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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2987 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1424 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover AJP Cell Physiology
  [SJR: 1.893]   [H-I: 151]   [13 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0363-6143 - ISSN (Online) 1522-1563
   Published by American Physiological Society Homepage  [13 journals]
  • Identification of the fatty acid activation site on human ClC-2
    • Authors: Cuppoletti, J; Tewari, K. P, Chakrabarti, J, Malinowska, D. H.
      Abstract: Fatty acids (including lubiprostone and cobiprostone) are human ClC-2 (hClC-2) Cl– channel activators. Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this activation were examined. Role of a four-amino acid PKA activation site, RGET691, of hClC-2 was investigated using wild-type (WT) and mutant (AGET, RGEA, and AGAA) hClC-2 expressed in 293EBNA cells as well as involvement of PKA, intracellular cAMP concentration ([cAMP]i), EP2, or EP4 receptor agonist activity. All fatty acids [lubiprostone, cobiprostone, eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA), oleic acid, and elaidic acid] caused significant rightward shifts in concentration-dependent Cl– current activation (increasing EC50s) with mutant compared with WT hClC-2 channels, without changing time and voltage dependence, current-voltage rectification, or methadone inhibition of the channel. As with lubiprostone, cobiprostone activation of hClC-2 occurred with PKA inhibitor (myristoylated protein kinase inhibitor) present or when using double PKA activation site (RRAA655/RGEA691) mutant. Cobiprostone did not activate human CFTR. Fatty acids did not increase [cAMP]i in hClC-2/293EBNA or T84 cells. Using T84 CFTR knockdown cells, cobiprostone increased hClC-2 Cl– currents without increasing [cAMP]i, while PGE2 and forskolin-IBMX increased both. Fatty acids were not agonists of EP2 or EP4 receptors. L-161,982, a supposed EP4-selective inhibitor, had no effect on lubiprostone-activated hClC-2 Cl– currents but significantly decreased T84 cell barrier function measured by transepithelial resistance and fluorescent dextran transepithelial movement. The present findings show that RGET691 of hClC-2 (possible binding site) plays an important functional role in fatty acid activation of hClC-2. PKA, [cAMP]i, and EP2 or EP4 receptors are not involved. These studies provide the molecular basis for fatty acid regulation of hClC-2.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T03:32:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00267.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 312, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Ulk1-mediated autophagy plays an essential role in mitochondrial
           remodeling and functional regeneration of skeletal muscle
    • Authors: Call, J. A; Wilson, R. J, Laker, R. C, Zhang, M, Kundu, M, Yan, Z.
      Abstract: Autophagy is a conserved cellular process for degrading aggregate proteins and dysfunctional organelle. It is still debatable if autophagy and mitophagy (a specific process of autophagy of mitochondria) play important roles in myogenic differentiation and functional regeneration of skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that autophagy is critical for functional regeneration of skeletal muscle. We first observed time-dependent increases (3- to 6-fold) of autophagy-related proteins (Atgs), including Ulk1, Beclin1, and LC3, along with reduced p62 expression during C2C12 differentiation, suggesting increased autophagy capacity and flux during myogenic differentiation. We then used cardiotoxin (Ctx) or ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) to induce muscle injury and regeneration and observed increases in Atgs between days 2 and 7 in adult skeletal muscle followed by increased autophagy flux after day 7. Since Ulk1 has been shown to be essential for mitophagy, we asked if Ulk1 is critical for functional regeneration in skeletal muscle. We subjected skeletal muscle-specific Ulk1 knockout mice (MKO) to Ctx or I/R. MKO mice had significantly impaired recovery of muscle strength and mitochondrial protein content post-Ctx or I/R. Imaging analysis showed that MKO mice have significantly attenuated recovery of mitochondrial network at 7 and 14 days post-Ctx. These findings suggest that increased autophagy protein and flux occur during muscle regeneration and Ulk1-mediated mitophagy is critical for recovery for the mitochondrial network and hence functional regeneration.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T03:32:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00348.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 312, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Hemoglobin inhibits albumin uptake by proximal tubule cells: implications
           for sickle cell disease
    • Authors: Eshbach, M. L; Kaur, A, Rbaibi, Y, Tejero, J, Weisz, O. A.
      Abstract: Proximal tubule (PT) dysfunction, including tubular proteinuria, is a significant complication in young sickle cell disease (SCD) that can eventually lead to chronic kidney disease. Hemoglobin (Hb) dimers released from red blood cells upon hemolysis are filtered into the kidney and internalized by megalin/cubilin receptors into PT cells. The PT is especially sensitive to heme toxicity, and tubular dysfunction in SCD is thought to result from prolonged exposure to filtered Hb. Here we show that concentrations of Hb predicted to enter the tubule lumen during hemolytic crisis competitively inhibit the uptake of another megalin/cubilin ligand (albumin) by PT cells. These effects were independent of heme reduction state. The Glu7Val mutant of Hb that causes SCD was equally effective at inhibiting albumin uptake compared with wild-type Hb. Addition of the Hb scavenger haptoglobin (Hpt) restored albumin uptake in the presence of Hb, suggesting that Hpt binding to the Hb αβ dimer-dimer interface interferes with Hb binding to megalin/cubilin. BLAST searches and structural modeling analyses revealed regions of similarity between Hb and albumin that map to this region and may represent sites of Hb interaction with megalin/cubilin. Our studies suggest that impaired endocytosis of megalin/cubilin ligands, rather than heme toxicity, may be the cause of tubular proteinuria in SCD patients. Additionally, loss of these filtered proteins into the urine may contribute to the extra-renal pathogenesis of SCD.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T03:32:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00021.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 312, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Biphasic adaptation to osmotic stress in the C. elegans germ line
    • Authors: Davis, M; Montalbano, A, Wood, M. P, Schisa, J. A.
      Abstract: Cells respond to environmental stress in multiple ways. In the germ line, heat shock and nutritive stress trigger the assembly of large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules via liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS). The RNP granules are hypothesized to maintain the quality of oocytes during stress. The goal of this study was to investigate the cellular response to glucose in the germ line and determine if it is an osmotic stress response. We found that exposure to 500 mM glucose induces the assembly of RNP granules in the germ line within 1 h. Interestingly, the RNP granules are maintained for up to 3 h; however, they dissociate after longer periods of stress. The RNP granules include processing body and stress granule proteins, suggesting shared functions. Based on several lines of evidence, the germ line response to glucose largely appears to be an osmotic stress response, thus identifying osmotic stress as a trigger of LLPS. Although RNP granules are not maintained beyond 3 h of osmotic stress, the quality of oocytes does not appear to decrease after longer periods of stress, suggesting a secondary adaptation in the germ line. We used an indirect marker of glycerol and observed high levels after 5 and 20 h of glucose exposure. Moreover, in gpdh-1;gpdh-2 germ lines, glycerol levels are reduced concomitant with RNP granules being maintained for an extended period. We speculate that increased glycerol levels may function as a secondary osmoregulatory adaptive response in the germ line, following a primary response of RNP granule assembly.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T03:32:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00364.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 312, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • ROS-induced ROS release orchestrated by Nox4, Nox2, and mitochondria in
           VEGF signaling and angiogenesis
    • Authors: Kim, Y.-M; Kim, S.-J, Tatsunami, R, Yamamura, H, Fukai, T, Ushio-Fukai, M.
      Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from NADPH oxidase (NOX) and mitochondria play a critical role in growth factor-induced switch from a quiescent to an angiogenic phenotype in endothelial cells (ECs). However, how highly diffusible ROS produced from different sources can coordinate to stimulate VEGF signaling and drive the angiogenic process remains unknown. Using the cytosol- and mitochondria-targeted redox-sensitive RoGFP biosensors with real-time imaging, here we show that VEGF stimulation in human ECs rapidly increases cytosolic RoGFP oxidation within 1 min, followed by mitochondrial RoGFP oxidation within 5 min, which continues at least for 60 min. Silencing of Nox4 or Nox2 or overexpression of mitochondria-targeted catalase significantly inhibits VEGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGF receptor type 2 (VEGFR2-pY), EC migration and proliferation at the similar extent. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or overexpression of Nox4, which produces H2O2, increases mitochondrial ROS (mtROS), which is prevented by Nox2 siRNA, suggesting that Nox2 senses Nox4-derived H2O2 to promote mtROS production. Mechanistically, H2O2 increases S36 phosphorylation of p66Shc, a key mtROS regulator, which is inhibited by siNox2, but not by siNox4. Moreover, Nox2 or Nox4 knockdown or overexpression of S36 phosphorylation-defective mutant p66Shc(S36A) inhibits VEGF-induced mtROS, VEGFR2-pY, EC migration, and proliferation. In summary, Nox4-derived H2O2 in part activates Nox2 to increase mtROS via pSer36-p66Shc, thereby enhancing VEGFR2 signaling and angiogenesis in ECs. This may represent a novel feed-forward mechanism of ROS-induced ROS release orchestrated by the Nox4/Nox2/pSer36-p66Shc/mtROS axis, which drives sustained activation of angiogenesis signaling program.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T03:32:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00346.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 312, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Doxepin inhibits GPVI-dependent platelet Ca2+ signaling and
           collagen-dependent thrombus formation
    • Authors: Geue, S; Walker-Allgaier, B, Eissler, D, Tegtmeyer, R, Schaub, M, Lang, F, Gawaz, M, Borst, O, Münzer, P.
      Abstract: Platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation are essential for primary hemostasis, but are also critically involved in the development of acute arterial thrombotic occlusion. Stimulation of the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) leads to phospholipase C2-dependent inositol triphosphate (IP3) production with subsequent platelet activation, due to increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Although tricyclic antidepressants have been shown to potentially impair platelet activation, nothing is hitherto known about potential effects of the tricyclic antidepressant doxepin on platelet Ca2+ signaling and thrombus formation. As shown in the present study, doxepin significantly diminished the stimulatory effect of GPVI agonist collagen-related peptide (CRP) on intracellular Ca2+ release as well as subsequent extracellular Ca2+ influx. Doxepin was partially effective by impairment of CRP-dependent IP3 production. Moreover, doxepin abrogated CRP-induced platelet degranulation and integrin αIIbβ3 activation and aggregation. Finally, doxepin markedly blunted in vitro platelet adhesion to collagen and thrombus formation under high arterial shear rates (1,700–s). In conclusion, doxepin is a powerful inhibitor of GPVI-dependent platelet Ca2+ signaling, platelet activation, and thrombus formation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T03:32:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00262.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 312, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Transport across the choroid plexus epithelium
    • Authors: Praetorius, J; Damkier, H. H.
      Abstract: The choroid plexus epithelium is a secretory epithelium par excellence. However, this is perhaps not the most prominent reason for the massive interest in this modest-sized tissue residing inside the brain ventricles. Most likely, the dominant reason for extensive studies of the choroid plexus is the identification of this epithelium as the source of the majority of intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid. This finding has direct relevance for studies of diseases and conditions with deranged central fluid volume or ionic balance. While the concept is supported by the vast majority of the literature, the implication of the choroid plexus in secretion of the cerebrospinal fluid was recently challenged once again. Three newer and promising areas of current choroid plexus-related investigations are as follows: 1) the choroid plexus epithelium as the source of mediators necessary for central nervous system development, 2) the choroid plexus as a route for microorganisms and immune cells into the central nervous system, and 3) the choroid plexus as a potential route for drug delivery into the central nervous system, bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Thus, the purpose of this review is to highlight current active areas of research in the choroid plexus physiology and a few matters of continuous controversy.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01T03:32:45-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00041.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 312, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Rethinking the regulation of L-carnitine transport in skeletal muscle
           cells. Focus on "Multiple AMPK activators inhibit L-carnitine uptake in
           C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubes"
    • Authors: Xu, D; You, G.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01T03:32:45-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00093.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 312, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Multiple AMPK activators inhibit L-carnitine uptake in C2C12 skeletal
           muscle myotubes
    • Authors: Shaw, A; Jeromson, S, Watterson, K. R, Pediani, J. D, Gallagher, I. J, Whalley, T, Dreczkowski, G, Brooks, N, Galloway, S. D, Hamilton, D. L.
      Abstract: Mutations in the gene that encodes the principal l-carnitine transporter, OCTN2, can lead to a reduced intracellular l-carnitine pool and the disease Primary Carnitine Deficiency. l-Carnitine supplementation is used therapeutically to increase intracellular l-carnitine. As AMPK and insulin regulate fat metabolism and substrate uptake, we hypothesized that AMPK-activating compounds and insulin would increase l-carnitine uptake in C2C12 myotubes. The cells express all three OCTN transporters at the mRNA level, and immunohistochemistry confirmed expression at the protein level. Contrary to our hypothesis, despite significant activation of PKB and 2DG uptake, insulin did not increase l-carnitine uptake at 100 nM. However, l-carnitine uptake was modestly increased at a dose of 150 nM insulin. A range of AMPK activators that increase intracellular calcium content [caffeine (10 mM, 5 mM, 1 mM, 0.5 mM), A23187 (10 μM)], inhibit mitochondrial function [sodium azide (75 μM), rotenone (1 μM), berberine (100 μM), DNP (500 μM)], or directly activate AMPK [AICAR (250 μM)] were assessed for their ability to regulate l-carnitine uptake. All compounds tested significantly inhibited l-carnitine uptake. Inhibition by caffeine was not dantrolene (10 μM) sensitive despite dantrolene inhibiting caffeine-mediated calcium release. Saturation curve analysis suggested that caffeine did not competitively inhibit l-carnitine transport. To assess the potential role of AMPK in this process, we assessed the ability of the AMPK inhibitor Compound C (10 μM) to rescue the effect of caffeine. Compound C offered a partial rescue of l-carnitine uptake with 0.5 mM caffeine, suggesting that AMPK may play a role in the inhibitory effects of caffeine. However, caffeine likely inhibits l-carnitine uptake by alternative mechanisms independently of calcium release. PKA activation or direct interference with transporter function may play a role.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01T03:32:45-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00026.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 312, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Neurotrophin 3 upregulates proliferation and collagen production in human
           aortic valve interstitial cells: a potential role in aortic valve
           sclerosis
    • Authors: Yao, Q; Song, R, Ao, L, Cleveland, J. C, Fullerton, D. A, Meng, X.
      Abstract: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a leading cardiovascular disorder in the elderly. Diseased aortic valves are characterized by sclerosis (fibrosis) and nodular calcification. Sclerosis, an early pathological change, is caused by aortic valve interstitial cell (AVIC) proliferation and overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. However, the mechanism of aortic valve sclerosis remains unclear. Recently, we observed that diseased human aortic valves overexpress growth factor neurotrophin 3 (NT3). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that NT3 is a profibrogenic factor to human AVICs. AVICs isolated from normal human aortic valves were cultured in M199 growth medium and treated with recombinant human NT3 (0.10 µg/ml). An exposure to NT3 induced AVIC proliferation, upregulated the production of collagen and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), and augmented collagen deposition. These changes were abolished by inhibition of the Trk receptors. NT3 induced Akt phosphorylation and increased cyclin D1 protein levels in a Trk receptor-dependent fashion. Inhibition of Akt abrogated the effect of NT3 on cyclin D1 production. Furthermore, inhibition of either Akt or cyclin D1 suppressed NT3-induced cellular proliferation and MMP-9 and collagen production, as well as collagen deposition. Thus, NT3 upregulates cellular proliferation, ECM protein production, and collagen deposition in human AVICs. It exerts these effects through the Trk-Akt-cyclin D1 cascade. NT3 is a profibrogenic mediator in human aortic valve, and overproduction of NT3 by aortic valve tissue may contribute to the mechanism of valvular sclerosis.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01T03:32:45-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00292.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 312, No. 6 (2017)
       
 
 
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