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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2986 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1422 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 311)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
  [SJR: 1.838]   [H-I: 138]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1040-0605 - ISSN (Online) 1522-1504
   Published by American Physiological Society Homepage  [13 journals]
  • Influenza virus infection alters ion channel function of airway and
           alveolar cells: mechanisms and physiological sequelae
    • Authors: Londino, J. D; Lazrak, A, Collawn, J. F, Bebok, Z, Harrod, K. S, Matalon, S.
      Abstract: The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) are located in the apical membranes of airway and alveolar epithelial cells. These transporters play an important role in the regulation of lung fluid balance across airway and alveolar epithelia by being the conduits for chloride (Cl–) and bicarbonate (HCO3–) secretion and sodium (Na+) ion absorption, respectively. The functional role of these channels in the respiratory tract is to maintain the optimum volume and ionic composition of the bronchial periciliary fluid (PCL) and alveolar lining fluid (ALF) layers. The PCL is required for proper mucociliary clearance of pathogens and debris, and the ALF is necessary for surfactant homeostasis and optimum gas exchange. Dysregulation of ion transport may lead to mucus accumulation, bacterial infections, inflammation, pulmonary edema, and compromised respiratory function. Influenza (or flu) in mammals is caused by influenza A and B viruses. Symptoms include dry cough, sore throat, and is often followed by secondary bacterial infections, accumulation of fluid in the alveolar spaces and acute lung injury. The underlying mechanisms of flu symptoms are not fully understood. This review summarizes our present knowledge of how influenza virus infections alter airway and alveolar epithelial cell CFTR and ENaC function in vivo and in vitro and the role of these changes in influenza pathogenesis.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T07:31:50-08:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00244.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Ion channels of the lung and their role in disease pathogenesis
    • Authors: Bartoszewski, R; Matalon, S, Collawn, J. F.
      Abstract: Maintenance of normal epithelial ion and water transport in the lungs includes providing a thin layer of surface liquid that coats the conducting airways. This airway surface liquid is critical for normal lung function in a number of ways but, perhaps most importantly, is required for normal mucociliary clearance and bacterial removal. Preservation of the appropriate level of hydration, pH, and viscosity for the airway surface liquid requires the proper regulation and function of a battery of different types of ion channels and transporters. Here we discuss how alterations in ion channel/transporter function often lead to lung pathologies.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T07:31:50-08:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00285.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Use of proper statistical techniques for research studies with small
           samples
    • Authors: Morgan C. J.
      Abstract: In this review I discuss the appropriateness of various statistical methods for use with small sample sizes. I review the assumptions and limitations of these methods and provide recommendations for figures and statistical tests.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T07:31:50-08:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00238.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Fra-2 negatively regulates postnatal alveolar septation by modulating
           myofibroblast function
    • Authors: Tsujino, K; Li, J. T, Tsukui, T, Ren, X, Bakiri, L, Wagner, E, Sheppard, D.
      Abstract: Mice that globally overexpress the transcription factor Fos-related antigen-2 (Fra-2) develop extensive pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary vascular remodeling. To determine if these phenotypes are a consequence of ectopic Fra-2 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells and myofibroblasts, we generated mice that overexpress Fra-2 specifically in these cell types (α-SMA-rtTA;tetO-Fra-2). Surprisingly, these mice did not develop vascular remodeling or pulmonary fibrosis but did develop a spontaneous emphysema-like phenotype characterized by alveolar enlargement. Secondary septa formation is an important step in the normal development of lung alveoli, and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-expressing fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) play a crucial role in this process. The mutant mice showed reduced numbers of secondary septa at postnatal day 7 and enlarged alveolae starting at postnatal day 12, suggesting impairment of secondary septa formation. Lineage tracing using α-SMA-rtTA mice crossed to a floxed TdTomato reporter revealed that embryonic expression of α-SMA Cre marked a population of cells that gave rise to nearly all alveolar myofibroblasts. Comprehensive transcriptome analyses (RNA sequencing) demonstrated that the overwhelming majority of genes whose expression was significantly altered by overexpression of Fra-2 in myofibroblasts encoded secreted proteins, components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and cell adhesion-associated genes, including coordinate upregulation of pairs of integrins and their principal ECM ligands. In addition, primary myofibroblasts isolated from the mutant mice showed reduced migration capacity. These findings suggest that Fra-2 overexpression might impair myofibroblast functions crucial for secondary septation, such as myofibroblast migration across alveoli, by perturbing interactions between integrins and locally produced components of the ECM.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T07:31:50-08:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00062.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Aquaporin 1-mediated changes in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell
           migration and proliferation involve {beta}-catenin
    • Authors: Yun, X; Jiang, H, Lai, N, Wang, J, Shimoda, L. A.
      Abstract: Exposure to hypoxia induces migration and proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), leading to vascular remodeling and contributing to the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. The mechanisms controlling PASMC growth and motility are incompletely understood, although aquaporin 1 (AQP1) plays an important role. In tumor, kidney, and stem cells, AQP1 has been shown to interact with β-catenin, a dual function protein that activates the transcription of crucial target genes (i.e., c-Myc and cyclin D1) related to cell migration and proliferation. Thus the goal of this study was to examine mechanisms by which AQP1 mediates PASMC migration and proliferation, with a focus on β-catenin. Using primary rat PASMCs from resistance level pulmonary arteries infected with adenoviral constructs containing green fluorescent protein (control; AdGFP), wild-type AQP1 (AdAQP1), or AQP1 with the COOH-terminal tail deleted (AdAQP1M), we demonstrated that increasing AQP1 expression upregulated β-catenin protein levels and the expression (mRNA and protein) of the known β-catenin targets c-Myc and cyclin D1. In contrast, infection with AdAQP1M had no effect on any of these variables. Using silencing approaches to reduce β-catenin levels prevented both hypoxia- and AQP1-induced migration and proliferation of PASMCs, as well as induction of c-Myc and cyclin D1 by AQP1. Thus our results indicate that elevated AQP1 levels upregulate β-catenin protein levels, via a mechanism requiring the AQP1 COOH-terminal tail, enhancing expression of β-catenin targets and promoting PASMC proliferation and migration.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T07:31:50-08:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00247.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Endothelial cell-related autophagic pathways in Sugen/hypoxia-exposed
           pulmonary arterial hypertensive rats
    • Authors: Kato, F; Sakao, S, Takeuchi, T, Suzuki, T, Nishimura, R, Yasuda, T, Tanabe, N, Tatsumi, K.
      Abstract: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by progressive obstructive remodeling of pulmonary arteries. However, no reports have described the causative role of the autophagic pathway in pulmonary vascular endothelial cell (EC) alterations associated with PAH. This study investigated the time-dependent role of the autophagic pathway in pulmonary vascular ECs and pulmonary vascular EC kinesis in a severe PAH rat model (Sugen/hypoxia rat) and evaluated whether timely induction of the autophagic pathway by rapamycin improves PAH. Hemodynamic and histological examinations as well as flow cytometry of pulmonary vascular EC-related autophagic pathways and pulmonary vascular EC kinetics in lung cell suspensions were performed. The time-dependent and therapeutic effects of rapamycin on the autophagic pathway were also assessed. Sugen/hypoxia rats treated with the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor blocker SU5416 showed increased right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and numbers of obstructive vessels due to increased pulmonary vascular remodeling. The expression of the autophagic marker LC3 in ECs also changed in a time-dependent manner, in parallel with proliferation and apoptotic markers as assessed by flow cytometry. These results suggest the presence of cross talk between pulmonary vascular remodeling and the autophagic pathway, especially in small vascular lesions. Moreover, treatment of Sugen/hypoxia rats with rapamycin after SU5416 injection activated the autophagic pathway and improved the balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis in pulmonary vascular ECs to reduce RVSP and pulmonary vascular remodeling. These results suggested that the autophagic pathway can suppress PAH progression and that rapamycin-dependent activation of the autophagic pathway could ameliorate PAH.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T07:31:50-08:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00527.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • CYP2E1 regulates the development of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis
           via ER stress- and ROS-dependent mechanisms
    • Authors: Son, B; Kwon, T, Lee, S, Han, I, Kim, W, Youn, H, Youn, B.
      Abstract: Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis (RIPF) is one of the most common side effects of lung cancer radiotherapy. This study was conducted to identify the molecular mechanism responsible for RIPF. We revealed that the transcriptional level of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) was elevated by examining expression profile analysis of RIPF mouse models. We also confirmed that CYP2E1 regulated levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cells and lung fibroblasts. Inhibition of CYP2E1 via its siRNA or inhibitor significantly attenuated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and apoptosis of AE2 cells, as well as myofibroblast formation induced by radiation. Finally, the effects of a CYP2E1 inhibitor on development of RIPF were evaluated by in vivo studies. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that CYP2E1 is an important mediator of RIPF development that functions by increasing cellular ER stress and ROS levels.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T07:31:50-08:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00144.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Alternative pre-mRNA splicing of Toll-like receptor signaling components
           in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with ARDS
    • Authors: Blumhagen, R. Z; Hedin, B. R, Malcolm, K. C, Burnham, E. L, Moss, M, Abraham, E, Huie, T. J, Nick, J. A, Fingerlin, T. E, Alper, S.
      Abstract: A key physiological feature of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is inflammation. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is required to combat the infection that underlies many ARDS cases but also contributes to pathological inflammation. Several TLR signaling pathway genes encoding positive effectors of inflammation also produce alternatively spliced mRNAs encoding negative regulators of inflammation. An imbalance between these isoforms could contribute to pathological inflammation and disease severity. To determine whether splicing in TLR pathways is altered in patients with ARDS, we monitored alternative splicing of MyD88 and IRAK1, two genes that function in multiple TLR pathways. The MyD88 and IRAK1 genes produce long proinflammatory mRNAs (MyD88L and IRAK1) and shorter anti-inflammatory mRNAs (MyD88S and IRAK1c). We quantified mRNA encoding inflammatory cytokines and MyD88 and IRAK1 isoforms in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 104 patients with ARDS and 30 healthy control subjects. We found that MyD88 pre-mRNA splicing is altered in patients with ARDS in a proinflammatory direction. We also observed altered MyD88 isoform levels in a second critically ill patient cohort, suggesting that these changes may not be unique to ARDS. Early in ARDS, PBMC IRAK1c levels were associated with patient survival. Despite the similarities in MyD88 and IRAK1 alternative splicing observed in previous in vitro studies, there were differences in how MyD88 and IRAK1 alternative splicing was altered in patients with ARDS. We conclude that pre-mRNA splicing of TLR signaling genes is altered in patients with ARDS, and further investigation of altered splicing may lead to novel prognostic and therapeutic approaches.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T07:31:50-08:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00247.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Oxygen-dependent changes in lung development do not affect epithelial
           infection with influenza A virus
    • Authors: Domm, W; Yee, M, Misra, R. S, Gelein, R, Nogales, A, Martinez-Sobrido, L, OReilly, M. A.
      Abstract: Infants born prematurely often require supplemental oxygen, which contributes to aberrant lung development and increased pulmonary morbidity following a respiratory viral infection. We have been using a mouse model to understand how early-life hyperoxia affects the adult lung response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Prior studies showed how neonatal hyperoxia (100% oxygen) increased sensitivity of adult mice to infection with IAV [IAV (A/Hong Kong/X31) H3N2] as defined by persistent inflammation, pulmonary fibrosis, and mortality. Since neonatal hyperoxia alters lung structure, we used a novel fluorescence-expressing reporter strain of H1N1 IAV [A/Puerto Rico/8/34 mCherry (PR8-mCherry)] to evaluate whether it also altered early infection of the respiratory epithelium. Like Hong Kong/X31, neonatal hyperoxia increased morbidity and mortality of adult mice infected with PR8-mCherry. Whole lung imaging and histology suggested a modest increase in mCherry expression in adult mice exposed to neonatal hyperoxia compared with room air-exposed animals. However, this did not reflect an increase in airway or alveolar epithelial infection when mCherry-positive cells were identified and quantified by flow cytometry. Instead, a modest increase in the number of CD45-positive macrophages expressing mCherry was detected. While neonatal hyperoxia does not alter early epithelial infection with IAV, it may increase the activity of macrophages toward infected cells, thereby enhancing early epithelial injury.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T07:31:50-08:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00203.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Levosimendan prevents bronchoconstriction and adverse respiratory tissue
           mechanical changes in rabbits
    • Authors: Babik, B; Balogh, A. L, Sudy, R, Ivankovitsne-Kiss, O, Fodor, G. H, Petak, F.
      Abstract: Levosimendan has a calcium-sensitizing effect in the myocardium and opens ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) in vascular smooth muscle. Because airway smooth muscle also expresses KATP, we characterized the protective potential of levosimendan against increased airway and respiratory tissue resistances. Animals were administered levosimendan alone (group L), levosimendan after pretreatment with a KATP channel blocker (glibenclamide, group LG), glibenclamide only (group G), or solvent alone (dextrose, group C). Airway resistance (Raw), tissue damping, and elastance were determined by forced oscillations under baseline conditions and following provocation tests with intravenous methacholine (MCh). Cardiac output (CO) was assessed by transpulmonary thermodilution. The same sequence of measurements was then repeated during intravenous infusion of levosimendan in groups L and LG or glucose in groups G and C. Sham treatments in groups C and G had no effect on lung responsiveness. However, levosimendan treatment in group L elevated CO and inhibited the MCh-induced airway responses [Raw changes of 87.8 ± 83% (SD) vs. 24.4 ± 16% at 4 μg·kg–1·min–1 MCh, P < 0.001], and in G (35.2 ± 12.7 vs. 25.2 ± 12.9%, P < 0.05). The preventive affect of levosimendan against lung constriction vanished in the LG group. Levosimendan exerts a KATP-mediated potential to prevent bronchoconstriction and may prohibit adverse lung peripheral changes both in the small bronchi and the pulmonary parenchyma. The identification of a further pleiotropic property of levosimendan that is related to the pulmonary system is of particular importance for patients with decreased cardiorespiratory reserves for which simultaneous circulatory support is complemented with prevention of adverse respiratory events.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T07:31:50-08:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00213.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Preserved right ventricular integrity in a new telemetric rat model of
           severe pulmonary hypertension
    • Authors: Schreiber, C; Eilenberg, M, Kiss, A, Bergmeister, H, Podesser, B, Mascherbauer, J, Bonderman, D.
      Abstract: Telemetric monitoring of hemodynamic parameters has become an established standard in experimental models of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). To that purpose, a dedicated catheter is usually implanted through the right ventricular wall of study animals. Drawbacks of this standard technique are as follows: obtained pressures are from the right ventricle and therefore only surrogates for pulmonary arterial pressures, and furthermore, right ventricular myocardium is always damaged to a certain degree. To overcome shortcomings of standard hemodynamic assessment, we modified an established rat model, where severe PAH is induced by left-sided pneumonectomy plus monocrotaline injection. We describe here a novel telemetry catheter implantation technique, where the device is advanced into the pulmonary artery via the remaining stump and the transmitter is placed in a subcutaneous pocket. A total of 105 rats were operated with a median (range) implantation time of 50 (30–88) min and an excellent perioperative survival of 93%. After monocrotaline induction on day 7, animals developed severe PAH with mean ± SD pressures of 75.9 ± 18.6 (systolic), 55.0 ± 18.0 (mean), and 42.1 ± 21.3 mmHg (diastolic) after 4 wk. Postmortem, the animals showed severe right ventricular hypertrophy, and histological analysis confirmed excessive medial hypertrophy and intimal hyperplasia, both characteristic features of human PAH. Comparison of the new telemetric model with standard microtip catheterization did not show relevant measurement differences. We established the first experimental animal model for PAH with preserved right ventricular integrity that allows direct telemetric monitoring of real-time systolic, mean, and diastolic pressures in the main pulmonary artery of freely moving rats.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T07:31:50-08:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00278.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Letter to the Editor: Pulmonary toxicity of electronic cigarettes: more
           doubts than certainties
    • Authors: Caruso, M; Mendelsohn, C. P, Polosa, R.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T07:31:50-08:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00402.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Reply to "Letter to the Editor: Pulmonary toxicity of electronic
           cigarettes: more doubts than certainties"
    • Authors: Chun, L. F; Moazed, F, Calfee, C. S, Matthay, M. A, Gotts, J. E.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T07:31:50-08:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00428.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Letter to the Editor: The effects of electronic cigarette aerosol exposure
           on inflammation and lung function in mice
    • Authors: Farsalinos, K; Kistler, K. A, Gillman, G.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T07:31:50-08:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00423.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Reply to "Letter to the Editor: The effects of electronic cigarette
           aerosol exposure on inflammation and lung function in mice"
    • Authors: Larcombe, A. N; Janka, M. A, Mullins, B. J, Berry, L. J, Bredin, A, Franklin, P. J.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T07:31:50-08:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00448.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • LungMAP: The Molecular Atlas of Lung Development Program
    • Authors: Ardini-Poleske, M. E; Clark, R. F, Ansong, C, Carson, J. P, Corley, R. A, Deutsch, G. H, Hagood, J. S, Kaminski, N, Mariani, T. J, Potter, S. S, Pryhuber, G. S, Warburton, D, Whitsett, J. A, Palmer, S. M, Ambalavanan, N, The LungMAP Consortium
      Abstract: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute is funding an effort to create a molecular atlas of the developing lung (LungMAP) to serve as a research resource and public education tool. The lung is a complex organ with lengthy development time driven by interactive gene networks and dynamic cross talk among multiple cell types to control and coordinate lineage specification, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, morphogenesis, and injury repair. A better understanding of the processes that regulate lung development, particularly alveologenesis, will have a significant impact on survival rates for premature infants born with incomplete lung development and will facilitate lung injury repair and regeneration in adults. A consortium of four research centers, a data coordinating center, and a human tissue repository provides high-quality molecular data of developing human and mouse lungs. LungMAP includes mouse and human data for cross correlation of developmental processes across species. LungMAP is generating foundational data and analysis, creating a web portal for presentation of results and public sharing of data sets, establishing a repository of young human lung tissues obtained through organ donor organizations, and developing a comprehensive lung ontology that incorporates the latest findings of the consortium. The LungMAP website (www.lungmap.net) currently contains more than 6,000 high-resolution lung images and transcriptomic, proteomic, and lipidomic human and mouse data and provides scientific information to stimulate interest in research careers for young audiences. This paper presents a brief description of research conducted by the consortium, database, and portal development and upcoming features that will enhance the LungMAP experience for a community of users.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T03:30:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00139.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Importance of kynurenine in pulmonary hypertension
    • Authors: Nagy, B. M; Nagaraj, C, Meinitzer, A, Sharma, N, Papp, R, Foris, V, Ghanim, B, Kwapiszewska, G, Kovacs, G, Klepetko, W, Pieber, T. R, Mangge, H, Olschewski, H, Olschewski, A.
      Abstract: The tryptophan metabolite kynurenine is significantly increased in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients, and it is a potent vasodilator of systemic arteries. Our aim was to investigate the role of kynurenine in the pulmonary circulation. Serum tryptophan, kynurenine, and kynurenic acid levels were measured in 20 idiopathic PAH (IPAH) patients, 20 healthy controls, and 20 patients with chronic lung disease or metabolic syndrome without PH. Laser-dissected pulmonary arteries from IPAH and control lungs were tested for the expression of indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), the rate-limiting enzyme for the conversion from tryptophan to kynurenine. Acute effects of kynurenine were tested in pulmonary vascular preparations, two different models of chronic pulmonary hypertension (PH), and in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (hPASMCs). In IPAH vs. control serum, kynurenine was significantly elevated (3.6 ± 0.2 vs. 2.6 ± 0.1 µM, P < 0.0001), and strongly associated with PH (area under the curve = 0.86), but kynurenine levels were not elevated in lung disease and metabolic syndrome. Among all investigated tryptophan metabolites, kynurenine displayed the strongest correlation with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) (: 0.770, P < 0.0001). Tryptophan was significantly decreased in IPAH lungs; however, IDO expression was not changed. In hPASMCs, kynurenine increased both cAMP and cGMP; in intrapulmonary arteries, it relaxed the preconstriction via NO/cGMP and cAMP pathways, and in two models of established PH, it acutely decreased the mPAP. Our data suggest that kynurenine elevation might be specifically associated with mPAP; kynurenine acts on hPASMCs in synergy with NO and exerts acute pulmonary vasodilatation in chronic PH models. Kynurenine might provide both a new biomarker and a new therapeutic option for PH.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T03:30:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00517.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Transglutaminase 2 in pulmonary and cardiac tissue remodeling in
           experimental pulmonary hypertension
    • Authors: Penumatsa, K. C; Toksoz, D, Warburton, R. R, Kharnaf, M, Preston, I. R, Kapur, N. K, Khosla, C, Hill, N. S, Fanburg, B. L.
      Abstract: Tissue matrix remodeling and fibrosis leading to loss of pulmonary arterial and right ventricular compliance are important features of both experimental and clinical pulmonary hypertension (PH). We have previously reported that transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is involved in PH development while others have shown it to be a cross-linking enzyme that participates in remodeling of extracellular matrix in fibrotic diseases in general. In the present studies, we used a mouse model of experimental PH (Sugen 5416 and hypoxia; SuHypoxia) and cultured primary human cardiac and pulmonary artery adventitial fibroblasts to evaluate the relationship of TG2 to the processes of fibrosis, protein cross-linking, extracellular matrix collagen accumulation, and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transformation. We report here that TG2 expression and activity as measured by serotonylated fibronectin and protein cross-linking activity along with fibrogenic markers are significantly elevated in lungs and right ventricles of SuHypoxic mice with PH. Similarly, TG2 expression and activity, protein cross-linking activity, and fibrogenic markers are significantly increased in cultured cardiac and pulmonary artery adventitial fibroblasts in response to hypoxia exposure. Pharmacological inhibition of TG2 activity with ERW1041E significantly reduced hypoxia-induced cross-linking activity and synthesis of collagen 1 and α-smooth muscle actin in both the in vivo and in vitro studies. TG2 short interfering RNA had a similar effect in vitro. Our results suggest that TG2 plays an important role in hypoxia-induced pulmonary and right ventricular tissue matrix remodeling in the development of PH.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T03:30:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00170.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • X-ray-based lung function measurement reveals persistent loss of lung
           tissue elasticity in mice recovered from allergic airway inflammation
    • Authors: Markus, M. A; Borowik, S, Reichardt, M, Tromba, G, Alves, F, Dullin, C.
      Abstract: Chronic asthma patients experience difficulties even years after the inciting allergen. Although studies in small animal asthma models have enormously advanced progress in uncovering the mechanisms of inception and development of the disease, little is known about the processes involved in the persistence of asthma symptoms in the absence of allergen exposure. Long-term asthma mouse models have so far been scarce or not been able to reproduce the findings in patients. Here we used a common ovalbumin-induced acute allergic airway inflammation mouse model to study lung function and remodeling after a 4-mo recovery period. We show by X-ray-based lung function measurements that the recovered mice continue to show impaired lung function by displaying significant air trapping compared with controls. High-resolution synchrotron phase-contrast computed tomography of structural alterations and diaphragm motion analysis suggest that these changes in pulmonary function are the result of a pronounced loss in lung elasticity. Histology of lung sections confirmed that this is most likely caused by a decrease in elastic fibers, indicating that remodeling can develop or persist independent of acute inflammation and is closely related to a loss in lung function. Our findings demonstrate that this X-ray-based imaging platform has the potential to comprehensively and noninvasively unravel long-term effects in preclinical mouse models of allergic airway inflammation and thus benefits our understanding of chronic asthma.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T03:30:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00136.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Lethal avian influenza A (H5N1) virus induces ataxic breathing in mice
           with apoptosis of pre-Botzinger complex neurons expressing neurokinin-1
           receptor
    • Authors: Zhuang, J; Zang, N, Ye, C, Xu, F.
      Abstract: Lethal influenza A (H5N1) induces respiratory failure in humans. Although it also causes death at 7 days postinfection (dpi) in mice, the development of the respiratory failure and the viral impact on pre-Botzinger complex (PBC) neurons expressing neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R), which is the respiratory rhythm generator, have not been explored. Body temperature, weight, ventilation, and arterial blood pH and gases were measured at 0, 2, 4, and 6 dpi in control, lethal HK483, and nonlethal HK486 viral-infected mice. Immunoreactivities (IR) of PBC NK1R, H5N1 viral nucleoprotein (NP), and active caspase-3 (CASP3; a marker for apoptosis) were detected at 6 dpi. HK483, but not HK486, mice showed the following abnormalities: 1) gradual body weight loss and hypothermia; 2) tachypnea at 2–4 dpi and ataxic breathing with long-lasting apneas and hypercapnic hypoxemia at 6 dpi; and 3) viral replication in PBC NK1R neurons with NK1R-IR reduced by 75% and CASP3-IR colabeled at 6 dpi. Lethal H5N1 viral infection causes tachypnea at the early stage and ataxic breathing and apneas (hypercapnic hypoxemia) leading to death at the late stage. Its replication in the PBC induces apoptosis of local NK1R neurons, contributing to ataxic breathing and respiratory failure.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T03:30:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00145.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • FGF9 prevents pleural fibrosis induced by intrapleural adenovirus
           injection in mice
    • Authors: Justet, A; Joannes, A, Besnard, V, Marchal-Somme, J, Jaillet, M, Bonniaud, P, Sallenave, J. M, Solhonne, B, Castier, Y, Mordant, P, Mal, H, Cazes, A, Borie, R, Mailleux, A. A, Crestani, B.
      Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) is necessary for fetal lung development and is expressed by epithelium and mesothelium. We evaluated the role of FGF9 overexpression on adenoviral-induced pleural injury in vivo and determined the biological effects of FGF9 on mesothelial cells in vitro. We assessed the expression of FGF9 and FGF receptors by mesothelial cells in both human and mouse lungs. Intrapleural injection of an adenovirus expressing human FGF9 (AdFGF9) or a control adenovirus (AdCont) was performed. Mice were euthanized at days 3, 5, and 14. Expression of FGF9 and markers of inflammation and myofibroblastic differentiation was studied by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. In vitro, rat mesothelial cells were stimulated with FGF9 (20 ng/ml), and we assessed its effect on proliferation, survival, migration, and differentiation. FGF9 was expressed by mesothelial cells in human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. FGF receptors, mainly FGFR3, were expressed by mesothelial cells in vivo in humans and mice. AdCont instillation induced diffuse pleural thickening appearing at day 5, maximal at day 14. The altered pleura cells strongly expressed α-smooth muscle actin and collagen. AdFGF9 injection induced maximal FGF9 expression at day 5 that lasted until day 14. FGF9 overexpression prevented pleural thickening, collagen and fibronectin accumulation, and myofibroblastic differentiation of mesothelial cells. In vitro, FGF9 decreased mesothelial cell migration and inhibited the differentiating effect of transforming growth factor-β1. We conclude that FGF9 has a potential antifibrotic effect on mesothelial cells.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T03:30:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00508.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Repetitive intradermal bleomycin injections evoke T-helper cell 2
           cytokine-driven pulmonary fibrosis
    • Authors: Singh, B; Kasam, R. K, Sontake, V, Wynn, T. A, Madala, S. K.
      Abstract: IL-4 and IL-13 are major T-helper cell (Th) 2 cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of several lung diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, using a novel repetitive intradermal bleomycin model in which mice develop extensive lung fibrosis and a progressive decline in lung function compared with saline-treated control mice, we investigated profibrotic functions of Th2 cytokines. To determine the role of IL-13 signaling in the pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, wild-type, IL-13, and IL-4Rα-deficient mice were treated with bleomycin, and lungs were assessed for changes in lung function and pulmonary fibrosis. Histological staining and lung function measurements demonstrated that collagen deposition and lung function decline were attenuated in mice deficient in either IL-13 or IL-4Rα-driven signaling compared with wild-type mice treated with bleomycin. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that IL-13 and IL-4Rα-driven signaling are involved in excessive migration of macrophages and fibroblasts. Notably, our findings demonstrated that IL-13-driven migration involves increased phospho-focal adhesion kinase signaling and F-actin polymerization. Importantly, in vivo findings demonstrated that IL-13 augments matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP9 activity that has also been shown to increase migration and invasiveness of fibroblasts in the lungs during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Together, our findings demonstrate a pathogenic role for Th2-cytokine signaling that includes excessive migration and protease activity involved in severe fibrotic lung disease.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T03:30:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00184.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • TGF-{beta} inhibits alveolar protein transport by promoting shedding,
           regulated intramembrane proteolysis, and transcriptional downregulation of
           megalin
    • Authors: Mazzocchi, L. C; Vohwinkel, C. U, Mayer, K, Herold, S, Morty, R. E, Seeger, W, Vadasz, I.
      Abstract: Disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier is a hallmark of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that leads to the accumulation of protein-rich edema in the alveolar space, often resulting in comparable protein concentrations in alveolar edema and plasma and causing deleterious remodeling. Patients who survive ARDS have approximately three times lower protein concentrations in the alveolar edema than nonsurvivors; thus the ability to remove excess protein from the alveolar space may be critical for a positive outcome. We have recently shown that clearance of albumin from the alveolar space is mediated by megalin, a 600-kDa transmembrane endocytic receptor and member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily. In the currents study, we investigate the molecular mechanisms by which transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), a key molecule of ARDS pathogenesis, drives downregulation of megalin expression and function. TGF-β treatment led to shedding and regulated intramembrane proteolysis of megalin at the cell surface and to a subsequent increase in intracellular megalin COOH-terminal fragment abundance resulting in transcriptional downregulation of megalin. Activity of classical protein kinase C enzymes and -secretase was required for the TGF-β-induced megalin downregulation. Furthermore, TGF-β-induced shedding of megalin was mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2, -9, and -14. Silencing of either of these MMPs stabilized megalin at the cell surface after TGF-β treatment and restored normal albumin transport. Moreover, a direct interaction of megalin with MMP-2 and -14 was demonstrated, suggesting that these MMPs may function as novel sheddases of megalin. Further understanding of these mechanisms may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of ARDS.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T03:30:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00569.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Benefits of oxytocin administration in obstructive sleep apnea
    • Authors: Jain, V; Marbach, J, Kimbro, S, Andrade, D. C, Jain, A, Capozzi, E, Mele, K, Del Rio, R, Kay, M. W, Mendelowitz, D.
      Abstract: Activation of oxytocin receptors has shown benefits in animal models of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We tested if nocturnal oxytocin administration could have beneficial effects in OSA patients. Eight patients diagnosed with OSA were administered intranasal oxytocin (40 IU). Changes in cardiorespiratory events during sleep, including apnea and hypopnea durations and frequency, risk of event-associated arousals, and heart rate variability, were assessed. Oxytocin significantly increased indexes of parasympathetic activity, including heart rate variability, total sleep time, and the postpolysommogram sleep assessment score, an index of self-reported sleep satisfaction. Although the apnea-hypopnea index was not significantly changed with oxytocin administration, when apnea and hypopnea events were compared independently, the frequency of hypopneas, but not apneas, was significantly (P ≤ 0.005) decreased with oxytocin treatment. Both apneas and hypopneas were significantly shortened in duration with oxytocin treatment. Oxytocin treatment significantly decreased the percent of apnea and hypopnea events that were accompanied with an arousal. Oxytocin administration has the potential to restore cardiorespiratory homeostasis and reduce some clinically important (objective and patient-reported) adverse events that occur with OSA. Additional studies are needed to further understand the mechanisms by which oxytocin promotes these changes in cardiorespiratory and autonomic function in OSA patients.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T03:30:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00206.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
  • Metabolic characterization and RNA profiling reveal glycolytic dependence
           of profibrotic phenotype of alveolar macrophages in lung fibrosis
    • Authors: Xie, N; Cui, H, Ge, J, Banerjee, S, Guo, S, Dubey, S, Abraham, E, Liu, R.-M, Liu, G.
      Abstract: Metabolic reprogramming has been intrinsically linked to macrophage activation. Alveolar macrophages are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. However, systematic characterization of expression profile in these cells is still lacking. Furthermore, main metabolic programs and their regulation of cellular phenotype are completely unknown. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the expression profile and main metabolic programs in alveolar macrophages from mice with or without experimental pulmonary fibrosis. We found that alveolar macrophages from both bleomycin and active TGF-β1-induced fibrotic mouse lungs demonstrated a primarily profibrotic M2-like profile that was distinct from the well-defined M1 or any of the M2 subtypes. More importantly, we found that fibrotic lung alveolar macrophages assumed augmented glycolysis, which was likely attributed to enhanced expression of multiple key glycolytic mediators. We also found that fatty acid oxidation was upregulated in these cells. However, the profibrotic M2-like profile of fibrotic lung alveolar macrophages was not dependent on fatty acid oxidation and synthesis or lipolysis, but instead on glycolysis, in contrast to the typical IL-4-induced macrophages M(IL-4). Additionally, glutaminolysis, a key metabolic program that has been implicated in numerous pathologies, was not required for the profibrotic M2-like phenotype of these macrophages. In summary, our study identifies a unique expression and metabolic profile in alveolar macrophages from fibrotic lungs and suggests glycolytic inhibition as an effective antifibrotic strategy in treating lung fibrosis.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T03:30:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00235.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 5 (2017)
       
 
 
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