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BIOLOGY (1423 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 293)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
  [SJR: 1.838]   [H-I: 138]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1040-0605 - ISSN (Online) 1522-1504
   Published by American Physiological Society Homepage  [13 journals]
  • Acidosis increases the susceptibility of respiratory epithelial cells to
           Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced cytotoxicity
    • Authors: Torres, I. M; Demirdjian, S, Vargas, J, Goodale, B. C, Berwin, B.
      Abstract: Bacterial infection can lead to acidosis of the local microenvironment, which is believed to exacerbate disease pathogenesis; however, the mechanisms by which changes in pH alter disease progression are poorly understood. We test the hypothesis that acidosis enhances respiratory epithelial cell death in response to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our findings support the idea that acidosis in the context of P. aeruginosa infection results in increased epithelial cell cytotoxicity due to ExoU intoxication. Importantly, enforced maintenance of neutral pH during P. aeruginosa infection demonstrates that cytotoxicity is dependent on the acidosis. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms revealed that host cell cytotoxicity correlated with increased bacterial survival during an acidic infection that was due to reduced bactericidal activity of host-derived antimicrobial peptides. These findings extend previous reports that the activities of antimicrobial peptides are pH-dependent and provide novel insights into the consequences of acidosis on infection-derived pathology. Therefore, this report provides the first evidence that physiological levels of acidosis increase the susceptibility of epithelial cells to acute Pseudomonas infection and demonstrates the benefit of maintaining pH homeostasis during a bacterial infection.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T03:33:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00524.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 1 (2017)
  • Immunomodulators targeting MARCO expression improve resistance to
           postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia
    • Authors: Wu, M; Gibbons, J. G, DeLoid, G. M, Bedugnis, A. S, Thimmulappa, R. K, Biswal, S, Kobzik, L.
      Abstract: Downregulation of the alveolar macrophage (AM) receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) leads to susceptibility to postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. We sought to determine whether immunomodulation of MARCO could improve host defense and resistance to secondary bacterial pneumonia. RNAseq analysis identified a striking increase in MARCO expression between days 9 and 11 after influenza infection and indicated important roles for Akt and Nrf2 in MARCO recovery. In vitro, primary human AM-like monocyte-derived macrophages (AM-MDMs) and THP-1 macrophages were treated with IFN to model influenza effects. Activators of Nrf2 (sulforaphane) or Akt (SC79) caused increased MARCO expression and a MARCO-dependent improvement in phagocytosis in IFN-treated cells and improved survival in mice with postinfluenza pneumococcal pneumonia. Transcription factor analysis also indicated a role for transcription factor E-box (TFEB) in MARCO recovery. Overexpression of TFEB in THP-1 cells led to marked increases in MARCO. The ability of Akt activation to increase MARCO expression in IFN-treated AM-MDMs was abrogated in TFEB-knockdown cells, indicating Akt increases MARCO expression through TFEB. Increasing MARCO expression by targeting Nrf2 signaling or the Akt-TFEB-MARCO pathway are promising strategies to improve bacterial clearance and survival in postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T03:33:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00075.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 1 (2017)
  • Bitter taste receptor agonists alter mitochondrial function and induce
           autophagy in airway smooth muscle cells
    • Authors: Pan, S; Sharma, P, Shah, S. D, Deshpande, D. A.
      Abstract: Airway remodeling, including increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass, is a hallmark feature of asthma and COPD. We previously identified the expression of bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) on human ASM cells and demonstrated that known TAS2R agonists could promote ASM relaxation and bronchodilation and inhibit mitogen-induced ASM growth. In this study, we explored cellular mechanisms mediating the antimitogenic effect of TAS2R agonists on human ASM cells. Pretreatment of ASM cells with TAS2R agonists chloroquine and quinine resulted in inhibition of cell survival, which was largely reversed by bafilomycin A1, an autophagy inhibitor. Transmission electron microscope studies demonstrated the presence of double-membrane autophagosomes and deformed mitochondria. In ASM cells, TAS2R agonists decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased mitochondrial ROS and mitochondrial fragmentation. Inhibiting dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1) reversed TAS2R agonist-induced mitochondrial membrane potential change and attenuated mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death. Furthermore, the expression of mitochondrial protein BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (Bnip3) and mitochondrial localization of DLP1 were significantly upregulated by TAS2R agonists. More importantly, inhibiting Bnip3 mitochondrial localization by dominant-negative Bnip3 significantly attenuated cell death induced by TAS2R agonist. Collectively the TAS2R agonists chloroquine and quinine modulate mitochondrial structure and function, resulting in ASM cell death. Furthermore, Bnip3 plays a central role in TAS2R agonist-induced ASM functional changes via a mitochondrial pathway. These findings further establish the cellular mechanisms of antimitogenic effects of TAS2R agonists and identify a novel class of receptors and pathways that can be targeted to mitigate airway remodeling as well as bronchoconstriction in obstructive airway diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T03:33:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00106.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 1 (2017)
  • TNF{alpha} decreases mitochondrial movement in human airway smooth muscle
    • Authors: Delmotte, P; Zavaletta, V. A, Thompson, M. A, Prakash, Y. S, Sieck, G. C.
      Abstract: In airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, excitation-contraction coupling is accomplished via a cascade of events that connect an elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) with cross-bridge attachment and ATP-consuming mechanical work. Excitation-energy coupling is mediated by linkage of the elevation of [Ca2+]cyt to an increase in mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration, which in turn stimulates ATP production. Proximity of mitochondria to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and plasma membrane is thought to be an important mechanism to facilitate mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. In this regard, mitochondrial movement in ASM cells may be key in establishing proximity. Mitochondria also move where ATP or Ca2+ buffering is needed. Mitochondrial movement is mediated through interactions with the Miro-Milton molecular complex, which couples mitochondria to kinesin motors at microtubules. We examined mitochondrial movement in human ASM cells and hypothesized that, at basal [Ca2+]cyt levels, mitochondrial movement is necessary to establish proximity of mitochondria to the SR and that, during the transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt induced by agonist stimulation, mitochondrial movement is reduced, thereby promoting transient mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. We further hypothesized that airway inflammation disrupts basal mitochondrial movement via a reduction in Miro and Milton expression, thereby disrupting the ability of mitochondria to establish proximity to the SR and, thus, reducing transient mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake during agonist activation. The reduced proximity of mitochondria to the SR may affect establishment of transient "hot spots" of higher [Ca2+]cyt at the sites of SR Ca2+ release that are necessary for mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake via the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T03:33:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00538.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 1 (2017)
  • Therapeutic blockade of CD54 attenuates pulmonary barrier damage in T
           cell-induced acute lung injury
    • Authors: Svedova, J; Menoret, A, Mittal, P, Ryan, J. M, Buturla, J. A, Vella, A. T.
      Abstract: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious, often fatal condition without available pharmacotherapy. Although the role of innate cells in ARDS has been studied extensively, emerging evidence suggests that T cells may be involved in disease etiology. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins are potent T-cell mitogens capable of triggering life-threatening shock. We demonstrate that 2 days after inhalation of S. aureus enterotoxin A, mice developed T cell-mediated increases in vascular permeability, as well as expression of injury markers and caspases in the lung. Pulmonary endothelial cells underwent sequential phenotypic changes marked by rapid activation coinciding with inflammatory events secondary to T-cell priming, followed by reductions in endothelial cell number juxtaposing simultaneous T-cell expansion and cytotoxic differentiation. Although initial T-cell activation influenced the extent of lung injury, CD54 (ICAM-1) blocking antibody administered well after enterotoxin exposure substantially attenuated pulmonary barrier damage. Thus CD54-targeted therapy may be a promising candidate for further exploration into its potential utility in treating ARDS patients.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T03:33:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00050.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 1 (2017)
  • Acute brain trauma, lung injury, and pneumonia: more than just altered
           mental status and decreased airway protection
    • Authors: Hu, P. J; Pittet, J.-F, Kerby, J. D, Bosarge, P. L, Wagener, B. M.
      Abstract: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Even when patients survive the initial insult, there is significant morbidity and mortality secondary to subsequent pulmonary edema, acute lung injury (ALI), and nosocomial pneumonia. Whereas the relationship between TBI and secondary pulmonary complications is recognized, little is known about the mechanistic interplay of the two phenomena. Changes in mental status secondary to acute brain injury certainly impair airway- and lung-protective mechanisms. However, clinical and translational evidence suggests that more specific neuronal and cellular mechanisms contribute to impaired systemic and lung immunity that increases the risk of TBI-mediated lung injury and infection. To better understand the cellular mechanisms of that immune impairment, we review here the current clinical data that support TBI-induced impairment of systemic and lung immunity. Furthermore, we also review the animal models that attempt to reproduce human TBI. Additionally, we examine the possible role of damage-associated molecular patterns, the chlolinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, and sex dimorphism in post-TBI ALI. In the last part of the review, we discuss current treatments and future pharmacological therapies, including fever control, tracheostomy, and corticosteroids, aimed to prevent and treat pulmonary edema, ALI, and nosocomial pneumonia after TBI.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T03:33:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00485.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 1 (2017)
  • Klotho, an antiaging molecule, attenuates oxidant-induced alveolar
           epithelial cell mtDNA damage and apoptosis
    • Authors: Kim, S.-J; Cheresh, P, Eren, M, Jablonski, R. P, Yeldandi, A, Ridge, K. M, Budinger, G. R. S, Kim, D.-H, Wolf, M, Vaughan, D. E, Kamp, D. W.
      Abstract: Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis and inadequate repair resulting from "exaggerated" lung aging and mitochondrial dysfunction are critical determinants promoting lung fibrosis. α-Klotho, which is an antiaging molecule that is expressed predominantly in the kidney and secreted in the blood, can protect lung epithelial cells against hyperoxia-induced apoptosis. We reasoned that Klotho protects AEC exposed to oxidative stress in part by maintaining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity and mitigating apoptosis. We find that Klotho levels are decreased in both serum and alveolar type II (AT2) cells from asbestos-exposed mice. We show that oxidative stress reduces AEC Klotho mRNA and protein expression, whereas Klotho overexpression is protective while Klotho silencing augments AEC mtDNA damage. Compared with wild-type, Klotho heterozygous hypomorphic allele (kl/+) mice have increased asbestos-induced lung fibrosis due in part to increased AT2 cell mtDNA damage. Notably, we demonstrate that serum Klotho levels are reduced in wild-type but not mitochondrial catalase overexpressing (MCAT) mice 3 wk following exposure to asbestos and that EUK-134, a MnSOD/catalase mimetic, mitigates oxidant-induced reductions in AEC Klotho expression. Using pharmacologic and genetic silencing studies, we show that Klotho attenuates oxidant-induced AEC mtDNA damage and apoptosis via mechanisms dependent on AKT activation arising from upstream fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 activation. Our findings suggest that Klotho preserves AEC mtDNA integrity in the setting of oxidative stress necessary for preventing apoptosis and asbestos-induced lung fibrosis. We reason that strategies aimed at augmenting AEC Klotho levels may be an innovative approach for mitigating age-related lung diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T03:33:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00063.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 1 (2017)
  • Autophagy plays a role in FSTL1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition
           and airway remodeling in asthma
    • Authors: Liu, T; Liu, Y, Miller, M, Cao, L, Zhao, J, Wu, J, Wang, J, Liu, L, Li, S, Zou, M, Xu, J, Broide, D. H, Dong, L.
      Abstract: Asthma is a chronic disease related to airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodeling. Airway remodeling is the important reason of refractory asthma and is associated with differentiation of airway epithelia into myofibroblasts via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to increase the process of subepithelial fibrosis. There is growing evidence that autophagy modulates remodeling. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects are still unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that Follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) promotes EMT and airway remodeling by intensifying autophagy. With the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), double-membrane autophagosomes were detected in the airways of patients and mice. More autophagosomes were in patients with asthma and OVA-challenged mice compared with healthy controls. The expression of FSTL1 and beclin-1 was upregulated in the airways of patients with asthma and OVA-challenged mice, accompanied by airway EMT and remodeling. In OVA-challenged Fstl1+/– mice, the degree of airway remodeling and autophagy was decreased compared with control mice. The effects of FSTL1 on autophagy and EMT were also tested in 16HBE cells in vitro. Additionally, inhibition of autophagy by using LY-294002 and siRNA-ATG5 reduced the FSTL1-induced EMT in 16HBE cells, as measured by E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and vimentin expression. In line herewith, administration of LY-294002 reduced the expression of autophagy, EMT, and airway remodeling markers in FSTL1-challenged WT mice. Taken together, our study suggests that FSTL1 may induce EMT and airway remodeling by activating autophagy. These findings may provide novel avenues for therapeutic research targeting the autophagy and FSTL1 pathway, which may be beneficial to patients with refractory asthma.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T03:33:19-07:00
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 1 (2017)
  • CD44high alveolar type II cells show stem cell properties during
           steady-state alveolar homeostasis
    • Authors: Chen, Q; Suresh Kumar, V, Finn, J, Jiang, D, Liang, J, Zhao, Y.-y, Liu, Y.
      Abstract: The alveolar epithelium is composed of type I cells covering most of the gas-blood exchange surface and type II cells secreting surfactant that lowers surface tension of alveoli to prevent alveolar collapse. Here, we have identified a subgroup of type II cells expressing a higher level of cell surface molecule CD44 (CD44high type II cells) that composed ~3% of total type II cells in 5–10-wk-old mice. These cells were preferentially apposed to lung capillaries. They displayed a higher proliferation rate and augmented differentiation capacity into type I cells and the ability to form alveolar organoids compared with CD44low type II cells. Moreover, in aged mice, 18–24 mo old, the percentage of CD44high type II cells among all type II cells was increased, but these cells showed decreased progenitor properties. Thus CD44high type II cells likely represent a type II cell subpopulation important for constitutive regulation of alveolar homeostasis.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T03:33:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00564.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 1 (2017)
  • Flavored e-cigarette liquids reduce proliferation and viability in the
           CALU3 airway epithelial cell line
    • Authors: Rowell, T. R; Reeber, S. L, Lee, S. L, Harris, R. A, Nethery, R. C, Herring, A. H, Glish, G. L, Tarran, R.
      Abstract: E-cigarettes are generally thought of as a safer smoking alternative to traditional cigarettes. However, little is known about the effects of e-cigarette liquids (e-liquids) on the lung. Since over 7,000 unique flavors have been identified for purchase in the United States, our goal was to conduct a screen that would test whether different flavored e-liquids exhibited different toxicant profiles. We tested the effects of 13 different flavored e-liquids [with nicotine and propylene glycol/vegetable glycerin (PG/VG) serving as controls] on a lung epithelial cell line (CALU3). Using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay as an indicator of cell proliferation/viability, we demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease of MTT metabolism by all flavors tested. However, a group of four flavors consistently showed significantly greater toxicity compared with the PG/VG control, indicating the potential for some flavors to elicit more harmful effects than others. We also tested the aerosolized "vapor" from select e-liquids on cells and found similar dose-dependent trends, suggesting that direct e-liquid exposures are a justifiable first-pass screening approach for determining relative e-liquid toxicity. We then identified individual chemical constituents for all 13 flavors using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These data revealed that beyond nicotine and PG/VG, the 13 flavored e-liquids have diverse chemical constituents. Since all of the flavors exhibited some degree of toxicity and a diverse array of chemical constituents with little inhalation toxicity available, we conclude that flavored e-liquids should be extensively tested on a case-by-case basis to determine the potential for toxicity in the lung and elsewhere.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T03:33:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00392.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 1 (2017)
  • The effects of electronic cigarette aerosol exposure on inflammation and
           lung function in mice
    • Authors: Larcombe, A. N; Janka, M. A, Mullins, B. J, Berry, L. J, Bredin, A, Franklin, P. J.
      Abstract: Electronic cigarette usage is increasing worldwide, yet there is a paucity of information on the respiratory health effects of electronic cigarette aerosol exposure. This study aimed to assess whether exposure to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) aerosol would alter lung function and pulmonary inflammation in mice and to compare the severity of any alterations with mice exposed to mainstream tobacco smoke. Female BALB/c mice were exposed for 8 wk to tobacco smoke, medical air (control), or one of four different types of e-cigarette aerosol. E-cigarette aerosols varied depending on nicotine content (0 or 12 mg/ml) and the main excipient (propylene glycol or glycerin). Twenty-four hours after the final exposure, we measured pulmonary inflammation, lung volume, lung mechanics, and responsiveness to methacholine. Mice exposed to tobacco cigarette smoke had increased pulmonary inflammation and responsiveness to methacholine compared with air controls. Mice exposed to e-cigarette aerosol did not have increased inflammation but did display decrements in parenchymal lung function at both functional residual capacity and high transrespiratory pressures. Mice exposed to glycerin-based e-cigarette aerosols were also hyperresponsive to methacholine regardless of the presence or absence of nicotine. This study shows, for the first time, that exposure to e-cigarette aerosol during adolescence and early adulthood is not harmless to the lungs and can result in significant impairments in lung function.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T03:33:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00203.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 1 (2017)
  • Low-dose cadmium exposure induces peribronchiolar fibrosis through
           site-specific phosphorylation of vimentin
    • Authors: Li, F. J; Surolia, R, Li, H, Wang, Z, Liu, G, Liu, R.-M, Mirov, S. B, Athar, M, Thannickal, V. J, Antony, V. B.
      Abstract: Exposure to cadmium (Cd) has been associated with development of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). The mechanisms and signaling pathways whereby Cd causes pathological peribronchiolar fibrosis, airway remodeling, and subsequent airflow obstruction remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate whether low-dose Cd exposure induces vimentin phosphorylation and Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) activation leading to peribronchiolar fibrosis and subsequent airway remodeling. Our data demonstrate that Cd induces myofibroblast differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition around small (
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T03:33:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00087.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 1 (2017)
  • Modified mesenchymal stem cells using miRNA transduction alter lung injury
           in a bleomycin model
    • Authors: Huleihel, L; Sellares, J, Cardenes, N, Alvarez, D, Faner, R, Sakamoto, K, Yu, G, Kapetanaki, M. G, Kaminski, N, Rojas, M.
      Abstract: Although different preclinical models have demonstrated a favorable role for bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (B-MSC) in preventing fibrosis, this protective effect is not observed with late administration of these cells, when fibrotic changes are consolidated. We sought to investigate whether the late administration of B-MSCs overexpressing microRNAs (miRNAs) let-7d (antifibrotic) or miR-154 (profibrotic) could alter lung fibrosis in a murine bleomycin model. Using lentiviral vectors, we transduced miRNAs (let-7d or miR-154) or a control sequence into human B-MSCs. Overexpression of let-7d or miR-154 was associated with changes in the mesenchymal properties of B-MSCs and in their cytokine expression. Modified B-MSCs were intravenously administered to mice at day 7 after bleomycin instillation, and the mice were euthanized at day 14. Bleomycin-injured animals that were treated with let-7d cells were found to recover quicker from the initial weight loss compared with the other treatment groups. Interestingly, animals treated with miR-154 cells had the lowest survival rate. Although a slight reduction in collagen mRNA levels was observed in lung tissue from let-7d mice, no significant differences were observed in Ashcroft score and OH-proline. However, the distinctive expression in cytokines and CD45-positive cells in the lung suggests that the differential effects observed in both miRNA mice groups were related to an effect on the immunomodulation function. Our results establish the use of miRNA-modified mesenchymal stem cells as a potential future research in lung fibrosis.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T03:33:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00323.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 1 (2017)
  • Nedd8 modification of Cullin-5 regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute
           lung injury
    • Authors: Zhu, Z; Sun, L, Hao, R, Jiang, H, Qian, F, Ye, R. D.
      Abstract: Lung infections are major causes of acute lung injury (ALI), with limited effective treatment available. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an essential adaptor regulating Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We recently identified Cullin-5 (Cul-5) as a prominent component in the regulation of TRAF6 polyubiquitination, but its physiological significance in ALI has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the potential role of Cul-5 in regulating ALI using mice receiving intratracheal instillation of LPS. We observed that Cul-5-deficient mice displayed reduced lung injury compared with wild-type mice as evidenced by histological analysis, alveolar neutrophil infiltration, and lung liquid accumulation. In addition, inflammatory cytokine expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue was also markedly reduced in LPS-treated Cul-5-deficient mice. Interestingly, intratracheal adoptive transfer of Cul-5+/– but not Cul-5+/+ macrophages attenuated neutrophil recruitment, alveolar inflammation, and loss of barrier function in LPS-challenged wild-type mice. Finally, we demonstrated that Cul-5 neddylation following LPS exposure induced Cul-5 and TRAF6 interaction and, thereby, TFAR6 polyubiquitination, leading to NF-B activation and generation of proinflammatory cytokines. Our data show that neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated protein 8 (Nedd8) modification of Cul-5 is required for its interaction with TRAF6 and activation of the TLR4-TRAF6 signaling pathway in LPS-induced ALI, a feature that may be explored for therapeutic intervention.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T03:33:19-07:00
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 1 (2017)
  • Does lack of glutathione peroxidase 1 gene expression exacerbate lung
           injury induced by neonatal hyperoxia in mice'
    • Authors: Bouch, S; OReilly, M, de Haan, J. B, Harding, R, Sozo, F.
      Abstract: Supplemental oxygen (O2) increases the risk of lung injury in preterm infants, owing to an immature antioxidant system. Our objective was to determine whether impairing antioxidant defense by decreasing glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) gene expression increases the injurious effects of hyperoxia (Hyp). GPx1+/+ and GPx1–/– C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to 21% O2 (Air) or 40% O2 (Hyp) from birth to postnatal day 7 (P7d); they were euthanized on P7d or maintained in air until adulthood [postnatal day 56 (P56d)] to assess short-term and long-term effects, respectively. We assessed lung architecture, three markers of pulmonary oxidative stress (P7d, P56d), macrophages in lung tissue (P7d), immune cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF; P56d), and GPx1-4 and catalase gene expression in lung tissue (P7d, P56d). On P7d, macrophages were decreased by lack of GPx1 expression and further decreased by hyperoxia. GPx1 expression was increased in GPx1+/+Hyp mice and decreased in both GPx1–/– groups. On P56d, heme oxygenase-1 was increased by hyperoxia when GPx1 was absent. There were significantly more immune cells from Hyp groups than from the GPx1+/+Air group and a greater proportion of lymphocytes in GPx1–/–Hyp mice. GPx1 expression was significantly decreased in GPx1–/– mice; GPx2-4 and catalase expression was increased in GPx1–/–Hyp mice compared with other groups. Tissue fraction was decreased in GPx1–/–Air mice; bronchiolar smooth muscle was decreased in GPx1–/– mice. GPx1 does not clearly exacerbate hyperoxia-induced increases in oxidative stress or lung injury but may alter pulmonary immune function. Increased expression of GPx2-4 and catalase in GPx1–/–Hyp mice suggests gene redundancy within the model.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01T03:33:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00039.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 1 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
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