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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3003 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1427 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 310)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover AJP Cell Physiology
  [SJR: 1.893]   [H-I: 151]   [13 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0363-6143 - ISSN (Online) 1522-1563
   Published by American Physiological Society Homepage  [13 journals]
  • PEDF expression affects retinal endothelial cell proangiogenic properties
           through alterations in cell adhesive mechanisms
    • Authors: Falero-Perez, J; Park, S, Sorenson, C. M, Sheibani, N.
      Abstract: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis. Although various ocular cell types including retinal endothelial cells (EC) produce PEDF, we know very little about cell autonomous effects of PEDF in these cell types. Here we determined how PEDF expression affects retinal EC proangiogenic properties. Retinal EC were prepared from wild-type (PEDF+/+) and PEDF-deficient (PEDF–/–) mice. The identity of EC was confirmed by staining for specific markers including vascular endothelial cadherin, CD31, and B4-lectin. Retinal EC also expressed VEGF receptor 1 and endoglin, as well as ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and VCAM-1. PEDF–/– retinal EC were more proliferative, less apoptotic when challenged with H2O2, less migratory, and less adherent compared with PEDF+/+ EC. These changes could be associated, at least in part, with increased levels of tenascin-C, fibronectin, thrombospondin-1 and collagen IV, and lower amounts of osteopontin. PEDF–/– EC also exhibited alterations in expression of a number of integrins including α2, αv, β1, β8, and αvβ3, and cell-cell adhesion molecules including CD31, zonula occluden-1, and occludin. These observations correlated with attenuation of capillary morphogenesis and increased levels of oxidative stress in PEDF–/– EC. PEDF–/– EC also produced lower levels of VEGF compared with PEDF+/+ cells. Thus, PEDF deficiency has a significant impact on retinal EC adhesion and migration, perhaps through altered production of extracellular matrix and junctional proteins in response to increased oxidative stress affecting their proangiogenic activity.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T03:30:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00004.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Comparative study of expression and activity of glucose transporters
           between stem cell-derived brain microvascular endothelial cells and
           hCMEC/D3 cells
    • Authors: Al-Ahmad; A. J.
      Abstract: Glucose constitutes a major source of energy of mammalian brains. Glucose uptake at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) occurs through a facilitated glucose transport, through glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), although other isoforms have been described at the BBB. Mutations in GLUT1 are associated with the GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, yet none of the current in vitro models of the human BBB maybe suited for modeling such a disorder. In this study, we investigated the expression of glucose transporters and glucose diffusion across brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) derived from healthy patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We investigated the expression of different glucose transporters at the BBB using immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry and measured glucose uptake and diffusion across BMEC monolayers obtained from two iPSC lines and from hCMEC/D3 cells. BMEC monolayers showed expression of several glucose transporters, in particular GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4. Diffusion of glucose across the monolayers was mediated via a saturable transcellular mechanism and partially inhibited by pharmacological inhibitors. Taken together, our study suggests the presence of several glucose transporters isoforms at the human BBB and demonstrates the feasibility of modeling glucose across the BBB using patient-derived stem cells.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T03:30:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00116.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Reciprocal regulation of miR-214 and PTEN by high glucose regulates renal
           glomerular mesangial and proximal tubular epithelial cell hypertrophy and
           matrix expansion
    • Authors: Bera, A; Das, F, Ghosh-Choudhury, N, Mariappan, M. M, Kasinath, B. S, Ghosh Choudhury, G.
      Abstract: Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRs) contributes to diabetic renal complications, including renal hypertrophy and matrix protein accumulation. Reduced expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) by hyperglycemia contributes to these processes. We considered involvement of miR in the downregulation of PTEN. In the renal cortex of type 1 diabetic mice, we detected increased expression of miR-214 in association with decreased levels of PTEN and enhanced Akt phosphorylation and fibronectin expression. Mesangial and proximal tubular epithelial cells exposed to high glucose showed augmented expression of miR-214. Mutagenesis studies using 3'-UTR of PTEN in a reporter construct revealed PTEN as a direct target of miR-214, which controls its expression in both of these cells. Overexpression of miR-214 decreased the levels of PTEN and increased Akt activity similar to high glucose and lead to phosphorylation of its substrates glycogen synthase kinase-3β, PRAS40, and tuberin. In contrast, quenching of miR-214 inhibited high-glucose-induced Akt activation and its substrate phosphorylation; these changes were reversed by small interfering RNAs against PTEN. Importantly, respective expression of miR-214 or anti-miR-214 increased or decreased the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity induced by high glucose. Furthermore, mTORC1 activity was controlled by miR-214-targeted PTEN via Akt activation. In addition, neutralization of high-glucose-stimulated miR-214 expression significantly inhibited cell hypertrophy and expression of the matrix protein fibronectin. Finally, the anti-miR-214-induced inhibition of these processes was reversed by the expression of constitutively active Akt kinase and hyperactive mTORC1. These results uncover a significant role of miR-214 in the activation of mTORC1 that contributes to high-glucose-induced mesangial and proximal tubular cell hypertrophy and fibronectin expression.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T03:30:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00081.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cross talk between increased intracellular zinc (Zn2+) and accumulation of
           reactive oxygen species in chemical ischemia
    • Authors: Slepchenko, K. G; Lu, Q, Li, Y. V.
      Abstract: Both zinc (Zn2+) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to accumulate during hypoxic-ischemic stress and play important roles in pathological processes. To understand the cross talk between the two of them, here we studied Zn2+ and ROS accumulation by employing fluorescent probes in HeLa cells to further the understanding of the cause and effect relationship of these two important cellular signaling systems during chemical-ischemia, stimulated by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). We observed two Zn2+ rises that were divided into four phases in the course of 30 min of OGD. The first Zn2+ rise was a transient, which was followed by a latent phase during which Zn2+ levels recovered; however, levels remained above a basal level in most cells. The final phase was the second Zn2+ rise, which reached a sustained plateau called Zn2+ overload. Zn2+ rises were not observed when Zn2+ was removed by TPEN (a Zn2+ chelator) or thapsigargin (depleting Zn2+ from intracellular stores) treatment, indicating that Zn2+ was from intracellular storage. Damaging mitochondria with FCCP significantly reduced the second Zn2+ rise, indicating that the mitochondrial Zn2+ accumulation contributes to Zn2+ overload. We also detected two OGD-induced ROS rises. Two Zn2+ rises preceded two ROS rises. Removal of Zn2+ reduced or delayed OGD- and FCCP-induced ROS generation, indicating that Zn2+ contributes to mitochondrial ROS generation. There was a Zn2+-induced increase in the functional component of NADPH oxidase, p47phox, thus suggesting that NADPH oxidase may mediate Zn2+-induced ROS accumulation. We suggest a new mechanism of cross talk between Zn2+ and mitochondrial ROS through positive feedback processes that eventually causes excessive free Zn2+ and ROS accumulations during the course of ischemic stress.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T03:30:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00048.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • An innovative intermittent hypoxia model for cell cultures allowing fast
           PO2 oscillations with minimal gas consumption
    • Authors: Minoves, M; Morand, J, Perriot, F, Chatard, M, Gonthier, B, Lemarie, E, Menut, J.-B, Polak, J, Pepin, J.-L, Godin-Ribuot, D, Briancon-Marjollet, A.
      Abstract: Performing hypoxia-reoxygenation cycles in cell culture with a cycle duration accurately reflecting what occurs in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients is a difficult but crucial technical challenge. Our goal was to develop a novel device to expose multiple cell culture dishes to intermittent hypoxia (IH) cycles relevant to OSA with limited gas consumption. With gas flows as low as 200 ml/min, our combination of plate holders with gas-permeable cultureware generates rapid normoxia-hypoxia cycles. Cycles alternating 1 min at 20% O2 followed by 1 min at 2% O2 resulted in Po2 values ranging from 124 to 44 mmHg. Extending hypoxic and normoxic phases to 10 min allowed Po2 variations from 120 to 25 mmHg. The volume of culture medium or the presence of cells only modestly affected the Po2 variations. In contrast, the nadir of the hypoxia phase increased when measured at different heights above the membrane. We validated the physiological relevance of this model by showing that hypoxia inducible factor-1α expression was significantly increased by IH exposure in human aortic endothelial cells, murine breast carcinoma (4T1) cells as well as in a blood-brain barrier model (2.5-, 1.5-, and 6-fold increases, respectively). In conclusion, we have established a new device to perform rapid intermittent hypoxia cycles in cell cultures, with minimal gas consumption and the possibility to expose several culture dishes simultaneously. This device will allow functional studies of the consequences of IH and deciphering of the molecular biology of IH at the cellular level using oxygen cycles that are clinically relevant to OSA.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T03:30:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00098.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Letter to the editor: Comments on Wette et al. (2017): "Characterization
           of muscle ankyrin repeat proteins in human skeletal muscle"
    • Authors: Cenni; V.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T03:30:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00151.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Reply to "Letter to the editor: Comments on Wette et al. (2017):
           'Characterization of muscle ankyrin repeat proteins in human skeletal
           muscle"
    • Authors: Wette, S. G; Smith, H. K, Lamb, G. D, Murphy, R. M.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T03:30:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00180.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • CORRIGENDUM
    • PubDate: 2017-10-09T03:30:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.zh0-8195-corr.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Understanding mechanisms and seeking cures for Alzheimer's disease: why we
           must be "extraordinarily diverse"
    • Authors: Thambisetty; M.
      Abstract: After more than a century since Dr. Alois Alzheimer first described the pathological hallmarks accompanying the defining clinical features of the disease, we have yet to deliver any meaningful disease-modifying treatments to our patients. In this article, I present a rationale for the need to be "extraordinarily diverse" in seeking effective ways to treat or prevent this devastating disease. This approach is based on applying a systems-biology perspective at the population level, using a diverse array of "OMICS" methodologies to identify molecular mechanisms associated with well-established AD risk factors including systemic inflammation, obesity, and insulin resistance. We believe that applying this strategy to understand longitudinal changes in human physiology during aging is of paramount importance in identifying meaningful opportunities to intervene effectively in AD.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01T03:30:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00111.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Involvement of connexin 43 phosphorylation and gap junctional
           communication between smooth muscle cells in vasopressin-induced
           ROCK-dependent vasoconstriction after hemorrhagic shock
    • Authors: Yang, G; Peng, X, Wu, Y, Li, T, Liu, L.
      Abstract: We examined the roles played by gap junctions (GJs) and the GJ channel protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced vasoconstriction after hemorrhagic shock and their relationship to Rho kinase (ROCK) and protein kinase C (PKC). The results showed that AVP induced an endothelium-independent contraction in rat superior mesenteric arteries (SMAs). Blocking the GJs significantly decreased the contractile response of SMAs and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to AVP after shock and hypoxia. The selective Cx43-mimetic peptide inhibited the vascular contractile effect of AVP after shock and hypoxia. AVP restored hypoxia-induced decrease of Cx43 phosphorylation at Ser262 and gap junctional communication in VSMCs. Activation of RhoA with U-46619 increased the contractile effect of AVP. This effect was antagonized by the ROCK inhibitor Y27632 and the Cx43-mimetic peptide. In contrast, neither an agonist nor an inhibitor of PKC had significant effects on AVP-induced contraction after hemorrhagic shock. In addition, silencing of Cx43 with siRNA blocked the AVP-induced increase of ROCK activity in hypoxic VSMCs. In conclusion, AVP-mediated vascular contractile effects are endothelium and myoendothelial gap junction independent. Gap junctions between VSMCs, gap junctional communication, and Cx43 phosphorylation at Ser262 play important roles in the vascular effects of AVP. RhoA/ROCK, but not PKC, is involved in this process.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01T03:30:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00258.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Suppression of ciliary movements by a hypertonic stress in the newt
           olfactory receptor neuron
    • Authors: Wakazono, Y; Sakurai, T, Terakawa, S.
      Abstract: Olfactory receptor neurons isolated from the newt maintain a high activity of the ciliary beat. A cilium of neuron is so unique that only little is known about regulatory factors for its beat frequency. We examined the olfactory receptor neuron immersed in various extracellular media under the video-enhanced differential interference contrast microscope. The activation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels by K+ depolarization or by application of Ca2+ to membrane-permeabilized olfactory cells did not affect the ciliary movement, suggesting that Ca2+ influx through the cell membrane has no direct effect on the movement. However, when an extracellular medium contained NaCl or sucrose at concentrations only 30% higher than normal levels, ciliary movement was greatly and reversibly suppressed. In contrast, a hypotonic solution of such a solute did not change the ciliary movement. The hypertonic solutions had no effect when applied to permeabilized cells. Suction of the cell membrane with a patch pipette easily suppressed the ciliary movement in an isotonic medium. Application of positive pressure inside the cell through the same patch pipette eliminated the suppressive effect. From these findings, we concluded that the hypertonic stress suppressed the ciliary movement not by disabling the motor proteins, microtubules, or their associates in the cilia, but rather by modifying the chemical environment for the motor proteins. The ciliary motility of the olfactory receptor cell is directly sensitive to the external environment, namely, the air or water on the nasal epithelium, depending on lifestyle of the animal.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01T03:30:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00243.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • miR-4632 mediates PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and antiapoptosis of human
           pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells via targeting cJUN
    • Authors: Qian, Z; Li, Y, Chen, J, Li, X, Gou, D.
      Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can regulate the proliferative status of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), which is a core factor modulating pulmonary vascular remodeling diseases, such as atherosclerosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Our previous work has shown that miR-4632, a rarely reported miRNA, is significantly downregulated in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs), yet its cell function and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we find that miR-4632 is highly expressed in HPASMCs and its expression significantly decreased in response to different stimuli. Functional studies revealed that miR-4632 inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis of HPASMCs but had no effects on cell contraction and migration. Furthermore, the cJUN was identified as a direct target gene of miR-4632, while knockdown of cJUN was necessary for miR-4632-mediated HPASMC proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, the downregulation of miR-4632 by PDGF-BB was found to associate with histone deacetylation through the activation of PDGF receptor/phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/histone deacetylase 4 signaling. Finally, the expression of miR-4632 was reduced in the serum of patients with PAH. Overall, our results suggest that miR-4632 plays an important role in regulating HPASMC proliferation and apoptosis by suppression of cJUN, providing a novel therapeutic miRNA candidate for the treatment of pulmonary vascular remodeling diseases. It also implies that serum miR-4632 has the potential to serve as a circulating biomarker for PAH diagnosis.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01T03:30:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00061.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • A tale of two niches: differential functions for VCAM-1 in satellite cells
           under basal and injured conditions
    • Authors: Choo, H.-J; Canner, J. P, Vest, K. E, Thompson, Z, Pavlath, G. K.
      Abstract: Cell-cell adhesion molecules play key roles in maintaining quiescence or promoting activation of various stem cells in their niche. Muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SC) are critical for skeletal muscle regeneration after injury, but little is known about the role of adhesion molecules in regulating the behavior of these stem cells. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is a cell-cell adhesion protein expressed on quiescent and activated SC whose function is unknown in this context. We deleted Vcam1 from SC using an inducible Cre recombinase in young mice. In the injured niche, Vcam1–/– SC underwent premature lineage progression to a more differentiated state as well as apoptosis leading to a transient delay in myofiber growth during regeneration. Apoptosis was also increased in Vcam1–/– SC in vitro concomitant with decreased levels of phosphorylated Akt, a prosurvival signal activated by VCAM-1 signaling in other cell types. During muscle regeneration, we observed an influx of immune cells expressing α4 integrin, a component of the major, high-affinity VCAM-1 ligand, α4β1 integrin. Furthermore, α4 integrin mRNA and protein were induced in SC 2 days after injury. These results suggest that SC interact with other SC as well as immune cells through α4β1 integrin in the injured niche to promote expansion of SC. In the uninjured niche, multiple cell types also expressed α4 integrin. However, only basal fusion of Vcam1–/– SC with myofibers was decreased, contributing to decreased myofiber growth. These studies define differential roles for VCAM-1 in SC depending on the state of their niche.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01T03:30:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00119.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 4 (2017)
       
 
 
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