessive fat intake and neighborhood food environments.ConclusionThe findings demonstrate that living in a poor neighborhood food environment, which is becoming increasingly prevalent in Japan and other developed countries, has the potential to result in malnutrition, or at least in a low-quality diet, in elderly populations.
      PubDate: 2017-07-18T04:15:20.640254-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23043
  • Economic activity and patterns of infant growth in a high altitude
           district of Peru
    • Authors: Morgan K. Hoke
      Abstract: ObjectivesChanging economic activities bring significant cultural, epidemiological, and nutritional transitions. Infancy represents a critical period when rapid growth and metabolic programming occur, making infants particularly vulnerable to long-lasting biological changes due to such transitions. This paper examines the relationship between residence in distinct economic production zones (urban, herding, and dairy) and early growth in a highland district of Peru.MethodsThe length, weight, body mass index, and triceps skinfold of 93 infants (55 boys and 38 girls, aged 2 to 24 months) from 3 economic zones were measured at two time points 6 months apart. z-scores were calculated based on the WHO Growth Reference for children under 5 years of age. Comparisons were made to the reference group and between economic zones to examine the impacts of different economic activities on infant growth.ResultsFemale infants had significantly higher height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) than males (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-16T08:30:30.175709-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23038
  • Pregnancy and immune stimulation: re-imagining the fetus as parasite to
           understand age-related immune system changes in US women
    • Authors: Anna C. Rivara; Elizabeth M. Miller
      Abstract: ObjectivesPregnancy can increase production of Immunoglobulin E (IgE), an immune response more often directed towards parasite infections. An absence of parasitism makes the US population ideal to test the hypothesis that the maternal immune system recognizes a fetus as a parasite. We predict that total IgE levels are positively associated with a history of pregnancy across all ages of adult women, mirroring patterns of IgE in parasitized populations.MethodsReproductive-aged women (n = 2201) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 were analyzed in a cross-sectional design using complex survey regression and multiple imputation to evaluate associations between total IgE levels, pregnancy history, and interactions between age and pregnancy.ResultsWomen with a history of pregnancy have significantly higher IgE levels and a significantly shallower slope of IgE levels across ages (P = .031).ConclusionsThis research supports the hypothesis that maternal immune systems respond to prior pregnancies as they do to macro-parasitic exposures, and may modify the expected linear declines of IgE levels in women that accompanies aging. These finding have implications for understanding the evolution of internal gestation in mammals.
      PubDate: 2017-07-16T08:30:26.579768-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23041
  • Scaling children's waist circumference for differences in body size
    • Authors: Alan M Nevill; Michael J. Duncan, Ian M Lahart, Paul Davies, Robinson Ramirez-Velez, Gavin Sandercock
      Abstract: ObjectivesBoth waist circumference (WC) and body size (height) increase with age throughout childhood. Hence, there is a need to scale WC in children to detect differences in adiposity status (eg, between populations and different age groups), independent of body size/height.MethodsUsing two culturally different samples, 1 English (10–15.9 years n = 9471) and 2 Colombian (14–15 years, n = 37,948), for WC to be independent of height (HT), a body shape index was obtained using the allometric power law WC = a.HTb. The model was linearized using log-transformation, and multiple regression/ANCOVA to estimate the height exponents for WC controlling for age, sex, and any other categorical/population differences.ResultsIn both samples, the power-law height exponent varied systematically with age. In younger children (age 10–11 years), the exponent was approximately unity, suggesting that pre-pubertal children might be geometrically similar. In older children, the height exponent declined monotonically to 0.5 (ie, HT0.5) in 15+ year-olds, similar to the exponent observed in adults. UK children's height-adjusted WC revealed a “u” shaped curve with age that appeared to reach a minimum at peak-height velocity, different for boys and girls. Comparing the WC of two populations (UK versus Colombian 14–15-year-old children) identified that the gap in WC between the countries narrowed considerably after scaling for height.ConclusionsScaling children's WC for differences in height using allometric modeling reveals new insights into the growth and development of children's WC, findings that might well have been be overlooked if body size/height had been ignored.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T05:21:09.021347-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23037
  • Agreement between specific measures of adiposity and associations with
           high blood pressure in black South African women
    • Authors: Herculina S. Kruger; Chrisna Botha-Ravyse, Lize Havemann-Nel, Maretha Doubell, Johannes M. van Rooyen
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo derive percentage body fat (%BF) cut-points according to body mass index (BMI) categories for adult black South African women and to investigate the agreement between adiposity classifications according to WHO BMI and %BF cut-points. The secondary aim was to determine the association between these different adiposity measures and high blood pressure.MethodsBlack women aged 29–65 years (n = 435) from Ikageng, South Africa, were included in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic and anthropometric data were collected (weight, height and BMI). %BF using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and blood pressure were measured.ResultsThere was significant agreement between three %BF categories: low/normal (
      PubDate: 2017-07-12T05:20:42.322344-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23042
  • Body size of young adult Polish college-age women born before, during, and
           after WWII
    • Authors: Grażyna Liczbińska; Zbigniew Czapla, Robert M. Malina, Janusz Piontek
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to compare the young adult body size of Polish female university students born before, during, and after WWII.MethodsAge, height, and weight of 492 students measured between 1956 and 1972 were accessed from the Department of Anthropology archives (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań). The sample was divided into three birth year cohorts relative to WWII: before (n = 120), during (n = 196), and after (n = 176). Birth years spanned 1935 through 1952. BMI was calculated. Body size among birth cohorts was compared with age of the student and education level of the father as covariates (ANCOVA).ResultsThe birth cohorts differed significantly in height (P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-08T10:50:28.797138-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23040
  • Linear and nonlinear relationships between body mass index and physical
           fitness in Brazilian children and adolescents
    • Authors: Vítor P. Lopes; Marco Cossio-Bolaños, Rossana Gómez-Campos3, Miguel de Arruda, Jefferson Eduardo Hespanhol, Luis P. Rodrigues
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the linear and curvilinear relationship between body mass index (BMI) and physical fitness in children and adolescents.MethodsParticipants were 4567 (2505 girls) children aged 6–16 years. Weight and height were measured and BMI was calculated and adjusted for age and sex using WHO z-scores. Physical fitness was evaluated with the following tests: Yo-Yo test, standing long jump, seated 2-kg medicine ball throw, and 20-m dash. Participants were grouped into two groups according to their maturity status, estimated as years from peak height velocity. Associations were determined with linear and nonlinear quadratic regression models.ResultsThe nonlinear quadratic regression coefficient was significant for the 20-m dash among girls of both maturity status levels, and in maturity status level 1 boys; for the standing long jump among boys of both maturity status levels, and in maturity status level 1 girls. The Yo-Yo test was only significant for maturity status level 1 boys. For the medicine ball throw, the linear regression coefficient was significant for both maturity status levels in both sexes. Almost all physical fitness items were observed to have meaningfully large nonlinear relationships with BMIz, but they were not all significant due to the small sample size, especially in maturity status level 2.ConclusionThe association between BMI and physical fitness is nonlinear in the majority of its components, and those with lower and higher BMI had poorer fitness.
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T23:31:14.118746-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23035
  • Food insecurity partially mediates associations between social
           disadvantage and body composition among older adults in india: Results
           from the study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)
    • Authors: Joshua M. Schrock; Heather H. McClure, J. Josh Snodgrass, Melissa A. Liebert, Karen E. Charlton, Perianayagam Arokiasamy, Nirmala Naidoo, Paul Kowal
      Abstract: ObjectiveOur objective was to test whether food insecurity mediates cross-sectional associations between social disadvantage and body composition among older adults (aged 50+) in India (n = 6556).MethodsAdjusting for key sociodemographic and dietary variables, we examined whether markers of social disadvantage (lower educational attainment, lower household wealth, belonging to a disadvantaged caste/tribe, and belonging to a minority religion) were associated with food insecurity. We then examined whether food insecurity, in turn, was associated with anthropometric measures of body composition, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). We also tested whether food insecurity mediated the relationship between social disadvantage and body composition.ResultsIn adjusted models, lower household wealth [lowest quintile (Q5) vs highest quintile (Q1): odds ratio (OR) = 13.57, P 
      PubDate: 2017-07-05T23:31:02.956194-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23033
  • Analysis of admixture proportions in seven geographical regions of the
           state of Guerrero, Mexico
    • Authors: José Ángel Cahua-Pablo; Miguel Cruz, Pedro Vidal Tello-Almaguer, Luz Carmen del Alarcón-Romero, Esteban Juan Parra, Salvador Villerías-Salinas, Adán Valladares-Salgado, Vianet Argelia Tello-Flores, Abigail Méndez-Palacios, Claudia Paola Pérez-Macedonio, Eugenia Flores-Alfaro
      Abstract: ObjectiveMexico's current population structure has been defined by admixture between European, Native American, and to some extent African, groups that started in the sixteenth century. The aim of this research was to analyze the relative contributions of these continental population groups to the seven regions of the state of Guerrero, Mexico.MethodsA total of 104 ancestry informative markers were analyzed in 480 unrelated women from the seven regions of the state of Guerrero. The individual ancestry proportions were estimated using the software ADMIXMAP v3.2.ResultsThe relative Native American, European and African ancestral contributions to the whole sample were estimated to be 69%, 27%, and 1.9%, respectively. We observed significant differences in admixture proportions across the regions. The highest average Native American ancestry was found in the Montaña region and the lowest in Costa Grande. Conversely, the highest European contribution was observed in Costa Grande. The highest African contributions were observed in the regions of Costa Chica and Costa Grande.ConclusionsThe genetic structure of the population of Guerrero reflects quite well the historical processes that have occurred in this state. Native American population settlements were mainly in the regions of Montaña, Norte, and Centro, where the highest indigenous genetic contribution is observed today. European settlers came from the center of the state to regions with significant agricultural and mining activities. The highest African contributions are observed in coastal regions, in agreement with historical evidence about slave trade routes in the Americas.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04T09:50:20.133665-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23032
  • A matter of perception: Perceived socio-economic status and cortisol on
           the island of Utila, Honduras
    • Authors: Angela R. García; Michael Gurven, Aaron D. Blackwell
      Abstract: ObjectivesNumerous studies link low objective and subjective socioeconomic status (SES) to chronic activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Here, we examine associations between objective and subjective SES and diurnal salivary cortisol, a primary HPA component, as well as demographic and ecological predictors associated with SES perceptions and changes in diurnal cortisol.MethodsParticipants were residents (age 18–79, n = 61) of Utila, a Honduran island where economic disparities are overt and geographically contained. Objective SES was measured as a composite of income, education, and occupation. Subjective SES was measured with a MacArthur ladder and a perceived lifestyle discrepancy (PLD) scale. Salivary cortisol was collected three times per day for two days. Questions addressing demographic, social, and household characteristics were assessed as predictors of PLD.ResultsAssessed independently, objective SES (P = .06) and PLD (P = .003) were associated with the steepness of diurnal cortisol changes, while PLD was also associated with higher cortisol area under the curve (AUC) (P = .036). Modeled together, only PLD predicted diurnal slope and AUC. PLD was associated with household sanitation, immigration status, food scarcity, objective SES, and owing money. Only access to sanitation and owing money had direct associations with cortisol that were not mediated by PLD.ConclusionsFor adults on Utila, perceptions of unmet need outweigh other social and economic status factors in predicting cortisol AUC and slope. In addition, the unmediated effects of access to sanitation and owing money on cortisol suggest that these distinct aspects of inequality are important to consider when seeking to understand how inequality can impact HPA function.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T07:34:35.098759-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23031
  • Abdominal obesity in adolescents: Development of age-specific waist
           circumference cut-offs linked to adult IDF criteria
    • Authors: Jorge Bravo; Armando M. Raimundo, Diana A. Santos, Rafael Timón, Luís B. Sardinha
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to develop age- and sex-specific waist circumference (WC) cut-off points, linked to older adolescent and adult criteria for abdominal obesity, to be applied to children in the clinical setting.MethodsA total of 16,788 adolescents aged 10 to 16 years were assessed for WC. Smoothed age and sex-specific WC curves were obtained using Cole's LMS method.ResultsPercentiles that corresponded to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) recommendations used for older adolescents and adults (16+ years old) were the 97th percentile for boys and the 87th percentile for girls. Using these cutoffs, a total of 368 boys and 1138 girls were categorized as abdominally obese, in contrast to 1654 boys and 987 girls that were identified using the current IDF pediatric criteria (90th percentile).ConclusionsWe provide age- and sex-specific cut-off points that can be used to identify abdominal obesity in adolescents. The present findings provide a tool that can be used in the clinical setting for the early detection and prevention of adult obesity. Population-specific cutoffs may be required for pediatric ages to diagnose children at risk.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T07:34:26.038459-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23036
  • Evaluation of baseline frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in an
           italian population according to age, sex, smoking habits, and gene
    • Authors: Alfredo Santovito; Claudio Gendusa, Piero Cervella
      Abstract: ObjectivesIncreased SCEs frequencies in human lymphocytes are an indicator of spontaneous chromosome instability and could be influenced by different exogenous and endogenous factors. In this study, we evaluated the influence of age, sex, smoking habits, and genetic polymorphisms on the background levels of SCEs in peripheral blood lymphocytes.MethodsTwo hundred-thirty healthy Italian subjects were recruited. Data about age, sex and smoking habits were recorded. Subjects were also genotyped for GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1 A/G, CYP1A1 Ile/Val, CYP2C19 G/A, ERCC2/XPD Lys751Gln, XRCC1 Arg194ATrp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, and XRCC1Arg208His gene polymorphisms.ResultsThe frequency of SCEs/cell was 5.15 ± 1.87, with females showing a significantly higher SCEs value with respect to males (5.36 ± 2.10 and 4.82 ± 1.39, respectively). Smokers showed significantly increased levels of SCEs with respect to nonsmokers (5.93 ± 1.75 and 4.70 ± 1.79, respectively) whereas no differences were observed between heavy and light smokers. Age correlated with the RI value (P = .01) but not with the SCEs frequency (P = 07), although the 31-40 age group showed a significantly lower SCEs frequency with respect to the other age groups. A significant association was also found between GSTP2C19-AA, GSTT1-null, GSTM1-null, ERCC2/XPD Gln751Gln, and XRCC1 His208His genotypes, and higher frequencies of SCEs.ConclusionWe describe the association between some phase I, phase II, and DNA-repair gene polymorphisms with increased SCEs frequencies, reinforcing the importance of genetic analysis in biomonitoring studies. Sex and age were found to be important endogenous factors that affect the level of genomic damage and the replicative capacity of cells, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30T03:15:42.469935-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23034
  • Normative data for quantitative calcaneal ultrasound in young males and
    • Authors: María Correa-Rodríguez; Emilio González-Jiménez, Pedro A. García, Blanca Rueda-Medina, Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle
      Abstract: ObjectiveThe quantitative ultrasound (QUS) method has been recognized as an optimal screening tool for assessing bone mass status. The aim of this study was to provide standardized values for bone health status measured by the QUS technique based on age, sex, and body mass index (BMI).MethodsThe study population consisted of 1322 healthy individuals (822 females and 500 males) aged 14–25 years. Bone mass in both calcaneus was estimated with QUS to obtain Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) (dB/MHz).ResultsThe linear models revealed statistically significant differences between bone mass status of the calcaneus and age, sex, and BMI (P 
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T07:10:01.449638-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23030
  • Adrenal maturation, nutritional status, and mucosal immunity in Bolivian
    • Authors: Carolyn R. Hodges-Simeon; Sean P. Prall, Aaron D. Blackwell, Michael Gurven, Steven J.C. Gaulin
      Abstract: ObjectivesHumans—and several other apes—exhibit a unique pattern of post-natal adrenal maturation; however, the causes and consequences of variation in adrenal development are not well understood. In this study, we examine developmental and age-related maturation of the adrenal gland (measured via dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate [DHEA-S]) for potential life-history associations with growth and mucosal immunity in a rural population of immune-challenged Bolivian juveniles and adolescents.MethodsSalivary DHEA-S, anthropometrics, and salivary mucosal immunity (secretory IgA [sIgA]) were measured in 171 males and females, aged 8-23.ResultsMales with greater energy (i.e. fat) stores showed higher DHEA-S levels. Controlling for age and energetic condition (to control for phenotypic correlation), higher DHEA-S was associated with higher mucosal immunity (sIgA) among both males and females. Higher DHEA-S levels were positively associated with growth (i.e. height and strength) in males.ConclusionsIn accordance with predictions derived from life-history theory, males with higher energy stores secrete more adrenal androgens. This suggests that adrenal maturation is costly and subject to constraints; that is, only males with sufficient reserves will invest in accelerated adrenal maturation. Further, DHEA-S appears to have a measureable influence on immunocompetence in adolescent males and females; therefore, deficits in DHEA-S may have important consequences for health and maturation during this period. Adrenal maturation is an important, but understudied component of human growth and development.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T07:09:56.679158-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23025
  • Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup variation of contemporary mixed South
           Americans reveals prehistoric displacements linked to
           archaeologically-derived culture history
    • Authors: Francisco Rothhammer; Lars Fehren-Schmitz, Giannina Puddu, José Capriles
      Abstract: ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to examine South American population structure and prehistoric population displacements prior to the Spanish conquest, utilizing mitochondrial DNA haplogroups of extant mixed populations from Mexico, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile.MethodRelative frequencies of four pan-American haplogroups, obtained from published databases, were analyzed to evaluate patterns of variations, population structure and possible prehistoric migration pathways.ResultsPatterns of mtDNA variation verify biogeographic drift processes and possible migratory pathways.ConclusionsWe propose an updated model of South American colonization that is fully compatible with previous studies based on autosomal, mtDNA, and Y chromosome variation and with archaeologically-derived culture history.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T04:02:44.212573-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23029
  • Predictive validity of body fat percentage by bioimpedance compared with
           deuterium oxide dilution in Costa Rican schoolchildren
    • Authors: Juan Diego Zamora Salas; Adriana Laclé-Murray
      Abstract: ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to verify the validity of body fat percentage (BF%) by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in a sample of Costa Rican schoolchildren.MethodsThe sample consisted of 52 male (mean age 8.1 ± 0.9 years) and 49 female (mean age 7.5 ± 1.0 years) schoolchildren. Deuterium oxide dilution was the reference method used as the “gold standard” to determine the fat mass (FM) expressed as BF%. Linear regression analyses and paired sample t-tests were used to test the association and mean differences between BIA and deuterium oxide dilution BF%. Concordance between BIA and deuterium oxide dilution BF% was determined by Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Measurement of agreement between the two methods was analyzed using the Bland-Altman procedure.ResultsSignificant associations between BIA and deuterium oxide dilution BF% were found in males (R = 0.97, R2 = 0.95, P 
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T11:35:19.920988-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23028
  • Blood pressure and psychological distress among North Africans in France:
           The role of perceived personal/group discrimination and gender
    • Authors: Florence Loose; Marie Tiboulet, Christelle Maisonneuve, Anne Taillandier-Schmitt, Michael Dambrun
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to examine the associations between perceived ethnic discrimination and (physical and mental) health indicators among North African women and men living in France.MethodsThis study included 82 North Africans, aged 18–64 years. Perceived discrimination was measured at both group level (PGD) and personal level (PPD). The physical health indicator was blood pressure. The mental health indicator was self-reported psychological distress.ResultsMultiple regression analyses showed that higher levels of PGD predicted higher blood pressure. PPD was not related to blood pressure. PPD was positively related to psychological distress among women, but not among men.ConclusionPPD and PGD are associated with physical and mental health indicators in different ways among North African women and men in France.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T05:20:24.480964-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23026
  • In memoriam: Derek F. Roberts (1925–2016)
    • Authors: C. G. Nicholas Mascie-Taylor
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T04:31:36.748589-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23027
  • Waist-to-height ratio and its association with TV viewing in a sample of
           Portuguese children aged 7–9 years
    • Authors: Aristides M. Machado-Rodrigues; João Valente-dos-Santos, Romulo Fernandes, Augusta Gama, Isabel Mourao, Helena Nogueira, Vitor Marques, Cristina Padez
      Abstract: IntroductionDuring the past decades, increased TV viewing and reduced physical activity (PA) levels may have contributed to the increased prevalence of pediatric obesity. This study aimed to analyze the association between TV viewing and central adiposity risk in Portuguese children.MethodsThe sample comprised 3987 children (1997 girls and 1990 boys) aged 7–9 years. Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) was calculated as the ratio of waist/height with a cut-off of 0.5 used to define risk of abdominal obesity. WHtR does not depend on sex- or age-specific reference criteria. TV viewing and PA were assessed by questionnaire. Logistic regressions were used, with adjustments for age, PA, and parental education.ResultsThis study revealed a positive significant association between central adiposity risk and sedentary behaviors in Portuguese boys. In addition, the final model showed an important inverse association between PA and the risk of abdominal obesity in both boys and girls (males: β = −0.01 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.00; females: β = −0.01; 95% CI, 0.99-1.00).ConclusionFindings revealed that associations between TV viewing and obesity risk could be highly influenced by socioeconomic factors. Future research should extend a similar design to children in other geographic contexts, and incorporate other behavioral variables in the statistical models, to confirm or not some of the aforementioned findings.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T04:31:08.541754-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23024
  • Maternal-infant interaction as an influence on infant adiposity
    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Holdsworth; Lawrence M. Schell
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe aim of this research is to identify whether specific aspects of the early life psychosocial environment such as quality of home and maternal-infant interaction are associated with increased infant adiposity, in a disadvantaged population in the United States.MethodsData on 121 mother-infant pairs from the Albany Pregnancy and Infancy Lead Study were analyzed using three multiple linear regression models with subscapular skinfold thickness (SST), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), and weight z-scores at 12 months of age as outcome variables. Maternal-infant interaction was indexed by the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scales (NCATS) and home environment quality was indexed by the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME).ResultsIn models including infant birth weight, cigarette use in second trimester, infant caloric intake at 9–12 months, size at birth for gestational age, infant sex, and mother's prepregnancy BMI, specific subscales of NCATs predicted infant adiposity z-scores. Poorer mother's response to infant distress was associated with greater SST (β = −0.20, P = .02), TST (β = −0.19, P = .04), and weight (β = −0.14, P = .05). Better maternal sensitivity to infant cues was associated with larger SST (β = 0.25, P 
      PubDate: 2017-06-11T10:20:21.708585-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23023
  • Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as markers of dietary variation
           among sociocultural subgroups of Inuit in Greenland
    • Authors: Peter Bjerregaard; Christina V. L. Larsen, Inger K. Dahl-Petersen, Bjørn Buchardt
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe assessed the use of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as biomarkers for traditional versus store-bought food among the Inuit. Furthermore, we compared the isotope patterns among sociocultural population groups.MethodsAs a part of a country-wide health survey in Greenland during 2005–2010, we analyzed the isotope composition of toenails from 1025 adult Inuit and meat of common species hunted for food. Information on diet and sociocultural variables was collected by interviews.ResultsWeighted by sex and place of residence to the total population of Inuit in Greenland, the average δ13C value in toenails was −20.2‰ and the δ15N value was 12.0‰ which are higher than in a general Danish omnivorous population. Both isotopes were significantly associated with other biomarkers of marine food and with results of a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The percentage of marine food in the diet was estimated at 21% from the mean δ13C value, 25% from the mean δ15N value, and 23% from the FFQ.ConclusionNail samples for analysis of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were convenient to collect during a large population health survey among the Inuit. Isotope enrichment levels showed statistically significant associations with other biomarkers for consumption of marine food and with results of an FFQ and were used to estimate the percentage of marine food in the diet. Isotope levels were significantly associated with a novel score of sociocultural transition.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01T02:15:36.05569-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23018
  • Association between T102C 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphism and 5-year
           mortality risk among Brazilian Amazon riparian elderly population
    • Authors: Tális O. Silva; Ivo Jung, Alexis Trott, Cláudia G. Bica, Jeferson N. Casarin, Paola C. Fortuna, Euler E. Ribeiro, Fernanda D. de Assis, Guilherme C. Figueira, Fernanda Barbisan, Maria Fernanda Manica-Cattani, Beatriz S. R. Bonadiman, Lucien J. Houenou, Pedro Antônio S. do Prado-Lima, Ivana B. M. da Cruz
      Abstract: ObjectiveSerotonin (5-HT) is a pleiotropic molecule that exerts several functions on brain and peripheral tissues via different receptors. The gene for the 5-HT2A receptor shows some variations, including a T102C polymorphism, that have been associated with increased risk of neuropsychiatric and vascular disorders. However, the potential impact of 5-HT2A imbalance caused by genetic variations on the human lifespan has not yet been established.MethodsWe performed a prospective study involving an Amazon riparian elderly free-living population in Maués City, Brazil, with a 5-year follow-up. Out of a cohort of 637 subjects selected in July, 2009, we genotyped 471 individuals, including 209 males (44.4%) and 262 females (55.6%), all averaging 72.3 ± 7.8 years of age (ranging from 60 to 100 years).ResultsThe T102C-SNP genotypic frequencies were 14.0% TT, 28.0% CC, and 58.0% CT. From 80 elderly individuals who died during the period investigated, we observed significantly (P = .005) higher numbers of TT carriers (27.3%) and CC carriers (21.2%), compared to heterozygous CT carriers (12.5%). Cox-regression analysis showed that association between the T102C-SNP and elderly survival was independent of age, sex, and other health variables.ConclusionsOur findings strongly suggest that imbalance in 5-HT2A may cause significant disturbances that lead to an increased susceptibility to death for individuals who are over 60 years of age.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T05:35:46.591075-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23016
  • An assessment of postcranial indices, ratios, and body mass versus
           eco-geographical variables of prehistoric Jomon, Yayoi agriculturalists,
           and Kumejima Islanders of Japan
    • Authors: Noriko Seguchi; Conrad B. Quintyn, Shiori Yonemoto, Hirofumi Takamuku
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe explore variations in body and limb proportions of the Jomon hunter-gatherers (14,000–2500 BP), the Yayoi agriculturalists (2500–1700 BP) of Japan, and the Kumejima Islanders of the Ryukyus (1600–1800 AD) with 11 geographically diverse skeletal postcranial samples from Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, and North America using brachial-crural indices, femur head-breadth-to-femur length ratio, femur head-breadth-to-lower-limb-length ratio, and body mass as indicators of phenotypic climatic adaptation. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that variation in limb proportions seen in Jomon, Yayoi, and Kumejima is a complex interaction of genetic adaptation; development and allometric constraints; selection, gene flow and genetic drift with changing cultural factors (i.e., nutrition) and climate.MethodsThe skeletal data (1127 individuals) were subjected to principle components analysis, Manly's permutation multiple regression tests, and Relethford-Blangero analysis.ResultsThe results of Manly's tests indicate that body proportions and body mass are significantly correlated with latitude, and minimum and maximum temperatures while limb proportions were not significantly correlated with these climatic variables. Principal components plots separated “climatic zones:” tropical, temperate, and arctic populations. The indigenous Jomon showed cold-adapted body proportions and warm-adapted limb proportions. Kumejima showed cold-adapted body proportions and limbs. The Yayoi adhered to the Allen-Bergmann expectation of cold-adapted body and limb proportions. Relethford-Blangero analysis showed that Kumejima experienced gene flow indicated by high observed variances while Jomon experienced genetic drift indicated by low observed variances.ConclusionsThe complex interaction of evolutionary forces and development/nutritional constraints are implicated in the mismatch of limb and body proportions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T05:35:44.261339-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23015
  • Feminization of the fat distribution pattern of children and adolescents
           in a recent German population
    • Authors: Christiane Scheffler; Melanie Dammhahn
      Abstract: ObjectivesDuring the early 1990s, the economic and political situation in eastern Germany changed overnight. Here, we use the rare chance of an experiment-like setting in humans and aim to test whether the rapid change of environmental conditions in eastern Germany in the 1990s led to a change in the sex-specific fat distribution pattern, an endocrine-influenced phenotypic marker.MethodsBased on a cross-sectional data set of 6- to 18-year-old girls and boys measured between 1982–1991 and 1997–2012, we calculated a skinfold ratio of triceps to subscapular and percentage of body fat. Using linear regressions, we tested for differences in percentage of body fat and skinfold ratio between these two time periods.ResultsWe found that the percentage of body fat increased in boys and girls, and they accumulated relatively more fat on extremities than on the trunk in all BMI groups measured after 1997 as compared to those measured between 1982 and 1991.ConclusionsConcurrent with drastic and rapid changes of environmental conditions, the body fat distribution of children and adolescents changed to a more feminized pattern during the early 1990s in an East German population. The changes in this endocrinologically mediated pattern might be associated with the increased exposure of individuals to endocrine-disrupting chemicals which are known to influence the endocrine, reproductive, and immune systems in animals and humans.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T05:35:30.315177-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23017
  • Body fat attenuates muscle mass catabolism among physically active humans
           in temperate and cold high altitude environments
    • Authors: Cara J. Ocobock
      Abstract: ObjectiveTypical diet plans are based on an individual's body mass; however, body composition may be important to consider when an individual is in a negative energy balance. This study examines if high initial body fat and dietary macronutrient content reduce muscle mass catabolism during excursions in temperate and cold high altitude environments.MethodsSubjects—53 healthy, un-acclimated volunteers (37 males and 16 females)—took part in 12-16 week-long outdoor education courses in moderately high altitude temperate and cold climates in the western United States. Body mass, body fat percentage, fat mass, and muscle mass were measured before and after each excursion. Total energy expenditure and dietary intake were also measured.ResultsIn temperate and cold environments, both sexes lost significant amounts of body mass. In temperate climates both sexes lost a significant amount of fat mass, but not muscle mass. In cold climates, there was no significant change in fat mass for either sex; however, females gained muscle mass while males lost muscle mass. In both climates subjects with lower initial body fat percentages lost significantly more muscle mass than subjects with higher initial body fat percentages. There was no significant relationship between macronutrient intake and muscle mass loss for either sex.ConclusionThese results suggests that during a negative energy balance dietary macronutrient content cannot abate the loss of muscle mass, but body fat may have a protective effect. This information should be used to improve individualized diets based on body composition, not body mass.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03T07:15:43.217568-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23013
  • Body frame size in school children is related to the amount of adipose
           tissue in different depots but not to adipose distribution
    • Authors: Francisco J. Guzmán-de la Garza; Alejandra E. González Ayala, Marisol Gómez Nava, Leislie I. Martínez Monsiváis, Ana M. Salinas Martínez, Erik Ramírez López, Alvaro Mathiew Quirós, Francisco Garcia Quintanilla
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that body frame size is related to the amount of fat in different adipose tissue depots and to fat distribution in schoolchildren.MethodsChildren aged between 5 and 10 years were included in this cross-sectional study (n = 565). Body frame size, adiposity markers (anthropometric, skinfolds thickness, and ultrasound measures), and fat distribution indices were analyzed. Correlation coefficients adjusted by reliability were estimated and analyzed by sex; the significance of the difference between two correlation coefficients was assessed using the Fisher z-transformation.ResultsThe sample included primarily urban children; 58.6% were normal weight, 16.1% overweight, 19.6% obese, and the rest were underweight. Markers of subcutaneous adiposity, fat mass and fat-free mass, and preperitoneal adiposity showed higher and significant correlations with the sum of the biacromial + bitrochanteric diameter than with the elbow diameter, regardless of sex. The fat distribution conicity index presented significant but weak correlations; and visceral adipose tissue, hepatic steatosis, and the waist-for-hip ratio were not significantly correlated with body frame size measures.ConclusionsBody frame size in school children was related to the amount of adipose tissue in different depots, but not adipose distribution. More studies are needed to confirm this relationship and its importance to predict changes in visceral fat deposition during growth.
      PubDate: 2017-04-28T23:54:47.899064-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23014
  • Identifying signatures of positive selection in pigmentation genes in two
           South Asian populations
    • Authors: Manjari Jonnalagadda; Neeraj Bharti, Yatish Patil, Shantanu Ozarkar, Sunitha Manjari K, Rajendra Joshi, Heather Norton
      Abstract: ObjectivesSkin pigmentation is a polygenic trait showing wide phenotypic variations among global populations. While numerous pigmentation genes have been identified to be under positive selection among European and East populations, genes contributing to phenotypic variation in skin pigmentation within and among South Asian populations are still poorly understood. The present study uses data from the Phase 3 of the 1000 genomes project focusing on two South Asian populations—GIH (Gujarati Indian from Houston, Texas) and ITU (Indian Telugu from UK), so as to decode the genetic architecture involved in adaptation to ultraviolet radiation in South Asian populations.MethodsStatistical tests included were (1) tests to identify deviations of the Site Frequency Spectrum (SFS) from neutral expectations (Tajima's D, Fay and Wu's H and Fu and Li's D* and F*), (2) tests focused on the identification of high-frequency haplotypes with extended linkage disequilibrium (iHS and Rsb), and (3) tests based on genetic differentiation between populations (LSBL).ResultsTwenty-two pigmentation genes fall in the top 1% for at least one statistic in the GIH population, 5 of which (LYST, OCA2, SLC24A5, SLC45A2, and TYR) have been previously associated with normal variation in skin, hair, or eye color. In comparison, 17 genes fall in the top 1% for at least one statistic in the ITU population. Twelve loci which are identified as outliers in the ITU scan were also identified in the GIH population.ConclusionsThese results suggest that selection may have affected these loci broadly across the region.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T23:51:51.691791-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23012
  • VDR gene methylation as a molecular adaption to light exposure: Historic,
           recent and genetic influences
    • Authors: Emma L Beckett; Patrice Jones, Martin Veysey, Konsta Duesing, Charlotte Martin, John Furst, Zoe Yates, Nina G. Jablonski, George Chaplin, Mark Lucock
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. We examined whether degree of VDR gene methylation acts as a molecular adaptation to light exposure. We explored this in the context of photoperiod at conception, recent UV irradiance at 305 nm, and gene-latitude effects.MethodsEighty subjects were examined for VDR gene-CpG island methylation density. VDR gene variants were also examined by PCR-RFLP.ResultsPhotoperiod at conception was significantly positively related to VDR methylation density, explaining 17% of the variance in methylation (r2 = 0.17; P = .001). Within this model, photoperiod at conception and plasma 25(OH)D independently predicted methylation density at the VDR-CpG island. Recent UV exposure at 305 nm led to a fivefold increase in mean methylation density (P = .02). Again, UV exposure and plasma 25(OH)D independently predicted methylation density at the VDR-CpG island. In the presence of the BsmI mutant allele, methylation density was increased (P = .01), and in the presence of the TaqI or FokI mutant allele, methylation density was decreased (P = .007 and .04 respectively). Multivariate modelling suggests plasma 25(OH)D, photoperiod at conception, recent solar irradiance, and VDR genotype combine as independent predictors of methylation at the VDR-CpG island, explaining 34% of the variance in methylation (R2 = 0.34, P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-22T01:35:39.160799-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23010
  • Conditional random slope: A new approach for estimating individual child
           growth velocity in epidemiological research
    • Authors: Michael Leung; Diego G. Bassani, Amy Racine-Poon, Anna Goldenberg, Syed Asad Ali, Gagandeep Kang, Prasanna S. Premkumar, Daniel E. Roth
      Abstract: ObjectivesConditioning child growth measures on baseline accounts for regression to the mean (RTM). Here, we present the “conditional random slope” (CRS) model, based on a linear-mixed effects model that incorporates a baseline-time interaction term that can accommodate multiple data points for a child while also directly accounting for RTM.MethodsIn two birth cohorts, we applied five approaches to estimate child growth velocities from 0 to 12 months to assess the effect of increasing data density (number of measures per child) on the magnitude of RTM of unconditional estimates, and the correlation and concordance between the CRS and four alternative metrics. Further, we demonstrated the differential effect of the choice of velocity metric on the magnitude of the association between infant growth and stunting at 2 years.ResultsRTM was minimally attenuated by increasing data density for unconditional growth modeling approaches. CRS and classical conditional models gave nearly identical estimates with two measures per child. Compared to the CRS estimates, unconditional metrics had moderate correlation (r = 0.65–0.91), but poor agreement in the classification of infants with relatively slow growth (kappa = 0.38–0.78). Estimates of the velocity-stunting association were the same for CRS and classical conditional models but differed substantially between conditional versus unconditional metrics.ConclusionThe CRS can leverage the flexibility of linear mixed models while addressing RTM in longitudinal analyses.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T00:22:04.303837-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23009
  • Maternal metabolic adaptations to pregnancy among young women in Cebu,
    • Authors: Ruby L. Fried; Nanette L. Mayol, Thom W. McDade, Christopher W. Kuzawa
      Abstract: ObjectivesEvidence that fetal development has long-term impacts on health has increased interest in maternal-fetal nutrient exchange. Although maternal metabolism is known to change during gestation to accommodate fetal nutrient demands, little is known about these modifications outside of a Western, clinical context. This study characterizes maternal metabolic adaptations to pregnancy, and their associations with offspring birth weight (BW), among women living in the Philippines.MethodsFasting glucose, triglycerides, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin were assessed in 808 participants in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines). Cross-sectional relationships between metabolites and hormones and gestational and lactational status were evaluated. Among the subset of currently pregnant women, associations between maternal glucose and triglycerides and offspring BW were also examined.ResultsWomen in their second and third trimesters had significantly lower fasting glucose and adiponectin compared to nulliparous women, and leptin levels and triglyceride levels were notably higher late in pregnancy (all P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T00:17:47.24787-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23011
  • Secular change in adult stature associated with modernization in Vanuatu
    • Authors: Kathryn M. Olszowy; Cheng Sun, Harold Silverman, Alysa Pomer, Kelsey N. Dancause, Chim W. Chan, Gwang Lee, Len Tarivonda, Akira Kaneko, Charles Weitz, J. Koji Lum, Ralph M. Garruto
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo determine whether: (1) there is a secular increase in adult stature in Vanuatu, and (2) whether adult stature is positively associated with modernization in Vanuatu.MethodsThis study reports on stature measurements collected on 650 adult (age > 17 years) men and women from four islands of varying economic development in Vanuatu. Measurements were collected as part of the Vanuatu Health Transitions Research Project in 2007 and 2011.ResultsStature increased significantly in adults born between the 1940s and 1960s in Vanuatu, before leveling off in those born between the 1970s and 1990s. Adults are significantly taller on Efate, the most modernized island in the study sample, than on the less economically developed islands.ConclusionsModernization is likely associated with improvements in child growth in Vanuatu, as assessed by gains in adult stature.
      PubDate: 2017-04-14T05:00:23.507016-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23008
  • Lower face asymmetry as a marker for developmental instability
    • Authors: Philippe P. Hujoel; Erin E. Masterson, A-M Bollen
      Abstract: ObjectivesFluctuating asymmetries in the craniofacial skeleton have been shown to be predictive for mortality from degenerative diseases. We investigate whether lower face asymmetries are a potential marker for the developmental origins of health and disease.MethodsThe lower face of a representative sample of 6654 12- to 17-year old United States (US) adolescents (1966-1970, National Health Examination Survey III) was classified as asymmetric when the mandibular teeth occluded prognathically (forward) or retrognathically (backward) on one side of the face only. It was investigated whether these lower face asymmetries were directional (preferentially to the left or the right) or fluctuating (random left-right distribution) in the US population.ResultsLower face asymmetries affected 1 in 4 of the US adolescents. Unilateral retrognathic dental occlusions were fluctuating asymmetries, had a US prevalence of 17.0% (95% confidence interval: 15.5-18.4) and were associated with race/ethnicity (P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T05:36:16.206201-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23005
  • Change in postmenarche anthropometric indicators in indigenous and
           nonindigenous adolescents from Chile
    • Authors: Macarena Lara; Patricia Bustos, Hugo Amigo
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo analyze the change in anthropometric indicators between menarche and 36 months after menarche among indigenous and non-indigenous adolescents from the Araucanía Region of Chile.MethodThis was a concurrent cohort study. Of 8,504 girls interviewed, 114 indigenous adolescents and 123 nonindigenous adolescents who had recently experienced menarche were selected. Body mass index (BMI), BMI by age (BMI z-score), waist circumference (WC) and body fat percentage (BF%) were evaluated at menarche and 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months postmenarche. Linear models estimated with generalized estimating equations were used to quantify disparities adjusted for baseline anthropometric values, age at menarche, place of residence, and socioeconomic level.ResultsIndigenous girls presented menarche 4 months later than nonindigenous girls and had significantly higher BMI (1.5 kg/m2), BMI z-score (0.4), WC (2.9 cm), and BF% (1.7%) at menarche. Adjusted results did not show an association between being indigenous and post-menarche anthropometric variables: BMI = 0.1 kg/m2 (CI = −0.3; 0.5), BMI z-score = 0 (CI = −0.1; 0.1), WC = 0.7 cm (CI = −0.6; 2.0), and BF% = 0.5% (CI = −0.2; 1.3). It is important to mention that the mean BMI z-score of both groups were in the overweight category.ConclusionAt menarche, indigenous girls had higher values than nonindigenous girls for all anthropometric variables, and this trend remained after menarche, with no further change in ethnic disparity over the subsequent three years. This reinforces the need to implement interventions to prevent or control excess weight prior to menarche, with emphasis on indigenous girls.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T10:10:46.388123-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23006
  • What is significant about a single nursing session' An exploratory
    • Authors: Elizabeth M. Miller
      Abstract: ObjectivesResearchers and clinicians specializing in breastfeeding often rely on measuring one nursing session to characterize the breastfeeding relationship. However, less is known about the descriptive or statistically predictive characteristics of one nursing session. The purposes of this study are twofold: (1) to explore the relationships between variables in a single nursing session; and (2) to study the association between variables in a single nursing session and infant length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ).MethodsIn 63 nursing mother-infant pairs in the United States, anthropometric measurement and observation of a single nursing session revealed six nursing session variables: fore milk fat percent, hind milk fat percent, infant milk intake, duration of session, time since last session, and time of day of session.ResultsA principle factor analysis, undertaken to explore latent variables underlying the six session variables, revealed two factors: (1) loaded highly on fore and hind milk fat percentage, reflecting the overall fat percent in a feed; and (2) loaded highly on milk intake and hind milk fat percentage, indicating the process of breast emptying. In multivariate analyses of all session variables on infant LAZ and WAZ, only hind milk fat percentage was significantly negatively associated with LAZ (β = −0.14, P = .01 (two-tailed), R2 = 0.070), confirmed by a significant negative association between LAZ and factor one (β = −0.32, P = .05 (two-tailed), R2 = 0.090).ConclusionsThis research describes the dynamics of a single nursing session, and has the potential to help explain variation in infant growth and nutrition.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T10:10:35.246819-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23004
  • 2D:4D digit ratio is associated with cognitive decline but not frailty in
           community-dwelling older adults
    • Authors: Celina Gonçalves; Tiago Coelho, Sérgio Machado, Nuno Barbosa Rocha
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo understand the relation between 2D:4D ratio, frailty, and cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly people.MethodsA total of 175 community-dwelling elderly people were included. To determine frailty, participants completed the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) and the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-FI). Cognitive functioning was determined using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). 2D and 4D finger lengths of each hand were measured using a scanner. Barthel Index, Lawton, and Brody scale were also completed for each participant to determine the level of daily living functioning.ResultsWe did not find any correlations between 2D:4D ratio and frailty measures. We found a significant correlation between 2D:4D ratio and MMSE scores in the women sampled.ConclusionsWe cannot ascertain any contribution of prenatal exposure to androgens to the frailty status of community-dwelling elderly people. We found that reduced prenatal exposure to testosterone in women may contribute to the prevention of cognitive decline in elderly women.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T04:21:05.235588-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23003
  • The fat-but-fit paradigm within the context of cognitive function
    • Authors: Meghan K. Edwards; Paul D. Loprinzi
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo evaluate the association of the Fat-but-Fit paradigm with cognitive function in an older adult population.MethodsData from the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used (N = 2,336 adults 60–85 yrs). Physical activity was assessed via open-ended questions asking about participation in 48 leisure-time activities over the previous 30 days. Using Metabolic Equivalent of Task calculations for each activity, participants were classified as either active or inactive. Participants were then classified into one of six groups (Normal BMI and Inactive [referent], Overweight BMI and Inactive, Obese BMI and Inactive, Normal BMI and Active, Overweight BMI and Active, Obese BMI and Active), based on their activity status and body mass index (BMI). The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) was employed to assess cognitive function.ResultsCompared to those who had a normal BMI and were inactive (referent), those who had a normal BMI and were active had a 4-unit higher DSST score (β = 4.0; 95% CI: 1.0–6.9; P = 0.009); those with an overweight BMI and active had a 4.5-unit higher DSST score (β = 4.5; 95% CI: 1.3–7.6; P = 0.008); and those who had an obese BMI and active had a 3.7-unit higher DSST score (β = 3.7; 95% CI: 0.96–6.4; P = 0.01).ConclusionBeing active, regardless of weight classification (normal, overweight, or obese) was positively associated with cognitive function in this sample of older adults. This suggests that perhaps the best strategy to promote cognitive health in this population may be to encourage adequate levels of physical activity.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T04:21:01.997014-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23001
  • Heavier birth weight associated with taller height but not age at menarche
           in US women born 1991-1998
    • Authors: Megan Workman; Karina Kelly
      Abstract: ObjectivesHeavier birth weight predicts taller adult height, but it remains unknown the extent to which this additional height increment results from a faster average growth rate versus an extension of the growth period. Aiming to distinguish these effects, this study examined associations between birth weight (BW), age at menarche (an established proxy for growth duration), and near-adult height in a cohort of US young women born in the 1990s.MethodsMultiple regression evaluated age-adjusted height as an outcome of BW, age at menarche, indicators of family socioeconomic status, and other potential confounders in a sample of US teens who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2007 and 2012 (N = 342). Relevant interactions were also evaluated.ResultsMean ± SD was 11.9 ± 1.2 years and 3262 ± 592 g for age at menarche and BW, respectively. BW did not predict age at menarche (β = –.01, p = .838). Girls were 1.3 cm taller per year delay in menarche (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-26T14:00:27.102782-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22999
  • The second epidemiologic transition on the brink: What we can learn from
           the island of Newfoundland during the early 20th century
    • Authors: Dana M. Schmidt; Lisa Sattenspiel
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe aim to understand how the second epidemiologic transition unfolded on the island of Newfoundland during the early 20th century. The focus is on changes in predominant causes of mortality throughout this period, urban and rural differences, and comparisons with other Western nations. We explore factors driving these patterns including the economy, nutrition, sanitation, and access to healthcare and discuss their relevance to understanding epidemiologic transitions in other developing regions.MethodsWe examined official provincial death records (n = 65,394) and census materials from 1900 to 1939 for three rural districts (Burgeo-La Poile, Bonavista, and Twillingate) and the large city of St. John's. Life expectancies, infant mortality rates, survival curves, and proportionate mortality from communicable and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were calculated.ResultsIn all districts, old age mortality increased while infant and childhood mortality decreased, with corresponding increases in life expectancy. Proportionate mortality from communicable causes decreased while deaths from NCDs increased. These changes occurred earlier in urban St. John's than in outlying districts, suggesting rural–urban differences played a significant role in Newfoundland's second epidemiologic transition. However, the transition was significantly delayed relative to other Western nations.ConclusionsWe suggest that observed mortality patterns were the result of complex interactions between the poor economy, malnutrition, high prevalence of tuberculosis, and limited health and social services. These factors contribute to the delayed onset of the second epidemiologic transition in Newfoundland relative to other Western nations and the earlier onset in St. John's than in rural areas.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T06:36:11.156445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22997
  • Police work stressors and cardiac vagal control
    • Authors: Michael E. Andrew; John M. Violanti, Ja K. Gu, Desta Fekedulegn, Shengqiao Li, Tara A. Hartley, Luenda E. Charles, Anna Mnatsakanova, Diane B. Miller, Cecil M. Burchfiel
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study examines relationships between the frequency and intensity of police work stressors and cardiac vagal control, estimated using the high frequency component of heart rate variability (HRV).MethodsThis is a cross-sectional study of 360 officers from the Buffalo New York Police Department. Police stress was measured using the Spielberger police stress survey, which includes exposure indices created as the product of the self-evaluation of how stressful certain events were and the self-reported frequency with which they occurred. Vagal control was estimated using the high frequency component of resting HRV calculated in units of milliseconds squared and reported in natural log scale. Associations between police work stressors and vagal control were examined using linear regression for significance testing and analysis of covariance for descriptive purposes, stratified by gender, and adjusted for age and race/ethnicity.ResultsThere were no significant associations between police work stressor exposure indices and vagal control among men. Among women, the inverse associations between the lack of support stressor exposure and vagal control were statistically significant in adjusted models for indices of exposure over the past year (lowest stressor quartile: M = 5.57, 95% CI 5.07 to 6.08, and highest stressor quartile: M = 5.02, 95% CI 4.54 to 5.51, test of association from continuous linear regression of vagal control on lack of support stressor β = −0.273, P = .04).ConclusionsThis study supports an inverse association between lack of organizational support and vagal control among female but not male police officers.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T03:10:32.01394-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22996
  • Family history of cardiovascular disease and parental lifestyle behaviors
           are associated with offspring cardiovascular disease risk markers in
    • Authors: Danilo R. Silva; André O. Werneck, Paul J. Collings, Rômulo A. Fernandes, Décio S. Barbosa, Enio R. V. Ronque, Luís B. Sardinha, Edilson S. Cyrino
      Abstract: IntroductionCardiovascular disease risk markers have become more prevalent in childhood. To provide increased understanding of the etiology of this public health issue, we investigated associations between family characteristics with cardiovascular disease risk markers in adolescents from a developing nation.MethodsIn this cross-sectional study data for fasting glucose, lipoproteins (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglycerides, and total cholesterol were collected from 991 adolescents aged 10–17 who were recruited from public schools in Londrina city, Southern Brazil. Family history of cardiovascular disease and parental engagement in risk behavior (alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking) were collected using a self-reported parental questionnaire. Socioeconomic status, adolescent physical activity (estimated by Baecke questionnaire), self-reported tobacco and alcohol intake, and somatic maturation (age at peak height velocity) were used as covariates. Logistic regression was used for the main analyses.ResultsIndependent of adolescent lifestyle behaviors, associations (ORadj [95% CI]) were found between: (1) paternal family history of cardiovascular disease with increased likelihood of high adolescent offspring BMI (1.53 [1.01 to 2.32]) and high triglycerides (2.93 [1.04 to 8.27]); (2) maternal family history of cardiovascular disease with heightened odds of high adolescent offspring triglycerides (2.84 [1.02 to 7.91]); (3) maternal cardiovascular disease with higher odds of high fasting glucose (2.16 [1.13 to 4.14]), and (4) maternal smoking with increased odds of high LDL-C (1.78 [1.14 to 2.79]) and high total cholesterol (1.77 [1.01 to 3.10]) in adolescent offspring.ConclusionFamily history of cardiovascular disease and maternal tobacco smoking are related to increased cardiovascular risk in adolescents, potentially independent of their own lifestyle behaviors.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T12:05:28.607768-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22995
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