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Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover AJP Cell Physiology
  [SJR: 1.893]   [H-I: 151]   [13 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0363-6143 - ISSN (Online) 1522-1563
   Published by American Physiological Society Homepage  [13 journals]
  • The activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors downregulates transient
    • Authors: Liu, X; Shi, S, Yang, H, Qu, C, Chen, Y, Liang, J, Yang, B.
      Abstract: Major depression is an important clinical factor in ventricular arrhythmia. Patients diagnosed with major depression overexpress N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Previous studies found that chronic NMDAR activation increases susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias. We aimed to explore the mechanisms by which NMDAR activation may increase susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias. Male rats were randomly assigned to either normal environments as control (CTL) group or 4 wk of chronic mild stress (CMS) to produce a major depression disorder (MDD) model group. After 4 wk of CMS, depression-like behaviors were measured in both groups. Varying doses (1–100 μM) of NMDA and 10 μM NMDA antagonist (MK-801) were perfused through ventricular myocytes isolated from MDD rats to measure the L-type calcium current (ICa-L) and transient outward potassium current (Ito). Structural remodeling was assessed using serial histopathology including Masson’s trichrome dye. Electrophysiological characteristics were evaluated using Langendorff perfusion. Depression-like behaviors were observed in MDD rats. MDD rats showed longer action potential durations at 90% repolarization and higher susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias than CTL rats. MDD rats showed lower ICa-L and Ito current densities than CTL rats. Additionally, NMDA reduced both currents in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas there was no significant impact on the currents when perfused with MK-801. MDD rats exhibited significantly more fibrosis areas in heart tissue and reduced expression of Kv4.2, Kv4.3, and Cav1.2. We observed that acute NMDAR activation led to downregulation of potassium and L-type calcium currents in a rat model of depression, which may be the mechanism underlying ventricular arrhythmia promotion by depression.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T03:33:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00092.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
  • Loss of NHERF-1 expression prevents dopamine-mediated Na-K-ATPase
           regulation in renal proximal tubule cells from rat models of hypertension:
           aged F344 rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats
    • Authors: Barati, M. T; Ketchem, C. J, Merchant, M. L, Kusiak, W. B, Jose, P. A, Weinman, E. J, LeBlanc, A. J, Lederer, E. D, Khundmiri, S. J.
      Abstract: Dopamine decreases Na-K-ATPase (NKA) activity by PKC-dependent phosphorylation and endocytosis of the NKA α1. Dopamine-mediated regulation of NKA is impaired in aging and some forms of hypertension. Using opossum (OK) proximal tubule cells (PTCs), we demonstrated that sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1) associates with NKA α1 and dopamine-1 receptor (D1R). This association is required for the dopamine-mediated regulation of NKA. In OK cells, dopamine decreases NHERF-1 association with NKA α1 but increases its association with D1R. However, it is not known whether NHERF-1 plays a role in dopamine-mediated NKA regulation in animal models of hypertension. We hypothesized that defective dopamine-mediated regulation of NKA results from the decrease in NHERF-1 expression in rat renal PTCs isolated from animal models of hypertension [spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and aged F344 rats]. To test this hypothesis, we isolated and cultured renal PTCs from 22-mo-old F344 rats and their controls, normotensive 4-mo-old F344 rats, and SHRs and their controls, normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The results demonstrate that in both hypertensive models (SHR and aged F344), NHERF-1 expression, dopamine-mediated phosphorylation of NKA, and ouabain-inhibitable K+ transport are reduced. Transfection of NHERF-1 into PTCs from aged F344 and SHRs restored dopamine-mediated inhibition of NKA. These results suggest that decreased renal NHERF-1 expression contributes to the impaired dopamine-mediated inhibition of NKA in PTCs from animal models of hypertension.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T03:33:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00219.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
  • Chronic hypoxia alters fetal cerebrovascular responses to endothelin-1
    • Authors: Silpanisong, J; Kim, D, Williams, J. M, Adeoye, O. O, Thorpe, R. B, Pearce, W. J.
      Abstract: In utero hypoxia influences the structure and function of most fetal arteries, including those of the developing cerebral circulation. Whereas the signals that initiate this hypoxic remodeling remain uncertain, these appear to be distinct from the mechanisms that maintain the remodeled vascular state. The present study explores the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia elicits sustained changes in fetal cerebrovascular reactivity to endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vascular contractant and mitogen. In fetal lambs, chronic hypoxia (3,820-m altitude for the last 110 days of gestation) had no significant effect on plasma ET-1 levels or ETA receptor density in cerebral arteries but enhanced contractile responses to ET-1 in an ETA-dependent manner. In organ culture (24 h), 10 nM ET-1 increased medial thicknesses less in hypoxic than in normoxic arteries, and these increases were ablated by inhibition of PKC (chelerythrine) in both normoxic and hypoxic arteries but were attenuated by inhibition of CaMKII (KN93) and p38 (SB203580) in normoxic but not hypoxic arteries. As indicated by Ki-67 immunostaining, ET-1 increased medial thicknesses via hypertrophy. Measurements of colocalization between MLCK and SMαA revealed that organ culture with ET-1 also promoted contractile dedifferentiation in normoxic, but not hypoxic, arteries through mechanisms attenuated by inhibitors of PKC, CaMKII, and p38. These results support the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia elicits sustained changes in fetal cerebrovascular reactivity to ET-1 through pathways dependent upon PKC, CaMKII, and p38 that cause increased ET-1-mediated contractility, decreased ET-1-mediated smooth muscle hypertrophy, and a depressed ability of ET-1 to promote contractile dedifferentiation.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T03:33:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00241.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
  • Recruitment of endosomal signaling mediates the forskolin modulation of
           guinea pig cardiac neuron excitability
    • Authors: Hardwick, J. C; Clason, T. A, Tompkins, J. D, Girard, B. M, Baran, C. N, Merriam, L. A, May, V, Parsons, R. L.
      Abstract: Forskolin, a selective activator of adenylyl cyclase (AC), commonly is used to establish actions of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are initiated primarily through activation of AC/cAMP signaling pathways. In the present study, forskolin was used to evaluate the potential role of AC/cAMP, which is a major signaling mechanism for the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-selective PAC1 receptor, in the regulation of guinea pig cardiac neuronal excitability. Forskolin (5–10 µM) increases excitability in ~60% of the cardiac neurons. The forskolin-mediated increase in excitability was considered related to cAMP regulation of a cyclic nucleotide gated channel or via protein kinase A (PKA)/ERK signaling, mechanisms that have been linked to PAC1 receptor activation. However, unlike PACAP mechanisms, forskolin enhancement of excitability was not significantly reduced by treatment with cesium to block currents through hyperpolarization-activated nonselective cation channels (Ih) or by treatment with PD98059 to block MEK/ERK signaling. In contrast, treatment with the clathrin inhibitor Pitstop2 or the dynamin inhibitor dynasore eliminated the forskolin-induced increase in excitability; treatments with the inactive Pitstop analog or PP2 treatment to inhibit Src-mediated endocytosis mechanisms were ineffective. The PKA inhibitor KT5702 significantly suppressed the forskolin-induced change in excitability; further, KT5702 and Pitstop2 reduced the forskolin-stimulated MEK/ERK activation in cardiac neurons. Collectively, the present results suggest that forskolin activation of AC/cAMP/PKA signaling leads to the recruitment of clathrin/dynamin-dependent endosomal transduction cascades, including MEK/ERK signaling, and that endosomal signaling is the critical mechanism underlying the forskolin-induced increase in cardiac neuron excitability.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T03:33:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00094.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
  • Structure/functional aspects of the human riboflavin transporter-3
           (SLC52A3): role of the predicted glycosylation and substrate-interacting
    • Authors: Subramanian, V. S; Sabui, S, Teafatiller, T, Bohl, J. A, Said, H. M.
      Abstract: The human riboflavin (RF) transporter-3 (hRFVT-3; product of the SLC52A3 gene) plays an essential role in the intestinal RF absorption process and is expressed exclusively at the apical membrane domain of polarized enterocytes. Previous studies have characterized different physiological/biological aspects of this transporter, but nothing is known about the glycosylation status of the hRFVT-3 protein and role of this modification in its physiology/biology. Additionally, little is known about the residues in the hRFVT-3 protein that interact with the ligand, RF. We addressed these issues using appropriate biochemical/molecular approaches, a protein-docking model, and established intestinal/renal epithelial cells. Our results showed that the hRFVT-3 protein is glycosylated and that glycosylation is important for its function. Mutating the predicted N-glycosylation sites at Asn94 and Asn168 led to a significant decrease in RF uptake; it also led to a marked intracellular (in the endoplasmic reticulum, ER) retention of the mutated proteins as shown by live-cell confocal imaging studies. The protein-docking model used in this study has identified a number of putative substrate-interacting sites: Ser16, Ile20, Trp24, Phe142, Thr314, and Asn315. Mutating these potential interacting sites was indeed found to lead to a significant inhibition in RF uptake and to intracellular (ER) retention of the mutated proteins (except for the Phe142 mutant). These results demonstrate that the hRFVT-3 protein is glycosylated and this glycosylation is important for its function and cell surface expression. This study also identified a number of residues in the hRFVT-3 polypeptide that are important for its function/cell surface expression.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T03:33:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00101.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
  • Is FoxO1 the culprit, partner in crime, or a protector in systemic
    • Authors: Sundaresan, S; Puthanveetil, P.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T03:33:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00194.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
  • S-nitrosylation/denitrosylation regulates myoblast proliferation. Focus on
           "Balance between S-nitrosylation and denitrosylation modulates myoblast
           proliferation independently of soluble guanylyl cyclase activation"
    • Authors: Monteiro, H. P; Ogata, F. T.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T03:33:26-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00127.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
  • Sarcomere mechanics in striated muscles: from molecules to sarcomeres to
    • Authors: Rassier; D. E.
      Abstract: Muscle contraction is commonly associated with the cross-bridge and sliding filament theories, which have received strong support from experiments conducted over the years in different laboratories. However, there are studies that cannot be readily explained by the theories, showing 1) a plateau of the force-length relation extended beyond optimal filament overlap, and forces produced at long sarcomere lengths that are higher than those predicted by the sliding filament theory; 2) passive forces at long sarcomere lengths that can be modulated by activation and Ca2+, which changes the force-length relation; and 3) an unexplained high force produced during and after stretch of activated muscle fibers. Some of these studies even propose "new theories of contraction." While some of these observations deserve evaluation, many of these studies present data that lack a rigorous control and experiments that cannot be repeated in other laboratories. This article reviews these issues, looking into studies that have used intact and permeabilized fibers, myofibrils, isolated sarcomeres, and half-sarcomeres. A common mechanism associated with sarcomere and half-sarcomere length nonuniformities and a Ca2+-induced increase in the stiffness of titin is proposed to explain observations that derive from these studies.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T03:33:26-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00050.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
  • Regulation of ATP production: dependence on calcium concentration and
           respiratory state
    • Authors: Fink, B. D; Bai, F, Yu, L, Sivitz, W. I.
      Abstract: Nanomolar free calcium enhances oxidative phosphorylation. However, the effects over a broad concentration range, at different respiratory states, or on specific energy substrates are less clear. We examined the action of varying [Ca2+] over respiratory states ranging 4 to 3 on skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration, potential, ATP production, and H2O2 production using ADP recycling to clamp external [ADP]. Calcium at 450 nM enhanced respiration in mitochondria energized by the complex I substrates, glutamate/malate (but not succinate), at [ADP] of 4–256 µM, but more substantially at intermediate respiratory states and not at all at state 4. Using varied [Ca2+], we found that the stimulatory effects on respiration and ATP production were most prominent at nanomolar concentrations, but inhibitory at 10 µM or higher. ATP production decreased more than respiration at 10 µM calcium. However, potential continued to increase up to 10 µM; suggesting a calcium-induced inability to utilize potential for phosphorylation independent of opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MTP). This effect of 10 µM calcium was confirmed by direct determination of ATP production over a range of potential created by differing substrate concentrations. Consistent with past reports, nanomolar [Ca2+] had a stimulatory effect on utilization of potential for phosphorylation. Increasing [Ca2+] was positively and continuously associated with H2O2 production. In summary, the stimulatory effect of calcium on mitochondrial function is substrate dependent and most prominent over intermediate respiratory states. Calcium stimulates or inhibits utilization of potential for phosphorylation dependent on concentration with inhibition at higher concentration independent of MTP opening.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T03:33:26-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00086.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
  • Effects of sarcolipin deletion on skeletal muscle adaptive responses to
           functional overload and unload
    • Authors: Fajardo, V. A; Rietze, B. A, Chambers, P. J, Bellissimo, C, Bombardier, E, Quadrilatero, J, Tupling, A. R.
      Abstract: Overexpression of sarcolipin (SLN), a regulator of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases (SERCAs), stimulates calcineurin signaling to enhance skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. Some studies have shown that calcineurin may also control skeletal muscle mass and remodeling in response to functional overload and unload stimuli by increasing myofiber size and the proportion of slow fibers. To examine whether SLN might mediate these adaptive responses, we performed soleus and gastrocnemius tenotomy in wild-type (WT) and Sln-null (Sln–/–) mice and examined the overloaded plantaris and unloaded/tenotomized soleus muscles. In the WT overloaded plantaris, we observed ectopic expression of SLN, myofiber hypertrophy, increased fiber number, and a fast-to-slow fiber type shift, which were associated with increased calcineurin signaling (NFAT dephosphorylation and increased stabilin-2 protein content) and reduced SERCA activity. In the WT tenotomized soleus, we observed a 14-fold increase in SLN protein, myofiber atrophy, decreased fiber number, and a slow-to-fast fiber type shift, which were also associated with increased calcineurin signaling and reduced SERCA activity. Genetic deletion of Sln altered these physiological outcomes, with the overloaded plantaris myofibers failing to grow in size and number, and transition towards the slow fiber type, while the unloaded soleus muscles exhibited greater reductions in fiber size and number, and an accelerated slow-to-fast fiber type shift. In both the Sln–/– overloaded and unloaded muscles, these findings were associated with elevated SERCA activity and blunted calcineurin signaling. Thus, SLN plays an important role in adaptive muscle remodeling potentially through calcineurin stimulation, which could have important implications for other muscle diseases and conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T03:33:26-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00291.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
  • Estradiol activates chloride channels via estrogen receptor-{alpha} in the
           cell membranes of osteoblasts
    • Authors: Deng, Z; Peng, S, Zheng, Y, Yang, X, Zhang, H, Tan, Q, Liang, X, Gao, H, Li, Y, Huang, Y, Zhu, L, Jacob, T. J. C, Chen, L, Wang, L.
      Abstract: Estrogen plays important roles in regulation of bone formation. Cl– channels in the ClC family are expressed in osteoblasts and are associated with bone physiology and pathology, but the relationship between Cl– channels and estrogen is not clear. In this study the action of estrogen on Cl– channels was investigated in the MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cell line. Our results show that 17β-estradiol could activate a current that reversed at a potential close to the Cl– equilibrium potential, with a sequence of anion selectivity of I– > Br– > Cl– > gluconate, and was inhibited by the Cl– channel blockers 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate and 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene disulfonic acid. Knockdown of ClC-3 Cl– channel expression by a specific small interfering RNA to ClC-3 attenuated activation of the 17β-estradiol-induced Cl– current. Extracellular application of membrane-impermeable 17β-estradiol-albumin conjugates activated a similar current. The estrogen-activated Cl– current could be inhibited by the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist fulvestrant (ICI 182780). The selective ERα agonist, but not ERβ agonist, activated a Cl– current similar to that induced by 17β-estradiol. Silencing ERα expression prevented activation of estrogen-induced currents. Immunofluorescence and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that ClC-3 Cl– channels and ERα were colocalized and closely related in cells. Estrogen promoted translocation of ClC-3 and ERα to the cell membrane from the nucleus. In conclusion, our findings show that Cl– channels can be activated by estrogen via ERα on the cell membrane and suggest that the ClC-3 Cl– channel may be one of the targets of estrogen in the regulation of osteoblast activity.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T03:33:26-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00014.2017
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
  • The NH2 terminus regulates voltage-dependent gating of CALHM ion channels
    • Authors: Tanis, J. E; Ma, Z, Foskett, J. K.
      Abstract: Calcium homeostasis modulator protein-1 (CALHM1) and its Caenorhabditis elegans (ce) homolog, CLHM-1, belong to a new family of physiologically important ion channels that are regulated by voltage and extracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+o) but lack a canonical voltage-sensing domain. Consequently, the intrinsic voltage-dependent gating mechanisms for CALHM channels are unknown. Here, we performed voltage-clamp experiments on ceCLHM-1 chimeric, deletion, insertion, and point mutants to assess the role of the NH2 terminus (NT) in CALHM channel gating. Analyses of chimeric channels in which the ceCLHM-1 and human (h)CALHM1 NH2 termini were interchanged showed that the hCALHM1 NT destabilized channel-closed states, whereas the ceCLHM-1 NT had a stabilizing effect. In the absence of Ca2+o, deletion of up to eight amino acids from the ceCLHM-1 NT caused a hyperpolarizing shift in the conductance-voltage relationship with little effect on voltage-dependent slope. However, deletion of nine or more amino acids decreased voltage dependence and induced a residual conductance at hyperpolarized voltages. Insertion of amino acids into the NH2-terminal helix also decreased voltage dependence but did not prevent channel closure. Mutation of ceCLHM-1 valine 9 and glutamine 13 altered half-maximal activation and voltage dependence, respectively, in 0 Ca2+. In 2 mM Ca2+o, ceCLHM-1 NH2-terminal deletion and point mutant channels closed completely at hyperpolarized voltages with apparent affinity for Ca2+o indistinguishable from wild-type ceCLHM-1, although the ceCLHM-1 valine 9 mutant exhibited an altered conductance-voltage relationship and kinetics. We conclude that the NT plays critical roles modulating voltage dependence and stabilizing the closed states of CALHM channels.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T03:33:26-07:00
      DOI: 10.1152/ajpcell.00318.2016
      Issue No: Vol. 313, No. 2 (2017)
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