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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2995 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1424 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism
  [SJR: 2.465]   [H-I: 161]   [22 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0193-1849 - ISSN (Online) 1522-1555
   Published by American Physiological Society Homepage  [13 journals]
  • The Niemann-Pick C1 gene interacts with a high-fat diet to promote weight
           gain through differential regulation of central energy metabolism pathways
           
    • Authors: Castillo, J. J; Jelinek, D, Wei, H, Gannon, N. P, Vaughan, R. A, Horwood, L. J, Meaney, F. J, Garcia-Smith, R, Trujillo, K. A, Heidenreich, R. A, Meyre, D, Orlando, R. A, LeBoeuf, R. C, Garver, W. S.
      Abstract: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) reported that common variation in the human Niemann-Pick C1 gene (NPC1) is associated with morbid adult obesity. This study was confirmed using our BALB/cJ Npc1 mouse model, whereby heterozygous mice (Npc1+/–) with decreased gene dosage were susceptible to weight gain when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) compared with homozygous normal mice (Npc1+/+) fed the same diet. The objective for our current study was to validate this Npc1 gene-diet interaction using statistical modeling with fitted growth trajectories, conduct body weight analyses for different measures, and define the physiological basis responsible for weight gain. Metabolic phenotype analysis indicated no significant difference between Npc1+/+ and Npc1+/– mice fed a HFD for food and water intake, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, locomotor activity, adaptive thermogenesis, and intestinal lipid absorption. However, the livers from Npc1+/– mice had significantly increased amounts of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and increased expression of SREBP-1 target genes that regulate glycolysis and lipogenesis with an accumulation of triacylglycerol and cholesterol. Moreover, white adipose tissue from Npc1+/– mice had significantly decreased amounts of phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase with decreased triacylglycerol lipolysis. Consistent with these results, cellular energy metabolism studies indicated that Npc1+/– fibroblasts had significantly increased glycolysis and lipogenesis, in addition to significantly decreased substrate (glucose and endogenous fatty acid) oxidative metabolism with an accumulation of triacylglycerol and cholesterol. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that the Npc1 gene interacts with a HFD to promote weight gain through differential regulation of central energy metabolism pathways.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T03:33:23-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00369.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery enhances contraction-mediated glucose
           metabolism in primary human myotubes
    • Authors: Hinkley, J. M; Zou, K, Park, S, Turner, K, Zheng, D, Houmard, J. A.
      Abstract: Contractile activity (e.g., exercise) evokes numerous metabolic adaptations in human skeletal muscle, including enhanced insulin action and substrate oxidation. However, there is intersubject variation in the physiological responses to exercise, which may be linked with factors such as the degree of obesity. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery reduces body mass in severely obese (body mass index ≥ 40 kg/m2) individuals; however, it is uncertain whether RYGB can potentiate responses to contractile activity in this potentially exercise-resistant population. To examine possible interactions between RYGB and contractile activity, muscle biopsies were obtained from severely obese patients before and after RYGB, differentiated into myotubes, and electrically stimulated, after which changes in insulin action and glucose oxidation were determined. Before RYGB, myotubes were unresponsive to electrical stimulation, as indicated by no changes in insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis and basal glucose oxidation. However, myotubes from the same patients at 1 mo after RYGB increased insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis and basal glucose oxidation when subjected to contraction. While unresponsive before surgery, contraction improved insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of AS160 (Thr642, Ser704) after RYGB. These data suggest that RYGB surgery may enhance the ability of skeletal muscle from severely obese individuals to respond to contractile activity.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T03:33:23-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00413.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Hepatic FGF21 mediates sex differences in high-fat high-fructose
           diet-induced fatty liver
    • Authors: Chukijrungroat, N; Khamphaya, T, Weerachayaphorn, J, Songserm, T, Saengsirisuwan, V.
      Abstract: The role of gender in the progression of fatty liver due to chronic high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD) has not been studied. The present investigation assessed whether HFFD induced hepatic perturbations differently between the sexes and examined the potential mechanisms. Male, female, and ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control diet or HFFD for 12 wk. Indexes of liver damage and hepatic steatosis were analyzed biochemically and histologically together with monitoring changes in hepatic gene and protein expression. HFFD induced a higher degree of hepatic steatosis in females, with significant increases in proteins involved in hepatic lipogenesis, whereas HFFD significantly induced liver injury, inflammation, and oxidative stress only in males. Interestingly, a significant increase in hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) protein expression was observed in HFFD-fed males but not in HFFD-fed females. Ovarian hormone deprivation by itself led to a significant reduction in FGF21 with hepatic steatosis, and HFFD further aggravated hepatic fat accumulation in OVX rats. Importantly, estrogen replacement restored hepatic FGF21 levels and reduced hepatic steatosis in HFFD-fed OVX rats. Collectively, our results indicate that male rats are more susceptible to HFFD-induced hepatic inflammation and that the mechanism underlying this sex dimorphism is mediated through hepatic FGF21 expression. Our findings reveal sex differences in the development of HFFD-induced fatty liver and indicate the protective role of estrogen against HFFD-induced hepatic steatosis.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T03:33:23-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00076.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Development of diabetes does not alter behavioral and molecular circadian
           rhythms in a transgenic rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus
    • Authors: Qian, J; Thomas, A. P, Schroeder, A. M, Rakshit, K, Colwell, C. S, Matveyenko, A. V.
      Abstract: Metabolic state and circadian clock function exhibit a complex bidirectional relationship. Circadian disruption increases propensity for metabolic dysfunction, whereas common metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are associated with impaired circadian rhythms. Specifically, alterations in glucose availability and glucose metabolism have been shown to modulate clock gene expression and function in vitro; however, to date, it is unknown whether development of diabetes imparts deleterious effects on the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian clock and SCN-driven outputs in vivo. To address this question, we undertook studies in aged diabetic rats transgenic for human islet amyloid polypeptide, an established nonobese model of T2DM (HIP rat), which develops metabolic defects closely recapitulating those present in patients with T2DM. HIP rats were also cross-bred with a clock gene reporter rat model (Per1:luciferase transgenic rat) to permit assessment of the SCN and the peripheral molecular clock function ex vivo. Utilizing these animal models, we examined effects of diabetes on 1) behavioral circadian rhythms, 2) photic entrainment of circadian activity, 3) SCN and peripheral tissue molecular clock function, and 4) melatonin secretion. We report that circadian activity, light-induced entrainment, molecular clockwork, as well as melatonin secretion are preserved in the HIP rat model of T2DM. These results suggest that despite the well-characterized ability of glucose to modulate circadian clock gene expression acutely in vitro, SCN clock function and key behavioral and physiological outputs appear to be preserved under chronic diabetic conditions characteristic of nonobese T2DM.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T03:33:23-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00406.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • The NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to sarcopenia and lower muscle
           glycolytic potential in old mice
    • Authors: McBride, M. J; Foley, K. P, DSouza, D. M, Li, Y. E, Lau, T. C, Hawke, T. J, Schertzer, J. D.
      Abstract: The mechanisms underpinning decreased skeletal muscle strength and slowing of movement during aging are ill-defined. "Inflammaging," increased inflammation with advancing age, may contribute to aspects of sarcopenia, but little is known about the participatory immune components. We discovered that aging was associated with increased caspase-1 activity in mouse skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that the caspase-1-containing NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to sarcopenia in mice. Male C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and NLRP3–/– mice were aged to 10 (adult) and 24 mo (old). NLRP3–/– mice were protected from decreased muscle mass (relative to body mass) and decreased size of type IIB and IIA myofibers, which occurred between 10 and 24 mo of age in WT mice. Old NLRP3–/– mice also had increased relative muscle strength and endurance and were protected from age-related increases in the number of myopathic fibers. We found no evidence of age-related or NLRP3-dependent changes in markers of systemic inflammation. Increased caspase-1 activity was associated with GAPDH proteolysis and reduced GAPDH enzymatic activity in skeletal muscles from old WT mice. Aging did not alter caspase-1 activity, GAPDH proteolysis, or GAPDH activity in skeletal muscles of NLRP3–/– mice. Our results show that the NLRP3 inflammasome participates in age-related loss of muscle glycolytic potential. Deletion of NLRP3 mitigates both the decline in glycolytic myofiber size and the reduced activity of glycolytic enzymes in muscle during aging. We propose that the etiology of sarcopenia involves direct communication between immune responses and metabolic flux in skeletal muscle.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T03:33:23-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00060.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Western-diet consumption induces alteration of barrier function mechanisms
           in the ileum that correlates with metabolic endotoxemia in rats
    • Authors: Guerville, M; Leroy, A, Sinquin, A, Laugerette, F, Michalski, M.-C, Boudry, G.
      Abstract: Obesity and its related disorders have been associated with the presence in the blood of gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS). However, the factors underlying this low-grade elevation in plasma LPS, so-called metabolic endotoxemia, are not fully elucidated. We aimed to investigate the effects of Western diet (WD) feeding on intestinal and hepatic LPS handling mechanisms in a rat model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Rats were fed either a standard chow diet (C) or a Western Diet (WD, 45% fat) for 6 wk. They were either fed ad libitum or pair-fed to match the caloric intake of C rats for the first week, then fed ad libitum for the remaining 5 wk. Six-week WD feeding led to a mild obese phenotype with increased adiposity and elevated serum LPS-binding protein (LBP) levels relative to C rats, irrespective of initial energy intake. Serum LPS was not different between dietary groups but exhibited strong variability. Disrupted ileal mucus secretion and decreased ileal Reg3- and -β gene expression along with high ileal permeability to LPS were observed in WD compared with C-fed rats. Ileal and cecal intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity as well as Verrucomicrobia and Bifidobacterium cecal levels were increased in WD-fed rats compared with C-fed rats. WD consumption did not impact mRNA levels of LPS-handling hepatic enzymes. Correlation analysis revealed that ileal passage of LPS, IAP activity, Proteobacteria levels and hepatic aoah gene expression correlated with serum LPS and LBP, suggesting that ileal mucosal defense impairment induced by WD feeding contribute to metabolic endotoxemia.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T03:33:33-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00372.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cyp8b1 ablation prevents Western diet-induced weight gain and hepatic
           steatosis because of impaired fat absorption
    • Authors: Bertaggia, E; Jensen, K. K, Castro-Perez, J, Xu, Y, Di Paolo, G, Chan, R. B, Wang, L, Haeusler, R. A.
      Abstract: Bile acids (BAs) are cholesterol derivatives that regulate lipid metabolism, through their dual abilities to promote lipid absorption and activate BA receptors. However, different BA species have varying abilities to perform these functions. Eliminating 12α-hydroxy BAs in mice via Cyp8b1 knockout causes low body weight and improved glucose tolerance. The goal of this study was to determine mechanisms of low body weight in Cyp8b1–/– mice. We challenged Cyp8b1–/– mice with a Western-type diet and assessed body weight and composition. We measured energy expenditure, fecal calories, and lipid absorption and performed lipidomic studies on feces and intestine. We investigated the requirement for dietary fat in the phenotype using a fat-free diet. Cyp8b1–/– mice were resistant to Western diet-induced body weight gain, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. These changes were associated with increased fecal calories, due to malabsorption of hydrolyzed dietary triglycerides. This was reversed by treating the mice with taurocholic acid, the major 12α-hydroxylated BA species. The improvements in body weight and steatosis were normalized by feeding mice a fat-free diet. The effects of BA composition on intestinal lipid handling are important for whole body energy homeostasis. Thus modulating BA composition is a potential tool for obesity or diabetes therapy.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T03:33:33-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00409.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Low-dose leptin infusion in the fourth ventricle of rats enhances the
           response to third-ventricle leptin injection
    • Authors: Harris; R. B. S.
      Abstract: We previously reported that low-dose leptin infusions into the third or fourth ventricle that do not affect energy balance when given independently cause rapid weight loss when given simultaneously. Therefore, we tested whether hindbrain leptin enhances the response to forebrain leptin or whether forebrain leptin enhances the response to hindbrain leptin. Rats received fourth-ventricle infusions of saline or 0.01, 0.1, 0.3, or 0.6 μg leptin/day for 13 days. On days 9 and 13, 0.1 μg leptin was injected into the third ventricle. The injection inhibited food intake for 36 h in saline-infused rats but for 60 h in those infused with 0.6 μg leptin/day. Leptin injection increased intrascapular brown fat temperature in leptin-infused, but not saline-infused, rats. In a separate experiment, rats received third-ventricle infusions of saline or 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, or 0.1 μg leptin/day and fourth-ventricle injections of 1.0 μg leptin on days 9 and 13. Leptin injection inhibited food intake, respiratory exchange ratio, and 14-h food intake in rats infused with saline or the two lowest doses of leptin. There was no effect with higher-dose leptin infusions because food intake, body fat, and lean mass were already inhibited. These data suggest that activation of leptin receptors in the hindbrain enhances the response to third-ventricle leptin, whereas activation of forebrain leptin receptors does not enhance the response to fourth-ventricle leptin, consistent with our previous finding that weight loss in rats treated with fourth-ventricle leptin is associated with indirect activation of hypothalamic STAT3.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T03:33:33-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00052.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Menin and PRMT5 suppress GLP1 receptor transcript and PKA-mediated
           phosphorylation of FOXO1 and CREB
    • Authors: Muhammad, A. B; Xing, B, Liu, C, Naji, A, Ma, X, Simmons, R. A, Hua, X.
      Abstract: Menin is a scaffold protein that interacts with several epigenetic mediators to regulate gene transcription, and suppresses pancreatic β-cell proliferation. Tamoxifen-inducible deletion of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene, which encodes the protein menin, increases β-cell mass in multiple murine models of diabetes and ameliorates diabetes. Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP1) is another key physiological modulator of β-cell mass and glucose homeostasis. However, it is not clearly understood whether menin crosstalks with GLP1 signaling. Here, we show that menin and protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) suppress GLP1 receptor (GLP1R) transcript levels. Notably, a GLP1R agonist induces phosphorylation of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) at S253, and the phosphorylation is mediated by PKA. Interestingly, menin suppresses GLP1-induced and PKA-mediated phosphorylation of both FOXO1 and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), likely through a protein arginine methyltransferase. Menin-mediated suppression of FOXO1 and CREB phosphorylation increases FOXO1 levels and suppresses CREB target genes, respectively. A small-molecule menin inhibitor reverses menin-mediated suppression of both FOXO1 and CREB phosphorylation. In addition, ex vivo treatment of both mouse and human pancreatic islets with a menin inhibitor increases levels of proliferation marker Ki67. In conclusion, our results suggest that menin and PRMT5 suppress GLP1R transcript levels and PKA-mediated phosphorylation of FOXO1 and CREB, and a menin inhibitor may reverse this suppression to induce β-cell proliferation.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T03:33:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00241.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cholestyramine treatment of healthy humans rapidly induces transient
           hypertriglyceridemia when treatment is initiated
    • Authors: Sjöberg, B. G; Straniero, S, Angelin, B, Rudling, M.
      Abstract: Bile acid (BA) production in mice is regulated by hepatic farnesoid X receptors and by intestinal fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-15 (in humans, FGF-19), a suppressor of BA synthesis that also reduces serum triglycerides and glucose. Cholestyramine treatment reduces FGF-19 and induces BA synthesis, whereas plasma triglycerides may increase from unclear reasons. We explored whether FGF-19 may suppress BA synthesis and plasma triglycerides in humans by modulation of FGF-19 levels through long-term cholestyramine treatment at increasing doses. In a second acute experiment, metabolic responses from 1 day of cholestyramine treatment were monitored. Long-term treatment reduced serum FGF-19 by >90%; BA synthesis increased up to 17-fold, whereas serum BAs, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin were stable. After long-term treatment, serum BAs and FGF-19 displayed rebound increases above baseline levels, and BA and cholesterol syntheses normalized after 1 wk without rebound reductions. Acute cholestyramine treatment decreased FGF-19 by 95% overnight and serum BAs by 60%, while BA synthesis increased fourfold and triglycerides doubled. The results support that FGF-19 represses BA synthesis but not serum triglycerides. However, after cessation of both long-term and 1-day cholestyramine treatment, circulating FGF-19 levels were normalized within 2 days, whereas BA synthesis remained significantly induced in both situations, indicating that also other mechanisms than the FGF-19 pathway are responsible for stimulation of BA synthesis elicited by cholestyramine. Several of the responses during cholestyramine treatment persisted at least 6 days after treatment, highlighting the importance of removing such treatment well before evaluating dynamics of the enterohepatic circulation in humans.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T03:33:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00416.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Fatty acid uptake and blood flow in adipose tissue compartments of
           morbidly obese subjects with or without type 2 diabetes: effects of
           bariatric surgery
    • Authors: Dadson, P; Ferrannini, E, Landini, L, Hannukainen, J. C, Kalliokoski, K. K, Vaittinen, M, Honka, H, Karlsson, H. K, Tuulari, J. J, Soinio, M, Salminen, P, Parkkola, R, Pihlajamäki, J, Iozzo, P, Nuutila, P.
      Abstract: Body fat accumulation, distribution, and metabolic activity are factors in the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated adipose blood flow, fatty acid uptake (FAU), and subcutaneous and visceral fat cellularity in obese patients with or without T2D. A total of 23 morbidly obese (mean body mass index = 42 kg/m2) patients were studied before and 6 mo after bariatric surgery; 15 nonobese subjects served as controls. Positron emission tomography was used to measure tissue FAU (with 18F-FTHA) and blood flow (with H215O); MRI was used for fat distribution and fat biopsy for adipocyte size. Obese subjects had subcutaneous hyperplasia and hypertrophy and lower blood flow; when expressed per cell, flow was similar to controls. FAU into subcutaneous and visceral depots was increased in the obese; per unit tissue mass, however, FAU was similar to controls but reduced in skeletal muscle. Fatty acid fractional extraction in subcutaneous fat and muscle was only increased in obese patients with T2D. We conclude that surgery reduces subcutaneous fat hyperplasia and hypertrophy; subcutaneous blood flow and FAU decrease in absolute terms and per cell while fractional FAU remains unchanged in T2D. In the obese, subcutaneous blood flow is a determinant of FAU and is coupled with cellularity; efficiency of FAU is enhanced in subcutaneous fat and muscle in T2D.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T03:33:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00044.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
       
 
 
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