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BIOLOGY (1424 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 305)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
  [SJR: 1.838]   [H-I: 138]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1040-0605 - ISSN (Online) 1522-1504
   Published by American Physiological Society Homepage  [13 journals]
  • Biomarkers of exposure to new and emerging tobacco delivery products
    • Authors: Schick, S. F; Blount, B. C, Jacob, P, Saliba, N. A, Bernert, J. T, El Hellani, A, Jatlow, P, Pappas, R. S, Wang, L, Foulds, J, Ghosh, A, Hecht, S. S, Gomez, J. C, Martin, J. R, Mesaros, C, Srivastava, S, St. Helen, G, Tarran, R, Lorkiewicz, P. K, Blair, I. A, Kimmel, H. L, Doerschuk, C. M, Benowitz, N. L, Bhatnagar, A.
      Abstract: Accurate and reliable measurements of exposure to tobacco products are essential for identifying and confirming patterns of tobacco product use and for assessing their potential biological effects in both human populations and experimental systems. Due to the introduction of new tobacco-derived products and the development of novel ways to modify and use conventional tobacco products, precise and specific assessments of exposure to tobacco are now more important than ever. Biomarkers that were developed and validated to measure exposure to cigarettes are being evaluated to assess their use for measuring exposure to these new products. Here, we review current methods for measuring exposure to new and emerging tobacco products, such as electronic cigarettes, little cigars, water pipes, and cigarillos. Rigorously validated biomarkers specific to these new products have not yet been identified. Here, we discuss the strengths and limitations of current approaches, including whether they provide reliable exposure estimates for new and emerging products. We provide specific guidance for choosing practical and economical biomarkers for different study designs and experimental conditions. Our goal is to help both new and experienced investigators measure exposure to tobacco products accurately and avoid common experimental errors. With the identification of the capacity gaps in biomarker research on new and emerging tobacco products, we hope to provide researchers, policymakers, and funding agencies with a clear action plan for conducting and promoting research on the patterns of use and health effects of these products.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T03:34:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00343.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 3 (2017)
  • The uncoupling of autophagy and zinc homeostasis in airway epithelial
           cells as a fundamental contributor to COPD
    • Authors: Roscioli, E; Tran, H. B, Jersmann, H, Nguyen, P. T, Hopkins, E, Lester, S, Farrow, N, Zalewski, P, Reynolds, P. N, Hodge, S.
      Abstract: The proper regulation of zinc (Zn) trafficking proteins and the cellular distribution of Zn are critical for the maintenance of autophagic processes. However, there have been no studies that have examined Zn dyshomeostasis and the disease-related modulation of autophagy observed in the airways afflicted with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesized that dysregulated autophagy in airway epithelial cells (AECs) is related to Zn dysregulation in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD. We applied a human ex vivo air-liquid interface model, a murine model of smoke exposure, and human lung tissues and investigated Zn, ZIP1, and ZIP2 Zn-influx proteins, autophagy [microtubule-associated 1A/1B-light chain-3 (LC3), Beclin-1], autophagic flux (Sequestosome), apoptosis [Bcl2; X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), poly (ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP)], and inflammation [thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and IL-1β]. Lung tissues from CS-exposed mice exhibit reduced free-Zn in AECs, with elevated ZIP1 and diminished ZIP2 expression. Interestingly, increased LC3 colocalized with ZIP1, suggesting an autophagic requirement for free-Zn to support its catabolic function. In human AECs, autophagy was initiated but was unable to efficiently degrade cellular debris, as evidenced by stable Beclin-1 and increased LC3-II, but with a concomitant elevation in Sequestosome. Autophagic dysfunction due to CS exposure coupled with Zn depletion also induced apoptosis, with the reduction of antiapoptotic and antiautophagic proteins Bcl2 and XIAP and PARP cleavage. This was accompanied by an increase in RANTES and TSLP, an activator of adaptive immunity. We conclude that the uncoupling of Zn trafficking and autophagy in AECs constitutes a fundamental disease-related mechanism for COPD pathogenesis and could provide a new therapeutic target.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T03:34:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00083.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 3 (2017)
  • Synergistic mucus secretion by histamine and IL-4 through TMEM16A in
           airway epithelium
    • Authors: Kang, J. W; Lee, Y. H, Kang, M. J, Lee, H. J, Oh, R, Min, H. J, Namkung, W, Choi, J. Y, Lee, S. N, Kim, C.-H, Yoon, J.-H, Cho, H.-J.
      Abstract: Histamine is an important mediator of allergic reactions, and mucus hypersecretion is a major allergic symptom. However, the direct effect of histamine on mucus secretion from airway mucosal epithelia has not been clearly demonstrated. TMEM16A is a Ca2+-activated chloride channel, and it is closely related to fluid secretion in airway mucosal epithelia. We investigated whether histamine directly induces fluid secretion from epithelial cells or submucosal glands (SMG) and mechanisms related, therewith, in allergic airway diseases. In pig airway tissues from the nose or trachea, histamine was a potent secretagogue that directly induced strong responses. However, gland secretion from human nasal tissue was not induced by histamine, even in allergic rhinitis patients. Histamine type 1 receptor (H1R) and histamine type 2 receptor (H2R) were not noted in SMG by in situ hybridization. Cultured primary human nasal epithelial (NHE) cells were used for the measurement of short-circuit current changes with the Ussing chamber. Histamine-induced slight responses of anion secretions under normal conditions. The response was enhanced by IL-4 stimulation through TMEM16A, which might be related to fluid hypersecretion in allergic rhinitis. Pretreatment with IL-4 augmented the histamine response that was suppressed by a TMEM16A inhibitor. TMEM16A expression was enhanced by 24-h treatment of IL-4 in human nasal epithelial cells. The expression of TMEM16A was significantly elevated in an allergic rhinitis group, compared with a control group. We elucidated histamine-induced fluid secretions in synergy with IL-4 through TMEM16A in the human airway epithelium. In addition, we observed species differences between pigs and humans in terms of gland secretion of histamine.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T03:34:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00103.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 3 (2017)
  • Estrogen and cigarette sidestream smoke particulate matter exhibit
           ER{alpha}-dependent tumor-promoting effects in lung adenocarcinoma cells
    • Authors: Kuo, L.-C; Cheng, L.-C, Lee, C.-H, Lin, C.-J, Chen, P.-Y, Li, L.-A.
      Abstract: Estrogen and secondhand smoke are key risk factors for nonsmoking female lung cancer patients who frequently have lung adenocarcinoma and show tumor estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression. We speculated that estrogen and secondhand smoke might cause harmful effects via ERα signaling. Our results showed that 17β-estradiol (E2), the primary form of endogenous estrogen, exacerbated proliferation, migration, and granzyme B resistance of lung adenocarcinoma cells in an ERα-dependent manner. Cigarette sidestream smoke particulate matter (CSSP), the major component of secondhand smoke, could activate ERα activity dose dependently in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. The estrogenic activity of CSSP was abolished by an ERα-selective antagonist. CSSP regulated the nuclear entry, phosphorylation, and turnover of ERα similarly to E2. Furthermore, CSSP enhanced E2-stimulated ERα activity and Ser118 phosphorylation even when ERα became saturated with E2. Activation of ERα by CSSP required GSK3β activity, but not involving polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, reactive oxygen species, calcium, epidermal growth factor receptor, and PI3K/Akt. Although CSSP possessed cytotoxicity, ERα-expressing cells grew and migrated faster than nonexpressing cells on recovery from CSSP exposure as observed in E2-pretreated cells. Knockdown of ERα by siRNA diminished E2- and CSSP-stimulated cell migration. Twenty-one genes, including SERPINB9, were identified to be upregulated by both E2 and CSSP via ERα. Increased SERPINB9 expression was accompanied with increased resistance to granzyme B-mediated apoptosis. This study demonstrates that estrogen has ERα-dependent tumor-promoting activity. CSSP acts like estrogen and shows a potential to enhance estrogen-induced ERα action.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T03:34:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00322.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 3 (2017)
  • Novel role of NPY in neuroimmune interaction and lung growth after
           intrauterine growth restriction
    • Authors: Thangaratnarajah, C; Dinger, K, Vohlen, C, Klaudt, C, Nawabi, J, Lopez Garcia, E, Kwapiszewska, G, Dobner, J, Nüsken, K. D, van Koningsbruggen-Rietschel, S, von Hörsten, S, Dötsch, J, Alejandre Alcazar, M. A.
      Abstract: Individuals with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at risk for chronic lung disease. Using a rat model, we showed in our previous studies that altered lung structure is related to IL-6/STAT3 signaling. As neuropeptide Y (NPY), a coneurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system, regulates proliferation and immune response, we hypothesized that dysregulated NPY after IUGR is linked to IL-6, impaired myofibroblast function, and alveolar growth. IUGR was induced in rats by isocaloric low-protein diet; lungs were analyzed on embryonic day (E) 21, postnatal day (P) 3, P12, and P23. Finally, primary neonatal lung myofibroblasts (pnF) and murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) were used to assess proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and IL-6 expression. At E21, NPY and IL-6 expression was decreased, and AKT/PKC and STAT3/AMPKα signaling was reduced. Early reduction of NPY/IL-6 was associated with increased chord length in lungs after IUGR at P3, indicating reduced alveolar formation. At P23, however, IUGR rats exhibited a catch-up of body weight and alveolar growth coupled with more proliferating myofibroblasts. These structural findings after IUGR were linked to activated NPY/PKC, IL-6/AMPKα signaling. Complementary, IUGR-pnF showed increased survival, impaired migration, and reduced IL-6 compared with control-pnF (Co-pnF). In contrast, NPY induced proliferation, migration, and increased IL-6 synthesis in fibroblasts. Additionally, NPY–/– mice showed reduced IL-6 signaling and less proliferation of lung fibroblasts. Our study presents a novel role of NPY during alveolarization: NPY regulates 1) IL-6 and lung STAT3/AMPKα signaling, and 2) proliferation and migration of myofibroblasts. These new insights in pulmonary neuroimmune interaction offer potential strategies to enable lung growth.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T03:34:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00432.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 3 (2017)
  • The PDE4 inhibitor CHF-6001 and LAMAs inhibit bronchoconstriction-induced
           remodeling in lung slices
    • Authors: Kistemaker, L. E. M; Oenema, T. A, Baarsma, H. A, Bos, I. S. T, Schmidt, M, Facchinetti, F, Civelli, M, Villetti, G, Gosens, R.
      Abstract: Combination therapy of PDE4 inhibitors and anticholinergics induces bronchoprotection in COPD. Mechanical forces that arise during bronchoconstriction may contribute to airway remodeling. Therefore, we investigated the impact of PDE4 inhibitors and anticholinergics on bronchoconstriction-induced remodeling. Because of the different mechanism of action of PDE4 inhibitors and anticholinergics, we hypothesized functional interactions of these two drug classes. Guinea pig precision-cut lung slices were preincubated with the PDE4 inhibitors CHF-6001 or roflumilast and/or the anticholinergics tiotropium or glycopyorrolate, followed by stimulation with methacholine (10 μM) or TGF-β1 (2 ng/ml) for 48 h. The inhibitory effects on airway smooth muscle remodeling, airway contraction, and TGF-β release were investigated. Methacholine-induced protein expression of smooth muscle-myosin was fully inhibited by CHF-6001 (0.3–100 nM), whereas roflumilast (1 µM) had smaller effects. Tiotropium and glycopyrrolate fully inhibited methacholine-induced airway remodeling (0.1–30 nM). The combination of CHF-6001 and tiotropium or glycopyrrolate, in concentrations partially effective by themselves, fully inhibited methacholine-induced remodeling in combination. CHF-6001 did not affect airway closure and had limited effects on TGF-β1-induced remodeling, but rather, it inhibited methacholine-induced TGF-β release. The PDE4 inhibitor CHF-6001, and to a lesser extent roflumilast, and the LAMAs tiotropium and glycopyrrolate inhibit bronchoconstriction-induced remodeling. The combination of CHF-6001 and anticholinergics was more effective than the individual compounds. This cooperativity might be explained by the distinct mechanisms of action inhibiting TGF-β release and bronchoconstriction.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T03:34:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00069.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 3 (2017)
  • Long-term nicotine exposure dampens LPS-induced nerve-mediated airway
           hyperreactivity in murine airways
    • Authors: Xu, Y; Cardell, L.-O.
      Abstract: Nicotine is a major component of cigarette smoke. It causes addiction and is used clinically to aid smoke cessation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of nicotine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and to explore the potential involvement of neuronal mechanisms behind nicotine’s effects in murine models in vivo and in vitro. BALB/c mice were exposed to nicotine in vivo via subcutaneous Alzet osmotic minipumps containing nicotine tartate salt solution (24 mg·kg–1·day–1) for 28 days. LPS (0.1 mg/ml, 20 µl) was administered intranasally for 3 consecutive days during the end of this period. Lung functions were measured with flexiVent. For the in vitro experiments, mice tracheae were organcultured with either nicotine (10 μM) or vehicle (DMSO, 0.1%) for 4 days. Contractile responses of the tracheal segments were measured in myographs following electric field stimulation (EFS; increasing frequencies of 0.2 to 12.8 Hz) before and after incubation with 10 µg/ml LPS for 1 h. Results showed that LPS induced AHR to methacholine in vivo and increased contractile responses to EFS in vitro. Interestingly, long-term nicotine exposure markedly dampened this LPS-induced AHR both in vitro and in vivo. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) inhibited LPS-induced AHR but did not further inhibit nicotine-suppressed AHR in vivo. In conclusion, long-term nicotine exposure dampened LPS-induced AHR. The effect of nicotine was mimicked by TTX, suggesting the involvement of neuronal mechanisms. This information might be used for evaluating the long-term effects of nicotine and further exploring of how tobacco products interact with bacterial airway infections.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T03:34:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00222.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 3 (2017)
  • Impact of ventilation-induced lung injury on the structure and function of
           lamellar bodies
    • Authors: Milos, S; Khazaee, R, McCaig, L. A, Nygard, K, Gardiner, R. B, Zuo, Y. Y, Yamashita, C, Veldhuizen, R.
      Abstract: Alterations to the pulmonary surfactant system have been observed consistently in ventilation-induced lung injury (VILI) including composition changes and impairments in the surface tension reducing ability of the isolated extracellular surfactant. However, there is limited information about the effects of VILI on the intracellular form of surfactant, the lamellar body. It is hypothesized that VILI leads to alterations of lamellar body numbers and function. To test this hypothesis, rats were randomized to one of three groups, nonventilated controls, control ventilation, and high tidal volume ventilation (VILI). Following physiological assessment to confirm lung injury, isolated lamellar bodies were tested for surfactant function on a constrained sessile drop surfactometer. A separate cohort of animals was used to fix the lungs followed by examination of lamellar body numbers and morphology using transmission electron microscopy. The results showed an impaired ability of reducing surface tension for the lamellar bodies isolated from the VILI group as compared with the two other groups. The morphological assessment revealed that the number, and the relative area covered by, lamellar bodies were significantly decreased in animals with VILI animals as compared with the other groups. It is concluded that VILI causes significant alterations to lamellar bodies. It is speculated that increased secretion causes a depletion of lamellar bodies that cannot be compensated by de novo synthesis of surfactant in these injured lungs.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T03:34:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00055.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 3 (2017)
  • Elastin receptor (S-gal) occupancy by elastin peptides modulates T-cell
           response during murine emphysema
    • Authors: Meghraoui-Kheddar, A; Pierre, A, Sellami, M, Audonnet, S, Lemaire, F, Le Naour, R.
      Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema are associated with increased elastin peptides (EP) production because of excessive breakdown of lung connective tissue. We recently reported that exposure of mice to EP elicited hallmark features of emphysema. EP effects are largely mediated through a receptor complex that includes the elastin-binding protein spliced-galactosidase (S-gal). In previous studies, we established a correlation between cytokine production and S-gal protein expression in EP-treated immune cells. In this study, we investigated the S-gal-dependent EP effects on T-helper (Th) and T-cytotoxic (Tc) responses during murine EP-triggered pulmonary inflammation. C57BL/6J mice were endotracheally instilled with the valine-glycine-valine-alanine-proline-glycine (VGVAPG) elastin peptide, and, 21 days after treatment, local and systemic T-lymphocyte phenotypes were analyzed at cytokine and transcription factor expression levels by multicolor flow cytometry. Exposure of mice to the VGVAPG peptide resulted in a significant increase in the proportion of the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing the cytokines IFN- or IL-17a and the transcription factors T-box expressed in T cells or retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-t (RORt) without effects on IL-4 and Gata-binding protein 3 to DNA sequence [A/T]GATA[A/G] expression. These effects were maximized when each T-cell subpopulation was challenged ex vivo with EP, and they were inhibited in vivo when an analogous peptide antagonizing the EP/S-gal interactions was instilled together with the VGVAPG peptide. This study demonstrates that, during murine emphysema, EP-S-gal interactions contribute to a Th-1 and Th-17 proinflammatory T-cell response combined with a Tc-1 response. Our study also highlights the S-gal receptor as a putative pharmacological target to modulate such an immune response.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T03:34:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00465.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 3 (2017)
  • Myeloid-epithelial cross talk coordinates synthesis of the
           tissue-protective cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor during pneumonia
    • Authors: Traber, K. E; Symer, E. M, Allen, E, Kim, Y, Hilliard, K. L, Wasserman, G. A, Stewart, C. L, Jones, M. R, Mizgerd, J. P, Quinton, L. J.
      Abstract: In bacterial pneumonia, lung damage resulting from epithelial cell injury is a major contributor to the severity of disease and, in some cases, can lead to long-term sequelae, especially in the setting of severe lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a member of the IL-6 cytokine family, is a critical determinant of lung tissue protection during pneumonia, but the cellular sources of LIF and the signaling pathways leading to its production in the infected lung are not known. Here, we demonstrate that lung epithelium, specifically alveolar type II cells, is the predominant site of LIF transcript induction in pneumonic mouse lungs. Epithelial cell cultures were induced to express LIF by bacteria and by sterile bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from pneumonic mice. Reciprocal bone marrow chimera studies demonstrated that LIF deficiency in the nonhematopoietic compartment, but not LIF deficiency in hematopoietic cells, eliminated LIF induction during pneumonia. Although NF-B RelA (p65) is essential for the expression of many cytokines during pneumonia, its targeted mutation in the lung epithelium was inconsequential for pneumonia-driven LIF induction. However, maximal expression of this epithelial-derived cytokine was dependent on NF-B RelA in myeloid cells. Overall, our data suggest a signaling axis whereby activation of NF-B RelA in myeloid cells promotes epithelial LIF induction during lung infections, representing a means through which these two cell types collaborate to improve tissue resilience during pneumonia.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T03:34:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00482.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 3 (2017)
  • Genetic variance is associated with susceptibility for cigarette
           smoke-induced DAMP release in mice
    • Authors: Pouwels, S. D; Faiz, A, den Boef, L. E, Gras, R, van den Berge, M, Boezen, H. M, Korstanje, R, ten Hacken, N. H. T, van Oosterhout, A. J. M, Heijink, I. H, Nawijn, M. C.
      Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by unresolved neutrophilic airway inflammation and is caused by chronic exposure to toxic gases, such as cigarette smoke (CS), in genetically susceptible individuals. Recent data indicate a role for damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in COPD. Here, we investigated the genetics of CS-induced DAMP release in 28 inbred mouse strains. Subsequently, in lung tissue from a subset of strains, the expression of the identified candidate genes was analyzed. We tested whether small interfering RNA-dependent knockdown of candidate genes altered the susceptibility of the human A549 cell line to CS-induced cell death and DAMP release. Furthermore, we tested whether these genes were differentially regulated by CS exposure in bronchial brushings obtained from individuals with a family history indicative of either the presence or absence of susceptibility for COPD. We observed that, of the four DAMPs tested, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) showed the highest correlation with neutrophilic airway inflammation. Genetic analyses identified 11 candidate genes governing either CS-induced or basal dsDNA release in mice. Two candidate genes (Elac2 and Ppt1) showed differential expression in lung tissue on CS exposure between susceptible and nonsusceptible mouse strains. Knockdown of ELAC2 and PPT1 in A549 cells altered susceptibility to CS extract-induced cell death and DAMP release. In bronchial brushings, CS-induced expression of ENOX1 and ARGHGEF11 was significantly different between individuals susceptible or nonsusceptible for COPD. Our study shows that genetic variance in a mouse model is associated with CS-induced DAMP release, and that this might contribute to susceptibility for COPD.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T03:34:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00466.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 3 (2017)
  • Cigarette smoke disrupts monolayer integrity by altering epithelial
           cell-cell adhesion and cortical tension
    • Authors: Nishida, K; Brune, K. A, Putcha, N, Mandke, P, ONeal, W. K, Shade, D, Srivastava, V, Wang, M, Lam, H, An, S. S, Drummond, M. B, Hansel, N. N, Robinson, D. N, Sidhaye, V. K.
      Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Cigarette smoke (CS) drives disease development and progression. The epithelial barrier is damaged by CS with increased monolayer permeability. However, the molecular changes that cause this barrier disruption and the interaction between adhesion proteins and the cytoskeleton are not well defined. We hypothesized that CS alters monolayer integrity by increasing cell contractility and decreasing cell adhesion in epithelia. Normal human airway epithelial cells and primary COPD epithelial cells were exposed to air or CS, and changes measured in protein levels. We measured the cortical tension of individual cells and the stiffness of cells in a monolayer. We confirmed that the changes in acute and subacute in vitro smoke exposure reflect protein changes seen in cell monolayers and tissue sections from COPD patients. Epithelial cells exposed to repetitive CS and those derived from COPD patients have increased monolayer permeability. E-cadherin and β-catenin were reduced in smoke exposed cells as well as in lung tissue sections from patients with COPD. Moreover, repetitive CS caused increased tension in individual cells and cells in a monolayer, which corresponded with increased polymerized actin without changes in myosin IIA and IIB total abundance. Repetitive CS exposure impacts the adhesive intercellular junctions and the tension of epithelial cells by increased actin polymer levels, to further destabilize cell adhesion. Similar changes are seen in epithelial cells from COPD patients indicating that these findings likely contribute to COPD pathology.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T03:34:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00074.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 3 (2017)
  • Impaired TNF/TNFR2 signaling enhances Th2 and Th17 polarization and
           aggravates allergic airway inflammation
    • Authors: Li, X.-M; Chen, X, Gu, W, Guo, Y.-J, Cheng, Y, Peng, J, Guo, X.-J.
      Abstract: CD4+ T-cell differentiation plays an important role in allergic airway diseases. Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) has been shown to regulate CD4+ T-lymphocyte differentiation, but its role in allergic airway inflammation is not clear. Here, we investigated the role of TNFR2 in allergic airway inflammation. The mouse model was generated by immunization with ovalbumin and intranasal administration of TNFR2 antibody. Airway inflammation and CD4+ T-cell differentiation were measured in vivo and in vitro. Inhibited TNFR2 signaling aggravated airway inflammation and increased the expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-17, and TNF-α) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Impaired TNFR2 signaling promoted Th2 and Th17 polarization but inhibited Th1 and CD4+CD25+ T-cell differentiation in vivo. Furthermore, TNFR2 signaling inhibition promoted Th2 and Th17 polarization in vitro, which may occur through the activation of TNF receptor-associated factor 2 and NF-B signaling. Therefore, our findings indicate that impaired TNF/TNFR2 signaling enhances Th2 and Th17 polarization and aggravates allergic airway inflammation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T03:34:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00409.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 3 (2017)
  • The metalloproteinase ADAM8 promotes leukocyte recruitment in vitro and in
           acute lung inflammation
    • Authors: Dreymueller, D; Pruessmeyer, J, Schumacher, J, Fellendorf, S, Hess, F. M, Seifert, A, Babendreyer, A, Bartsch, J. W, Ludwig, A.
      Abstract: Alveolar leukocyte recruitment is a hallmark of acute lung inflammation and involves transmigration of leukocytes through endothelial and epithelial layers. The disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 8 is expressed on human isolated leukocytic cells and can be further upregulated on cultured endothelial and epithelial cells by proinflammatory cytokines. By shRNA-mediated knockdown we show that leukocytic ADAM8 is required on monocytic THP-1 cells for chemokine-induced chemotaxis as well as transendothelial and transepithelial migration. Furthermore, ADAM8 promotes αL-integrin upregulation and THP-1 cell adhesion to endothelial cells. On endothelial cells ADAM8 enhances transendothelial migration and increases cytokine-induced permeability. On epithelial cells the protease facilitates migration in a wound closure assay but does not affect transepithelial leukocyte migration. Blood leukocytes and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from ADAM8-deficient mice show suppressed chemotactic response. Intranasal application of LPS to mice is accompanied with ADAM8 upregulation in the lung. In this model of acute lung inflammation ADAM8-deficient mice are protected against leukocyte infiltration. Finally, transfer experiments of BMDM in mice indicate that ADAM8 exerts a promigratory function predominantly on leukocytes. Our study provides in vitro and in vivo evidence that ADAM8 on leukocytes holds a proinflammatory function in acute lung inflammation by promoting alveolar leukocyte recruitment.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T03:34:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00444.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 3 (2017)
  • Transforming growth factor-{beta} stimulates Smad1/5 signaling in
           pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts of the newborn mouse
           through ALK1
    • Authors: Zhang, H; Du, L, Zhong, Y, Flanders, K. C, Roberts, J. D.
      Abstract: The intracellular signaling mechanisms through which TGF-β regulates pulmonary development are incompletely understood. Canonical TGF-β signaling involves Smad2/3 phosphorylation, Smad2/3·Smad4 complex formation and nuclear localization, and gene regulation. Here, we show that physiologically relevant TGF-β1 levels also stimulate Smad1/5 phosphorylation, which is typically a mediator of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, in mouse pup pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (mPASMC) and lung fibroblasts and other interstitial lung cell lines. This cross-talk mechanism likely has in vivo relevance because mixed Smad1/5/8·Smad2/3 complexes, which are indicative of TGF-β-stimulated Smad1/5 activation, were detected in the developing mouse lung using a proximity ligation assay. Although mixed Smad complexes have been shown not to transduce nuclear signaling, we determined that TGF-β stimulates nuclear localization of phosphorylated Smad1/5 and induces the expression of prototypical BMP-regulated genes in the mPASMC. Small-molecule kinase inhibitor studies suggested that TGF-β-regulated Smad1/5 phosphorylation in these cells is mediated by TGF-β-type I receptors, not BMP-type I receptors, but possibly the accessory activin-like kinase (ALK1) receptor. Although work by others suggested that ALK1 is expressed exclusively in endothelial cells in the vasculature, we detected ALK1 mRNA and protein expression in mPASMC in vitro and in mouse pup lungs. Moreover, using an antimurine ALK1 antibody and mPASMC, we determined that ALK1 regulates Smad1/5 phosphorylation by TGF-β. Together, these studies characterize an accessory TGF-β-stimulated BMP R-Smad signaling mechanism in interstitial cells of the developing lung. They also indicate the importance of considering alternate Smad pathways in studies directed at determining how TGF-β regulates newborn lung development.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T03:34:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00079.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 3 (2017)
  • Arterial stiffness induces remodeling phenotypes in pulmonary artery
           smooth muscle cells via YAP/TAZ-mediated repression of cyclooxygenase-2
    • Authors: Dieffenbach, P. B; Haeger, C. M, Coronata, A. M. F, Choi, K. M, Varelas, X, Tschumperlin, D. J, Fredenburgh, L. E.
      Abstract: Pulmonary arterial stiffness is an independent risk factor for mortality in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and plays a critical role in PH pathophysiology. Our laboratory has recently demonstrated arterial stiffening early in experimental PH, along with evidence for a mechanobiological feedback loop by which arterial stiffening promotes further cellular remodeling behaviors (Liu F, Haeger CM, Dieffenbach PB, Sicard D, Chrobak I, Coronata AM, Suárez Velandia MM, Vitali S, Colas RA, Norris PC, Marinković A, Liu X, Ma J, Rose CD, Lee SJ, Comhair SA, Erzurum SC, McDonald JD, Serhan CN, Walsh SR, Tschumperlin DJ, Fredenburgh LE. JCI Insight 1: e86987, 2016). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin signaling have been implicated in stiffness-mediated regulation, with prostaglandin activity inversely correlated to matrix stiffness and remodeling behaviors in vitro, as well as to disease progression in rodent PH models. The mechanism by which mechanical signaling translates to reduced COX-2 activity in pulmonary vascular cells is unknown. The present work investigated the transcriptional regulators Yes-associated protein (YAP) and WW domain-containing transcription regulator 1 (WWTR1, a.k.a., TAZ), which are known drivers of downstream mechanical signaling, in mediating stiffness-induced changes in COX-2 and prostaglandin activity in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). We found that YAP/TAZ activity is increased in PAH PASMCs and experimental PH and is necessary for the development of stiffness-dependent remodeling phenotypes. Knockdown of YAP and TAZ markedly induces COX-2 expression and downstream prostaglandin production by approximately threefold, whereas overexpression of YAP or TAZ reduces COX-2 expression and prostaglandin production to near undetectable levels. Together, our findings demonstrate a stiffness-dependent YAP/TAZ-mediated positive feedback loop that drives remodeling phenotypes in PASMCs via reduced COX-2 and prostaglandin activity. The ability to interrupt this critical mechanobiological feedback loop and enhance local prostaglandin activity via manipulation of YAP/TAZ signaling presents a highly attractive novel strategy for the treatment of PH.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T03:34:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00173.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 3 (2017)
  • Letter to the editor: BET inhibitors might target innate inflammatory and
           profibrotic signaling networks in COPD
    • Authors: Du, J; Han, Y.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T03:34:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00246.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 3 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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