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Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 233)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover American Journal of Human Biology
  [SJR: 1.018]   [H-I: 58]   [12 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1042-0533 - ISSN (Online) 1520-6300
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1583 journals]
  • American Journal Of Human Biology, Volume 29, Issue 3, May/June 2017
    • PubDate: 2017-05-15T09:26:46.119458-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22912
  • Association between T102C 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphism and 5-year
           mortality risk among Brazilian Amazon riparian elderly population
    • Authors: Tális O. Silva; Ivo Jung, Alexis Trott, Cláudia G. Bica, Jeferson N. Casarin, Paola C. Fortuna, Euler E. Ribeiro, Fernanda D. de Assis, Guilherme C. Figueira, Fernanda Barbisan, Maria Fernanda Manica-Cattani, Beatriz S. R. Bonadiman, Lucien J. Houenou, Pedro Antônio S. do Prado-Lima, Ivana B. M. da Cruz
      Abstract: ObjectiveSerotonin (5-HT) is a pleiotropic molecule that exerts several functions on brain and peripheral tissues via different receptors. The gene for the 5-HT2A receptor shows some variations, including a T102C polymorphism, that have been associated with increased risk of neuropsychiatric and vascular disorders. However, the potential impact of 5-HT2A imbalance caused by genetic variations on the human lifespan has not yet been established.MethodsWe performed a prospective study involving an Amazon riparian elderly free-living population in Maués City, Brazil, with a 5-year follow-up. Out of a cohort of 637 subjects selected in July, 2009, we genotyped 471 individuals, including 209 males (44.4%) and 262 females (55.6%), all averaging 72.3 ± 7.8 years of age (ranging from 60 to 100 years).ResultsThe T102C-SNP genotypic frequencies were 14.0% TT, 28.0% CC, and 58.0% CT. From 80 elderly individuals who died during the period investigated, we observed significantly (P = .005) higher numbers of TT carriers (27.3%) and CC carriers (21.2%), compared to heterozygous CT carriers (12.5%). Cox-regression analysis showed that association between the T102C-SNP and elderly survival was independent of age, sex, and other health variables.ConclusionsOur findings strongly suggest that imbalance in 5-HT2A may cause significant disturbances that lead to an increased susceptibility to death for individuals who are over 60 years of age.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T05:35:46.591075-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23016
  • An assessment of postcranial indices, ratios, and body mass versus
           eco-geographical variables of prehistoric Jomon, Yayoi agriculturalists,
           and Kumejima Islanders of Japan
    • Authors: Noriko Seguchi; Conrad B. Quintyn, Shiori Yonemoto, Hirofumi Takamuku
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe explore variations in body and limb proportions of the Jomon hunter-gatherers (14,000–2500 BP), the Yayoi agriculturalists (2500–1700 BP) of Japan, and the Kumejima Islanders of the Ryukyus (1600–1800 AD) with 11 geographically diverse skeletal postcranial samples from Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, and North America using brachial-crural indices, femur head-breadth-to-femur length ratio, femur head-breadth-to-lower-limb-length ratio, and body mass as indicators of phenotypic climatic adaptation. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that variation in limb proportions seen in Jomon, Yayoi, and Kumejima is a complex interaction of genetic adaptation; development and allometric constraints; selection, gene flow and genetic drift with changing cultural factors (i.e., nutrition) and climate.MethodsThe skeletal data (1127 individuals) were subjected to principle components analysis, Manly's permutation multiple regression tests, and Relethford-Blangero analysis.ResultsThe results of Manly's tests indicate that body proportions and body mass are significantly correlated with latitude, and minimum and maximum temperatures while limb proportions were not significantly correlated with these climatic variables. Principal components plots separated “climatic zones:” tropical, temperate, and arctic populations. The indigenous Jomon showed cold-adapted body proportions and warm-adapted limb proportions. Kumejima showed cold-adapted body proportions and limbs. The Yayoi adhered to the Allen-Bergmann expectation of cold-adapted body and limb proportions. Relethford-Blangero analysis showed that Kumejima experienced gene flow indicated by high observed variances while Jomon experienced genetic drift indicated by low observed variances.ConclusionsThe complex interaction of evolutionary forces and development/nutritional constraints are implicated in the mismatch of limb and body proportions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T05:35:44.261339-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23015
  • Feminization of the fat distribution pattern of children and adolescents
           in a recent German population
    • Authors: Christiane Scheffler; Melanie Dammhahn
      Abstract: ObjectivesDuring the early 1990s, the economic and political situation in eastern Germany changed overnight. Here, we use the rare chance of an experiment-like setting in humans and aim to test whether the rapid change of environmental conditions in eastern Germany in the 1990s led to a change in the sex-specific fat distribution pattern, an endocrine-influenced phenotypic marker.MethodsBased on a cross-sectional data set of 6- to 18-year-old girls and boys measured between 1982–1991 and 1997–2012, we calculated a skinfold ratio of triceps to subscapular and percentage of body fat. Using linear regressions, we tested for differences in percentage of body fat and skinfold ratio between these two time periods.ResultsWe found that the percentage of body fat increased in boys and girls, and they accumulated relatively more fat on extremities than on the trunk in all BMI groups measured after 1997 as compared to those measured between 1982 and 1991.ConclusionsConcurrent with drastic and rapid changes of environmental conditions, the body fat distribution of children and adolescents changed to a more feminized pattern during the early 1990s in an East German population. The changes in this endocrinologically mediated pattern might be associated with the increased exposure of individuals to endocrine-disrupting chemicals which are known to influence the endocrine, reproductive, and immune systems in animals and humans.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T05:35:30.315177-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23017
  • Body fat attenuates muscle mass catabolism among physically active humans
           in temperate and cold high altitude environments
    • Authors: Cara J. Ocobock
      Abstract: ObjectiveTypical diet plans are based on an individual's body mass; however, body composition may be important to consider when an individual is in a negative energy balance. This study examines if high initial body fat and dietary macronutrient content reduce muscle mass catabolism during excursions in temperate and cold high altitude environments.MethodsSubjects—53 healthy, un-acclimated volunteers (37 males and 16 females)—took part in 12-16 week-long outdoor education courses in moderately high altitude temperate and cold climates in the western United States. Body mass, body fat percentage, fat mass, and muscle mass were measured before and after each excursion. Total energy expenditure and dietary intake were also measured.ResultsIn temperate and cold environments, both sexes lost significant amounts of body mass. In temperate climates both sexes lost a significant amount of fat mass, but not muscle mass. In cold climates, there was no significant change in fat mass for either sex; however, females gained muscle mass while males lost muscle mass. In both climates subjects with lower initial body fat percentages lost significantly more muscle mass than subjects with higher initial body fat percentages. There was no significant relationship between macronutrient intake and muscle mass loss for either sex.ConclusionThese results suggests that during a negative energy balance dietary macronutrient content cannot abate the loss of muscle mass, but body fat may have a protective effect. This information should be used to improve individualized diets based on body composition, not body mass.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03T07:15:43.217568-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23013
  • Body frame size in school children is related to the amount of adipose
           tissue in different depots but not to adipose distribution
    • Authors: Francisco J. Guzmán-de la Garza; Alejandra E. González Ayala, Marisol Gómez Nava, Leislie I. Martínez Monsiváis, Ana M. Salinas Martínez, Erik Ramírez López, Alvaro Mathiew Quirós, Francisco Garcia Quintanilla
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that body frame size is related to the amount of fat in different adipose tissue depots and to fat distribution in schoolchildren.MethodsChildren aged between 5 and 10 years were included in this cross-sectional study (n = 565). Body frame size, adiposity markers (anthropometric, skinfolds thickness, and ultrasound measures), and fat distribution indices were analyzed. Correlation coefficients adjusted by reliability were estimated and analyzed by sex; the significance of the difference between two correlation coefficients was assessed using the Fisher z-transformation.ResultsThe sample included primarily urban children; 58.6% were normal weight, 16.1% overweight, 19.6% obese, and the rest were underweight. Markers of subcutaneous adiposity, fat mass and fat-free mass, and preperitoneal adiposity showed higher and significant correlations with the sum of the biacromial + bitrochanteric diameter than with the elbow diameter, regardless of sex. The fat distribution conicity index presented significant but weak correlations; and visceral adipose tissue, hepatic steatosis, and the waist-for-hip ratio were not significantly correlated with body frame size measures.ConclusionsBody frame size in school children was related to the amount of adipose tissue in different depots, but not adipose distribution. More studies are needed to confirm this relationship and its importance to predict changes in visceral fat deposition during growth.
      PubDate: 2017-04-28T23:54:47.899064-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23014
  • Identifying signatures of positive selection in pigmentation genes in two
           South Asian populations
    • Authors: Manjari Jonnalagadda; Neeraj Bharti, Yatish Patil, Shantanu Ozarkar, Sunitha Manjari K, Rajendra Joshi, Heather Norton
      Abstract: ObjectivesSkin pigmentation is a polygenic trait showing wide phenotypic variations among global populations. While numerous pigmentation genes have been identified to be under positive selection among European and East populations, genes contributing to phenotypic variation in skin pigmentation within and among South Asian populations are still poorly understood. The present study uses data from the Phase 3 of the 1000 genomes project focusing on two South Asian populations—GIH (Gujarati Indian from Houston, Texas) and ITU (Indian Telugu from UK), so as to decode the genetic architecture involved in adaptation to ultraviolet radiation in South Asian populations.MethodsStatistical tests included were (1) tests to identify deviations of the Site Frequency Spectrum (SFS) from neutral expectations (Tajima's D, Fay and Wu's H and Fu and Li's D* and F*), (2) tests focused on the identification of high-frequency haplotypes with extended linkage disequilibrium (iHS and Rsb), and (3) tests based on genetic differentiation between populations (LSBL).ResultsTwenty-two pigmentation genes fall in the top 1% for at least one statistic in the GIH population, 5 of which (LYST, OCA2, SLC24A5, SLC45A2, and TYR) have been previously associated with normal variation in skin, hair, or eye color. In comparison, 17 genes fall in the top 1% for at least one statistic in the ITU population. Twelve loci which are identified as outliers in the ITU scan were also identified in the GIH population.ConclusionsThese results suggest that selection may have affected these loci broadly across the region.
      PubDate: 2017-04-24T23:51:51.691791-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23012
  • VDR gene methylation as a molecular adaption to light exposure: Historic,
           recent and genetic influences
    • Authors: Emma L Beckett; Patrice Jones, Martin Veysey, Konsta Duesing, Charlotte Martin, John Furst, Zoe Yates, Nina G. Jablonski, George Chaplin, Mark Lucock
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. We examined whether degree of VDR gene methylation acts as a molecular adaptation to light exposure. We explored this in the context of photoperiod at conception, recent UV irradiance at 305 nm, and gene-latitude effects.MethodsEighty subjects were examined for VDR gene-CpG island methylation density. VDR gene variants were also examined by PCR-RFLP.ResultsPhotoperiod at conception was significantly positively related to VDR methylation density, explaining 17% of the variance in methylation (r2 = 0.17; P = .001). Within this model, photoperiod at conception and plasma 25(OH)D independently predicted methylation density at the VDR-CpG island. Recent UV exposure at 305 nm led to a fivefold increase in mean methylation density (P = .02). Again, UV exposure and plasma 25(OH)D independently predicted methylation density at the VDR-CpG island. In the presence of the BsmI mutant allele, methylation density was increased (P = .01), and in the presence of the TaqI or FokI mutant allele, methylation density was decreased (P = .007 and .04 respectively). Multivariate modelling suggests plasma 25(OH)D, photoperiod at conception, recent solar irradiance, and VDR genotype combine as independent predictors of methylation at the VDR-CpG island, explaining 34% of the variance in methylation (R2 = 0.34, P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-22T01:35:39.160799-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23010
  • Conditional random slope: A new approach for estimating individual child
           growth velocity in epidemiological research
    • Authors: Michael Leung; Diego G. Bassani, Amy Racine-Poon, Anna Goldenberg, Syed Asad Ali, Gagandeep Kang, Prasanna S. Premkumar, Daniel E. Roth
      Abstract: ObjectivesConditioning child growth measures on baseline accounts for regression to the mean (RTM). Here, we present the “conditional random slope” (CRS) model, based on a linear-mixed effects model that incorporates a baseline-time interaction term that can accommodate multiple data points for a child while also directly accounting for RTM.MethodsIn two birth cohorts, we applied five approaches to estimate child growth velocities from 0 to 12 months to assess the effect of increasing data density (number of measures per child) on the magnitude of RTM of unconditional estimates, and the correlation and concordance between the CRS and four alternative metrics. Further, we demonstrated the differential effect of the choice of velocity metric on the magnitude of the association between infant growth and stunting at 2 years.ResultsRTM was minimally attenuated by increasing data density for unconditional growth modeling approaches. CRS and classical conditional models gave nearly identical estimates with two measures per child. Compared to the CRS estimates, unconditional metrics had moderate correlation (r = 0.65–0.91), but poor agreement in the classification of infants with relatively slow growth (kappa = 0.38–0.78). Estimates of the velocity-stunting association were the same for CRS and classical conditional models but differed substantially between conditional versus unconditional metrics.ConclusionThe CRS can leverage the flexibility of linear mixed models while addressing RTM in longitudinal analyses.
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T00:22:04.303837-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23009
  • Maternal metabolic adaptations to pregnancy among young women in Cebu,
    • Authors: Ruby L. Fried; Nanette L. Mayol, Thom W. McDade, Christopher W. Kuzawa
      Abstract: ObjectivesEvidence that fetal development has long-term impacts on health has increased interest in maternal-fetal nutrient exchange. Although maternal metabolism is known to change during gestation to accommodate fetal nutrient demands, little is known about these modifications outside of a Western, clinical context. This study characterizes maternal metabolic adaptations to pregnancy, and their associations with offspring birth weight (BW), among women living in the Philippines.MethodsFasting glucose, triglycerides, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin were assessed in 808 participants in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines). Cross-sectional relationships between metabolites and hormones and gestational and lactational status were evaluated. Among the subset of currently pregnant women, associations between maternal glucose and triglycerides and offspring BW were also examined.ResultsWomen in their second and third trimesters had significantly lower fasting glucose and adiponectin compared to nulliparous women, and leptin levels and triglyceride levels were notably higher late in pregnancy (all P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-21T00:17:47.24787-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23011
  • Secular change in adult stature associated with modernization in Vanuatu
    • Authors: Kathryn M. Olszowy; Cheng Sun, Harold Silverman, Alysa Pomer, Kelsey N. Dancause, Chim W. Chan, Gwang Lee, Len Tarivonda, Akira Kaneko, Charles Weitz, J. Koji Lum, Ralph M. Garruto
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo determine whether: (1) there is a secular increase in adult stature in Vanuatu, and (2) whether adult stature is positively associated with modernization in Vanuatu.MethodsThis study reports on stature measurements collected on 650 adult (age > 17 years) men and women from four islands of varying economic development in Vanuatu. Measurements were collected as part of the Vanuatu Health Transitions Research Project in 2007 and 2011.ResultsStature increased significantly in adults born between the 1940s and 1960s in Vanuatu, before leveling off in those born between the 1970s and 1990s. Adults are significantly taller on Efate, the most modernized island in the study sample, than on the less economically developed islands.ConclusionsModernization is likely associated with improvements in child growth in Vanuatu, as assessed by gains in adult stature.
      PubDate: 2017-04-14T05:00:23.507016-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23008
  • Bioarchaeological profile of stress and dental disease among ancient high
           altitude Himalayan communities of Nepal
    • Authors: Jacqueline T. Eng; Mark Aldenderfer
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study examines biological indicators of dental disease and nonspecific stress in human remains of three high altitude Himalayan archaeological sites to test whether shared ecological constraints led to similar bioarchaeological profiles in these markers.MethodsSamples (n = 170) derive from three sites in Nepal dating to two periods (400–50 BCE and c. 400–650 CE). Dental diseases (caries, antemortem tooth loss, and abscesses) were assessed by both the number of individuals and the number of elements observed, while childhood stress markers included observation of growth disruptions (enamel hypoplasia and adult femur length/stature) and cranial porosities. Statistical analysis included chi-square and Fisher's exact tests for categorical data and ANOVA and t-tests for metric data.ResultsThere are significant differences between the sites and sexes in frequencies of dental diseases in the adult samples. There are low frequencies of childhood stress markers overall and the femur length data show no significant differences across sites, but significant sexual dimorphism within each site. Females have reduced stature compared to contemporary Tibetan samples residing at a similar elevation.ConclusionsVariations in dental disease frequencies between the sites may be due to local variations in microenvironment, cultural, and/or temporal differences in resource availability, food consumption and preparation, as well as the age structure of the samples. The low frequencies of markers for nonspecific stress may be indicative of the ability of these ancient Himalayan groups to successfully meet the challenges posed by the extreme conditions of high altitude living through biocultural adaptations.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T10:46:00.986969-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22998
  • Lower face asymmetry as a marker for developmental instability
    • Authors: Philippe P. Hujoel; Erin E. Masterson, A-M Bollen
      Abstract: ObjectivesFluctuating asymmetries in the craniofacial skeleton have been shown to be predictive for mortality from degenerative diseases. We investigate whether lower face asymmetries are a potential marker for the developmental origins of health and disease.MethodsThe lower face of a representative sample of 6654 12- to 17-year old United States (US) adolescents (1966-1970, National Health Examination Survey III) was classified as asymmetric when the mandibular teeth occluded prognathically (forward) or retrognathically (backward) on one side of the face only. It was investigated whether these lower face asymmetries were directional (preferentially to the left or the right) or fluctuating (random left-right distribution) in the US population.ResultsLower face asymmetries affected 1 in 4 of the US adolescents. Unilateral retrognathic dental occlusions were fluctuating asymmetries, had a US prevalence of 17.0% (95% confidence interval: 15.5-18.4) and were associated with race/ethnicity (P 
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T05:36:16.206201-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23005
           Beedle, Tatjana Buklijas, Felicia Low, Mark Hanson Univesity of Oxford
           Press, Oxford, 2016, 400 pp, $50.95 (Paperback), $47.19
           AND PRACTICE Edited by Alenandra Alvergne, Crispin Jenkinson, Charlotte
           Faurie Springer International Publishing, 2016, 382 pp, $54.61
           (Hardcover), $41.54 (e-book)
    • Authors: Cynthia Beall
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T05:35:30.953164-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22994
  • MILK: THE BIOLOGY OF LACTATION Michael L. Power, Jay Schulkin Baltimore,
           MD: John Hopkins University Press. 2016. 285 pp. $70.00 (Cloth), $70.00
    • Authors: E.A. Quinn
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T04:44:50.442757-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23007
  • Change in postmenarche anthropometric indicators in indigenous and
           nonindigenous adolescents from Chile
    • Authors: Macarena Lara; Patricia Bustos, Hugo Amigo
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo analyze the change in anthropometric indicators between menarche and 36 months after menarche among indigenous and non-indigenous adolescents from the Araucanía Region of Chile.MethodThis was a concurrent cohort study. Of 8,504 girls interviewed, 114 indigenous adolescents and 123 nonindigenous adolescents who had recently experienced menarche were selected. Body mass index (BMI), BMI by age (BMI z-score), waist circumference (WC) and body fat percentage (BF%) were evaluated at menarche and 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months postmenarche. Linear models estimated with generalized estimating equations were used to quantify disparities adjusted for baseline anthropometric values, age at menarche, place of residence, and socioeconomic level.ResultsIndigenous girls presented menarche 4 months later than nonindigenous girls and had significantly higher BMI (1.5 kg/m2), BMI z-score (0.4), WC (2.9 cm), and BF% (1.7%) at menarche. Adjusted results did not show an association between being indigenous and post-menarche anthropometric variables: BMI = 0.1 kg/m2 (CI = −0.3; 0.5), BMI z-score = 0 (CI = −0.1; 0.1), WC = 0.7 cm (CI = −0.6; 2.0), and BF% = 0.5% (CI = −0.2; 1.3). It is important to mention that the mean BMI z-score of both groups were in the overweight category.ConclusionAt menarche, indigenous girls had higher values than nonindigenous girls for all anthropometric variables, and this trend remained after menarche, with no further change in ethnic disparity over the subsequent three years. This reinforces the need to implement interventions to prevent or control excess weight prior to menarche, with emphasis on indigenous girls.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T10:10:46.388123-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23006
  • What is significant about a single nursing session' An exploratory
    • Authors: Elizabeth M. Miller
      Abstract: ObjectivesResearchers and clinicians specializing in breastfeeding often rely on measuring one nursing session to characterize the breastfeeding relationship. However, less is known about the descriptive or statistically predictive characteristics of one nursing session. The purposes of this study are twofold: (1) to explore the relationships between variables in a single nursing session; and (2) to study the association between variables in a single nursing session and infant length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ).MethodsIn 63 nursing mother-infant pairs in the United States, anthropometric measurement and observation of a single nursing session revealed six nursing session variables: fore milk fat percent, hind milk fat percent, infant milk intake, duration of session, time since last session, and time of day of session.ResultsA principle factor analysis, undertaken to explore latent variables underlying the six session variables, revealed two factors: (1) loaded highly on fore and hind milk fat percentage, reflecting the overall fat percent in a feed; and (2) loaded highly on milk intake and hind milk fat percentage, indicating the process of breast emptying. In multivariate analyses of all session variables on infant LAZ and WAZ, only hind milk fat percentage was significantly negatively associated with LAZ (β = −0.14, P = .01 (two-tailed), R2 = 0.070), confirmed by a significant negative association between LAZ and factor one (β = −0.32, P = .05 (two-tailed), R2 = 0.090).ConclusionsThis research describes the dynamics of a single nursing session, and has the potential to help explain variation in infant growth and nutrition.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T10:10:35.246819-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23004
  • The ecology of population dispersal: Modeling alternative basin-plateau
           foraging strategies to explain the Numic expansion
    • Authors: Kate E. Magargal; Ashley K. Parker, Kenneth Blake Vernon, Will Rath, Brian F. Codding
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe expansion of Numic speaking populations into the Great Basin required individuals to adapt to a relatively unproductive landscape. Researchers have proposed numerous social and subsistence strategies to explain how and why these settlers were able to replace any established populations, including private property and intensive plant processing. Here we evaluate these hypotheses and propose a new strategy involving the use of landscape fire to increase resource encounter rates.MethodsImplementing a novel, spatially explicit, multi-scalar prey choice model, we examine how individual decisions approximating each alternative strategy (private property, anthropogenic fire, and intensive plant processing) would aggregate at the patch and band level to confer an overall benefit to this colonizing population. Analysis relies on experimental data reporting resource profitability and abundance, ecological data on the historic distribution of vegetation patches, and ethnohistoric data on the distribution of Numic bands.ResultsModel results show that while resource privatization and landscape fires produce a substantial advantage, intensified plant processing garners the greatest benefit. The relative benefits of alternative strategies vary significantly across ecological patches resulting in variation across ethnographic band ranges. Combined, a Numic strategy including all three alternatives would substantially increase subsistence yields.ConclusionsThe application of a strategy set that includes landscape fire, privatization and intensified processing of seeds and nuts, explains why the Numa were able to outcompete local populations. This approach provides a framework to help explain how individual decisions can result in such population replacement events throughout human history.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T03:56:12.10212-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23000
  • A call for action: Why anthropologists can (and should) join the
           discussion on climate change through education
    • Authors: Lauren N. Butaric; Lydia E. O. Light, Sara L. Juengst
      Abstract: Anthropologists, human biologists, and researchers in related fields have been investigating the human-environment interaction and its effects on health for decades. While there have been numerous studies from the medical- and health-sectors pointing to the connection between climate change and health needs, as well as studies advocating for the incorporation of appropriate curricula addressing these needs in medical schools and health-professional programs, this connection is not being systematically taught to our future healthcare professionals. Here, we first briefly summarize research highlighting the interaction between environment and health; we follow this with discussion about why this interaction is important for current and future medical professionals to understand, particularly in light of the current issues of climate change. We specifically address how anthropologists and human biologists have contributed to the literature on marginal environments and climate change, and how anthropological research may be incorporated in health-oriented and medical classrooms to aid in this discussion. Through interdisciplinary collaboration between anthropologists, human biologists, medical-health professionals, and researchers in other fields, we can learn from our past and play a part in piecing together our future health care issues and needs.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T04:00:22.971581-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23002
  • 2D:4D digit ratio is associated with cognitive decline but not frailty in
           community-dwelling older adults
    • Authors: Celina Gonçalves; Tiago Coelho, Sérgio Machado, Nuno Barbosa Rocha
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo understand the relation between 2D:4D ratio, frailty, and cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly people.MethodsA total of 175 community-dwelling elderly people were included. To determine frailty, participants completed the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) and the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-FI). Cognitive functioning was determined using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). 2D and 4D finger lengths of each hand were measured using a scanner. Barthel Index, Lawton, and Brody scale were also completed for each participant to determine the level of daily living functioning.ResultsWe did not find any correlations between 2D:4D ratio and frailty measures. We found a significant correlation between 2D:4D ratio and MMSE scores in the women sampled.ConclusionsWe cannot ascertain any contribution of prenatal exposure to androgens to the frailty status of community-dwelling elderly people. We found that reduced prenatal exposure to testosterone in women may contribute to the prevention of cognitive decline in elderly women.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T04:21:05.235588-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23003
  • The fat-but-fit paradigm within the context of cognitive function
    • Authors: Meghan K. Edwards; Paul D. Loprinzi
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo evaluate the association of the Fat-but-Fit paradigm with cognitive function in an older adult population.MethodsData from the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used (N = 2,336 adults 60–85 yrs). Physical activity was assessed via open-ended questions asking about participation in 48 leisure-time activities over the previous 30 days. Using Metabolic Equivalent of Task calculations for each activity, participants were classified as either active or inactive. Participants were then classified into one of six groups (Normal BMI and Inactive [referent], Overweight BMI and Inactive, Obese BMI and Inactive, Normal BMI and Active, Overweight BMI and Active, Obese BMI and Active), based on their activity status and body mass index (BMI). The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) was employed to assess cognitive function.ResultsCompared to those who had a normal BMI and were inactive (referent), those who had a normal BMI and were active had a 4-unit higher DSST score (β = 4.0; 95% CI: 1.0–6.9; P = 0.009); those with an overweight BMI and active had a 4.5-unit higher DSST score (β = 4.5; 95% CI: 1.3–7.6; P = 0.008); and those who had an obese BMI and active had a 3.7-unit higher DSST score (β = 3.7; 95% CI: 0.96–6.4; P = 0.01).ConclusionBeing active, regardless of weight classification (normal, overweight, or obese) was positively associated with cognitive function in this sample of older adults. This suggests that perhaps the best strategy to promote cognitive health in this population may be to encourage adequate levels of physical activity.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T04:21:01.997014-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23001
  • Heavier birth weight associated with taller height but not age at menarche
           in US women born 1991-1998
    • Authors: Megan Workman; Karina Kelly
      Abstract: ObjectivesHeavier birth weight predicts taller adult height, but it remains unknown the extent to which this additional height increment results from a faster average growth rate versus an extension of the growth period. Aiming to distinguish these effects, this study examined associations between birth weight (BW), age at menarche (an established proxy for growth duration), and near-adult height in a cohort of US young women born in the 1990s.MethodsMultiple regression evaluated age-adjusted height as an outcome of BW, age at menarche, indicators of family socioeconomic status, and other potential confounders in a sample of US teens who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2007 and 2012 (N = 342). Relevant interactions were also evaluated.ResultsMean ± SD was 11.9 ± 1.2 years and 3262 ± 592 g for age at menarche and BW, respectively. BW did not predict age at menarche (β = –.01, p = .838). Girls were 1.3 cm taller per year delay in menarche (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-26T14:00:27.102782-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22999
  • The second epidemiologic transition on the brink: What we can learn from
           the island of Newfoundland during the early 20th century
    • Authors: Dana M. Schmidt; Lisa Sattenspiel
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe aim to understand how the second epidemiologic transition unfolded on the island of Newfoundland during the early 20th century. The focus is on changes in predominant causes of mortality throughout this period, urban and rural differences, and comparisons with other Western nations. We explore factors driving these patterns including the economy, nutrition, sanitation, and access to healthcare and discuss their relevance to understanding epidemiologic transitions in other developing regions.MethodsWe examined official provincial death records (n = 65,394) and census materials from 1900 to 1939 for three rural districts (Burgeo-La Poile, Bonavista, and Twillingate) and the large city of St. John's. Life expectancies, infant mortality rates, survival curves, and proportionate mortality from communicable and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were calculated.ResultsIn all districts, old age mortality increased while infant and childhood mortality decreased, with corresponding increases in life expectancy. Proportionate mortality from communicable causes decreased while deaths from NCDs increased. These changes occurred earlier in urban St. John's than in outlying districts, suggesting rural–urban differences played a significant role in Newfoundland's second epidemiologic transition. However, the transition was significantly delayed relative to other Western nations.ConclusionsWe suggest that observed mortality patterns were the result of complex interactions between the poor economy, malnutrition, high prevalence of tuberculosis, and limited health and social services. These factors contribute to the delayed onset of the second epidemiologic transition in Newfoundland relative to other Western nations and the earlier onset in St. John's than in rural areas.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T06:36:11.156445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22997
  • Police work stressors and cardiac vagal control
    • Authors: Michael E. Andrew; John M. Violanti, Ja K. Gu, Desta Fekedulegn, Shengqiao Li, Tara A. Hartley, Luenda E. Charles, Anna Mnatsakanova, Diane B. Miller, Cecil M. Burchfiel
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study examines relationships between the frequency and intensity of police work stressors and cardiac vagal control, estimated using the high frequency component of heart rate variability (HRV).MethodsThis is a cross-sectional study of 360 officers from the Buffalo New York Police Department. Police stress was measured using the Spielberger police stress survey, which includes exposure indices created as the product of the self-evaluation of how stressful certain events were and the self-reported frequency with which they occurred. Vagal control was estimated using the high frequency component of resting HRV calculated in units of milliseconds squared and reported in natural log scale. Associations between police work stressors and vagal control were examined using linear regression for significance testing and analysis of covariance for descriptive purposes, stratified by gender, and adjusted for age and race/ethnicity.ResultsThere were no significant associations between police work stressor exposure indices and vagal control among men. Among women, the inverse associations between the lack of support stressor exposure and vagal control were statistically significant in adjusted models for indices of exposure over the past year (lowest stressor quartile: M = 5.57, 95% CI 5.07 to 6.08, and highest stressor quartile: M = 5.02, 95% CI 4.54 to 5.51, test of association from continuous linear regression of vagal control on lack of support stressor β = −0.273, P = .04).ConclusionsThis study supports an inverse association between lack of organizational support and vagal control among female but not male police officers.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T03:10:32.01394-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22996
  • Family history of cardiovascular disease and parental lifestyle behaviors
           are associated with offspring cardiovascular disease risk markers in
    • Authors: Danilo R. Silva; André O. Werneck, Paul J. Collings, Rômulo A. Fernandes, Décio S. Barbosa, Enio R. V. Ronque, Luís B. Sardinha, Edilson S. Cyrino
      Abstract: IntroductionCardiovascular disease risk markers have become more prevalent in childhood. To provide increased understanding of the etiology of this public health issue, we investigated associations between family characteristics with cardiovascular disease risk markers in adolescents from a developing nation.MethodsIn this cross-sectional study data for fasting glucose, lipoproteins (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglycerides, and total cholesterol were collected from 991 adolescents aged 10–17 who were recruited from public schools in Londrina city, Southern Brazil. Family history of cardiovascular disease and parental engagement in risk behavior (alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking) were collected using a self-reported parental questionnaire. Socioeconomic status, adolescent physical activity (estimated by Baecke questionnaire), self-reported tobacco and alcohol intake, and somatic maturation (age at peak height velocity) were used as covariates. Logistic regression was used for the main analyses.ResultsIndependent of adolescent lifestyle behaviors, associations (ORadj [95% CI]) were found between: (1) paternal family history of cardiovascular disease with increased likelihood of high adolescent offspring BMI (1.53 [1.01 to 2.32]) and high triglycerides (2.93 [1.04 to 8.27]); (2) maternal family history of cardiovascular disease with heightened odds of high adolescent offspring triglycerides (2.84 [1.02 to 7.91]); (3) maternal cardiovascular disease with higher odds of high fasting glucose (2.16 [1.13 to 4.14]), and (4) maternal smoking with increased odds of high LDL-C (1.78 [1.14 to 2.79]) and high total cholesterol (1.77 [1.01 to 3.10]) in adolescent offspring.ConclusionFamily history of cardiovascular disease and maternal tobacco smoking are related to increased cardiovascular risk in adolescents, potentially independent of their own lifestyle behaviors.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T12:05:28.607768-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22995
  • How much impact do gains in height have on shoulder breadths within
           Taiwanese families'
    • Authors: Bruce Floyd
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study investigates allometric changes in shoulder breadths relative to changes in stature arising from rapidly changing developmental circumstances within 107 Taiwanese families. It speaks to broader issues related to the extent of phenotypic plasticity of body breadths humans are capable of in response to reductions in developmental stressors.MethodsAn examination of relationships between shoulder breadth and height within individuals in each generation was followed by evaluation of patterns of difference between same-sex parent–offspring pairs in height and shoulder breadth.ResultsHeight was similarly positively correlated with shoulder breadth within fathers, mothers, sons, and daughters (P ≤ 0.002). Variance accounted for ranged from an adjusted R2 of 0.201 among fathers to 0.151 for sons, with mothers' and daughters' values being 0.187 and 0.181, respectively. Comparisons of differences within families indicate that parents who were shorter than their same-sex offspring also tended to have modestly narrower biacromial breadths (father–son pairs: adjusted R2 = 0.112; t = 2.82, P = .007; mother–daughter pairs: adjusted R2 = 0.135; t = 2.97, P = 0.005).ConclusionsTaken as a whole, results here support the view that secular changes in stature are not accompanied by similar changes in body breadths, perhaps so that responses to developmental environmental improvements do not alter thermoregulatory equilibria that reflect long-term evolutionary processes. These results indirectly constrain plausible hypotheses about how ancestors of Austronesian speakers altered their body size and shape as they voyaged to Fiji, Western Polynesia, and beyond.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T04:31:09.343071-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22991
  • Pubertal testis volume, age at pubertal onset, and adolescent blood
           pressure: Evidence from Hong Kong's “Children of 1997” birth cohort
    • Authors: Man Ki Kwok; Gabriel M. Leung, C. Mary Schooling
      Abstract: ObjectivesA warning from Health Canada suggests that testosterone increases blood pressure (BP). No evidence from large randomized controlled trials is available, and observational studies are confounded by ill-health lowering serum testosterone. To address the evidence gap, we assessed the association of pubertal testicular volume, as a reflection of testosterone production, with BP.MethodsWe examined whether testicular volume was associated with sex-, age-, and height-standardized BP z-score at ∼13 years in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort (n = 5195, 63% follow-up). We used age at pubertal onset, determined as the earliest age when Tanner stage II for genitalia, breast, or pubic hair, or testicular volume of 4 mL occurred, as control exposures. These exposures were expected to produce findings different from testicular volume because they are not direct measures of testosterone. They were used to ascertain specificity of exposure and to detect residual confounding.ResultsGreater testicular volume was associated with higher systolic BP by 0.03 z-score, which is equivalent to 1.40 mm Hg per standard deviation of testicular volume (95% CI 0.02–0.04), adjusted for infant characteristics, socioeconomic position, and childhood body mass index. Similarly adjusted, earlier pubertal onset was not associated with higher systolic BP z-score in boys or girls.ConclusionsGreater pubertal testicular volume is related to higher BP, consistent with a potential role of androgens in the higher BP in boys than girls that emerges during puberty. Our finding provides preliminary evidence supportive of more definitive studies to clarify the warning on testosterone from Health Canada.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T11:25:25.835982-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22993
  • High altitude agriculture in the Titicaca basin (800 BCE–200 CE):
           Impacts on nutrition and disease load
    • Authors: Sara L. Juengst; Dale L. Hutchinson, Sergio J. Chávez
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study investigates the biological impacts of sedentism and agriculture on humans living in the high altitude landscape of the Titicaca Basin between 800 BCE and CE 200. The transition to agriculture in other global areas resulted in increases in disease and malnutrition; the high altitude of the Titicaca Basin could have exacerbated this. Our objective is to test whether the high altitude of the Titicaca Basin created a marginal environment for early agriculturalists living there, reflected through elevated rates of malnutrition and/or disease.MethodsTo test this, we analyzed human remains excavated from seven archaeological sites on the Copacabana Peninsula for markers of diet and disease. These markers included dental caries, dental abscesses, cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, periosteal reactions, osteomyelitis, and linear enamel hypoplasia.ResultsResults showed that markers of diet did not support malnutrition or micronutrient deficiencies but instead, indicated a relatively diverse diet for all individuals. Markers of disease also did not vary significantly but were common, indicating circulation of pathogens or chronic bodily stress.ConclusionsWe interpret these results as an indication that while diets remained nutritious, investment in the landscape exposed populations to issues of sanitation and disease. The high-altitude of the Titicaca Basin did not exacerbate the biological impacts of agriculture in terms of increased malnutrition. Additionally, disease load was likely related to problems faced by many sedentary groups as opposed to unique challenges posed by high altitude. In sum, despite the high elevation, the Titicaca Basin is not truly a marginal environment for humans.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T04:15:56.690362-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22988
  • Shape change and obesity prevalence among male UK offshore workers after
           30 years: New insight from a 3D scanning study
    • Authors: A. D. Stewart; R. L. Ledingham, G. Furnace, H. Williams, A. M. Nevill
      Abstract: ObjectivesIn 1984, male UK offshore workers had greater overweight and obesity prevalence and fat content than the general population. Since then, body weight has increased by 19%, but, without accompanying anthropometric measures, their size increase, current obesity, and fatness prevalence remain unknown. This study therefore aimed to acquire contemporary anthropometric data, profile changes since the original survey, and assess current obesity prevalence in the male offshore workforce.MethodsA total of 588 men, recruited via quota sampling to match the workforce weight profile, underwent stature, weight, and 3D photonic scanning measurements from which anatomical girths were extracted, enabling computation of body mass index (BMI), total fat, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT).ResultsOn average, UK male offshore workers are now 8.1 y older, 3.1 cm taller, 13.9 kg heavier, and have greater girths than in 1984, which are>97% attributable to increased weight, and
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T04:15:48.87531-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22992
  • Nutrition and physical activity transitions in the Ecuadorian Andes:
           Differences among urban and rural-dwelling women
    • Authors: Christopher L. Melby; Fadya Orozco, Diana Ochoa, Maria Muquinche, Manuel Padro, Fabian N. Munoz
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe nutrition and physical activity transitions, characterized by increased consumption of high energy density foods and more sedentary lifestyles, are associated with increased obesity and hypertension in Ecuador. These transitions have been characterized primarily in urban areas, which may neglect variation in specific rural areas of Ecuador. Therefore we examined the extent of the differences in dietary and activity patterns, obesity prevalence, and blood pressure (BP) in urban and rural-dwelling women in the Ecuadorian central highlands.MethodsUrban-dwelling women (UW, n = 198, mean age = 44 years) from three areas of a city of 250,000 residents and rural women (RW; n = 202, mean age = 47 years) from three remote communities in the same province (Chimborazo) were randomly selected and surveyed for dietary and activity practices, BP, and anthropometrics.ResultsNinety percent of UW reported obtaining their food primarily from markets while 65% of RW women obtained their food primarily from their own cultivation. Cookies, cakes, candies, ice cream, and French fries were consumed more frequently by UW. RW reported lower consumption of beef, poultry, and chicken, as well as fruits, milk, and white rice. UW compared to RW women spent less time walking and in strenuous work activities. Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) (UW = 18.7% vs RW = 9.2%) and hypertension (UW = 15.7%, RW= 3.0%) were more common in UW. Average systolic and diastolic BP was significantly higher in UW.ConclusionsThe nutrition and physical activity transitions appear more evident in urban- compared to rural-dwelling women, and are associated with more obesity and higher BP.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01T07:01:57.683182-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22986
  • Association between blood pressure and magnesium and uric acid levels in
           indigenous Argentinean children at high altitude
    • Authors: V. Hirschler; C. González, G. Maccallini, C. Molinari, L. Castano,
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo determine the association between nontraditional risk factors such as magnesium and uric acid with blood pressure (BP) in Indigenous children.MethodsA total of 263 school-aged indigenous children living at high altitude were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in November 2011. Prehypertension (preHTN) and hypertension (HTN) were defined by systolic and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90th to
      PubDate: 2017-03-01T07:00:22.189909-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22989
  • Measuring material wealth in low-income settings: A conceptual and how-to
    • Authors: Bonnie N. Kaiser; Daniel Hruschka, Craig Hadley
      Abstract: Although wealth is consistently found to be an important predictor of health and well-being, there remains debate as to the best way to conceptualize and operationalize wealth. In this article, we focus on the measurement of economic resources, which is one among many forms of wealth. We provide an overview of the process of measuring material wealth, including theoretical and conceptual considerations, a how-to guide based on the most common approach to measurement, and a review of important theoretical and empirical questions that remain to be resolved. Throughout, we emphasize considerations particular to the settings in which anthropologists work, and we include variations on common approaches to measuring material wealth that might be better suited to anthropologists' theoretical questions, methodological approaches, and fieldwork settings.
      PubDate: 2017-02-25T12:30:32.17234-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22987
  • Variations in estimates of underweight, overweight, and obesity in
           pregnant women from Argentina comparing two reference charts
    • Authors: Agustina Malpeli; María G. Ferrari, Horacio F. González
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe prevalence of low weight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity in a sample of Argentinian pregnant women using two reference charts, the Rosso and Mardones (RM) and the Calvo Chart were compared.MethodsA descriptive, cross-sectional, comparative study of data from pregnant women beneficiaries of food aid programs collected in the period 2003–2010 in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina was performed.ResultsEvaluations with the Calvo and RM charts showed statistically significant differences in the prevalence of all nutritional conditions (low weight, 22% vs. 28%; normal weight, 45% vs. 28%; overweight, 21% vs. 15%; obesity, 11% vs. 29%, respectively). Such differences were more marked in normal weight and obese pregnant women.ConclusionsChanges in prevalences as a result of replacing the RM with the Calvo Chart should be borne in mind to avoid misinterpretations about changes in the nutritional condition of pregnant women.
      PubDate: 2017-02-25T12:30:28.733019-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22990
  • Molecular polymorphisms of the ABO locus as informative markers of
           ancestry in Central Argentina
    • Authors: María Pía Tavella; Angelina García, Maia Pauro, Darío A. Demarchi, Rodrigo Nores
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of molecular polymorphisms of the ABO gene in four population samples from the province of Córdoba, in Central Argentina, and to compare them with other worldwide populations.MethodsA total of 110 buccal swab samples from autochthonous individuals of Córdoba were typified. Molecular characterization of the allelic variants was performed by the analysis of exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene using PCR-RFLP analysis. Additionally, the Native American AIM O1v542 was characterized by direct sequencing.ResultsThe four Córdoba populations did not show significant geographic structure, although the frequency of the O1v542 haplotype, detected in all the populations studied, ranged from 0.019 to 0.222. The principal component analysis based on O allele distribution showed that the populations from Córdoba clustered close to the admixed populations of Santiago and Mexico City, and at intermediate distances between European and Native American populations, while being distant from the African population.ConclusionsThe results demonstrate that the analysis of the ABO system constitutes a useful tool for the study of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of human populations, reflecting accurately the relative contribution of parental continental contribution to the gene pool of admixed populations.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T03:40:22.158155-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22982
  • Breast shape (ptosis) as a marker of a woman's breast attractiveness and
           age: Evidence from Poland and Papua
    • Authors: Agata Groyecka; Agnieszka Żelaźniewicz, Michał Misiak, Maciej Karwowski, Piotr Sorokowski
      Abstract: ObjectivesA women's breast is a sex-specific and aesthetic bodily attribute. It is suggested that breast morphology signals maturity, health, and fecundity. The perception of a woman's attractiveness and age depends on various cues, such as breast size or areola pigmentation. Conducted in Poland and Papua, the current study investigated how breast attractiveness, and the further estimate of a woman's age based on her breast's appearance, is affected by the occurrence of breast ptosis (ie, sagginess, droopiness).MethodsIn the Polish sample, 57 women and 50 men (N = 107) were presented with sketches of breasts manipulated to represent different stages of ptosis based on two different breast ptosis classifications. The participants were asked to rate the breast attractiveness and age of the woman whose breasts were depicted in each sketch. In Papua, 45 men aged 20 to 75 years took part in the study, which was conducted using only one of the classifications of breast ptosis.ResultsRegardless of the classification used, the results showed that the assessed attractiveness of the breasts decreased as the estimated age increased with respect to the more ptotic breasts depicted in the sketches. The results for Papuan raters were the same as for the Polish sample.ConclusionsBreast ptosis may be yet another physical trait that affects the perception and preferences of a potential sexual partner. The consistency in ratings between Polish and Papuan raters suggests that the tendency to assess ptotic breasts with aging and a loss of attractiveness is cross-culturally universal.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17T03:39:05.90163-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22981
  • Segmented sleep in a nonelectric, small-scale agricultural society in
    • Authors: David R. Samson; Melissa B. Manus, Andrew D. Krystal, Efe Fakir, James J. Yu, Charles L. Nunn
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe studied sleep in a rural population in Madagascar to (i) characterize sleep in an equatorial small-scale agricultural population without electricity, (ii) assess whether sleep is linked to noise levels in a dense population, and (iii) examine the effects of experimentally introduced artificial light on sleep timing.MethodsUsing actigraphy, sleep–wake patterns were analyzed for both daytime napping and nighttime wakefulness in 21 participants for a sum total of 292 days. Functional linear modeling was used to characterize 24-h time-averaged circadian patterns and to investigate the effect of experimentally introduced mobile field lights on sleep timing. We also obtained the first polysomnography (PSG) recordings of sleep in a traditional population.ResultsIn every measure of sleep duration and quality, the Malagasy population experienced shorter and lower quality sleep when compared to similarly measured postindustrial values. The population slept for a total of 6.5 h per night and napped during 89% of recorded days. We observed a peak in activity after midnight for both sexes on 49% of nights, consistent with segmented sleep. Access to mobile field lights had no statistical effect on nighttime sleep timing. From PSG, we documented relatively short rapid eye movement (14%), poor sleep efficiency (66%), and high wake after sleep onset (162 min).ConclusionsSleep in this population is segmented, similar to the “first” sleep and “second” sleep reported in the historical record. Moreover, although average sleep duration and quality were lower than documented in Western populations, circadian rhythms were more stable across days.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T07:45:39.007238-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22979
  • Deficits in anthropometric indices of nutritional status and motor
           performance among low birth weight children from Maputo City, Mozambique
    • Authors: Mario Eugénio Tchamo; Marcos André Moura-dos-Santos, Fernanda Karina dos Santos, António Prista, Carol Góis Leandro
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo evaluate associations between low birth weight (LBW) and anthropometry, body composition, physical fitness, and gross motor coordination among schoolchildren from Maputo, Mozambique.MethodsA total of 353 children aged 7 to 10 years old from both genders born in Maputo (Mozambique) were sampled. The sample was divided into two groups: LBW (n = 155) and normal birth weight (NBW, n = 198). Body composition measurements and indices weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height were assessed. Physical fitness was assessed by handgrip strength, flexibility, agility, long jump, and running speed. Gross motor coordination was evaluated by using the Korper Koordination Test fur Kinder (KTK) battery.ResultsLBW children were lighter and smaller than NBW children with reduced indices for weight-for-age and height-for-age. They also showed a reduced performance in handgrip strength and sideways movement tests. These differences remained significant even after adjustment for age, gender, body size, and fatness skinfold thickness.ConclusionLBW seems to be the major factor that influences anthropometry, and is a predictor of low muscle strength and low performance on sideways movement tests. This result suggests that growth faltering in LBW children is associated with adverse health consequences, even after controlling for gender, age, fatness, and body size.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T04:36:00.337969-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22949
  • Bioelectrical impedance vector reference values for assessing body
           composition in a Spanish child and adolescent population
    • Authors: M. P. Redondo-del-Río; M. A. Camina-Martín, J. M. Marugán-de-Miguelsanz, B. de-Mateo-Silleras
      Abstract: ObjectivesReference values of the bioelectrical impedance vector for the Spanish child and adolescent population are needed for assessing body composition and hydration status in this population. The aim of this study is to provide reference values of the bioelectrical impedance vector in Spanish children and adolescents aged 4-18 years from Castilla y León.MethodsThis was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in 4401 Spanish healthy children and adolescents aged 4-18 years (2265 boys and 2136 girls). Resistance and reactance were measured with a single-frequency impedance analyzer at 50 kHz (tetrapolar analysis). The values of resistance and reactance normalized by height were used to plot the bivariate 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles of the population by age group. Mean impedance vectors were compared with Hotelling's T2 test for vector analysis (differences being considered significant if p 
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T21:03:07.94974-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22978
  • The relationship between loading history and proximal femoral diaphysis
           cross-sectional geometry
    • Authors: Sirpa Niinimäki; Nathaniel Narra, Laura Härkönen, Shinya Abe, Riku Nikander, Jari Hyttinen, Christopher Knüsel, Harri Sievänen
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe investigated the relationship between loading history and bone biomechanical properties used in physical activity reconstructions. These bone properties included bone bending and torsional strength (J), cortical area (CA), the direction of the major axis (theta angle), and element shape ratios determined from cross sections of standardized bone length. In addition, we explored the applicability of anatomically determined cross sections.MethodsOur material consisted of hip and proximal thigh magnetic resonance images of Finnish female athletes (N = 91) engaged in high-jump, triple-jump, endurance running, swimming, power-lifting, soccer and squash; along with a group of active non-athlete individuals (N = 20). We used regression analysis for size-adjustment, and the extracted residuals were then used to compare differences in the bone properties between groups.ResultsWe found that triple-jumpers, soccer players, and squash players had the greatest values in CA and J, swimmers and non-athletes had the smallest, whereas high-jumpers, power-lifters, and endurance runners exhibited interim values. No between-the-group differences in element shape ratios or theta angles were found. We found that influences of activity were similar regardless of whether standardized length or anatomically determined cross sections were used.ConclusionsExtreme (triple-jump) and directionally inconsistent loading (soccer and squash) necessitate a more robust skeleton compared to directionally consistent loading (high-jump, power-lifting, and endurance running) or non-impact loading (swimming and non-athletes). However, not all of these relationships were statistically significant. Thus, information gained about physical activity using bone properties is informative but limited. Accounting for the limitations, the method is applicable on fragmented skeletal material as anatomically determined cross sections can be used.
      PubDate: 2017-02-05T12:50:35.720035-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22965
  • Equation-derived body fat percentage indicates metabolic abnormalities
           among normal-weight adults in a rural Chinese population
    • Authors: Xin Liu; Yaling Zhao, Qiang Li, Shaonong Dang, Hong Yan
      Abstract: ObjectivesObesity classification using body mass index (BMI) may miss subjects with elevated body fat percentage (BF%) and related metabolic risk factors. We aimed to evaluate whether BF% calculated by equations could provide more information about metabolic risks, in addition to BMI classification, in a cross-sectional rural Chinese population.MethodsA total of 2,990 men and women aged 18–80 years were included in this study. BF% was calculated using previously validated Chinese-specific equations. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Panel III criteria for Asian Americans.ResultsIn total, 33.6% men and 32.9% women were overweight/obese according to BMI classification. Among those within the normal BMI range, 25.4% men and 54.7% women were indicated as overweight or obese given their elevated BF% (men: BF% ≥ 20%; women: BF% ≥ 30%). In both men and women, compared with those with normal BMI and BF% (NBB), subjects with normal BMI but elevated BF% (NBOB) were more likely to carry abnormal serum lipid profile and to have higher risks of metabolic syndrome. The multivariable adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for metabolic syndrome were 5.45 (2.37–9.53, P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-05T12:50:33.776769-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22964
  • Weight, gender, and depressive symptoms in South Korea
    • Authors: A. A. Brewis; S. Y. Han, C. L. SturtzSreetharan
      Abstract: ObjectivesObesity consistently predicts depression risk, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Body concerns are proposed as key. South Korean society is characterized by extremely high levels of explicit weight stigma, possibly the highest globally. Using cross-sectional Korean 2014 National Health Examination Survey (KNHANES) data, we test this proposition in a nationally representative sample of South Korean adults (N = 5,632).MethodsDepressive symptoms (outcome variable), was based on the PHQ-9. Weight status (predictor variable), was based on direct measures of height and weight converted to BMI. Weight concern was self-reported. Mediation analyses tested how weight concern mediated the influence of weight status on depressive symptoms for women and men.ResultsCurrent weight status influenced depressive symptoms in Korean adults, but not always directly. Concerns of being “fat” mediated that relationship. The effect increased significantly as BMI increased within “normal” and overweight/obese categories for women, and in overweight/obese categories for men. Even though women classified as underweight were significantly more depressed than those in other weight categories, there was no similar mediation effect related to weight concerns.ConclusionFor South Koreans, the stress of adhering to social norms and avoiding stigma related to body weight seems to explain the relationship between higher body weight and more depressive symptoms. Women are more vulnerable overall, but men are not immune. This study demonstrates that body concerns help explain why weight predicts depression, and more broadly supports the proposition that widespread weight-related stigma is a potentially major, if unrecognized, driver of population-level health disparities.
      PubDate: 2017-02-05T12:50:32.297375-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22972
  • Total and central obesity in elderly associated with a marker of
           undernutrition in early life – sitting height-to-stature ratio: A
           nutritional paradox
    • Authors: Erika Aparecida Silveira; Carla Cristina da Conceição Ferreira, Valéria Pagotto, Annelisa Silva e Alves de Carvalho Santos, Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to investigate whether sitting height-to-stature ratio (SHSR) is associated with total and central obesity in the elderly.MethodsThis was a cross-sectional study with 133 noninstitutionalized elderly. High SHSR (≥ 1SD above the mean) was used as a marker of undernutrition (MU) in early life. Poisson's multiple regression was used to determine the association between variables.ResultsThe prevalence of high SHSR was 21.0%, total obesity 43.6% and central obesity 50.4%. Elderly with high SHSR presented a statistically significant association with total obesity (PR 1.50; 95% CI 1.04–2.18) and central obesity (PR 1.42; 95% CI 1.03–1.95) after adjustment for sex, age, educational level and income in the multivariate analysis.ConclusionThe occurrence of total and central obesity in the elderly was associated with a MU in early life. This result indicates that nutritional deficiencies in childhood may increase the risk of obesity in the elderly, a nutritional paradox.
      PubDate: 2017-02-05T12:50:30.671362-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22977
  • Not just a fallback food: global patterns of insect consumption related to
           geography, not agriculture
    • Authors: Julie J. Lesnik
      Abstract: ObjectivesInsects as food are often viewed as fallback resources and associated with marginal environments. This study investigates the relationship between insect consumption and noncultivated landscapes as well as with other independent variables including latitude, area, population, and gross domestic product.MethodsData were obtained from online databases including the World List of Edible Insects, the World Bank, and the World Factbook.ResultsA logistic regression model found that latitude could correctly predict the presence of edible insects 80% of the time and that arable land and gross domestic product showed no effect. Spearman rank-order correlation with number of insect species found significant relationships between area and population (but not density) and per capita gross domestic product as well as latitude. Further analysis of latitude using paired Mann-Whitney tests identified a general gradient pattern in reduction of edible insects with increased latitude.ConclusionsResults suggest that insect consumption represents a dynamic human-environment interaction, whereby insects are utilized in some of the world's lushest environments as well as areas where people have had great impact on the ecosystem. The concept that insects are a fallback food is an oversimplification that is likely rooted in Western bias against this food source.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T09:30:44.748555-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22976
  • The historical spread of Arabian Pastoralists to the eastern African Sahel
           evidenced by the lactase persistence −13,915*G allele and mitochondrial
    • Authors: Edita Priehodová; Frédéric Austerlitz, Martina Čížková, Mohammed G. Mokhtar, Estella S. Poloni, Viktor Černý
      Abstract: ObjectivesThanks to the ability to digest lactose, Arabian nomads had become less dependent upon their sedentary neighbors and some of these populations spread to Africa. When and by which route they migrated to their current locations have previously been addressed only by historical and archaeological data.MethodsTo address the question of Arab expansion into Africa, we collected samples from several Arabic populations, especially the Baggara in Chad and Sudan. We analyzed mutations associated with lactase persistence and reconstructed the surrounding haplotypes defined by SNP polymorphisms. We also sequenced their mitochondrial DNA to investigate relative proportions of sub-Saharan and Eurasian origins.ResultsWe estimated the expansion age of the −13,915*G mutation in four different Arabian datasets. The oldest age was identified in Yemen (1,356–1,799 ya) and the youngest in a Sudanese group of Rashaayda Arabs (219–312 ya). We also found a negative correlation between the frequency of the −13,915*G allele and the frequency of sub-Saharan mtDNA haplotypes.ConclusionsEven if the age of the most recent common ancestor of −13,915*G is ∼4 ka as shown in a previous study, our results suggest that its spread to Africa was more recent, which is consistent with the migrations of Arabic tribes. Because the incidence of sub-Saharan mtDNA haplotypes is negatively correlated with the occurrence of −13,915*G, we suggest that the decrease of its frequency in Africa has been caused by progressive admixture of the Arabian nomads with sub-Saharan populations.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27T03:20:41.830156-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22950
  • Bioarchaeology of adaptation to a marginal environment in bronze age
           Western China
    • Authors: Elizabeth Berger; Hui Wang
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study examines human adaptation to the 4000 BP climate change event, which is said to have increased the marginality of Inner Asian environments. We propose to define “marginal” environments not in relation to a specific economic activity (e.g., agriculture), but in relation to whether humans living there are physiologically stressed.MethodsThree sites in the Hexi Corridor of Gansu were studied, one from the early and two from the late Bronze Age (N = 125). The study includes three indicators of physiological stress: linear enamel hypoplasias (LEH); tibial periosteal lesions; and fertility. The early and late Bronze Age groups were compared to examine whether human physiological stress increased.ResultsThe percent of individuals with LEH declined dramatically, indicating fewer growth disruptions. Tibial periosteal reactions also changed, from mostly active to mostly healing at the time of death, indicating that frailty declined. Fertility, which is sensitive to changes in population health and resource availability, did not change significantly.ConclusionsCounter to the dominant narrative of environmental deterioration and subsistence system collapse, the Bronze Age residents of the Hexi Corridor show no skeletal evidence that they suffered from resource shortages or struggled to adapt in the fluctuating climate that pertained after the 4000 BP climate event. In fact, this study found that people suffered from less frailty and fewer growth disruptions after the unstable climate had persisted for some time. Therefore, in human biological terms, the Hexi Corridor did not become more marginal for human habitation during the Bronze Age.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T10:50:35.648259-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22956
  • Understanding influences of culture and history on mtDNA variation and
           population structure in three populations from Assam, Northeast India
    • Authors: Peter H. Rej; Ranjan Deka, Heather L. Norton
      Abstract: ObjectivesPositioned at the nexus of India, China, and Southeast Asia, Northeast India is presumed to have served as a channel for land-based human migration since the Upper Pleistocene. Assam is the largest state in the Northeast. We characterized the genetic background of three populations and examined the ways in which their population histories and cultural practices have influenced levels of intrasample and intersample variation.MethodsWe examined sequence data from the mtDNA hypervariable control region and selected diagnostic mutations from the coding region in 128 individuals from three ethnic groups currently living in Assam: two Scheduled tribes (Sonowal Kachari and Rabha), and the non-Scheduled Tai Ahom.ResultsThe populations of Assam sampled here express mtDNA lineages indicative of South Asian, Southeast Asian, and East Asian ancestry. We discovered two completely novel haplogroups in Assam that accounted for 6.2% of the lineages in our sample. We also identified a new subhaplogroup of M9a that is prevalent in the Sonowal Kachari of Assam (19.1%), but not present in neighboring Arunachal Pradesh, indicating substantial regional population structuring. Employing a large comparative dataset into a series of multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses, we saw the Rabha cluster with populations sampled from Yunnan Province, indicating that the historical matrilineality of the Rabha has maintained lineages from Southern China.ConclusionAssam has undergone multiple colonization events in the time since the initial peopling event, with populations from Southern China and Southeast Asia having the greatest influence on maternal lineages in the region.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T10:50:33.870184-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22955
  • Height, BMI, and relative economic standing in children from developing
    • Authors: Jason E. Murasko
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to estimate a height-BMI association in child and female adolescent populations in developing countries, and to evaluate the potential role of relative economic status in this association.MethodsFlexible structured additive regression models were used to estimate associations between height, BMI, and relative wealth. Linear regression models were used to evaluate height-wealth interactions on BMI outcomes. The models were applied to pooled samples of 971,180 children under 5 years of age and 225,718 adolescent females between 15 and 19 years. Samples were taken from Demographic and Health Surveys from 64 developing countries.ResultsChildren exhibited a strong inverse association between height and BMI over the entire distribution of height. Female adolescents showed a weak inverse association. Relative economic status was associated with a stronger height-BMI relationship in early-life (
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T10:50:25.47628-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22958
  • Using the protein leverage hypothesis to understand socioeconomic
           variation in obesity
    • Authors: Traci A. Bekelman; Carolina Santamaría-Ulloa, Darna L. Dufour, Lilliam Marín-Arias, Ana Laura Dengo
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe protein leverage hypothesis (PLH) predicts that protein appetite will stimulate excess energy intake, and consequently obesity, when the proportion of protein in the diet is low. Experimental studies support the PLH, but whether protein leverage can be used to understand socioeconomic (SES) variation in obesity is unknown. The objective of this study was to test two hypotheses from the PLH under non-experimental conditions. Consistent with the PLH, we expect that (1) absolute protein intake will be similar across populations, here defined as SES groups and, (2) the proportion of protein in the diet will be inversely associated with energy intake.MethodsThis was a cross-sectional study conducted in a random sample of 135 low-, middle-, and high-SES women in Costa Rica. Anthropometry was used to calculate body mass index (BMI). Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were used to measure dietary intake.ResultsThe prevalence of obesity varied between low- (38.8%), middle- (43.9%), and high- (17.8%) SES women. Absolute protein intake was similar across low- (58.5 g), middle- (59.4 g), and high- (65.6 g) SES women (p = 0.12). Protein intake as a proportion of total energy intake was inversely associated with total energy intake only among middle- (r = −0.37, p = 0.02) and high- (r = −0.36, p = 0.01) SES women.ConclusionsConsistent with the PLH, absolute protein intake was similar across SES groups. The relationship between the proportion of protein in the diet and total energy intake should be studied further in the context of real world conditions that may influence protein leverage.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T10:50:23.781649-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22953
  • Early life infection, but not breastfeeding, predicts adult blood telomere
           lengths in the Philippines
    • Authors: Dan T.A. Eisenberg; Judith B. Borja, M. Geoffrey Hayes, Christopher W. Kuzawa
      Abstract: ObjectivesTelomeres are repetitive DNA at chromosomes ends that shorten with age due to cellular replication and oxidative stress. As telomeres shorten, this can eventually place limits on cell replication and contribute to senescence. Infections are common during early development and activate cellular immune responses that involve clonal expansion and oxidative stress. As such, a high infectious disease burden might shorten blood telomere length (BTL) and accelerate the pace of immune senescence.MethodsTo test this, BTL measured in young adults (21.7 ± 0.3 years old) from the Philippines (N = 1,759) were linked to prospectively collected early life data on infectious burden.ResultsAs predicted, increased early life diarrheal prevalence was associated with shorter adult BTL. The association was most marked for infections experienced from 6 to 12 months, which corresponds with weaning and maximal diarrheal burden. A standard deviation increase in infections at 6–12 m predicts a 45 bp decrease in BTL, equivalent to 3.3 years of adult telomeric aging in this population. Contrary to expectations, breastfeeding duration was not associated with BTL, nor did effects vary by sex.ConclusionsThese findings show that infancy diarrheal disease predicts a marker of cellular aging in adult immune cells. These findings suggest that early life infectious burden may influence late life health, or alternatively, that short TL in early life increases infectious disease susceptibility.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T10:25:24.517438-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22962
  • Trends in cardiometabolic parameters among Spanish children from 2006 to
           2010: The Cuenca study
    • Authors: Paola Arellano-Ruiz; Antonio García-Hermoso, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno, Fernando Salcedo-Aguilar, Miriam Garrido-Miguel, Montserrat Solera-Martinez
      Abstract: ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to examine the trends in cardiometabolic risk factors among schoolchildren in Cuenca, Spain, from 2006 to 2010.MethodsData were taken from two cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2006 and 2010 among schoolchildren aged 8–12 years from 20 public schools in the province of Cuenca. The final sample consisted of 2148 participants with measured anthropometric variables, biochemical assessment, and blood pressure.ResultsWe observed an increase in mean serum total cholesterol (8.5 mg/dL and 10.7 mg/dL), LDL-cholesterol (13.7 mg/dL and 17.3 md/dL), triglycerides (3.6 mg/dL and 2.6 md/dL), fasting insulin (1.2 µU/mL and 0.3 µU/mL) and HOMA-IR (0.2 and 0.02) and a decrease in mean serum HDL-cholesterol (4.4 mg/dL and 5.7 mg/dL), systolic blood pressure (3.8 mmHg and 5.4 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (0.8 mmHg and 2.0 mmHg) in both sexes. In girls, mean arterial pressure (3.2 mmHg) also decreased in this period. In addition, we found an increase in the prevalence of adverse total cholesterol concentration (≥200 mg/dL) (7.8% and 8.9%), HDL-cholesterol concentration (
      PubDate: 2017-01-24T23:10:25.739124-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22970
  • Duration of puberty in preterm girls
    • Authors: L. L. Hui; H. S. Lam, G. M. Leung, C. M. Schooling
      Abstract: ObjectivesPreterm birth is associated with altered pubertal timing, but the effect on pubertal duration has rarely been assessed. Here, we tested the hypothesis that preterm birth is associated with shorter duration of puberty among girls in Hong Kong where preterm birth has little social patterning.MethodsIn the population-representative Chinese birth cohort “Children of 1997”, we used multivariable linear regression to assess the association of preterm status (≤36 completed gestational weeks, n = 170; term birth 37–42 gestational weeks, n = 3476) with duration of puberty, adjusted for parent's highest education, mother's place of birth, maternal smoking during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and mother's age of menarche.ResultsThe mean duration from thelarche to menarche was 2.53 years. Preterm girls had a shorter duration from thelarche to menarche by 2.6 months, 95% confidence interval 0.5–4.7 months. Age of menarche did not differ by preterm status but preterm girls had later thelarche. Preterm birth was not associated with a shorter duration from pubarche to menarche.ConclusionsPreterm births may be associated with shorter duration of puberty from thelarche to menarche, possibly through effects of in utero estrogen exposure, the drivers of thelarche, or the drivers of pubertal duration/progression, with potential implications for subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease and hormonal cancers.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23T09:00:47.284511-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22963
  • The ecology of anemia: Anemia prevalence and correlated factors in adult
           indigenous women in Argentina
    • Authors: Laura G. Goetz; Claudia Valeggia
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe Toba/Qom of Namqom are an indigenous community native to the Gran Chaco region of northern Argentina. Historically seminomadic foragers, the diet of peri-urban community members has rapidly changed from high-protein, high-fiber to hypercaloric, processed. This study aims to understand the impact of this nutritional transition on aspects of women's health by exploring the relationship between prevalence of anemia and current diet composition, place of birth, and reproductive history.MethodsWe measured the capillary hemoglobin (Hb) levels of 153 adult women. Each participant was also given two interviews characterizing reproductive history and a 24-hour food recall.ResultsThe average Hb level was 12.6 g/dL (range 5.8–15.7 g/dL). In our sample, 28% of participants were anemic and 31% were borderline anemic. Iron and vitamin C consumption were negatively associated with Hb levels. Body mass index was marginally associated with Hb levels. Being born in a peri-urban setting, a proxy for early Westernized diet was associated with higher risk of anemia, suggesting developmental experience may play a role. Pregnant and lactating women had lower Hb levels than menstruating and menopausal women. Age, height, parity, and age at first pregnancy were not found to be statistically significant predictors of anemia.ConclusionsIron deficiency represents a serious health concern for women, particularly pregnant ones. Our results suggest that both past and current nutritional ecology variables may be associated with the risk of anemia. These findings inform public health interventions, since reproductive history may be more difficult to modify than current diet.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19T02:10:30.088117-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22947
  • Association between body height and month of birth among women of European
           origin in northern and southern hemispheres
    • Authors: Iwona Rosset; Elżbieta Żądzińska, Dominik Strapagiel, Agnieszka Grzelak, Maciej Henneberg
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to examine the potential association between month of birth and body height among women in northern and southern hemispheres.MethodsBody heights of adult women of European origin born between 1935 and 1981 who lived in Poland (N = 3,933) and in Australia (N = 1,118) were examined in relation to month of birth by analysis of variance.ResultsNo association between month of birth and body height was observed in either Polish or Australian women. For Polish women, a clear, statistically significant secular trend in body height was confirmed for the analyzed period (P 
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T11:32:05.028985-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22967
  • Nutritional, inflammatory, and ecological correlates of maternal retinol
           allocation to breast milk in agro-pastoral Ariaal communities of northern
    • Authors: Masako Fujita; Yun-Jia Lo, Eleanor Brindle
      Abstract: ObjectivesVitamin A (VA) is an essential micronutrient required for a range of biological functions throughout life. VA deficiency (VAD) claims an estimated 1 million preschool children's lives annually. Human milk is enriched with VA (retinol) from the maternal blood, which originates from the hepatic reserve and dietary intake. Secreting retinol into milk will benefit the nursing infant through breast milk, but retaining retinol is also important for the maternal health. Previous studies found that the public health intervention of high-dose VA supplementation to lactating mothers did not significantly lower child mortality. The World Health Organization (WHO) recently acknowledged that our understanding about the principle of VA allocation within the maternal system and the secretion into milk is too incomplete to devise an effective intervention.MethodsWe present a secondary analysis of data collected among lactating mothers in VAD endemic northern Kenya (n = 171), examining nutritional, inflammatory, and ecological factors that might associate with maternal retinol allocation. Regression models were applied using the outcome milk-retinol allocation index: milk retinol/(milk retinol + serum retinol).ResultsTen percent of the sample was identified as VAD. The average milk retinol concentration was 0.1 μmo/L, grossly below what is considered minimally necessary for an infant (1 μmol/L). VAD mothers and mothers with inflammation did not seem to compromise their milk retinol even though their serum retinol was lower than non-VAD and noninflammation mothers. Breast milk fat concentration positively correlated with milk retinol but not with serum retinol.ConclusionsThis exploratory study contributes toward an understanding of maternal retinol allocation.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T11:30:29.54385-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22961
  • Association of cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity with inflammatory
           biomarkers in young adults
    • Authors: Eunduck Park; Janet C. Meininger, Duck-Hee Kang, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Nikhil S. Padhye
      Abstract: ObjectivesCardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) has been inversely associated with inflammation, but whether the association is attributed to fitness itself or lower levels of adiposity remains uncertain in young adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of fitness and adiposity with inflammation in young adults.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted with 88 participants aged 20–34 years. Fitness was assessed by a submaximal treadmill walking test. Adiposity was assessed by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Inflammation was measured by plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels using immunoassays. Biological data were log10 transformed. A separate multiple regression analysis was conducted with each inflammatory biomarker as a dependent variable. Covariates (sex, oral contraceptive use, and education level) were adjusted.ResultsFitness was inversely associated with log10 CRP after adjustment for covariates but not after adjusting for BMI or WC. Fitness was inversely associated with log10 IL-6 after adjustment for WC and covariates (β = −0.341, P = .049) but not after adjusting for BMI. Fitness × WC interaction (partial eta2 = 0.056, P = .033) indicated that high fitness was more strongly associated with low log10 IL-6 in young adults with high WC than those with low WC.ConclusionsAlthough adiposity has a stronger association than fitness with CRP and IL-6, higher levels of fitness could be essential for maintaining low levels of IL-6, especially in the presence of high levels of central adiposity.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T11:30:27.154571-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22959
  • Milk ejection patterns remain consistent during the first and second
    • Authors: Hazel Gardner; Jacqueline C. Kent, Danielle K. Prime, Ching-Tat Lai, Peter E. Hartmann, Donna T. Geddes
      Abstract: ObjectiveMilk ejection is a critical physiological process for successful lactation in humans and without it little milk can be removed. Individual milk ejection patterns have been shown to remain consistent between breasts at different lactation stages and using different vacuum patterns with an electric breast pump. Little is known about the milk ejection characteristics during the second lactation period in the same mother. The objective of this study was to examine milk ejection characteristics in the same woman over two lactations.MethodsOne mother took part in two pumping studies during consecutive lactations. One pumping study examined milk ejection characteristics during simultaneous breast expression during the first lactation. The second pumping study (second lactation) used two different pumping patterns. Three distinct milk ejections were measured during each pumping session.ResultsMeasurements of milk flow were used to compare the duration and time taken to reach the peak of each milk ejection for two pumping sessions from each of the lactations. There were no significant differences in milk ejection characteristics between breasts, using different pumping patterns, or between lactations in this mother (P > .05).ConclusionMilk ejection appears to be a physiological response that is consistent across consecutive lactations within the same mother. This suggests that milk ejection characteristics are established during or prior to the first lactation. The infant appears to have little influence on the milk ejection characteristics of the mother.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T11:30:24.099856-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22960
  • A comparison of skeletal maturity assessed by radiological and ultrasonic
    • Authors: Katinka Utczas; Agota Muzsnai, Noel Cameron, Annamaria Zsakai, Eva B. Bodzsar
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe estimation of skeletal maturity is a useful tool in pediatric practice to determine the degree of delay or advancement in growth disorders and the effectiveness of treatment in conditions that influence linear growth. Skeletal maturity of children is commonly assessed using either Greulich–Pyle (GP) or Tanner–Whitehouse methods (TW2 and TW3). However, a less invasive ultrasonic method, that does not use ionizing radiation, has been suggested for use in epidemiological studies of skeletal maturity. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the accuracy of an ultrasonic method based on the GP maturity indicators compared to the standard GP radiographic method.MethodsSkeletal maturity of 1502 healthy children, aged from 6 to 18 years, was estimated by quantitative ultrasound and compared to GP bone ages estimated from left hand and wrist radiographs of a subsample of 47 randomly selected participants.ResultsThe ultrasonic bone age estimation demonstrated very strong correlations with all the radiological age estimations. The correlation coefficients ranged between 0.895 and 0.958, and the strongest correlation of ultrasonic skeletal maturity estimation was found with the Tanner–Whitehouse RUS method. The ultrasonic bone age estimation is suggested for use between the chronological ages of 8.5–16.0 years in boys and 7.5–15.0 years in girls.ConclusionsThe ultrasonic bone age estimation is suggested for use in epidemiological surveys since the sensitivity for screening for not normal bone development is appropriate, at least within the 8–15 years age interval.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T11:30:21.988989-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22966
  • Hay fever, asthma, and eczema and early infectious diseases among children
           in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania
    • Authors: Katherine Wander; Bettina Shell-Duncan, Eleanor Brindle, Kathleen O'Connor
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo investigate the hygiene (or “old friends”) hypothesis in a high-infectious disease (ID) environment, rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.MethodsAmong a cross-sectional sample of 2- to 7-year-old children, we collected physician-diagnosed hay fever, asthma, and eczema, history of hospitalization, family size, and household environment information via questionnaire; performed active and passive surveillance for ID; and, evaluated total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and biomarkers of inflammation in dried blood spot specimens. We used regression models to describe patterns in allergic diseases.ResultsComplete information was available for 280 children: 12.5% had been diagnosed with hay fever; 18.9% with eczema; 2.1% with asthma. There was a positive association between hay fever and eczema diagnoses (π2: 4.07; P = 0.044); total IgE was positively associated with eczema (β: 0.24; P = 0.100) and allergic diseases together (β: 0.26; P = 0.042). ID were common: the incidence of any ID diagnosis was 28 per 100 children per month. Hay fever was inversely associated with household animals (OR: 0.27; P = 0.006), and positively associated with earth housing materials (OR: 1.93; P = 0.079) and hospitalization in infancy with an ID (3.16; P = 0.066); patterns were similar when allergic disease outcomes were considered together. Few associations between these predictors and eczema or asthma alone were apparent.ConclusionsAllergic diseases were common among children in Kilimanjaro. The inverse association between household animals and allergy is consistent with the hygiene/old friends hypothesis; however, positive associations between allergic diseases and earth housing materials and early hospitalization with ID bear further explanation.
      PubDate: 2017-01-13T04:30:44.63059-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22957
  • Parent-offspring conflict over family size in current China
    • Authors: Jianghua Liu; Chongli Duan, Virpi Lummaa
      Abstract: ObjectivesIn China, the recent replacement of the one-child policy with a two-child policy could potentially change family ecology—parents may switch investment from exclusively one child to two. The parent-offspring conflict theory provides testable hypotheses concerning possible firstborn opposition toward further reproduction of their mother, and who wins the conflict. We tested the hypotheses that if there is any opposition, it will differ between sexes, weaken with offspring age and family resource availability, and affect maternal reproductive decision-making.MethodsUsing survey data of 531 non-pregnant mothers of only one child from Xi'an (China), logistic regression was used to examine effects of age, family income, and sex on the attitudes of firstborn children toward having a sibling; ordinal regression was used to investigate how such attitudes affect maternal intention to reproduce again.ResultsFirstborns' unsupportive attitude toward their mothers' further reproduction weakened with age and was overall more frequent in low-income families. Sons' unsupportive tendency displayed a somewhat U-shaped relationship, whereas daughters' weakened with family income; consequently, sons were more likely than daughters to be unsupportive in high-income families, suggesting a tendency to be more demanding. Forty-nine percent of mothers supported by their firstborns intended to reproduce again, whilst only 9% of mothers not supported by firstborns had such an intention.ConclusionOur study contributes to evolutionary literature on parent-offspring conflict and its influence on female reproductive strategy in modern human societies, and has also important implications for understanding fertility patterns and conducting interventions in family conflict in China.
      PubDate: 2017-01-05T02:55:27.969543-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22946
  • The influence of physical characteristics on the resting energy
           expenditure of youth: A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Stephen D. Herrmann; Robert G. McMurray, Youngdeok Kim, Erik A. Willis, Minsoo Kang, Thomas McCurdy
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo examine the literature on resting energy expenditure (REE) of youth and determine the influence of age, sex, BMI, and body composition on REE.MethodsA literature search was conducted using PubMed, BIOSIS Previews, NTIS, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Pascal databases for studies with data on resting metabolic rate, REE, resting oxygen uptake (or VO2) in healthy children, youth, or adolescents (age = 1–18 years). Over 200 publications were identified; sixty-one publications met criteria and were included in the meta-analyses, resulting in 142 study population estimates (totaling 5,397 youth) of REE.ResultsPooled mean was 1414 kcal·day−1 with a significant and moderate-to-high between-study heterogeneity [Q(140) = 7912.42, P 
      PubDate: 2016-11-30T06:00:54.245998-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22944
  • Live birth sex ratios and father's geographic origins in Jerusalem,
    • Authors: J. Groeger; M. Opler, K. Kleinhaus, M. C. Perrin, R. Calderon-Margalit, O. Manor, O. Paltiel, D. Conley, S. Harlap, D. Malaspina
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo examine whether ancestry influenced sex ratios of offspring in a birth cohort before parental antenatal sex selection influenced offspring sex.MethodsWe measured the sex ratio as the percent of males according to countries of birth of paternal and maternal grandfathers in 91,459 live births from 1964 to 1976 in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study. Confidence limits (CI) were computed based on an expected sex ratio of 1.05, which is 51.4% male.ResultsOf all live births recorded, 51.4% were male. Relative to Jewish ancestry (51.4% males), significantly more males (1,761) were born to Muslim ancestry (54.5, 95% CI = 52.1–56.8, P = 0.01). Among the former, sex ratios were not significantly associated with paternal or maternal age, education, or offspring's birth order. Consistent with a preference for male offspring, the sex ratio decreased despite increasing numbers of births over the 13-year period. Sex ratios were not affected by maternal or paternal origins in North Africa or Europe. However, the offspring whose paternal grandfathers were born in Western Asia included fewer males than expected (50.7, 50.1-51.3, P = 0.02), whether the father was born abroad (50.7) or in Israel (50.8). This was observed for descendents of paternal grandfathers born in Lebanon (47.6), Turkey (49.9), Yemen & Aden (50.2), Iraq (50.5), Afghanistan (50.5), Syria (50.6), and Cyprus (50.7); but not for those from India (51.5) or Iran (51.9). The West Asian group showed the strongest decline in sex ratios with increasing paternal family size.ConclusionsA decreased sex ratio associated with ancestry in Western Asia is consistent with reduced ability to bear sons by a subset of Jewish men in the Jerusalem cohort. Lower sex ratios may be because of pregnancy stress, which may be higher in this subgroup. Alternatively, a degrading Y chromosome haplogroup or other genetic or epigenetic differences on male germ lines could affect birth ratios, such as differential exposure to an environmental agent, dietary differences, or stress. Differential stopping behaviors that favor additional pregnancies following the birth of a daughter might exacerbate these lower sex ratios.
      PubDate: 2016-11-30T06:00:52.309122-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22945
  • Early life trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, and allostatic load in
           a sample of American Indian adults
    • Authors: Zaneta Thayer; Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, Michael McDonell, Lonnie Nelson, Dedra Buchwald, Spero Manson
      Abstract: ObjectivesAmong American Indians, prior research has found associations between early life trauma and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. Given the physiological changes associated with PTSD, early life trauma could indirectly contribute to chronic disease risk. However, the impact of early life trauma on adult physical health in this population has not been previously investigated.MethodsWe evaluated associations among early life trauma, PTSD, and 13 physiological biomarkers that index cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine, anthropometric, and immune function in adulthood by conducting correlation and structural equation modeling path analyses (N = 197). Physiological systems were analyzed individually as well as in a composite measure of allostatic load.ResultsWe found early life trauma was related to PTSD, which in turn was related to elevated allostatic load in adulthood. Among the various components of allostatic load, the neuroendocrine system was the only one significantly related to early life stress and subsequent PTSD development.ConclusionsChanges in allostatic load might reflect adaptive adjustments that maximize short-term survival by enhancing stress reactivity, but at a cost to later health. Interventions should focus on improving access to resources for children who experience early life trauma in order to avoid PTSD and other harmful sequelae.
      PubDate: 2016-11-30T06:00:49.800609-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22943
  • Sociodemographic correlates and family aggregation of leukocyte telomere
           length in adults and children from Mesoamerica
    • Authors: Kerry S. Flannagan; Erica C. Jansen, Laura S. Rozek, Katie M. Rentschler, Ana Victoria Roman, Manuel Ramirez-Zea, Eduardo Villamor,
      Abstract: ObjectiveTelomere length is a biomarker of cumulative stress and inflammation related to chronic disease risk. We examined the associations of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with sociodemographic and anthropometric variables and estimated LTL family aggregation in Central America, a region with a high burden of chronic disease where LTL has not been studied.MethodsWe conducted a cross-sectional study of 174 school age children and their parents in the capital cities of Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and the city of Tuxtla-Gutierrez in Mexico. We measured LTL by quantitative PCR in DNA extracted from whole blood. We compared the distribution of LTL by categories of sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics using linear regression. Family aggregation was estimated with correlation coefficients and intraclass correlations.ResultsIn mothers, LTL was inversely associated with age (P, trend 
      PubDate: 2016-11-28T01:35:50.58946-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22942
  • The association of low birth weight with serum C reactive protein in
           3-year-old children living in Cuba: A population-based prospective study
    • Authors: Silvia Josefina Venero-Fernández; Hermes Fundora-Hernández, Lourdes Batista-Gutierrez, Ramón Suárez-Medina, Esperanza de la C. Mora-Faife, Gladys García-García, Ileana del Valle-Infante, Liem Gómez-Marrero, John Britton, Andrew W. Fogarty,
      Abstract: ObjectiveLow birthweight is associated with a decreased risk of childhood leukemia and an increased risk of both cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in adult life. Possible biological mediators include systemic innate immunity and inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that birthweight was inversely associated with serum high sensitivity C reactive protein assay (hsCRP), a measure of both innate immunity and systemic inflammation.MethodsData on birthweight and current anthropometric measures along with a range of exposures were collected at 1 and 3 years of age in a population-based cohort study of young children living in Havana, Cuba. A total of 986 children aged 3-years-old provided blood samples that were analyzed for serum hsCRP levels.ResultsNearly 49% of children had detectable hsCRP levels in their serum. Lower birthweight was linearly associated with the natural log of hsCRP levels (beta coefficient −0.70 mg L−1 per kg increase in birthweight, 95% CI: −1.34 to −0.06). This was attenuated but still present after adjustment for the child's sex and municipality (−0.65 mg L−1 per kg birthweight; 95% CI: −1.38 to +0.08). There were no associations between growth from birth or anthropometric measures at 3 years and systemic inflammation.ConclusionsBirthweight was inversely associated with serum hsCRP levels in children aged 3 years living in Cuba. These observations provide a potential mechanism that is present at the age of 3 years to explain the association between low birthweight and both decreased childhood leukemia and increased cardiovascular disease in adults.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T09:15:20.071024-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22936
  • Father absence but not fosterage predicts food insecurity, relative
           poverty, and poor child health in northern Tanzania
    • Authors: David W. Lawson; Susan B. Schaffnit, Anushé Hassan, Esther Ngadaya, Bernard Ngowi, Sayoki G. M. Mfinanga, Susan James, Monique Borgerhoff Mulder
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe importance of fathers in ensuring child health in rural developing populations is questioned by anthropologists and population health scientists. Existing literature focuses on paternal death and child mortality. A relative lack of studies consider alternative forms of father absence and/or more subtle health outcomes. Here we determine the frequency and form of father absence in northern Tanzania, and its relationship to household food security, wealth, and child anthropometric status.MethodsWe conducted a cross-sectional survey of 3136 children under 5 years of age from 56 villages. Using multilevel regression we contrast children residing with both parents to those that (i) have experienced paternal death, (ii) reside with their mother but not their living father and (iii) are fostered apart from both living parents.ResultsOf the total, 3.5% of children had experienced paternal death. Thirteen percent resided with their mother but away from their living father. Supporting data indicate such cases primarily reflect parental divorce/separation, extra-marital birth, or polygynous fathers residing with an alternative cowife. Paternal death and residing apart from one's living father was associated with lower food security and/or relative poverty and there is suggestive evidence that children in such circumstances achieve lower height-for-age. Six percent of children were fostered, usually with grandparents, and were comparable to children residing with both parents in terms of household food security, wealth, and anthropometric status.ConclusionOur results highlight diversity in the form and consequences of father absence. We discuss limitations of the current study and wider literature on fatherhood and make suggestions for future research.
      PubDate: 2016-11-16T05:19:38.510977-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22938
  • Relationships among fat mass, fat-free mass and height in adults: A new
           method of statistical analysis applied to NHANES data
    • Authors: Richard F. Burton
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe positive influence of fat mass (FM) on fat-free mass (FFM) has been quantified previously by various methods involving regression analysis of population data, but some are fundamentally flawed through neglect of the tendency of taller individuals to carry more fat. Differences in FFM due to differences in FM—and not directly related to differences in height—are expressed as ΔFFM/ΔFM, denoted KF. The main aims were to find a sounder regression-based method of quantifying KF and simultaneously of estimating mean BMI0, the BMI of hypothetical fat-free individuals. Other, related, objectives were to check the linearity of FFM-FM relationships and to quantify the correlation between FM and height.MethodsNew statistical methods, explored and verified by Monte Carlo simulation, were applied to NHANES data. Regression of height2 on FFM and FM produced estimates of mean KF and indirectly of BMI0. Both were then adjusted to allow for variability in KF around its mean. Its standard deviation was estimated by a novel method.ResultsRelationships between FFM and FM were linear, not semilogarithmic as is sometimes assumed. Mean KF is similar in Mexican American men and women, but higher in men than women in non-Hispanic European Americans and African Americans. Mean BMI0 is higher in men than in women. FM correlates more strongly with height than has been found previously.ConclusionsA more accurate way of quantifying mean BMI0 and the dependence of FFM on FM is established that may be easily applied to new and existing population data.
      PubDate: 2016-11-14T08:52:55.890783-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22941
  • Relationships between digit ratio (2D:4D) and basketball performance in
           Australian men
    • Authors: Nathan A. Frick; Melissa J. Hull, John T. Manning, Grant R. Tomkinson
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo investigate relationships between the digit ratio (2D:4D) and competitive basketball performance in Australian men.MethodsUsing an observational cross-sectional design a total of 221 Australian basketball players who competed in the Olympic Games, International Basketball Federation World Championships/Cup, Australian National Basketball League, Central Australian Basketball League or socially had their 2D:4Ds measured. Analysis of variance was used to assess differences in mean 2D:4Ds between men playing at different competitive standards, with relationships between 2D:4Ds and basketball game-related statistics assessed using Pearson's product moment correlations in men playing at a single competitive standard.ResultsThere were significant differences between competitive standards for the left 2D:4D following Bonferroni correction, but not for the right 2D:4D, with basketballers who achieved higher competitive standards tending to have lower left 2D:4Ds. No important correlations between 2D:4D and basketball game-related statistics were found, with correlations typically negligible.ConclusionsThis study indicated that the 2D:4D can discriminate between basketballers competing at different standards, but not between basketballers within a single competitive standard using objective game-related statistics.
      PubDate: 2016-11-06T12:13:04.34216-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22937
  • Utility of three anthropometric indices in assessing the cardiometabolic
           risk profile in children
    • Authors: Duncan S. Buchan; Lynne M. Boddy, Fergal M. Grace, Elise Brown, Nicholas Sculthorpe, Conor Cunningham, Marie H. Murphy, Rebecca Dagger, Lawrence Foweather, Lee E. F. Graves, Nicola D. Hopkins, Gareth Stratton, Julien S. Baker
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo evaluate the ability of BMI, WC, and WHtR to identify increased cardiometabolic risk in pre-adolescents.MethodsThis is a cross-sectional study involving 192 children (10.92 ± 0.58 years, 56% female) from the United Kingdom between 2010 and 2013. Receiver operating characteristic curves determined the discriminatory ability of BMI, WC and WHtR to identify individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk (increased clustered triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, and glucose).ResultsA WHtR ≥ 0.5 increased the odds by 5.2 (95% confidence interval 2.6 - 10.3) of having increased cardiometabolic risk. Similar associations were observed for BMI and WC. Both BMI-z and WHtR were fair predictors of increased cardiometabolic risk, although BMI-z demonstrated the best trade-off between sensitivity and specificity, 76.1% and 63.6%, compared with 68.1% and 65.5% for WHtR. Cross-validation analysis revealed that BMI-z and WHtR correctly classified 84% of individuals (kappa score = 0.671, 95% CI 0.55, 0.79). The sensitivity of the cut-points suggests that 89.3% of individuals were correctly classified as being at risk with only 10.7% misdiagnosed whereas the specificity of the cut-points indicated that 77.8% of individuals were correctly identified as being healthy with 22.2% of individuals incorrectly diagnosed as being at risk.ConclusionsFindings suggest that WHtR provides similar cardiometabolic risk estimates to age and sex adjusted BMI.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01T07:00:58.709853-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22934
  • Defying geometric similarity: Shape centralization in male UK offshore
    • Authors: Arthur D. Stewart; Robert J. Ledingham, Graham Furnace, Hector Williams, Alan M. Nevill
      Abstract: ObjectivesApplying geometric similarity predictions of body dimensions to specific occupational groups has the potential to reveal useful ergonomic and health implications. This study assessed a representative sample of the male UK offshore workforce, and examined how body dimensions from sites typifying musculoskeletal development or fat accumulation, differed from predicted values.MethodsA cross sectional sample was obtained across seven weight categories using quota sampling, to match the wider workforce. In total, 588 UK offshore workers, 84 from each of seven weight categories, were measured for stature, mass and underwent 3D body scans which yielded 22 dimensional measurements. Each measurement was modeled using a body-mass power law (adjusting for age), to derive its exponent, which was compared against that predicted from geometric similarity.ResultsMass scaled to stature 1.73 (CI: 1.44–2.02). Arm and leg volume increased by mass0.8, and torso volume increased by mass1.1 in contrast to mass 1.0 predicted by geometric similarity. Neck girth increased by mass 0.33 as expected, while torso girth and depth dimensions increased by mass0.53–0.72, all substantially greater than assumed by geometric similarity.ConclusionsAfter controlling for age, offshore workers experience spectacular “super-centralization” of body shape, with greatest gains in abdominal depth and girth dimensions in areas of fat accumulation, and relative dimensional loss in limbs. These findings are consistent with the antecedents of sarcopenic obesity, and should be flagged as a health concern for this workforce, and for future targeted research and lifestyle interventions.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01T07:00:50.912387-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22935
  • Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness predict incident hypertension: A
           population-based long-term study
    • Authors: Sae Young Jae; Sudhir Kurl, Barry A. Franklin, Jari A. Laukkanen
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe investigated whether long-term changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) predict the risk of incident hypertension, independent of risk factors, in initially normotensive men.MethodsThis prospective study from the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Study included 431 male participants without hypertension who underwent symptom-limited maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline and during a second examination, 11-years later, who were re-evaluated for hypertension at 20-year follow-up. Changes in CRF (%) were calculated as the difference in directly measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) between the baseline and second examination, and classified into decreasing tertiles as percentages. Hypertension was defined as systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or hypertension that required antihypertensive medication as diagnosed by a physician.ResultsDuring a 10-year follow-up after the second examination, 165 men (38%) developed hypertension. Men who demonstrated the largest decline in CRF between evaluations (−62.1% to −20.2%) had a 4.33-fold (95% CI 2.32–8.07, P 
      PubDate: 2016-10-18T01:51:52.77719-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.22932
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