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Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 285)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover American Journal of Human Biology
  [SJR: 1.018]   [H-I: 58]   [13 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1042-0533 - ISSN (Online) 1520-6300
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1592 journals]
  • Digit ratio (2D:4D) in Chinese women with gastric cancer
    • Authors: Lu Wang; Hong Lu, Ke-Ke Li, Chun-Yue Bai, Zhan-Bing Ma
      Abstract: ObjectivesDigit ratio, especially the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), is a proxy indicator for prenatal exposure and sensitivity to sexual hormones which may influence the susceptibility to certain cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is a possible association between 2D:4D and gastric cancer (GCA) in north Chinese women.MethodsPhotographs of the left and right hands of 167 women (controls: 113; patients: 54) were collected. Left hand, right hand, and right minus left hand (Dr-l) 2D:4D were analyzed and compared.ResultsThe GCA group presented significantly lower 2D:4D than controls (left: P 
      PubDate: 2018-02-08T04:50:31.699754-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23109
  • Sex-specific patterns in cortical and trabecular bone microstructure in
           the Kirsten Skeletal Collection, South Africa
    • Authors: Amy C. Beresheim; Susan K. Pfeiffer, Marc D. Grynpas, Amanda Alblas
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to provide bone histomorphometric reference data for South Africans of the Western Cape who likely dealt with health issues under the apartheid regime.MethodsThe 206 adult individuals (nfemale = 75, nmale = 131, mean = 47.9 ± 15.8 years) from the Kirsten Skeletal Collection, U. Stellenbosch, lived in the Cape Town metropole from the late 1960s to the mid-1990s. To study age-related changes in cortical and trabecular bone microstructure, photomontages of mid-thoracic rib cross-sections were quantitatively examined. Variables include relative cortical area (Rt.Ct.Ar), osteon population density (OPD), osteon area (On.Ar), bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), and trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp).ResultsAll cortical variables demonstrated significant relationships with age in both sexes, with women showing stronger overall age associations. Peak bone mass was compromised in some men, possibly reflecting poor nutritional quality and/or substance abuse issues throughout adolescence and early adulthood. In women, greater predicted decrements in On.Ar and Rt.Ct.Ar suggest a structural disadvantage with age, consistent with postmenopausal bone loss. Age-related patterns in trabecular bone microarchitecture are variable and difficult to explain. Except for Tb.Th, there are no statistically significant relationships with age in women. Men demonstrate significant negative correlations between BV/TV, Tb.N, and age, and a significant positive correlation between Tb.Sp and age.ConclusionsThis research highlights sex-specific differences in patterns of age-related bone loss, and provides context for discussion of contemporary South African bone health. While the study sample demonstrates indicators of poor bone quality, osteoporosis research continues to be under-prioritized in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07T00:20:30.370802-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23108
  • Dental enamel defects predict adolescent health indicators: A cohort study
           among the Tsimane’ of Bolivia
    • Authors: Erin E. Masterson; Annette L. Fitzpatrick, Daniel A. Enquobahrie, Lloyd A. Mancl, Dan T. A. Eisenberg, Esther Conde, Philippe P. Hujoel
      Abstract: ObjectivesBioarchaeological findings have linked defective enamel formation in preadulthood with adult mortality. We investigated how defective enamel formation in infancy and childhood is associated with risk factors for adult morbidity and mortality in adolescents.MethodsThis cohort study of 349 Amerindian adolescents (10-17 years of age) related extent of enamel defects on the central maxillary incisors (none, less than 1/3, 1/3 to 2/3, more than 2/3) to adolescent anthropometrics (height, weight) and biomarkers (hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, white blood cell count, and blood pressure). Risk differences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multiple linear regression. Enamel defects and stunted growth were compared in their ability to predict adolescent health indicators using log-binomial regression and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs).ResultsGreater extent of defective enamel formation on the tooth surface was associated with shorter height (–1.35 cm, 95% CI: −2.17, −0.53), lower weight (−0.98 kg, 95% CI: −1.70, −0.26), lower hemoglobin (−0.36 g/dL, 95% CI: −0.59, −0.13), lower glycated hemoglobin (−0.04 %A1c, 95% CI: −0.08, −0.00008), and higher white blood cell count (0.74 109/L, 95% CI: 0.35, 1.14) in adolescence. Extent of enamel defects and stunted growth independently performed similarly as risk factors for adverse adolescent outcomes, including anemia, prediabetes/type II diabetes, elevated WBC count, prehypertension/hypertension, and metabolic health.ConclusionsDefective enamel formation in infancy and childhood predicted adolescent health outcomes and may be primarily associated with infection. Extent of enamel defects and stunted growth may be equally predictive of adverse adolescent health outcomes.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05T00:20:59.42564-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23107
  • Evaluation of childhood nutrition by dietary survey and stable isotope
           analyses of hair and breath
    • Authors: Luciano O. Valenzuela; Shannon P. O'Grady, Lindsey E. Enright, Maureen Murtaugh, Carol Sweeney, James R. Ehleringer
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe natural abundances of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotopes in hair, and of carbon isotopes in breath serve as quantitative biomarkers of protein and carbohydrate sources, but applicability of isotopes for evaluating children's diet has not been demonstrated. In this study, we sought to describe the stable isotope patterns observed in the hair and breath of children and to assess dietary variations in relation to age and ethnicity, hypothesizing that these would reflect dietary differences across age and ethnic groups and would correlate with intake variables derived from a Food Frequency Questionnaire.MethodsData were obtained from a cross-sectional study of non-Hispanic white (N = 115) and Hispanic (N = 97) children, aged 9–16 years, in Salt Lake City, Utah. Sampling included a hair sample, breath samples (AM and PM), and a youth/adolescent food questionnaire (YAQ). Hair was analyzed for carbon (δ13C), nitrogen (δ15N), and sulfur (δ34S) isotopes, and breath samples for δ13CAM/PM of respired CO2.ResultsNon-Hispanic whites had lower δ13C, δ15N, δ13CAM, and δ13CPM values than Hispanics. Hair δ13C and δ15N values were correlated with protein sources, particularly for non-Hispanics. Breath δ13C values were correlated with carbohydrate sources, particularly for Hispanic students. Non-Hispanic white students reported greater intake of total protein, animal protein, dairy, and grain than Hispanic students. Hispanic students reported higher intake of carbohydrates, particularly sweetened beverages.ConclusionWhile YAQ and stable isotope data reflected strong cultural influences in diet, no significant gender-based nor age-based differences were detected. Significant covariation between YAQ and isotopes existed and demonstrate the potential of stable isotopes for characterizing children's diet.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01T00:36:57.31554-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23103
  • Nasal variation in relation to high-altitude adaptations among Tibetans
           and Andeans
    • Authors: Lauren N. Butaric; Ross P. Klocke
      Abstract: ObjectivesHigh-altitude (>2500 m) populations face several pressures, including hypoxia and cold-dry air, resulting in greater respiratory demand to obtain more oxygen and condition inspired air. While cardiovascular and pulmonary adaptations to high-altitude hypoxia have been extensively studied, adaptations of upper-respiratory structures, e.g., nasal cavity, remain untested. This study investigates whether nasal morphology presents adaptations to hypoxic (larger noses) and/or cold-dry (tall/narrow noses) conditions among high-altitude samples.MethodsCT scans of two high- and four low-altitude samples from diverse climates were collected (n = 130): high-altitude Tibetans and Peruvians; low-altitude Peruvians, Southern Chinese (temperate), Mongolian-Buriats (cold-dry), and Southeast Asians (hot-wet). Facial and nasal distances were calculated from 3D landmarks placed on digitally-modeled crania. Temperature, precipitation, and barometric pressure data were also obtained.ResultsPrincipal components analysis and analyses of variance primarily indicate size-related differences among the cold-dry (Mongolian-Buriats) and hot-wet (Southeast Asians) adapted groups. Two-block partial least squares (PLS) analysis show weak relationships between size-standardized nasal dimensions and environmental variables. However, among PLS1 (85.90% of covariance), Tibetans display relatively larger nasal cavities related to lower temperatures and barometric pressure; regression analyses also indicate high-altitude Tibetans possess relatively larger internal nasal breadths and heights for their facial size.ConclusionsOverall, nasal differences relate to climate among the cold-dry and hot-wet groups. Specific nasal adaptations were not identified among either Peruvian group, perhaps due to their relatively recent migration history and population structure. However, high-altitude Tibetans seem to exhibit a compromise in nasal morphology, serving in increased oxygen uptake, and air-conditioning processes.
      PubDate: 2018-01-31T01:17:57.826744-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23104
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2018-01-25T08:32:13.638444-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23097
  • The allometric scaling of body mass and height in children and adolescents
           in five countries
    • Authors: Camila Medeiros da Silva Mazzeti; Jéssica Cumpian Silva, Ana Elisa Madalena Rinaldi, Wolney Lisbôa Conde
      Abstract: ObjectiveThe purpose a methodology that excludes values outside of the expected spectrum for age (VOESA) of height and body mass in the definition of power (p) to construct an international allometric body mass index (AI) for children and adolescents.MethodsDatasets of national surveys including individuals (aged 0–19 years) from five countries (Brazil, South Korea, Mexico, England, and the USA) were selected. The p was defined for each country, age range, and sex after exclusion of VOESA for height and weight by log–log linear regression, where β represented p. The p was also defined for a pool of five countries, international p (ip) after exclusion of VOESA using a spline modeling technique (5 knots). The AI was calculated and Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was calculated to investigate the correlation between AI and height.ResultsExclusion of VOESA decreased the difference of p among countries. Exponent p showed values close to 2 in the first years of life, increased to 3–3.5 between 7 and 11 years for girls and 8 to 12 years for boys, and decreased to close to 2 near the end of growth (16 years for girls and 19 years for boys). The use of ip for all countries decreased r values to near zero while BMI had values near 0.4.ConclusionsExclusion of VOESA contributes to a decreased effect of epidemiological context among countries when calculating the AI. AI calculated using ip is independent of height in all countries and reflects physiological growth changes for children and adolescents.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23T23:30:38.404508-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23101
  • Ancient and recent Middle Eastern maternal genetic contribution to North
           Africa as viewed by mtDNA diversity in Tunisian Arab populations
    • Authors: Sarra Elkamel; Sami Boussetta, Houssein Khodjet-El-Khil, Amel Benammar Elgaaied, Lotfi Cherni
      Abstract: ObjectivesThrough previous mitochondrial DNA studies, the Middle Eastern maternal genetic contribution to Tunisian populations appears limited. In fact, most of the studied communities were cosmopolitan, or of Berber or Andalusian origin. To provide genetic evidence for the actual contribution of Middle Eastern mtDNA lineages to Tunisia, we focused on two Arab speaking populations from Kairouan and Wesletia known to belong to an Arab genealogical lineage.Materials and MethodsA total of 114 samples were sequenced for the mtDNA HVS-I and HVS-II regions. Using these data, we evaluated the distribution of Middle Eastern haplogroups in the study populations, constructed interpolation maps, and established phylogenetic networks allowing estimation of the coalescence time for three specific Middle Eastern subclades (R0a, J1b, and T1).ResultsBoth studied populations displayed North African genetic structure and Middle Eastern lineages with a frequency of 12% and 28.12% in Kairouan and Wesletia, respectively. TMRCA estimates for haplogroups T1a, R0a, and J1b in Tunisian Arabian samples were around 15 000 YBP, 9000 to 5000 YBP, and 960 to 600 YBP, respectively.ConclusionsThe Middle Eastern maternal genetic contribution to Tunisian populations, as to other North African populations, occurred mostly in deep prehistory. They were brought in different migration waves during the Upper Paleolithic, probably with the expansion of Iberomaurusian culture, and during Epipaleolithic and Early Neolithic periods, which are concomitant with the Capsian civilization. Middle Eastern lineages also came to Tunisia during the recent Islamic expansion of the 7th CE and the subsequent massive Bedouin migration during the 11th CE.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23T00:21:15.549609-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23100
  • Skeletal muscle mass in human athletes: What is the upper limit'
    • Authors: Takashi Abe; Samuel L. Buckner, Scott J. Dankel, Matthew B. Jessee, Kevin T. Mattocks, J. Grant Mouser, Jeremy P. Loenneke
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo examine the amount of absolute and relative skeletal muscle mass (SM) in large sized athletes to investigate the potential upper limit of whole body muscle mass accumulation in the human body.MethodsNinety-five large-sized male athletes and 48 recreationally active males (control) had muscle thickness measured by ultrasound at nine sites on the anterior and posterior aspects of the body. SM was estimated from an ultrasound-derived prediction equation. Body density was estimated by hydrostatic weighing technique, and then body fat percentage and fat-free mass (FFM) were calculated. We used the SM index and FFM index to adjust for the influence of standing height (ie, divided by height squared).ResultsTen of the athletes had more than 100 kg of FFM, including the largest who had 120.2 kg, while seven of the athletes had more than 50 kg of SM, including the largest who had 59.3 kg. FFM index and SM index were higher in athletes compared to controls and the percentage differences between the two groups were 44% and 56%, respectively. The FFM index increased linearly up to 90 kg of body mass, and then the values leveled off in those of increasing body mass. Similarly, the SM index increased in a parabolic fashion reaching a plateau (approximately 17 kg/m2) beyond 120 kg body mass.ConclusionsSM index may be a valuable indicator for determining skeletal muscle mass in athletes. A SM index of approximately 17 kg/m2 may serve as the potential upper limit in humans.
      PubDate: 2018-01-22T02:03:16.992982-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23102
           Codding Karen L. Kramer (Eds.) Santa Fe: School for Advanced Research
           Press and Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2016. ($37.46,
           paper, online)
    • Authors: Michael A. Little
      PubDate: 2018-01-22T02:03:10.363769-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23099
  • Age difference between parents influences parity and number of sons
    • Authors: Berenika Kuna; Andrzej Galbarczyk, Magdalena Klimek, Ilona Nenko, Grazyna Jasienska
      Abstract: ObjectivesAmong couples, women usually prefer slightly older men, and men tend to choose much younger partners. Age difference between partners has been shown to influence their parity; however, results of previous studies are inconsistent. This study analyzed relationships between husband and wife age difference and their total number of children, and number of daughters and sons in a contemporary, rural Polish population.MethodsDemographic and reproductive data were collected from 384 postmenopausal women from rural Poland who were married only once. Regression models were used to evaluate the impact of the age gap between partners on total number of children and on number of daughters and sons. Women's age, age at marriage (as an indicator of reproductive value), and years of education were used in analyzes as potential confounders.ResultsThere was an inverted U-shape association between parental age difference and number of children and also the number of sons. The highest number of children and sons was observed when men were approximately 6.5 years older than their wives. There was no significant relationship between parental age difference and number of daughters.ConclusionsAge difference between partners is important for reproductive success (with younger wives having higher reproductive potential) and is also related to number of sons. Older husbands might provide more resources for the family, thus facilitating production of well-nourished male offspring. Future research should evaluate not only number of children but also their biological condition, health, and lifetime achievements in relation to the age difference between their parents.
      PubDate: 2018-01-19T05:17:06.190961-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23095
  • Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of nutritional status of
           school-children from Bumbire Island (United Republic of Tanzania)
    • Authors: Ornella Comandini; Gabriele Carmignani, Alessandro Cipriano, Giovanni Carmignani, Deodatus Tiba, Elisabetta Marini
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo analyze the nutritional status of schoolchildren from Bumbire Island (Tanzania) from cross-sectional and longitudinal perspectives.MethodsDuring 2014 and 2015, we collected anthropometric measurements in a sample of 437 schoolchildren (226 males, 211 females; 5–16 years). A sub-sample of 126 children were measured in both surveys. Socio-demographic data have been taken and dietary habits investigated. The accuracy of age data was checked. Malnutrition prevalence was calculated according to the WHO references and the z-score criteria.ResultsThe prevalence of undernutrition was high (stunting: 30.7%; underweight: 12.9%; thinness: 4.5%), while overweight was rare (2.4%). The prevalence of stunting was higher in males and in older children. The one-year longitudinal analysis indicated that stunting prevalence increased.ConclusionsUndernutrition is affecting Bumbire Island children, likely due to micronutrient deficiencies. The effects of linear growth deficit continue to accumulate throughout childhood and adolescent years.
      PubDate: 2018-01-19T05:17:04.230457-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23098
  • Decreased thermal sweating of central sudomotor mechanism in African and
           Korean men
    • Authors: Jeong Beom Lee; Jeong Ho Kim
      Abstract: ObjectiveTropical natives sweat less and preserve more body fluid than temperate natives, tolerating heat stress. However, the mechanisms involved in such sweating reduction have not been fully elucidated. We examined the sudomotor responses of men of African (n = 36) and Korean (n = 41) ancestry during hot water (43 °C) leg immersion (central sudomotor response). Correlations between mean body temperature, basal metabolic rate (BMR), and sweat rate were also examined.MethodsAll procedures were done in an automated climate chamber. Local skin temperatures and BMR were measured and mean body temperature was calculated. Sweating activities which include evaporative loss rate, sweat onset time, sweat rate, sweat volume, and whole-body sweat loss volume were examined.ResultsIn the heat load test, Africans showed lower mean body and local skin temperatures than Koreans before and after heating. Before and after heating, BMR declined significantly in Africans, while that of Koreans declined less. Local sweat onset time increased more in Africans than in Koreans. Local evaporative loss rate, local sweat volume, local sweat rate, and whole body sweat loss volume were reduced in Africans compared with Koreans. There were positive associations of mean body temperature and resting BMR with mean sweat rate.ConclusionIn conclusion, we observed a larger reduction of sudomotor activity in tropical Africans than in temperate Koreans, which was associated with their lower mean body temperature and lower resting BMR.
      PubDate: 2018-01-17T04:26:10.870525-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23091
  • Biological and behavioral correlates of body weight status among rural
           Northeast Brazilian schoolchildren
    • Authors: Fernanda Karina dos Santos; Marcos André Moura dos Santos, Marcelus Brito Almeida, Isabele Goes Nobre, Gabriela Goes Nobre, Wylla Tatiana Ferreira e Silva, Thayse Natacha Gomes, José António Ribeiro Maia, Carol Góis Leandro
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe increase in the prevalence of overweight/obesity in youth is a public health problem worldwide; however, few studies have investigated its prevalence and correlates in children from the Brazilian Northeast region rural zone. The purpose of this study was (1) to estimate the prevalence of children's weight status according to sex, age, and birth weight categories; and (2) to investigate the links between biological and behavioral factors and weight categories.MethodsThe sample comprises 501 children (248 girls), aged 7-10 years, classified as low weight, normal weight, overweight, and obese using body mass index cut-points. Predicted variables included birth weight, percentage of body fat (%BF), fat free mass (FFM), physical fitness, and gross motor coordination.ResultsData showed differences among weight groups for the predictor variables. Results of the logistic regression revealed that sex, age, %BF, FFM, physical fitness, and motor coordination seem to be relevant predictors of children's weight status, while no significant effect was observed for birth weight.ConclusionChildren with lower physical fitness levels as well as those with lower motor coordination quotient are more likely to be overweight and/or obese. No significant relationship was observed between birth weight and weight status in childhood. Strategies to reduce childhood obesity should consider biological, behavioral, and also environmental predictors.
      PubDate: 2018-01-17T04:26:02.849587-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23096
  • Zika: From the Brazilian Backlands to Global Threat Debora Diniz Zed
           Publishing. 192 pp, $16.50 (Paperback), $15.68 ebook (kindle)
    • Authors: Michaela Howells
      PubDate: 2018-01-08T01:40:19.381172-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23081
  • Vasomotor, urogenital, psychological, and somatic symptoms in association
           with CYP1B1 polymorphisms in Slovak women of different menopausal status
    • Authors: Veronika Candráková Čerňanová; Zuzana Danková, Lenka Vorobeľová, Marta Cvíčelová, Daniela Siváková
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to examine if the Arg48Gly, Ala119Ser, Leu432Val, and Asn453Ser polymorphisms in the CYP1B1 estrogen-metabolizing gene are associated with menopausal symptom experience in healthy Slovak women aged 40–60 years. We also investigated the possible association of other factors with menopausal symptoms, including health status, physical activity, reproductive history, psychological status, and smoking.MethodsThe total sample consisted of 367 women (mean age 49.11 ± 5.86 years), encompassing 180 premenopausal (mean age 45.06 ± 3.81 years), 29 peri-menopausal (mean age 49.41 ± 3.94 years), and 158 postmenopausal (mean age 53.71 ± 4.54 years) women. The research comprised anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance analysis measurements (BIA), blood or saliva samples collected for DNA analysis, and a specific menopausal questionnaire.ResultsCYP1B1 Arg48Gly is significantly associated with vasomotor, psychological, and somatic symptoms. It appears that the Gly/Gly genotype is a risk factor during the postmenopause and protective in the pre- and peri-menopause. CYP1B1 Ala119Ser was associated with all menopausal symptoms, with the Ser/Ser genotype increasing risk in the premenopause and offering protection in the peri- and postmenopause. Polymorphisms Leu432Val and Asn453Ser gave unequivocal results; independent of menopausal status, the Leu/Leu genotype was associated with increasing risk of vasomotor, urogenital, and psychological symptoms and the Asn/Asn genotype provided a protective effect against psychological symptoms.ConclusionsOur results suggest possible associations of CYP1B1 polymorphisms with the occurrence and manifestation of particular menopausal symptoms in healthy mid-life Slovak women.
      PubDate: 2017-12-29T03:25:25.026999-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23094
  • Height–income association in developing countries: Evidence from 14
    • Authors: Pankaj C. Patel; Srikant Devaraj
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to assess whether the height–income association is positive in developing countries, and whether income differences between shorter and taller individuals in developing countries are explained by differences in endowment (ie, taller individuals have a higher income than shorter individuals because of characteristics such as better social skills) or due to discrimination (ie, shorter individuals have a lower income despite having comparable characteristics).MethodsInstrumental variable regression, Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition, quantile regression, and quantile decomposition analyses were applied to a sample of 45 108 respondents from 14 developing countries represented in the Research on Early Life and Aging Trends and Effects (RELATE) study.ResultsFor a one-centimeter increase in country- and sex-adjusted median height, real income adjusted for purchasing power parity increased by 1.37%. The income differential between shorter and taller individuals was explained by discrimination and not by differences in endowments; however, the effect of discrimination decreased at higher values of country- and sex-adjusted height.ConclusionsTaller individuals in developing countries may realize higher income despite having characteristics similar to those of shorter individuals.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T02:50:31.828499-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23093
  • The Dance of Nurture: Negotiating Infant Feeding Penny Van Esterik Richard
           A. O'Connor New York, NY: Berghahn books, 2017. 248 pp. $120.00
    • Authors: Elizabeth M. Miller
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T06:05:52.295598-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23092
  • Physical growth and diets of school children: Trends from 2001 to 2015 in
           rural West Java, Indonesia
    • Authors: Makiko Sekiyama; Katrin Roosita, Ryutaro Ohtsuka
      Abstract: ObjectivesThis study aimed to assess changes in physical growth and diets of school children in rural West Java, Indonesia, between 2001 and 2015, a period of rapid socioeconomic change.MethodsIn 2001 and 2015, anthropometric measurements (height, weight, mid-upper arm circumference, skin-fold thickness), food consumption surveys, and questionnaires on socioeconomic status were completed by fourth-grade school children in a rural village in West Java.ResultsHeight increments of 5.9 cm for boys and 4.7 cm for girls during this 14-year period were calculated as 4.21 cm per decade for boys and 3.36 cm per decade for girls, which is equivalent to height increments observed during rapid economic development periods in other countries. Weights also increased by 3.8 kg for boys and 2.0 kg for girls during this period. Variations in weight status significantly increased in 2015; while 98% of the children were within the ‘normal’ range in 2001, the prevalence of overweight increased from 2.4% in 2001 to 13.7% in 2015 and that of thinness was 4.3% in 2015. Energy, protein, and fat intakes significantly increased in 2015. In 2015, a significant correlation between nutritional intake and weight status was observed, especially among boys.ConclusionsSocioeconomic changes between 2001 and 2015 caused increased heights and weights and greater variation in weight status, especially among boys.
      PubDate: 2017-12-14T00:45:31.861574-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23089
  • DHEAS patterning across childhood in three sub-Saharan populations:
           Associations with age, sex, ethnicity, and cortisol
    • Authors: Courtney Helfrecht; Edward H. Hagen, David DeAvila, Robin M. Bernstein, Samuel J. Dira, Courtney L. Meehan
      Abstract: ObjectivesHormones have many roles in human ontogeny, including the timing of life history ‘switch points’ across development. Limited hormonal data exist from non-Western children, leaving a significant gap in our understanding of the diversity of life history patterning. This cross-sectional study examines dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) production in relation to age, sex, ethnicity, and cortisol concentrations, as well as average age of adrenarche, among Aka and Ngandu children of the Central African Republic and Sidama children of Ethiopia.MethodsHair was collected from 480 children (160 per population) aged 3-18 years old. These samples were analyzed for DHEAS and cortisol concentrations using ELISAs. A generalized additive model was used to examine DHEAS patterning in relation to age, sex, cortisol, and ethnicity. The derivative of DHEAS as a function of age was used to identify average age of adrenarche in each population.ResultsDHEAS patterning in these three populations is distinct from Euro-American patterns of production. In all three groups, the population-level age at adrenarche onset occurs slightly later than Euro-American averages, with both Central African populations experiencing a later onset than the Ethiopian population.ConclusionsDHEAS patterns and age at adrenarche vary across cultures, perhaps indicating adaptive life history responses in diverse eco-cultural environments. Delayed involution of the fetal zone and DHEAS patterning may offer both cognitive protection and immune defense in high-risk, nutritionally-poor environments. Additional research in the majority world is essential to improving our understanding of the diversity of hormonal development and timing of ‘switch points’ in life history trajectories.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T04:36:53.509682-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23090
           Bloomsbury Sigma Press: London, 2017. 320 pp. $27.00 (hardcover)
    • Authors: Tracy K. Betsinger
      PubDate: 2017-12-08T02:00:52.33627-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23088
  • The Eastern side of the Westernmost Europeans: Insights from subclades
           within Y-chromosome haplogroup J-M304
    • Authors: Licínio Manco; Joana Albuquerque, Maria Francisca Sousa, Rui Martiniano, Ricardo Costa de Oliveira, Sofia Marques, Verónica Gomes, António Amorim, Luís Alvarez, Maria João Prata
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe examined internal lineages and haplotype diversity in Portuguese samples belonging to J-M304 to improve the spatial and temporal understanding of the introduction of this haplogroup in Iberia, using the available knowledge about the phylogeography of its main branches, J1-M267 and J2-M172.MethodsA total of 110 males of Portuguese descent were analyzed for 17 Y-chromosome bi-allelic markers and seven Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STR) loci.ResultsAmong J1-M267 individuals (n = 36), five different sub-haplogroups were identified, with the most common being J1a2b2-L147.1 (∼72%), which encompassed the majority of representatives of the J1a2b-P58 subclade. One sample belonged to the rare J1a1-M365.1 lineage and presented a core Y-STR haplotype consistent with the Iberian settlement during the fifth century by the Alans, a people of Iranian heritage. The analysis of J2-M172 Portuguese males (n = 74) enabled the detection of the two main subclades at very dissimilar frequencies, J2a-M410 (∼80%) and J2b-M12 (∼20%), among which the most common branches were J2a1(xJ2a1b,h)-L26 (22.9%), J2a1b(xJ2a1b1)-M67 (20.3%), J2a1h-L24 (27%), and J2b2-M241 (20.3%).ConclusionsWhile previous inferences based on modern haplogroup J Y-chromosomes implicated a main Neolithic dissemination, here we propose a later arrival of J lineages into Iberia using a combination of novel Portuguese Y-chromosomal data and recent evidence from ancient DNA. Our analysis suggests that a substantial tranche of J1-M267 lineages was likely carried into the Iberian Peninsula as a consequence of the trans-Mediterranean contacts during the first millennium BC, while most of the J2-M172 lineages may be associated with post-Neolithic population movements within Europe.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29T01:35:36.662409-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23082
  • Roland Hauspie (April 8, 1948–April 25, 2017)
    • Authors: Noel Cameron; Mathieu Roelants
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T23:20:35.237118-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23083
  • In memoriam: Geoffrey Ainsworth Harrison (1927–2017)
    • Authors: Gary D. James
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T23:20:33.3462-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23085
  • Cohort-based income gradients in obesity among U.S. adults
    • Authors: Jongho Heo; Audrey N. Beck, Shih-Fan Lin, Enrico Marcelli, Suzanne Lindsay, Brian Karl Finch
      Abstract: ObjectivesNo studies have focused on socioeconomic disparities in obesity within and between cohorts. Our objectives were to examine income gradients in obesity between birth-cohorts (inter-cohort variations) and within each birth-cohort (intra-cohort variations) by gender and race/ethnicity.MethodsOur sample includes 56,820 white and black adults from pooled, cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1971–2012). We fit a series of logistic hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort models to control for the effects of age and period, simultaneously. Predicted probabilities of obesity by poverty-to-income ratio were estimated and graphed for 5-year cohort groups from 1901–1990. We also stratified this relationship for four gender and racial/ethnic subgroups.ResultsObesity disparities due to income were weaker for post-World War I and II generations, specifically the mid-1920s and the mid-1940s to 1950s cohorts, than for other cohorts. In contrast, we found greater income gradients in obesity among cohorts from the 1930s to mid-1940s and mid-1960s to 1970s. Moreover, obesity disparities due to income across cohorts vary markedly by gender and race/ethnicity. White women with higher income consistently exhibited a lower likelihood of obesity than those with lower income since early 1900s cohorts; whereas, black men with higher income exhibited higher risks of obesity than those with lower income in most cohorts.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that strategies that address race and/or gender inequalities in obesity should be cognizant of significant historical factors that may be unique to cohorts. Period-based approaches that ignore life-course experiences captured in significant cohort-based experiences may limit the utility of policies and interventions.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T23:20:31.37283-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23084
  • Living conditions and change in age of menarche in adult Maya mothers and
           daughters from Yucatan, Mexico
    • Authors: Hugo Azcorra; Luis Rodríguez, Sudip Datta Banik, Barry Bogin, Federico Dickinson, Maria Ines Varela-Silva
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo analyze whether living conditions, experienced by mothers and adult daughters during their childhood, are associated with age at menarche (AAM) in daughters.MethodsFrom September, 2011, to January, 2014, AAM and childhood living conditions were collected from a sample of 246 dyads of Maya mothers (mean age = 59.60 years, SD = 8.64) and their adult daughters (mean age = 33.03 years, SD = 5.57) from the cities of Merida and Motul in Yucatan, Mexico. Indicators of childhood living conditions were number of siblings and quality of house construction materials in both generations, and father's absence among daughters in their pre-menarcheal years. Multiple regression models were used to assess the association between childhood conditions in mother-daughter dyads and daughter's AAM.ResultsThe recalled mean AAM of adult Maya daughters was 12.05 years (SD = 1.53). After adjusting for the influence of mothers' AAM, number of siblings in both the mothers' and daughters' families directly predicted daughters' AAM (more siblings was associated with a later AAM); and a higher (better) index of household conditions in mothers' childhood was associated with earlier AAM in daughters. The household conditions index during the childhood of daughters and father's absence were not associated with their AAM.ConclusionsOur results suggest that better living conditions experienced by the mothers and daughters during their childhood may lower mean AAM in daughters in the context of populations that show important intergenerational changes in their social and economic conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T23:20:28.224849-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23087
  • Influence of weight concerns on breastfeeding: Evidence from the Norwegian
           mother and child cohort study
    • Authors: Seung-Yong Han; Alexandra A. Brewis
      Abstract: ObjectivesHigh body mass index (BMI) often predicts truncated breastfeeding, although why is unclear. We test a proposed mediating role of body concerns on breastfeeding initiation and child's age at weaning using longitudinal data for 55,522 mothers from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).MethodsA linear regression-based mediation analysis with bootstrapping estimates the indirect effects of BMI on breastfeeding decisions (ever-initiation of breastfeeding, child's age at weaning, and duration of any breastfeeding beyond six months) through the variables of concern around prepregnancy weight and weight gains due to pregnancy.ResultsContrary to prediction, Norwegian mothers with greater prepregnancy weight concerns had a higher likelihood of initiating breastfeeding. Concerns about weight gain during pregnancy, however, predicted earlier weaning. This relationship was the same for higher and lower BMI mothers.ConclusionIn this very large sample, body image affects some breastfeeding decisions. However, this effect is independent of mother's body size.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T23:20:25.911093-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23086
  • Frequency of folate-related polymorphisms varies by skin pigmentation
    • Authors: Patrice Jones; Mark Lucock, Martin Veysey, Nina Jablonski, George Chaplin, Emma Beckett
      Abstract: ObjectivesFolate-mediated 1-carbon transfer processes are vital in human health but are susceptible to independent and interactive influences of genetic variance and environmental exposures. Evidence suggests folate levels may be impacted by genetic variance and environmental UVR, with the effect of UVR levels influenced in part by degree of skin pigmentation. Folate-related genes are also influenced by UVR levels; however, the potential relationship between key folate-related genes and skin pigmentation has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to examine potential associations between frequencies of key folate variants and degree of skin pigmentation.MethodsAssociation between population prevalence of 17 variants in 9 folate-related genes (MTRR, MTR, MTHFR, CBS, SHMT1, MTHFD1, RFC1, BHMT, TYMS) and the Fitzpatrick skin phototype of populations was assessed via collation of genotypic data from ALFRED (Allele Frequency Database) and 1000 Genomes databases.ResultsA significant association between variant frequency and Fitzpatrick phototype was observed for 16 of 17 examined variants (P 
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T01:06:43.669545-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23079
  • Association between objectively measured sedentary behavior and a
           criterion measure of obesity among adults
    • Authors: Junbae Mun; Youngdeok Kim, James L. Farnsworth, Sunghyeok Suh, Minsoo Kang
      Abstract: ObjectiveResults of published studies on the association between sedentary behavior (SB) and obesity are inconsistent, possibly due to reliance on subjective measures of SB and inappropriate measures of obesity. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between objectively measured SB and criterion-measured obesity among adults.MethodsA total of 2284 adults (≥18 years) from the 2003 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in the analysis. The participants were categorized into tertiles of SB time measured by accelerometry. Obesity was determined using body fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.ResultsIncreased SB was significantly associated with obesity when controlling for covariates related to demographics, health behaviors, energy intake, and physical activity (P for trends = .025).ConclusionsThis finding suggests that avoiding SB may be beneficial for lowering the risk of obesity in adults.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16T00:10:32.383809-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23080
  • Secular change in adult stature of modern Greeks
    • Authors: Andreas Bertsatos; Maria-Eleni Chovalopoulou
      Abstract: ObjectivesIn Greece, during the late 19th and early 20th century, the rural population adopted a more or less urban lifestyle. Furthermore, the first half of the 20th century finds Greece involved in five major wars, including a civil war, and consequent financial deprivation. This study investigates how the socioeconomic changes in Greece, during this period of time, have affected the stature of its population.MethodsThe Athens collection constitutes our sample with 189 adult individuals (104 males and 85 females). Stature was estimated with regression equations and secular change was evaluated by linear regression of stature with respect to the year of birth. Further analysis of our population sample was based on three time periods to explore the correlation between secular change and historical events.ResultsFrom 1879 to 1965, stature increased for both males and females. The subsequent analysis among different periods revealed that the male group exhibited a small although non-significant decline in stature during the years 1912 to 1950, which coincides with the long inter-war period. However, females appear less affected by the consequent deprivation.ConclusionsOur findings are consistent with earlier studies based on a much smaller time span. The negative effect of the economic and nutritional deprivation on stature as a result of warfare is apparent in our sample, at least for males. Furthermore, the positive effect of economic growth on stature is prominent for the entire population in the postwar period.
      PubDate: 2017-11-15T00:06:12.352888-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23077
  • Hunter–gatherer dental pathology: Do historic accounts of Aboriginal
    • Authors: Judith Littleton
      Abstract: ObjectivesStudies of hunter–gatherer oral pathology, particularly in Australia, often focus upon dental wear and caries or assume that historic studies of Aboriginal people reflect the precontact past. Consequently the range of population variation has been underestimated. In this paper dental pathology from human remains from Roonka are compared with a model of dental pathology derived from historic studies. The aim is to identify aspects of dental pathology indicative of regional or intra-population diversity.MethodsAdult dentitions (n = 115) dating from the mid to late Holocene were recorded for the following conditions: dental wear, caries, periapical voids, calculus, periodontal disease and antemortem tooth loss. Statistical analysis was used to identify patterns of dental pathology and to identify causal relationships between conditions.ResultsDental wear is marked while dental caries rates are extremely low. Other indications of dental pathology are uncommon (
      PubDate: 2017-11-15T00:06:07.887745-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23076
  • No sex difference in digit ratios (2D:4D) in the traditional Yali of Papua
           and its meaning for the previous hypotheses on the inter-populational
           variability in 2D:4D
    • Authors: Michalina Marczak; Michał Misiak, Agnieszka Sorokowska, Piotr Sorokowski
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe ratio between the 2nd and 4th digit (2D:4D) is considered to be a sexually dimorphic trait in humans, with males having on average lower 2D:4D values than females. However, significant inter- and intra-sexual differences in digit ratios across populations have been reported. In order to further explore factors influencing the variability of 2D:4D, we performed a study among the Yali, a traditional population from Papua.MethodsWe measured digit ratios of 79 adults (47 males) from the traditional Yali society, a polygamous group who inhabit a harsh high-mountain environment almost directly on the equator.ResultsStatistical analysis of the data show no significant inter-sexual difference in digit ratios in our sample.ConclusionsWe discuss the results in light of various factors that putatively shape the differences in digit ratios. We conclude that the results of our study contribute to the existing evidence suggesting that digit ratio might not be universally sexually dimorphic in humans.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T01:25:35.193398-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23078
  • Accounting for measurement error in human life history trade-offs using
           structural equation modeling
    • Authors: Samuli Helle
      Abstract: ObjectivesRevealing causal effects from correlative data is very challenging and a contemporary problem in human life history research owing to the lack of experimental approach. Problems with causal inference arising from measurement error in independent variables, whether related either to inaccurate measurement technique or validity of measurements, seem not well-known in this field. The aim of this study is to show how structural equation modeling (SEM) with latent variables can be applied to account for measurement error in independent variables when the researcher has recorded several indicators of a hypothesized latent construct.MethodsAs a simple example of this approach, measurement error in lifetime allocation of resources to reproduction in Finnish preindustrial women is modelled in the context of the survival cost of reproduction. In humans, lifetime energetic resources allocated in reproduction are almost impossible to quantify with precision and, thus, typically used measures of lifetime reproductive effort (e.g., lifetime reproductive success and parity) are likely to be plagued by measurement error. These results are contrasted with those obtained from a traditional regression approach where the single best proxy of lifetime reproductive effort available in the data is used for inference.ResultsAs expected, the inability to account for measurement error in women's lifetime reproductive effort resulted in the underestimation of its underlying effect size on post-reproductive survival.ConclusionsThis article emphasizes the advantages that the SEM framework can provide in handling measurement error via multiple-indicator latent variables in human life history studies.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11T08:01:54.084529-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23075
  • Separating the Bruce and Trivers-Willard effects in theory and in human
    • Authors: Ralph Catalano; Alison Gemmill, Joan Casey, Deborah Karasek, Holly Stewart, Katherine Saxton
      Abstract: ObjectivesTheories of reproductive suppression predict that natural selection would conserve mechanisms that abort the gestation of offspring otherwise unlikely to thrive in prevailing environments. Research reports evidence among humans of at least two such mechanisms—the Trivers-Willard and Bruce Effects. No literature, however, compares the mechanisms nor estimates their relative contribution to observed characteristics of human birth cohorts. We describe similarities and differences between the Trivers-Willard and Bruce Effects and explore high quality historical data from Sweden to determine which mechanism better describes temporal variation in the ratio of males to females in birth cohorts.MethodsWe measure Trivers-Willard exposures with the death rate among women of reproductive age. We measure Bruce exposures with the death rate among children. We use time-series regression methods to estimate the relative contribution of the Trivers-Willard and Bruce Effects to temporal variation in historical Swedish secondary sex ratio data.ResultsWe find that the Bruce Effect appears to be a better predictor of the secondary sex ratio than does the Trivers-Willard Effect.ConclusionsAttempts to identify mechanisms by which reproductive suppression affects fetal loss and characteristics of human birth cohorts should consider the Bruce Effect as an alternative to the Trivers-Willard Effect.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T04:17:03.743119-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23074
  • A decade of rapid change: Biocultural influences on child growth in
           highland Peru
    • Authors: Kathryn S. Oths; Hannah N. Smith, Max J. Stein, Rodrigo J. Lazo Landivar
      Abstract: ObjectivesIn the past decade many areas of Peru have been undergoing extreme environmental, economic, and cultural change. In the highland hamlet of Chugurpampa, La Libertad, climate change has ruined harvests and led to frequent periods of migration to the coast in search of livelihood. This biocultural research examines how the changes could be affecting the growth of children who maintain residence in the highlands.MethodsClinical records from the early 2000s were compared to those from the early 2010s. Charts were randomly selected to record anthropometric data, netting a sample of 75 children ages 0-60 months of age. Analysis of covariance was run to compare mean stature, weight, and BMI between cohorts. Percentage of children who fall below the −2 threshold for z-scores for height and weight were compared by age and cohort.ResultsA significant secular trend in growth was found, with children born more recently larger than those born a decade before. The effect is most notable in the first year of life, with the growth advantage attenuated by the age of 3 for height and age 4 for weight. While children were unlikely to be stunted from 0 to 3 years of age, 44% of the later cohort were stunted and 11% were underweight from 4 to 5 years of age.ConclusionsThree possible explanations for the rapid shift are entertained: more time spent on the coast during gestation and early childhood, which may attenuate the effect of hypoxia on child growth; dietary change; and increased use of biomedicine.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T04:16:57.494316-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23072
  • Stress, sex, and plague: Patterns of developmental stress and survival in
           pre- and post-Black Death London
    • Authors: Sharon N. DeWitte
      Abstract: ObjectivesPrevious research revealed declines in survivorship in London before the Black Death (c. 1346–1353), and improvements in survivorship following the epidemic. These trends indicate that there were declines in general levels of health before the Black Death and improvements thereof afterwards. This study expands on previous research by examining whether changes in survivorship were consistent between the sexes, and how patterns of developmental stress markers changed before and after the Black Death.Materials and MethodsThis study uses samples from London cemeteries dated to one of three periods: Early Pre-Black Death (1000–1200 AD, n = 255), Late Pre-Black Death (1200–1250 AD, n = 247), or Post-Black Death (1350–1540 AD n = 329). Temporal trends in survivorship are assessed via Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and trends in tibial length (as a proxy for stature) and linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) are assessed using t-tests and Chi-square tests, respectively.ResultsSurvivorship for both sexes decreased before the Black Death and increased afterwards. For males, LEH frequencies increased and stature decreased before the epidemic, and LEH declined and stature increased after the Black Death. For females, the only significant change with respect to developmental stress markers was a decrease in stature after the Black Death.ConclusionsThese results might reflect variation between the sexes in sensitivity to stressors, the effects of nutrition on pubertal timing, disproportionate access to dietary resources for males in the aftermath of the Black Death, the disproportionate deaths of frail individuals during the epidemic, or some combination of these factors.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26T02:50:30.844033-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23073
  • Relationships between the second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and
           game-related statistics in semi-professional female basketball players
    • Authors: Makailah Dyer; Sandra E. Short, Martin Short, John T. Manning, Grant R. Tomkinson
      Abstract: ObjectiveDigit ratio (2D:4D) is a negative correlate of sports performance, although this relationship may be weak in open-skill sports such as basketball. The primary aim was to quantify relationships between 2D:4D and game-related statistics in semi-professional female basketball players. The secondary aim was to quantify the differences in mean 2D:4Ds between players based on their position in the starting lineup.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional design, 64 female basketball players who competed in the South Australian Premier League were measured in-season for height, mass, and 2D:4D, with game-related statistics collected end-season. Partial correlations (adjusted for age and body mass index) were used to quantify relationships between right and left 2D:4Ds and game-related statistics. Unpaired t-tests were used to quantify differences in mean 2D:4Ds between starting and reserve players.Results2D:4D was a substantial negative correlate of blocks, rebounds, and field-goal percentage; meaning, females with lower 2D:4Ds were generally better defensively as they recorded more blocks and rebounds, and were more efficient scorers, irrespective of their age and body size. Mean 2D:4D differed by position in the starting lineup, as females with lower 2D:4Ds were more likely to be in the starting lineup.ConclusionsThis study found evidence that 2D:4D was a correlate of performance in an open-skill sport. Female players with lower digit ratios tended to perform better in several aspects of basketball, especially defensively, and were more likely to be starters, suggesting they are the best players on the team in their positions. These results probably reflect the organizational benefits of prenatal testosterone.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T04:50:29.223946-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23070
  • Short-term resource allocation during extensive athletic competition
    • Authors: Daniel P. Longman; Sean P. Prall, Eric C. Shattuck, Ian D. Stephen, Jay T. Stock, Jonathan C. K. Wells, Michael P. Muehlenbein
      Abstract: ObjectivesFollowing predictions from life history theory, we sought to identify acute trade-offs between reproductive effort (as measured by psychological arousal) and somatic maintenance (via functional measures of innate immunity) during conditions of severe energetic imbalance.MethodsSixty-six male ultramarathon runners (ages 20 to 37 years) were sampled before and after a lengthy race. Saliva and sera were collected for testosterone and immunological analyses (hemolytic complement activity and bacterial killing ability). Lean body mass was assessed by bioelectrical impedance, and libido was measured using a slideshow of arousing and neutral images.ResultsFollowing predictions, there was a significant decrease in salivary testosterone levels (109.59 pg/mL versus 97.61 pg/mL, P 
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T05:00:28.489651-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23052
  • Validation of multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis versus
           dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure body fat percentage in
           overweight/obeses Colombian adults
    • Authors: Robinson Ramírez-Vélez; Alejandra Tordecilla-Sanders, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Katherine González-Ruíz, Emilio González-Jiménez, Hector Reynaldo Triana-Reina, Antonio García-Hermoso, Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo verify the validity of multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (mBCA) for predicting body fat percentage (BF%) in overweight/obese adults using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference method.MethodsForty-eight adults participated (54% women, mean age = 41.0 ± 7.3 years old). The Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between BIA and BF% assessed by DXA. The concordance between BF% measured by both methods was obtained with Lin's concordance correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman difference plots.ResultsMeasures of BF% were estimated as 39.0 (SD = 6.1) and 38.3 (SD = 6.5) using DXA and mBCA, respectively. The Pearson's correlation coefficient reflected a strong correlation (r =.921, P = .001). The paired t-test showed a significant mean difference between these methods for obese men BF% of −0.6 [(SD 1.95; 95% CI = −4.0 to 3.0), P =.037]. Overall, the bias of the mBCA was −0.6 [(SD 2.2; 95% CI = −5.0 to 3.7), P =.041], which indicated that the mBCA method significantly underestimated BF% in comparison to the reference method. Finally, in both genders, Lin's concordance correlation coefficient showed a strong agreement. More specifically the DXA value was ρc = 0.943 (95% CI = 0.775 to 0.950) and the mBCA value was ρc = 0.948 (95% CI = 0.778 to 0.978).ConclusionsOur analysis showed a strong agreement between the two methods as reflected in the range of BF%. These results show that mBCA and DXA are comparable methods for measuring body composition with higher body fat percentages. However, due to broad limits of agreement, we can only recommend mBCA for groups of populations.
      PubDate: 2017-10-07T08:45:22.665615-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23071
  • Association of common genetic variants with human skin color variation in
           Indian populations
    • Authors: Anujit Sarkar; Madhusudan R. Nandineni
      Abstract: ObjectivesHuman skin color is one of the most conspicuously variable physical traits that has attracted the attention of physical anthropologists, social scientists and human geneticists. Although several studies have established the underlying genes and their variants affecting human skin color, they were mostly confined to Europeans and Africans and similar studies in Indian populations have been scanty. Studying the association between candidate genetic variants and skin color will help to validate previous findings and to better understand the molecular mechanism of skin color variation.MethodsIn this study, 22 candidate SNPs from 12 genes were tested for association with skin color in 299 unrelated samples sourced from nine geographical locations in India.ResultsOur study establishes the association of 9 SNPs with the phenotype in Indian populations and could explain ∼31% of the variance in skin color. Haplotype analysis of chromosome 15 revealed a significant association of alleles G, A and C of SNPs rs1426654, rs11070627, and rs12913316, respectively, to the phenotype, and accounted for 17% of the variance. Latitude of the sampling location was also a significant factor, contributing to ∼19% of the variation observed in the samples.ConclusionsThese observations support the findings that rs1426654 and rs4775730 located in SLC24A5, and rs11070627 and rs12913316 located in MYEF2 and CTXN2 genes respectively, are major contributors toward skin pigmentation and would aid in further unraveling the genotype-phenotype association in Indian populations. These findings can be utilized in forensic DNA applications for criminal investigations.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T04:20:26.850829-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23068
  • The cost of reproduction in women: Reproductive effort and oxidative
           stress in premenopausal and postmenopausal American women
    • Authors: Anna Ziomkiewicz; Amara Frumkin, Yawei Zhang, Amelia Sancilio, Richard G. Bribiescas
      Abstract: ObjectivesLife history theory predicts a trade-off between female investment in reproduction and somatic maintenance, which can result in accelerated senescence. Oxidative stress has been shown to be a causal physiological mechanism for accelerated aging and a possible contributor to this trade-off. We aimed to test the hypothesis for the existence of significant associations between measures of reproductive effort and the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in premenopausal and postmenopausal American women.MethodsSerum samples and questionnaire data were collected from 63 premenopausal and postmenopausal women (mean age 53.4 years), controls in the Connecticut Thyroid Health Study, between May 2010 and December 2013. Samples were analyzed for levels of 8-OHdG and Cu/Zn-SOD using immunoassay method.ResultsLevels of oxidative damage (8-OHdG) but not oxidative defense (Cu/Zn-SOD) were negatively associated with parity and number of sons in premenopausal women (r = −0.52 for parity, r = −0.52 for number of sons, P 
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T04:20:20.668456-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23069
  • Positive effects of refugee presence on host community nutritional status
           in Turkana County, Kenya
    • Authors: Rieti G. Gengo; Rahul C. Oka, Varalakshmi Vemuru, Mark Golitko, Lee T. Gettler
      Abstract: ObjectivesRefugee camps are often assumed to negatively impact local host communities through resource competition and conflict. We ask instead whether economic resources and trade networks associated with refugees have benefits for host community health and nutrition. To address this question we assess the impacts of Kakuma Refugee Camp in northwest Kenya, comparing anthropometric indicators of nutritional status between Turkana communities in the region.MethodsParticipants were recruited at four sites in Turkana County (N = 586): Kakuma Town, adjacent to Kakuma Refugee Camp; Lorugum, an area with sustained economic development; Lokichoggio, formerly host to international NGOs, and now underdeveloped; and Lorengo, an undeveloped, rural community. We evaluated nutritional status using summed skinfold thickness and body mass index (BMI). Structured interviews provided contextual data.ResultsAge-controlled multiple regression models reveal two distinct skinfold thickness profiles for both sexes: comparatively elevated values in Kakuma and Lorugum, and significantly lower values in Lorengo and Lokichoggio. BMI did not vary significantly by location. Despite better nutritional status, a large proportion of Kakuma residents still report worries about basic needs, including hunger, health, and economic security.ConclusionsKakuma Refugee Camp is associated with better host community energetic status indicators, compared to other relevant, regional sites varying in development and resources. Based on global nutritional standards, observed differences likely represent meaningful disparities in overall health. We suggest that access to cereals via refugee trade networks and employment might mediate this relationship. However, perceptions of refugees as illegitimate interlopers maintain a high psychological burden.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T04:00:28.48637-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23060
  • The association of air pollution with height: Evidence from Hong Kong's
           “Children of 1997” birth cohort
    • Authors: Jian V. Huang; Gabriel M. Leung, C. Mary Schooling
      Abstract: ObjectivesWithin populations, height is positively associated with economic success and in economically developed populations inversely associated with health. Recent studies also suggest air pollution may result in higher bone turnover markers among children, which may affect growth. However, few studies have investigated the effect of air pollution on height or growth rate. We therefore assessed the associations of several air pollutants with height at different ages.MethodsWe simultaneously assessed associations of particulate matter with a diameter of 10 micrometers or less (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in utero, in infancy, and in childhood with height at different ages (∼9, ∼11, ∼13, and ∼15 years), in a population-representative birth cohort “Children of 1997” (n = 8327) from the developed non-Western setting of Hong Kong with relatively high air pollution and short children, using partial least square regression.ResultsAfter considering multiple comparison, higher SO2 in childhood was associated with shorter height at ∼13 years (–0.20 cm, 99% CI −0.32 to −0.06). This difference was not evident at ∼15 years.ConclusionsThese observations suggest that air pollution may affect the trajectory of growth and development rather than final height, with corresponding implications for health in later life.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30T07:10:41.543262-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23067
  • Resting metabolic rate of Indian Junior Soccer players: Testing agreement
           between measured versus selected predictive equations
    • Authors: Keren Susan Cherian; Faaiza Shahkar, Ashok Sainoji, Nagalla Balakrishna, Venkata Ramana Yagnambhatt
      Abstract: ObjectivesOwing to a dearth of research related to Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) among adolescent athletes in India, our study aimed to document RMR among junior soccer players (JSP) and to identify suitable RMR predictive models for JSP from nine existing equations.MethodsForty Indian JSP (Boys = 21, Girls = 19) representing the under-12 and under-16 age categories were assessed for body composition (skinfold technique) and RMR (oxycon mobile). Two-way ANOVA and ANCOVA were used to examine the differences across age and sex. Bland-Altman plot was used to test agreement between measured vs. predicted RMR using the equations of Cunningham (, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 33), Soares et al. (, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 47; 1998, British Journal of Nutrition, 79), Henry (, Public Health Nutrition, 8), and Patil and Bharadwaj (, Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, 59) for non-athletic populations and the equations of De Lorenzo et al. (, The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 39), Wong et al. (, Singapore Medical Journal, 53), and ten Haaf & Weijs (, PloS One, 9) for adult athletes.ResultsRMR showed significant (P 
      PubDate: 2017-09-30T07:10:21.7955-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23066
  • Mutual compensation of the effects of religious and ethnic homogamy on
    • Authors: Susanne Huber; Martin Fieder
      Abstract: ObjectivesHomogamy, mating based on similarity, has been demonstrated for a great variety of traits such as age, education, religion, and physical and psychological traits. Recently, pro-fertile effects of religious as well as educational homogamy have been reported. We investigate whether ethnic homogamy also has a pro-fertile effect and whether ethnic and religious homogamy interact in their putative effects on reproduction (in terms of average number of offspring).MethodsWe analyzed the association between ethnic as well as religious homogamy and woman's average number of offspring based on census data from ten countries provided by IPUMS international, encompassing a total of 1,485,433 married women aged 46-60 years (who have thus completed or almost completed reproduction) and their spouses.ResultsWe find a clear pro-fertile but nonadditive effect of both ethnic and religious homogamy, which is most pronounced in the case of double homogamy. Our results further indicate that homogamy for one trait may compensate for heterogamy of the other, albeit countries differ regarding which trait compensates for the other.ConclusionsWe suggest that the interaction between ethnic homogamy, religious homogamy, and reproduction provides an interesting example for gene-culture co-evolution.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T02:15:30.679008-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23064
  • Evaluating minimally invasive sample collection methods for telomere
           length measurement
    • Authors: Elisabeth A. Goldman; Geeta N. Eick, Devan Compton, Paul Kowal, J. Josh Snodgrass, Dan T.A. Eisenberg, Kirstin N. Sterner
      Abstract: ObjectivesTelomere length (TL) is a biomarker of aging and age-related decline. Although venous blood is considered the “gold standard” for TL measurement, its collection is often not feasible or desired in nonclinical settings. Saliva and dried blood spots (DBS) have been used as alternatives when venipuncture cannot be performed. However, it is not known whether these sample types yield TL measurements comparable to those obtained from venous blood. We sought to determine whether different samples from the same individual yield comparable TL measurements.MethodsWe extracted DNA from matched buffy coat, saliva (Oragene and Oasis), and DBS (venous and capillary) samples from 40 women aged 18-77 years. We used the monochrome multiplex qPCR (MMQPCR) assay to measure TL in all sample types for each participant and applied quality control measures to retain only high-quality samples for analysis. We then compared TL from buffy coat and saliva to examine how these measurements differ and to test if TL is correlated across sample types.ResultsTL differed significantly across buffy coat, Oragene saliva, and Oasis saliva samples. TL from buffy coat and Oragene saliva was moderately correlated (ρ = 0.48, P = .002) and the most similar in size. Oasis saliva TL was not correlated with buffy coat or Oragene saliva TL, and was the shortest. DBS DNA yields were inadequate for TL measurement using the MMQPCR assay.ConclusionsUsing a matched dataset we demonstrate that sample type significantly influences the TL measurement obtained using the MMQPCR assay.
      PubDate: 2017-09-26T08:00:31.197069-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23062
  • Measuring arterial blood pressure in humans: Auscultatory and automatic
           measurement techniques for human biological field studies
    • Authors: Gary D. James; Linda M. Gerber
      Abstract: Human biologists have been examining arterial blood pressure since they began studying the effects of the environment and culture on the health of diverse populations. The Korotkoff auscultatory technique with a trained observer and aneroid sphygmomanometer is the method of choice for blood pressure measurement in many bioanthropological field contexts. Korotkoff sounds (the first and fifth phases) are the preferred determinants of systolic and diastolic pressure, even in infants, children, pregnant women, and the elderly. Training of observers, positioning of individuals, and selection of cuff size are all essential for obtaining standardized measurements. Automatic electronic devices are increasingly being used for blood pressure measurement in human biological studies. The automatic monitors often use the oscillometric method for measuring pressure, but must be validated before use. The emergence of automatic ambulatory blood pressure monitors has opened another avenue of research on blood pressure in human biology, where allostasis and circadian responses to environmental change and real life behavioral challenges can be defined and evaluated, largely because there is now the ability to make multiple measurements over time and in varying contexts. Stand-alone automatic monitors can also be substituted for manual auscultated readings in field contexts, although in studies where participants measure their own pressure, education about how the devices work and protocol specifics are necessary. Finally, computer-driven plethysmographic devices that measure pressure in the finger are available to evaluate short-term reactivity to specific challenges.
      PubDate: 2017-09-22T09:20:56.842742-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23063
  • Resemblance in physical activity levels: The Portuguese sibling study on
           growth, fitness, lifestyle, and health
    • Authors: S. Pereira; P. T. Katzmarzyk, T. N. Gomes, M. Souza, R. N. Chaves, F. K. Santos, D. Santos, A. Bustamante, T. V. Barreira, D. Hedeker, J. A. Maia
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo investigate the relationships of biological, behavioral, familial, and environmental characteristics with siblings´ physical activity (PA) levels as well as the intrapair resemblance in PA.MethodsThe sample comprises 834 (390 females) biological siblings [brother-brother (BB), sister-sister (SS), brother-sister (BS)] aged 9 to 20 years. Total PA index (TPAI) was estimated by questionnaire. Information on potential behavioral, familial, and environmental correlates was obtained by self-report; body mass index (BMI), biological maturation, and physical fitness were measured. Multilevel models were used to analyze siblings´ clustered data, and sibling resemblance was estimated with the intraclass correlation (ρ).ResultsOn average, younger sibs, those more physically fit, and those with more parental support had greater TPAI. Further, BB pairs had higher TPAI levels than SS or BS pairs, but also had greater within-pair variance. When adjusted for all covariates, SS pairs demonstrated greater resemblance in TPAI (ρ = 0.53, 95%CI = 0.38–0.68) than BS (ρ = 0.26, 95%CI = 0.14–0.43) or BB pairs (ρ = 0.18, 95%CI = 0.06–0.44).ConclusionsAge, physical fitness, and parental support were the best predictors of TPAI levels. A moderate level of resemblance in TPAI was observed in SS pairs, while lower resemblance was found for BS and BB pairs. These findings may be due to differences in the roles of shared genetic factors, familial, and environmental characteristics across different sibling types.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T06:10:59.192843-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23061
  • Child stunting is associated with weaker human capital among native
    • Authors: Eduardo A. Undurraga; Jere R. Behrman, Susan D. Emmett, Celeste Kidd, William R. Leonard, Steven T. Piantadosi, Victoria Reyes-García, Abhishek Sharma, Rebecca Zhang, Ricardo A. Godoy
      Abstract: ObjectivesWe assessed associations between child stunting, recovery, and faltering with schooling and human capital skills in a native Amazonian society of horticulturalists-foragers (Tsimane').MethodsWe used cross-sectional data (2008) from 1262 children aged 6 to 16 years in 53 villages to assess contemporaneous associations between three height categories: stunted (height-for-age Z score, HAZ–1), and three categories of human capital: completed grades of schooling, test-based academic skills (math, reading, writing), and local plant knowledge. We used annual longitudinal data (2002–2010) from all children (n = 853) in 13 villages to estimate the association between changes in height categories between the first and last years of measure and schooling and academic skills.ResultsStunting was associated with 0.4 fewer completed grades of schooling (∼24% less) and with 13–15% lower probability of showing any writing or math skills. Moderate stunting was associated with ∼20% lower scores in local plant knowledge and 9% lower probability of showing writing skills, but was not associated with schooling or math and writing skills. Compared with nonstunted children, children who became stunted had 18–21% and 15–21% lower probabilities of showing math and writing skills, and stunted children had 0.4 fewer completed grades of schooling. Stunted children who recovered showed human capital outcomes that were indistinguishable from nonstunted children.ConclusionsThe results confirm adverse associations between child stunting and human capital skills. Predictors of growth recovery and faltering can affect human capital outcomes, even in a remote, economically self-sufficient society.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T03:10:54.306208-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23059
  • Longitudinal patterns in BMI and percent total body fat from peak height
           velocity through emerging adulthood into young adulthood
    • Authors: Erin Barbour-Tuck; Marta Erlandson, Nazeem Muhajarine, Heather Foulds, Adam Baxter-Jones
      Abstract: ObjectivesEmerging adulthood, a potential critical period, is an understudied period of fat mass accrual. The aim of this study was to describe patterns of fat mass accrual, and weight status, from adolescence, through emerging adulthood, into young adulthood.MethodsOne-hundred-eighteen participants (59 male) were measured repeatedly for 20 years. Annual measures of height, weight, and body composition (DXA) were taken. Calculated measures included: peak height velocity (PHV), biological age (BA; years from PHV), body mass index (BMI), and percent total body fat (%TBF). Weight status groupings (normal NW, and overweight/obese OWO) were created using age and sex specific BMI and %TBF cut-offs. Analysis included t-tests and logistic regression.ResultsBMI and %TBF increased significantly until 8 years post PHV (P  .05), and then began increasing again (P  .05).ConclusionsDuring emerging adulthood, the prevalence of OWO increased. Being NW at PHV was not protective against being overweight in young adulthood. Emerging adulthood appears to be a potential critical period for fat accrual and warrants further attention.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T03:10:45.091038-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23056
  • Amerindian ancestry and extended longevity in Nicoya, Costa Rica
    • Authors: Jorge Azofeifa; Edward A. Ruiz-Narváez, Alejandro Leal, Hanna Gerlovin, Luis Rosero-Bixby
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to address the hypothesis that Amerindian ancestry is associated with extended longevity in the admixed population of Nicoya, Costa Rica. The Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica has been considered a “longevity island,” particularly for males.MethodsWe estimated Amerindian ancestry using 464 ancestral informative markers in 20 old Nicoyans aged ≥99 years, and 20 younger Nicoyans (60-65 years). We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the association of Amerindian ancestry and longevity.ResultsOlder Nicoyans had higher Amerindian ancestry compared to younger Nicoyans (43.3% vs 36.0%, P = .04). Each 10% increase of Amerindian ancestry was associated with more than twice the odds of being long-lived (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.03-5.25).Conclusions and ImplicationsTo our knowledge, this is the first time that ancestry is implicated as a likely determinant of extended longevity. Amerindian-specific alleles may protect against early mortality. The identification of these protective alleles should be the focus of future studies.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T04:30:28.743451-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23055
  • Use of iDXA spine scans to evaluate total and visceral abdominal fat
    • Authors: J. W. Bea; C-H Hsu, R. M. Blew, A. P. Irving, B. J. Caan, M. L. Kwan, I. Abraham, S. B. Going
      Abstract: ObjectivesAbdominal fat may be a better predictor than body mass index (BMI) for risk of metabolically-related diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. We sought to validate the percent fat reported on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) regional spine scans (spine fat fraction, SFF) against abdominal fat obtained from total body scans using the iDXA machine (General Electric, Madison, WI), as previously done on the Prodigy model.MethodsTotal body scans and regional spine scans were completed on the same day (N = 50). In alignment with the Prodigy-based study, the following regions of interest (ROI) were assessed from total body scans and compared to the SFF from regional spine scans: total abdominal fat at (1) lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 and (2) L2-Iliac Crest (L2-IC); (3) total trunk fat; and (4) visceral fat in the android region. Separate linear regression models were used to predict each total body scan ROI from SFF; models were validated by bootstrapping.ResultsThe sample was 84% female, a mean age of 38.5 ± 17.4 years, and mean BMI of 23.0 ± 3.8 kg/m2. The SFF, adjusted for BMI, predicted L2-L4 and L2-IC total abdominal fat (%; Adj. R2: 0.90) and total trunk fat (%; Adj. R2: 0.88) well; visceral fat (%) adjusted R2 was 0.83. Linear regression models adjusted for additional participant characteristics resulted in similar adjusted R2 values.ConclusionsThis replication of the strong correlation between SFF and abdominal fat measures on the iDXA in a new population confirms the previous Prodigy model findings and improves generalizability.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T04:30:21.928988-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23057
  • Fifty years of child height and weight in Japan and South Korea:
           Contrasting secular trend patterns analyzed by SITAR
    • Authors: T. J. Cole; H. Mori
      Abstract: Objectives Japanese and South Koreans have traditionally been shorter than Europeans, but have recently become appreciably taller. The aim was to quantify the secular trend patterns in height and weight growth in the two countries over 50 years using the SITAR growth curve model.Methods Data on mean height and weight by sex in 1-year age groups from 1 to 20 years were obtained by decade in South Korea (1965–2005) and Japan (1950–2010). The data were analyzed using SITAR (SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation), which estimates a mean curve and three adjustments–size, timing and intensity–reflecting how the individual surveys differ from the mean. A sensitivity analysis compared results for the Japanese data based on cohort as well as period.Results Growth patterns in the two countries changed dramatically over the study period, affecting not only height and weight but also developmental age, in that the growth period advanced in timing and shrank in duration. SITAR fitted the data well. The trends were larger in South Korea than Japan, and puberty timing in Japan stabilized by 1970. Most of the height increment seen in adults had already accrued by age 1.5 years, whereas the adult weight increment accrued throughout childhood.Conclusions The secular height trend in these countries represents increased growth in the long bones during infancy, so it can be viewed as the inverse of stunting. There are striking country differences in growth pattern, but they are not easily explained by differences in national income, diet or lifestyle.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T05:46:25.585039-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23054
  • Secular trend and social variation in age at menarche among polish
           schoolgirls before and after the political transformation
    • Authors: Aleksandra Gomula; Slawomir Koziel
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo describe the biological results of the political and economic transformations that took place in Poland between 1966 and 2012, based on an analysis of age at menarche, and to determine changes across social groups.MethodsData were collected in 1966, 1978, 1988, and 2012 in several districts of Poland. The study included 34,940 schoolgirls. Age at menarche was assessed with the use of status quo method. Definition of socioeconomic status was based on 4 factors: urbanization level, mother and father education, and family size.ResultsWhen the political and economic situation in Poland improved, a decrease in age at menarche was observed, whereas in years of crisis it increased. The same social differentiation in menarcheal age observed before the political transformation continued to be present in 2012.DiscussionSocioeconomic changes were significantly associated with age at menarche. Social inequalities, reflected in menarcheal age, continue to be present in Poland.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08T05:51:10.506522-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23048
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