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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3003 journals)
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    - BIOLOGY (1427 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1427 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 310)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism
  [SJR: 2.465]   [H-I: 161]   [22 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0193-1849 - ISSN (Online) 1522-1555
   Published by American Physiological Society Homepage  [13 journals]
  • SIRT6 regulates metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle through
           activation of AMPK
    • Authors: Cui, X; Yao, L, Yang, X, Gao, Y, Fang, F, Zhang, J, Wang, Q, Chang, Y.
      Abstract: Because of the mass and functions in metabolism, skeletal muscle is one of the major organs regulating whole body metabolic homeostasis. SIRT6, a histone deacetylase, has been shown to regulate metabolism in liver and brain; however, its specific role in skeletal muscle is undetermined. In the present study we explored physiological function of SIRT6 in muscle. We generated a muscle-specific SIRT6 knockout mouse model. The mice with SIRT6 deficiency in muscle displayed impaired glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, attenuated whole body energy expenditure, and weakened exercise performance. Mechanistically, deletion of SIRT6 in muscle decreased expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid uptake, fatty acid oxidation, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in muscle cells because of the reduced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. In contrast, overexpression of SIRT6 in C2C12 myotubes activates AMPK. Our results from both gain- and loss-of-function experiments identify SIRT6 as a physiological regulator of muscle mitochondrial function. These findings indicate that SIRT6 is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T03:30:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00122.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Corrigendum
    • PubDate: 2017-10-01T03:30:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.zh1-7809-corr.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Maternal methyl donor and cofactor supplementation in late pregnancy
           increases {beta}-cell numbers at 16 days of life in growth-restricted twin
           lambs
    • Authors: Sulaiman, S. A; De Blasio, M. J, Harland, M. L, Gatford, K. L, Owens, J. A.
      Abstract: Restricted growth before birth (IUGR) increases adult risk of Type 2 diabetes by impairing insulin sensitivity and secretion. Altered fetal one-carbon metabolism is implicated in developmental programming of adult health and disease by IUGR. Therefore, we evaluated effects of maternal dietary supplementation with methyl donors and cofactors (MMDS), designed to increase fetal supply, on insulin action in the spontaneously IUGR twin lamb. In vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were measured at days 12–14 in singleton controls (CON, n = 7 lambs from 7 ewes), twins (IUGR, n = 8 lambs from 8 ewes), and twins from ewes that received MMDS (2 g rumen-protected methionine, 300 mg folic acid, 1.2 g sulfur, 0.7 mg cobalt) daily from 120 days after mating (~0.8 of term) until delivery (IUGR+MMDS, n = 8 lambs from 4 ewes). Body composition and pancreas morphometry were assessed in lambs at day 16. IUGR reduced size at birth and increased neonatal fractional growth rate. MMDS normalized long bone lengths but not other body dimensions of IUGR lambs at birth. IUGR did not impair glucose control or insulin action at days 12–14, compared with controls. MMDS increased metabolic clearance rate of insulin and increased β-cell numerical density and tended to improve insulin sensitivity, compared with untreated IUGR lambs. This demonstrates that effects of late-pregnancy methyl donor supplementation persist until at least the third week of life. Whether these effects of MMDS persist beyond early postnatal life and improve metabolic outcomes after IUGR in adults and the underlying mechanisms remain to be determined.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01T03:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00033.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • MiR-27b augments bone marrow progenitor cell survival via suppressing the
           mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in Type 2 diabetes
    • Authors: Li, H; Liu, J, Wang, Y, Fu, Z, Hüttemann, M, Monks, T. J, Chen, A. F, Wang, J.-M.
      Abstract: Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (BMPCs) are potential candidates for autologous cell therapy in tissue repair and regeneration because of their high angiogenic potential. However, increased progenitor cell apoptosis in diabetes directly limits their success in the clinic. MicroRNAs are endogenous noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, but their roles in BMPC-mediated angiogenesis are incompletely understood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the proangiogenic miR-27b inhibits BMPC apoptosis in Type 2 diabetes. Bone marrow-derived EPCs from adult male Type 2 diabetic db/db mice and their normal littermates db/+ mice were used. MiR-27b expression (real-time PCR) in EPCs was decreased after 24 h of exposure to methylglyoxal (MGO) or oxidized low-density lipoprotein but not high glucose, advanced glycation end products, the reactive oxygen species generator LY83583, or H2O2. The increase in BMPC apoptosis in the diabetic mice was rescued following transfection with a miR-27b mimic, and the increased apoptosis induced by MGO was also rescued by the miR-27b mimic. p53 protein expression and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in EPCs (Western blot analyses) were significantly higher in db/db mice, both of which were suppressed by miR-27b. Furthermore, mitochondrial respiration, as measured by oxygen consumption rate, was enhanced by miR-27b in diabetic BMPCs, with concomitant decrease of mitochondrial Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. The 3' UTR binding assays revealed that both Bax, and its activator RUNX1, were direct targets of miR-27b, suggesting that miR-27b inhibits Bax expression in both direct and indirect manners. miR-27b prevents EPC apoptosis in Type 2 diabetic mice, at least in part, by suppressing p53 and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings may provide a mechanistic basis for rescuing BMPC dysfunction in diabetes for successful autologous cell therapy.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01T03:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00073.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Deletion of UCP1 enhances ex vivo aortic vasomotor function in female but
           not male mice despite similar susceptibility to metabolic dysfunction
    • Authors: Winn, N. C; Grunewald, Z. I, Gastecki, M. L, Woodford, M. L, Welly, R. J, Clookey, S. L, Ball, J. R, Gaines, T. L, Karasseva, N. G, Kanaley, J. A, Sacks, H. S, Vieira-Potter, V. J, Padilla, J.
      Abstract: Females are typically more insulin sensitive than males, which may be partly attributed to greater brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) content. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that UCP1 deletion would abolish sex differences in insulin sensitivity and that whitening of thoracic periaortic BAT caused by UCP1 loss would be accompanied with impaired thoracic aortic function. Furthermore, because UCP1 exerts antioxidant effects, we examined whether UCP1 deficiency-induced metabolic dysfunction was mediated by oxidative stress. Compared with males, female mice had lower HOMA- and AT-insulin resistance (IR) despite no significant differences in BAT UCP1 content. UCP1 ablation increased HOMA-IR, AT-IR, and whitening of BAT in both sexes. Expression of UCP1 in thoracic aorta was greater in wild-type females compared with males. Importantly, deletion of UCP1 enhanced aortic vasomotor function in females only. UCP1 ablation did not promote oxidative stress in interscapular BAT. Furthermore, daily administration of the free radical scavenger tempol for 8 wk did not abrogate UCP1 deficiency-induced increases in adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, or liver steatosis. Collectively, we report that 1) in normal chow-fed mice housed at 25°C, aortic UCP1 content was greater in females than males and its deletion improved ex vivo aortic vasomotor function in females only; 2) constitutive UCP1 content in BAT was similar between females and males and loss of UCP1 did not abolish sex differences in insulin sensitivity; and 3) the metabolic disruptions caused by UCP1 ablation did not appear to be contingent upon increased oxidative stress in mice under normal dietary conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01T03:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00096.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Inter-relations between 3-hydroxypropionate and propionate metabolism in
           rat liver: relevance to disorders of propionyl-CoA metabolism
    • Authors: Wilson, K. A; Han, Y, Zhang, M, Hess, J. P, Chapman, K. A, Cline, G. W, Tochtrop, G. P, Brunengraber, H, Zhang, G.-F.
      Abstract: Propionate, 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP), methylcitrate, related compounds, and ammonium accumulate in body fluids of patients with disorders of propionyl-CoA metabolism, such as propionic acidemia. Although liver transplantation alleviates hyperammonemia, high concentrations of propionate, 3HP, and methylcitrate persist in body fluids. We hypothesized that conserved metabolic perturbations occurring in transplanted patients result from the simultaneous presence of propionate and 3HP in body fluids. We investigated the inter-relations of propionate and 3HP metabolism in perfused livers from normal rats using metabolomic and stable isotopic technologies. In the presence of propionate, 3HP, or both, we observed the following metabolic perturbations. First, the citric acid cycle (CAC) is overloaded but does not provide sufficient reducing equivalents to the respiratory chain to maintain the homeostasis of adenine nucleotides. Second, there is major CoA trapping in the propionyl-CoA pathway and a tripling of liver total CoA within 1 h. Third, liver proteolysis is stimulated. Fourth, propionate inhibits the conversion of 3HP to acetyl-CoA and its oxidation in the CAC. Fifth, some propionate and some 3HP are converted to nephrotoxic maleate by different processes. Our data have implications for the clinical management of propionic acidemia. They also emphasize the perturbations of the liver intermediary metabolism induced by supraphysiological, i.e., millimolar, concentrations of labeled propionate used to trace the intermediary metabolism, in particular, inhibition of CAC flux and major decreases in the [ATP]/[ADP] and [ATP]/[AMP] ratios.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01T03:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00105.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Factors regulating subcutaneous adipose tissue storage, fibrosis, and
           inflammation may underlie low fatty acid mobilization in insulin-sensitive
           obese adults
    • Authors: Van Pelt, D. W; Guth, L. M, Wang, A. Y, Horowitz, J. F.
      Abstract: Although the rate of fatty acid release from adipose tissue into the systemic circulation is very high in most obese adults, some obese adults maintain relatively low rates of fatty acid release, which helps protect them against the development of systemic insulin resistance. The primary aim of this study was to identify factors in adipose tissue that may underlie low vs. high rates of fatty acid mobilization in a relatively homogeneous cohort of obese adults. We measured systemic fatty acid rate of appearance (FA Ra) via 13C-palmitate isotope dilution, and we obtained subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue samples from 30 obese adults (BMI: 38 ± 1 kg/m2, age: 30 ± 2 yr) after an overnight fast. We then measured insulin sensitivity using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Confirming our previous work, insulin sensitivity was inversely proportional to FA Ra (R2 = 0.50; P < 0.001). Immunoblot analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue samples revealed that, compared with obese adults with high FA Ra, those with low FA Ra had lower markers of lipase activation and higher abundance of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, which is a primary enzyme for fatty acid esterification. Microarray and pathway analysis provided evidence of lower fibrosis and lower SAPK/JNK pathway activation in obese adults with low FA Ra compared with those with high FA Ra. Our findings suggest that alterations in factors regulating triglyceride storage in adipose tissue, along with lower fibrosis and inflammatory pathway activation, may underlie maintenance of a relatively low FA Ra in obesity, which may help protect against the development of insulin resistance.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01T03:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00084.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor restoration rescues the fatty liver
           regeneration in mice
    • Authors: Zimmers, T. A; Jin, X, Zhang, Z, Jiang, Y, Koniaris, L. G.
      Abstract: Hepatic steatosis is a common histological finding in obese patients. Even mild steatosis is associated with delayed hepatic regeneration and poor outcomes following liver resection or transplantation. We sought to identify and target molecular pathways that mediate this dysfunction. Lean mice and mice made obese through feeding of a high-fat, hypercaloric diet underwent 70 or 80% hepatectomy. After 70% resection, obese mice demonstrated 100% survival but experienced increased liver injury, reduced energy stores, reduced mitoses, increased necroapoptosis, and delayed recovery of liver mass. Increasing liver resection to 80% was associated with mortality of 40% in lean and 80% in obese mice (P < 0.05). Gene expression profiling showed decreased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in fatty liver. Meta-analysis of expression studies in mice, rats, and patients also demonstrated reduction of EGFR in fatty liver. In mice, both EGFR and phosphorylated EGFR decreased with increasing percent body fat. Hydrodynamic transfection of EGFR plasmids in mice corrected fatty liver regeneration, reducing liver injury, increasing proliferation, and improving survival after 80% resection. Loss of EGFR expression is rate limiting for liver regeneration in obesity. Therapies directed at increasing EGFR in steatosis might promote liver regeneration and survival following hepatic resection or transplantation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01T03:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00032.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Increased adipose tissue aromatase activity improves insulin sensitivity
           and reduces adipose tissue inflammation in male mice
    • Authors: Ohlsson, C; Hammarstedt, A, Vandenput, L, Saarinen, N, Ryberg, H, Windahl, S. H, Farman, H. H, Jansson, J.-O, Moverare-Skrtic, S, Smith, U, Zhang, F.-P, Poutanen, M, Hedjazifar, S, Sjögren, K.
      Abstract: Females are, in general, more insulin sensitive than males. To investigate whether this is a direct effect of sex-steroids (SS) in white adipose tissue (WAT), we developed a male mouse model overexpressing the aromatase enzyme, converting testosterone (T) to estradiol (E2), specifically in WAT (Ap2-arom mice). Adipose tissue E2 levels were increased while circulating SS levels were unaffected in male Ap2-arom mice. Importantly, male Ap2-arom mice were more insulin sensitive compared with WT mice and exhibited increased serum adiponectin levels and upregulated expression of Glut4 and Irs1 in WAT. The expression of markers of macrophages and immune cell infiltration was markedly decreased in WAT of male Ap2-arom mice. The adipogenesis was enhanced in male Ap2-arom mice, supported by elevated Pparg expression in WAT and enhanced differentiation of preadipocyte into mature adipocytes. In summary, increased adipose tissue aromatase activity reduces adipose tissue inflammation and improves insulin sensitivity in male mice. We propose that estrogen increases insulin sensitivity via a local effect in WAT on adiponectin expression, adipose tissue inflammation, and adipogenesis.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01T03:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00093.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Changes in LXR signaling influence early-pregnancy lipogenesis and protect
           against dysregulated fetoplacental lipid homeostasis
    • Authors: Nikolova, V; Papacleovoulou, G, Bellafante, E, Borges Manna, L, Jansen, E, Baron, S, Abu-Hayyeh, S, Parker, M, Williamson, C.
      Abstract: Human pregnancy is associated with enhanced de novo lipogenesis in the early stages followed by hyperlipidemia during advanced gestation. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are oxysterol-activated nuclear receptors that stimulate de novo lipogenesis and also promote the efflux of cholesterol from extrahepatic tissues followed by its transport back to the liver for biliary excretion. Although LXR is recognized as a master regulator of triglyceride and cholesterol homeostasis, it is unknown whether it facilitates the gestational adaptations in lipid metabolism. To address this question, biochemical profiling, protein quantification, and gene expression studies were used, and gestational metabolic changes in T0901317-treated wild-type mice and Lxrab–/– mutants were investigated. Here, we show that altered LXR signaling contributes to the enhanced lipogenesis in early pregnancy by increasing the expression of hepatic Fas and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1). Both the pharmacological activation of LXR with T0901317 and the genetic ablation of its two isoforms disrupted the increase in hepatic fatty acid biosynthesis and the development of hypertriglyceridemia during early gestation. We also demonstrate that absence of LXR enhances maternal white adipose tissue lipolysis, causing abnormal accumulation of triglycerides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids in the fetal liver. Together, these data identify LXR as an important factor in early-pregnancy lipogenesis that is also necessary to protect against abnormalities in fetoplacental lipid homeostasis.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01T03:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00449.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • High, but not low, exercise volume shifts the balance of renin-angiotensin
           system toward ACE2/Mas receptor axis in skeletal muscle in obese rats
    • Authors: Frantz, E. D. C; Giori, I. G, Machado, M. V, Magliano, D. C, Freitas, F. M, Andrade, M. S. B, Vieira, A. B, Nobrega, A. C. L, Tibirica, E.
      Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors that is linked to central obesity, elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance (IR), and dyslipidemia, where the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may provide a link among them. This study aimed to evaluate volume exercise effects comparing low vs. high volume of chronic aerobic exercise on RAS axes in skeletal muscle in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat model. For this, male Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed a standard chow (SC) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet for 32 wk. Animals receiving the HF diet were randomly divided into low exercise volume (LEV, 150 min/wk) and high exercise volume (HEV, 300 min/wk) at the 20th week. After 12 wk of aerobic treadmill training, the body mass and composition, blood pressure, glucose and lipid metabolism, RAS axes, insulin signaling, and inflammatory pathway were performed. HEV slowed the body mass gain, reduced intra-abdominal fat pad and leptin levels, improved total and peripheral body composition and inflammatory cytokine, reduced angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression, and increased Mas receptor protein expression compared with the HF animals. Sedentary groups (SC and HF) presented lower time to exhaustion and maximal velocity compared with the LEV and HEV groups. Both exercise training groups showed reduced resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate, improved glucose tolerance, IR, insulin signaling, and lipid profile. We conclude that the HEV, but not LEV, shifted the balance of RAS toward the ACE2/Mas receptor axis in skeletal muscle, presenting protective effects against the DIO model.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01T03:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00078.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Protein kinase N2 regulates AMP kinase signaling and insulin
           responsiveness of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle
    • Authors: Ruby, M. A; Riedl, I, Massart, J, Ahlin, M, Zierath, J. R.
      Abstract: Insulin resistance is central to the development of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders. Because skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of whole body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, regulation of glucose metabolism in this tissue is of particular importance. Although Rho GTPases and many of their affecters influence skeletal muscle metabolism, there is a paucity of information on the protein kinase N (PKN) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. We investigated the impact of PKN2 on insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in primary human skeletal muscle cells in vitro and mouse tibialis anterior muscle in vivo. PKN2 knockdown in vitro decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, incorporation into glycogen, and oxidation. PKN2 siRNA increased 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling while stimulating fatty acid oxidation and incorporation into triglycerides and decreasing protein synthesis. At the transcriptional level, PKN2 knockdown increased expression of PGC-1α and SREBP-1c and their target genes. In mature skeletal muscle, in vivo PKN2 knockdown decreased glucose uptake and increased AMPK phosphorylation. Thus, PKN2 alters key signaling pathways and transcriptional networks to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Identification of PKN2 as a novel regulator of insulin and AMPK signaling may provide an avenue for manipulation of skeletal muscle metabolism.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01T03:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00147.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
 
 
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