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BIOLOGY (1422 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Aging Cell
  [SJR: 4.374]   [H-I: 95]   [9 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1474-9718 - ISSN (Online) 1474-9726
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1583 journals]
  • Methylation of the ribosomal RNA gene promoter is associated with aging
           and age-related decline

    • Authors: Patrizia D'Aquila; Alberto Montesanto, Maurizio Mandalà, Sabrina Garasto, Vincenzo Mari, Andrea Corsonello, Dina Bellizzi, Giuseppe Passarino
      Abstract: The transcription of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) is subject to epigenetic regulation, as it is abrogated by the methylation of CpG dinucleotides within their promoter region. Here, we investigated, through Sequenom platform, the age-related methylation status of the CpG island falling into the rDNA promoter in 472 blood samples from 20- to 105-year-old humans and in different tissues (blood, heart, liver, kidney, and testis) of 15 rats 3–96 weeks old. In humans, we did not find a consistently significant correlation between CpG site methylation and chronological age. Furthermore, the methylation levels of one of the analyzed CpG sites were negatively associated with both cognitive performance and survival chance measured in a 9-year follow-up study. We consistently confirmed such result in a replication sample. In rats, the analysis of the homologous region in the tissues revealed the existence of increased methylation in old rats. rRNA expression data, in both humans and rats, were consistent with observed methylation patterns, with a lower expression of rRNA in highly methylated samples. As chronological and biological ages in rats of a given strain are likely to be much closer to each other than in humans, these results seem to provide the first evidence that epigenetic modifications of rDNA change over time according to the aging decline. Thus, the methylation profile of rDNA may represent a potential biomarker of aging.
      PubDate: 2017-06-17T23:05:39.780868-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12603
  • Drug repurposing for aging research using model organisms

    • Authors: Matthias Ziehm; Satwant Kaur, Dobril K. Ivanov, Pedro J. Ballester, David Marcus, Linda Partridge, Janet M. Thornton
      Abstract: Many increasingly prevalent diseases share a common risk factor: age. However, little is known about pharmaceutical interventions against aging, despite many genes and pathways shown to be important in the aging process and numerous studies demonstrating that genetic interventions can lead to a healthier aging phenotype. An important challenge is to assess the potential to repurpose existing drugs for initial testing on model organisms, where such experiments are possible. To this end, we present a new approach to rank drug-like compounds with known mammalian targets according to their likelihood to modulate aging in the invertebrates Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila. Our approach combines information on genetic effects on aging, orthology relationships and sequence conservation, 3D protein structures, drug binding and bioavailability. Overall, we rank 743 different drug-like compounds for their likelihood to modulate aging. We provide various lines of evidence for the successful enrichment of our ranking for compounds modulating aging, despite sparse public data suitable for validation. The top ranked compounds are thus prime candidates for in vivo testing of their effects on lifespan in C. elegans or Drosophila. As such, these compounds are promising as research tools and ultimately a step towards identifying drugs for a healthier human aging.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16T03:10:31.565446-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12626
  • TORC1-mediated sensing of chaperone activity alters glucose metabolism and
           extends lifespan

    • Authors: Matea Perić; Anita Lovrić, Ana Šarić, Marina Musa, Peter Bou Dib, Marina Rudan, Andrea Nikolić, Sandra Sobočanec, Ana-Matea Mikecin, Sven Dennerlein, Ira Milošević, Kristian Vlahoviček, Nuno Raimundo, Anita Kriško
      Abstract: Protein quality control mechanisms, required for normal cellular functioning, encompass multiple functions related to protein production and maintenance. However, the existence of communication between proteostasis and metabolic networks and its underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that enhanced chaperone activity and consequent improved proteostasis are sensed by TORC1 via the activity of Hsp82. Chaperone enrichment decreases the level of Hsp82, which deactivates TORC1 and leads to activation of Snf1/AMPK, regardless of glucose availability. This mechanism culminates in the extension of yeast replicative lifespan (RLS) that is fully reliant on both TORC1 deactivation and Snf1/AMPK activation. Specifically, we identify oxygen consumption increase as the downstream effect of Snf1 activation responsible for the entire RLS extension. Our results set a novel paradigm for the role of proteostasis in aging: modulation of the misfolded protein level can affect cellular metabolic features as well as mitochondrial activity and consequently modify lifespan. The described mechanism is expected to open new avenues for research of aging and age-related diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T04:36:02.593499-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12623
  • Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif is required to sustain
           testicular function on aging

    • Authors: Mi Gyeong Jeong; Hyuna Song, Ji Hyun Shin, Hana Jeong, Hyo Kyeong Kim, Eun Sook Hwang
      Abstract: Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) directly interacts with transcription factors and regulates their transcriptional activity. Extensive functional studies have shown that TAZ plays critical regulatory roles in stem cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival and also modulates the development of organs such as the lung, kidney, heart, and bone. Despite the importance of TAZ in stem cell maintenance, TAZ function has not yet been evaluated in spermatogenic stem cells of the male reproductive system. Here, we investigated the expression and functions of TAZ in mouse testis. TAZ was expressed in spermatogenic stem cells; however, its deficiency caused significant structural abnormalities, including atrophied tubules, widened interstitial space, and abnormal Leydig cell expansion, thereby resulting in lowered sperm counts and impaired fertility. Furthermore, TAZ deficiency increased the level of apoptosis and senescence in spermatogenic cells and Leydig cells upon aging. The expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-βgal), secretory phenotypes, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p16, p19, and p21) significantly increased in the absence of TAZ. TAZ downregulation in testicular cells further increased SA-βgal and p21 expression induced by oxidative stress, whereas TAZ overexpression decreased p21 induction and prevented senescence. Mechanistic studies showed that TAZ suppressed DNA-binding activity of p53 through a direct interaction and thus attenuated p53-induced p21 gene transcription. Our results suggested that TAZ may suppress apoptosis and premature senescence in spermatogenic cells by inhibiting the p53-p21 signaling pathway, thus playing important roles in the maintenance and control of reproductive function.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T04:31:51.14111-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12631
  • The SKN-1/Nrf2 transcription factor can protect against oxidative stress
           and increase lifespan in C. elegans by distinct mechanisms

    • Authors: Jennifer M.A. Tullet; James W. Green, Catherine Au, Alexandre Benedetto, Maximillian A. Thompson, Emily Clark, Ann F. Gilliat, Adelaide Young, Kathrin Schmeisser, David Gems
      Abstract: In C. elegans, the skn-1 gene encodes a transcription factor that resembles mammalian Nrf2 and activates a detoxification response. skn-1 promotes resistance to oxidative stress (Oxr) and also increases lifespan, and it has been suggested that the former causes the latter, consistent with the theory that oxidative damage causes aging. Here, we report that effects of SKN-1 on Oxr and longevity can be dissociated. We also establish that skn-1 expression can be activated by the DAF-16/FoxO transcription factor, another central regulator of growth, metabolism, and aging. Notably, skn-1 is required for Oxr but not increased lifespan resulting from over-expression of DAF-16; concomitantly, DAF-16 over-expression rescues the short lifespan of skn-1 mutants but not their hypersensitivity to oxidative stress. These results suggest that SKN-1 promotes longevity by a mechanism other than protection against oxidative damage.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T04:31:34.998074-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12627
  • HIV and drug abuse mediate astrocyte senescence in a β-catenin-dependent
           manner leading to neuronal toxicity

    • Authors: Chunjiang Yu; Srinivas D. Narasipura, Maureen H. Richards, Xiu-Ti Hu, Bryan Yamamoto, Lena Al-Harthi
      Abstract: Emerging evidence suggests that cell senescence plays an important role in aging-associated diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. HIV leads to a spectrum of neurologic diseases collectively termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Drug abuse, particularly methamphetamine (meth), is a frequently abused psychostimulant among HIV+ individuals and its abuse exacerbates HAND. The mechanism by which HIV and meth lead to brain cell dysregulation is not entirely clear. In this study, we evaluated the impact of HIV and meth on astrocyte senescence using in vitro and several animal models. Astrocytes constitute up to 50% of brain cells and play a pivotal role in marinating brain homeostasis. We show here that HIV and meth induce significant senescence of primary human fetal astrocytes, as evaluated by induction of senescence markers (β-galactosidase and p16INK4A), senescence-associated morphologic changes, and cell cycle arrest. HIV- and meth-mediated astrocyte senescence was also demonstrated in three small animal models (humanized mouse model of HIV/NSG-huPBMCs, HIV-transgenic rats, and in a meth administration rat model). Senescent astrocytes in turn mediated neuronal toxicity. Further, we show that β-catenin, a pro-survival/proliferation transcriptional co-activator, is downregulated by HIV and meth in human astrocytes and this downregulation promotes astrocyte senescence while induction of β-catenin blocks HIV- and meth-mediated astrocyte senescence. These studies, for the first time, demonstrate that HIV and meth induce astrocyte senescence and implicate the β-catenin pathway as potential therapeutic target to overcome astrocyte senescence.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T23:07:25.855523-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12593
  • Inducible knockdown of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A gene
           expression in adult female mice extends life span

    • Authors: Laurie K. Bale; Sally A. West, Cheryl A. Conover
      Abstract: Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) knockout (KO) mice, generated through homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells, have a significantly increased lifespan compared to wild-type littermates. However, it is unknown whether this longevity advantage would pertain to PAPP-A gene deletion in adult animals. In the present study, we used tamoxifen (Tam)-inducible Cre recombinase-mediated excision of the floxed PAPP-A (fPAPP-A) gene in mice at 5 months of age. fPAPP-A mice, which were either positive (pos) or negative (neg) for Tam-Cre, received Tam treatment with quarterly boosters. Only female mice could be used with this experimental design. fPAPP-A/neg and fPAPP-A/pos mice had similar weights at the start of the experiment and showed equivalent weight gain. We found that fPAPP-A/pos mice had a significant extension of life span (P = 0.005). The median life span was increased by 21% for fPAPP-A/pos compared to fPAPP-A/neg mice. Analysis of mortality in life span quartiles indicated that the proportion of deaths of fPAPP-A/pos mice were lower than fPAPP-A/neg mice at young adult ages (P = 0.002 for 601–800 days) and higher than fPAPP-A/neg mice at older ages (P = 0.004 for>1000 days). Thus, survival curves and age-specific mortality indicate that female mice with knockdown of PAPP-A gene expression as adults have an extended healthy life span.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09T23:05:25.615213-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12624
  • Cross-sectional relations of whole-blood miRNA expression levels and hand
           grip strength in a community sample

    • Authors: Joanne M. Murabito; Jian Rong, Kathryn L. Lunetta, Tianxiao Huan, Honghuang Lin, Qiang Zhao, Jane E. Freedman, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Daniel Levy, Martin G. Larson
      Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression with emerging data suggesting miRNAs play a role in skeletal muscle biology. We sought to examine the association of miRNAs with grip strength in a community-based sample. Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Generation 3 participants (n = 5668 54% women, mean age 55 years, range 24, 90 years) underwent grip strength measurement and miRNA profiling using whole blood from fasting morning samples. Linear mixed-effects regression modeling of grip strength (kg) versus continuous miRNA ‘Cq’ values and versus binary miRNA expression was performed. We conducted an integrative miRNA–mRNA coexpression analysis and examined the enrichment of biologic pathways for the top miRNAs associated with grip strength. Grip strength was lower in women than in men and declined with age with a mean 44.7 (10.0) kg in men and 26.5 (6.3) kg in women. Among 299 miRNAs interrogated for association with grip strength, 93 (31%) had FDR q value 
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T22:49:37.390416-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12622
  • Reprogramming progeria fibroblasts re-establishes a normal epigenetic

    • Authors: Zhaoyi Chen; Wing Y. Chang, Alton Etheridge, Hilmar Strickfaden, Zhigang Jin, Gareth Palidwor, Ji-Hoon Cho, Kai Wang, Sarah Y. Kwon, Carole Doré, Angela Raymond, Akitsu Hotta, James Ellis, Rita A. Kandel, F. Jeffrey Dilworth, Theodore J. Perkins, Michael J. Hendzel, David J. Galas, William L. Stanford
      Abstract: Ideally, disease modeling using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) enables analysis of disease initiation and progression. This requires any pathological features of the patient cells used for reprogramming to be eliminated during iPSC generation. Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a segmental premature aging disorder caused by the accumulation of the truncated form of Lamin A known as Progerin within the nuclear lamina. Cellular hallmarks of HGPS include nuclear blebbing, loss of peripheral heterochromatin, defective epigenetic inheritance, altered gene expression, and senescence. To model HGPS using iPSCs, detailed genome-wide and structural analysis of the epigenetic landscape is required to assess the initiation and progression of the disease. We generated a library of iPSC lines from fibroblasts of patients with HGPS and controls, including one family trio. HGPS patient-derived iPSCs are nearly indistinguishable from controls in terms of pluripotency, nuclear membrane integrity, as well as transcriptional and epigenetic profiles, and can differentiate into affected cell lineages recapitulating disease progression, despite the nuclear aberrations, altered gene expression, and epigenetic landscape inherent to the donor fibroblasts. These analyses demonstrate the power of iPSC reprogramming to reset the epigenetic landscape to a revitalized pluripotent state in the face of widespread epigenetic defects, validating their use to model the initiation and progression of disease in affected cell lineages.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08T22:49:26.617665-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12621
  • Deletion of ghrelin prevents aging-associated obesity and muscle
           dysfunction without affecting longevity

    • Authors: Bobby Guillory; Ji-an Chen, Shivam Patel, Jiaohua Luo, Andres Splenser, Avni Mody, Michael Ding, Shiva Baghaie, Barbara Anderson, Blaga Iankova, Tripti Halder, Yamileth Hernandez, Jose M. Garcia
      Abstract: During aging, decreases in energy expenditure and locomotor activity lead to body weight and fat gain. Aging is also associated with decreases in muscle strength and endurance leading to functional decline. Here, we show that lifelong deletion of ghrelin prevents development of obesity associated with aging by modulating food intake and energy expenditure. Ghrelin deletion also attenuated the decrease in phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) and downstream mediators in muscle, and increased the number of type IIa (fatigue resistant, oxidative) muscle fibers, preventing the decline in muscle strength and endurance seen with aging. Longevity was not affected by ghrelin deletion. Treatment of old mice with pharmacologic doses of ghrelin increased food intake, body weight, and muscle strength in both ghrelin wild-type and knockout mice. These findings highlight the relevance of ghrelin during aging and identify a novel AMPK-dependent mechanism for ghrelin action in muscle.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06T03:50:40.642431-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12618
  • Advances in Therapeutic Approaches to Extend Healthspan: a perspective
           from the 2nd Scripps Symposium on the Biology of Aging

    • Authors: Paul D. Robbins; Laura J. Niedernhofer
      Abstract: The 2nd Scripps Florida Symposium on The Biology of Aging entitled ‘Advances in Therapeutic Approaches to Extend Healthspan’ was held on January 22nd–25th, 2017 at The Scripps Research Institute in Jupiter, Florida. The meeting highlighted a variety of therapeutic approaches in animal models of aging that either are or soon will be in clinic trials. For example, drugs targeting senescent cells, metformin, rapalogs, NAD precursors, young plasma, mitochondrial-targeted free radical scavengers, stem cells, and stem cell factors all have shown significant preclinical efficacy. This perspective, based on presentations and discussions at the symposium, outlines the current and future state of development of therapeutic approaches to extend human healthspan.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06T03:50:23.910542-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12620
  • The replicative lifespan-extending deletion of SGF73 results in altered
           ribosomal gene expression in yeast

    • Authors: Amanda G. Mason; Renee M. Garza, Mark A. McCormick, Bhumil Patel, Brian K. Kennedy, Lorraine Pillus, Albert R. La Spada
      Abstract: Sgf73, a core component of SAGA, is the yeast orthologue of ataxin-7, which undergoes CAG–polyglutamine repeat expansion leading to the human neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7). Deletion of SGF73 dramatically extends replicative lifespan (RLS) in yeast. To further define the basis for Sgf73-mediated RLS extension, we performed ChIP-Seq, identified 388 unique genomic regions occupied by Sgf73, and noted enrichment in promoters of ribosomal protein (RP)-encoding genes. Of 388 Sgf73 binding sites, 33 correspond to 5′ regions of genes implicated in RLS extension, including 20 genes encoding RPs. Furthermore, half of Sgf73-occupied, RLS-linked RP genes displayed significantly reduced expression in sgf73Δ mutants, and double null strains lacking SGF73 and a Sgf73-regulated, RLS-linked RP gene exhibited no further increase in replicative lifespan. We also found that sgf73Δ mutants display altered acetylation of Ifh1, an important regulator of RP gene transcription. These findings implicate altered ribosomal protein expression in sgf73Δ yeast RLS and highlight altered acetylation as a pathway of relevance for SCA7 neurodegeneration.
      PubDate: 2017-05-31T21:55:43.829123-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12611
  • Transcription factors CEP-1/p53 and CEH-23 collaborate with AAK-2/AMPK to
           modulate longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    • Authors: Hsin-Wen Chang; Steve Pisano, Amaresh Chaturbedi, Jennifer Chen, Sarah Gordon, Aiswarya Baruah, Siu Sylvia Lee
      Abstract: A decline in mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) function has long been implicated in aging and various diseases. Recently, moderate mitochondrial ETC dysfunction has been found to prolong lifespan in diverse organisms, suggesting a conserved and complex role of mitochondria in longevity determination. Several nuclear transcription factors have been demonstrated to mediate the lifespan extension effect associated with partial impairment of the ETC, suggesting that compensatory transcriptional response to be crucial. In this study, we showed that the transcription factors CEP-1/p53 and CEH-23 act through a similar mechanism to modulate longevity in response to defective ETC in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genomewide gene expression profiling comparison revealed a new link between these two transcription factors and AAK-2/AMP kinase (AMPK) signaling. Further functional analyses suggested that CEP-1/p53 and CEH-23 act downstream of AAK-2/AMPK signaling and CRTC-1 transcriptional coactivator to promote stress resistance and lifespan. As AAK-2, CEP-1, and CEH-23 are all highly conserved, our findings likely provide important insights for understanding the organismal adaptive response to mitochondrial dysfunction in diverse organisms and will be relevant to aging and pathologies with a mitochondrial etiology in human.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T21:50:37.178994-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12619
  • Sustained NFκB inhibition improves insulin sensitivity but is
           detrimental to muscle health

    • Authors: Ning Zhang; Joseph M. Valentine, You Zhou, Mengyao E. Li, Yiqiang Zhang, Arunabh Bhattacharya, Michael E. Walsh, Katherine E. Fischer, Steven N. Austad, Pawel Osmulski, Maria Gaczynska, Steven E. Shoelson, Holly Van Remmen, Hung I. Chen, Yidong Chen, Hanyu Liang, Nicolas Musi
      Abstract: Older adults universally suffer from sarcopenia and approximately 60–70% are diabetic or prediabetic. Nonetheless, the mechanisms underlying these aging-related metabolic disorders are unknown. NFκB has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several aging-related pathologies including sarcopenia and type 2 diabetes and has been proposed as a target against them. NFκB also is thought to mediate muscle wasting seen with disuse, denervation, and some systemic diseases (e.g., cancer, sepsis). We tested the hypothesis that lifelong inhibition of the classical NFκB pathway would protect against aging-related sarcopenia and insulin resistance. Aged mice with muscle-specific overexpression of a super-repressor IκBα mutant (MISR) were protected from insulin resistance. However, MISR mice were not protected from sarcopenia; to the contrary, these mice had decreases in muscle mass and strength compared to wild-type mice. In MISR mice, NFκB suppression also led to an increase in proteasome activity and alterations in several genes and pathways involved in muscle growth and atrophy (e.g., myostatin). We conclude that the mechanism behind aging-induced sarcopenia is NFκB independent and differs from muscle wasting due to pathologic conditions. Our findings also indicate that, while suppressing NFκB improves insulin sensitivity in aged mice, this transcription factor is important for normal muscle mass maintenance and its sustained inhibition is detrimental to muscle function.
      PubDate: 2017-05-29T02:00:29.876218-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12613
  • Identification of tissue-specific transcriptional markers of caloric
           restriction in the mouse and their use to evaluate caloric restriction

    • Authors: Jamie L. Barger; James M. Vann, Nicole L. Cray, Thomas D. Pugh, Angela Mastaloudis, Shelly N. Hester, Steven M. Wood, Michael A. Newton, Richard Weindruch, Tomas A. Prolla
      Abstract: Caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition has been shown to retard several aspects of the aging process and to extend lifespan in different species. There is strong interest in the identification of CR mimetics (CRMs), compounds that mimic the beneficial effects of CR on lifespan and healthspan without restriction of energy intake. Identification of CRMs in mammals is currently inefficient due to the lack of screening tools. We have performed whole-genome transcriptional profiling of CR in seven mouse strains (C3H/HeJ, CBA/J, DBA/2J, B6C3F1/J, 129S1/SvImJ, C57BL/6J, and BALB/cJ) in white adipose tissue (WAT), gastrocnemius muscle, heart, and brain neocortex. This analysis has identified tissue-specific panels of genes that change in expression in multiple mouse strains with CR. We validated a subset of genes with qPCR and used these to evaluate the potential CRMs bezafibrate, pioglitazone, metformin, resveratrol, quercetin, 2,4-dinitrophenol, and L-carnitine when fed to C57BL/6J 2-month-old mice for 3 months. Compounds were also evaluated for their ability to modulate previously characterized biomarkers of CR, including mitochondrial enzymes citrate synthase and SIRT3, plasma inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and adipocyte size. Pioglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist, and L-carnitine, an amino acid involved in lipid metabolism, displayed the strongest effects on both the novel transcriptional markers of CR and the additional CR biomarkers tested. Our findings provide panels of tissue-specific transcriptional markers of CR that can be used to identify novel CRMs, and also represent the first comparative molecular analysis of several potential CRMs in multiple tissues in mammals.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26T23:05:34.562612-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12608
  • Kallistatin reduces vascular senescence and aging by regulating
           microRNA-34a-SIRT1 pathway

    • Authors: Youming Guo; Pengfei Li, Lin Gao, Jingmei Zhang, Zhirong Yang, Grant Bledsoe, Eugene Chang, Lee Chao, Julie Chao
      Abstract: Kallistatin, an endogenous protein, protects against vascular injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation in hypertensive rats and enhancing the mobility and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). We aimed to determine the role and mechanism of kallistatin in vascular senescence and aging using cultured EPCs, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, and Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Human kallistatin significantly decreased TNF-α-induced cellular senescence in EPCs, as indicated by reduced senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression, and elevated telomerase activity. Kallistatin blocked TNF-α-induced superoxide levels, NADPH oxidase activity, and microRNA-21 (miR-21) and p16INK4a synthesis. Kallistatin prevented TNF-α-mediated inhibition of SIRT1, eNOS, and catalase, and directly stimulated the expression of these antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, kallistatin inhibited miR-34a synthesis, whereas miR-34a overexpression abolished kallistatin-induced antioxidant gene expression and antisenescence activity. Kallistatin via its active site inhibited miR-34a, and stimulated SIRT1 and eNOS synthesis in EPCs, which was abolished by genistein, indicating an event mediated by tyrosine kinase. Moreover, kallistatin administration attenuated STZ-induced aortic senescence, oxidative stress, and miR-34a and miR-21 synthesis, and increased SIRT1, eNOS, and catalase levels in diabetic mice. Furthermore, kallistatin treatment reduced superoxide formation and prolonged wild-type C. elegans lifespan under oxidative or heat stress, although kallistatin's protective effect was abolished in miR-34 or sir-2.1 (SIRT1 homolog) mutant C. elegans. Kallistatin inhibited miR-34, but stimulated sir-2.1 and sod-3 synthesis in C. elegans. These in vitro and in vivo studies provide significant insights into the role and mechanism of kallistatin in vascular senescence and aging by regulating miR-34a-SIRT1 pathway.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T04:40:28.991669-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12615
  • Biochemical isolation of myonuclei employed to define changes to the
           myonuclear proteome that occur with aging

    • Authors: Alicia A. Cutler; Eric B. Dammer, Duc M. Doung, Nicholas T. Seyfried, Anita H. Corbett, Grace K. Pavlath
      Abstract: Skeletal muscle aging is accompanied by loss of muscle mass and strength. Examining changes in myonuclear proteins with age would provide insight into molecular processes which regulate these profound changes in muscle physiology. However, muscle tissue is highly adapted for contraction and thus comprised largely of contractile proteins making the nuclear proteins difficult to identify from whole muscle samples. By developing a method to purify myonuclei from whole skeletal muscle, we were able to collect myonuclei for analysis by flow cytometry, biochemistry, and mass spectrometry. Nuclear purification dramatically increased the number and intensity of nuclear proteins detected by mass spectrometry compared to whole tissue. We exploited this increased proteomic depth to investigate age-related changes to the myonuclear proteome. Nuclear levels of 54 of 779 identified proteins (7%) changed significantly with age; these proteins were primarily involved in chromatin maintenance and RNA processing. To determine whether the changes we detected were specific to myonuclei or were common to nuclei of excitatory tissues, we compared aging in myonuclei to aging in brain nuclei. Although several of the same processes were affected by aging in both brain and muscle nuclei, the specific proteins involved in these alterations differed between the two tissues. Isolating myonuclei allowed a deeper view into the myonuclear proteome than previously possible facilitating identification of novel age-related changes in skeletal muscle. Our technique will enable future studies into a heretofore underrepresented compartment of skeletal muscle.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T04:55:27.639453-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12604
  • Molecular and physiological manifestations and measurement of aging in

    • Authors: Sadiya S. Khan; Benjamin D. Singer, Douglas E. Vaughan
      Abstract: Biological aging is associated with a reduction in the reparative and regenerative potential in tissues and organs. This reduction manifests as a decreased physiological reserve in response to stress (termed homeostenosis) and a time-dependent failure of complex molecular mechanisms that cumulatively create disorder. Aging inevitably occurs with time in all organisms and emerges on a molecular, cellular, organ, and organismal level with genetic, epigenetic, and environmental modulators. Individuals with the same chronological age exhibit differential trajectories of age-related decline, and it follows that we should assess biological age distinctly from chronological age. In this review, we outline mechanisms of aging with attention to well-described molecular and cellular hallmarks and discuss physiological changes of aging at the organ-system level. We suggest methods to measure aging with attention to both molecular biology (e.g., telomere length and epigenetic marks) and physiological function (e.g., lung function and echocardiographic measurements). Finally, we propose a framework to integrate these molecular and physiological data into a composite score that measures biological aging in humans. Understanding the molecular and physiological phenomena that drive the complex and multifactorial processes underlying the variable pace of biological aging in humans will inform how researchers assess and investigate health and disease over the life course. This composite biological age score could be of use to researchers seeking to characterize normal, accelerated, and exceptionally successful aging as well as to assess the effect of interventions aimed at modulating human aging.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T04:30:40.972734-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12601
  • Short-term rapamycin treatment increases ovarian lifespan in young
           and middle-aged female mice

    • Authors: Xiaowei Dou; Yan Sun, Jiazhao Li, Jing Zhang, Dandan Hao, Wenwen Liu, Rui Wu, Feifei Kong, Xiaoxu Peng, Jing Li
      Abstract: Although age-related ovarian failure in female mammals cannot be reversed, recent strategies have focused on improving reproductive capacity with age, and rapamycin is one such intervention that has shown a potential for preserving the ovarian follicle pool and preventing premature ovarian failure. However, the application is limited because of its detrimental effects on follicular development and ovulation during long-term treatment. Herein, we shortened the rapamycin administration to 2 weeks and applied the protocol to both young (8 weeks) and middle-aged (8 months) mouse models. Results showed disturbances in ovarian function during and shortly after treatment; however, all the treated animals returned to normal fertility 2 months later. Following natural mating, we observed prolongation of ovarian lifespan in both mouse models, with the most prominent effect occurring in mice older than 12 months. The effects of transient rapamycin treatment on ovarian lifespan were reflected in the preservation of primordial follicles, increases in oocyte quality, and improvement in the ovarian microenvironment. These data indicate that short-term rapamycin treatment exhibits persistent effects on prolonging ovarian lifespan no matter the age at initiation of treatment. In order not to disturb fertility in young adults, investigators should in the future consider applying the protocol later in life so as to delay menopause in women, and at the same time increase ovarian lifespan.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T05:00:53.309133-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12617
  • Impairment of insulin signalling in peripheral tissue fails to extend
           murine lifespan

    • Authors: Troy L. Merry; Doreen Kuhlow, Beate Laube, Doris Pöhlmann, Andreas F. H. Pfeiffer, C. Ronald Kahn, Michael Ristow, Kim Zarse
      Abstract: Impaired insulin/IGF1 signalling has been shown to extend lifespan in model organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Here we sought to determine the effect of targeted disruption of the insulin receptor (IR) in non-neuronal tissues of adult mice on the lifespan. We induced hemizygous (PerIRKO+/−) or homozygous (PerIRKO−/−) disruption of the IR in peripheral tissue of 15-weeks-old mice using a tamoxifen-inducible Cre transgenic mouse with only peripheral tissue expression, and subsequently monitored glucose metabolism, insulin signalling and spontaneous death rates over 4 years. Complete peripheral IR disruption resulted in a diabetic phenotype with increased blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in young mice. Although blood glucose levels returned to normal, and fat mass was reduced in aged PerIRKO−/− mice, their lifespan was reduced. By contrast, heterozygous disruption had no effect on lifespan. This was despite young male PerIRKO+/− mice showing reduced fat mass and mild increase in hepatic insulin sensitivity. In conflict with findings in metazoans like Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, our results suggest that heterozygous impairment of the insulin signalling limited to peripheral tissues of adult mice fails to extend lifespan despite increased systemic insulin sensitivity, while homozygous impairment shortens lifespan.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T04:55:33.251803-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12610
  • Anti-aging drugs reduce hypothalamic inflammation in a sex-specific manner

    • Authors: Marianna Sadagurski; Gillian Cady, Richard A. Miller
      Abstract: Aging leads to hypothalamic inflammation, but does so more slowly in mice whose lifespan has been extended by mutations that affect GH/IGF-1 signals. Early-life exposure to GH by injection, or to nutrient restriction in the first 3 weeks of life, also modulate both lifespan and the pace of hypothalamic inflammation. Three drugs extend lifespan of UM-HET3 mice in a sex-specific way: acarbose (ACA), 17-α-estradiol (17αE2), and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), with more dramatic longevity increases in males in each case. In this study, we examined the effect of these anti-aging drugs on neuro-inflammation in hypothalamus and hippocampus. We found that age-associated hypothalamic inflammation is reduced in males but not in females at 12 months of age by ACA and 17αE2 and at 22 months of age in NDGA-treated mice. The three drugs blocked indices of hypothalamic reactive gliosis associated with aging, such as Iba-1-positive microglia and GFAP-positive astrocytes, as well as age-associated overproduction of TNF-α. This effect was not observed in drug-treated female mice or in the hippocampus of the drug-treated animals. On the other hand, caloric restriction (CR; an intervention that extends the lifespan in both sexes) significantly reduced hypothalamic microglia and TNF-α in both sexes at 12 months of age. Together, these results suggest that the extent of drug-induced changes in hypothalamic inflammatory processes is sexually dimorphic in a pattern that parallels the effects of these agents on mouse longevity and that mimics the changes seen, in both sexes, of long-lived nutrient restricted or mutant mice.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20T23:05:53.051596-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12590
  • The PPARγ-SETD8 axis constitutes an epigenetic, p53-independent
           checkpoint on p21-mediated cellular senescence

    • Authors: Chieh-Tien Shih; Yi-Feng Chang, Yi-Tung Chen, Chung-Pei Ma, Hui-Wen Chen, Chang-Ching Yang, Juu-Chin Lu, Yau-Sheng Tsai, Hua-Chien Chen, Bertrand Chin-Ming Tan
      Abstract: Cellular senescence is a permanent proliferative arrest triggered by genome instability or aberrant growth stresses, acting as a protective or even tumor-suppressive mechanism. While several key aspects of gene regulation have been known to program this cessation of cell growth, the involvement of the epigenetic regulation has just emerged but remains largely unresolved. Using a systems approach that is based on targeted gene profiling, we uncovered known and novel chromatin modifiers with putative link to the senescent state of the cells. Among these, we identified SETD8 as a new target as well as a key regulator of the cellular senescence signaling. Knockdown of SETD8 triggered senescence induction in proliferative culture, irrespectively of the p53 status of the cells; ectopic expression of this epigenetic writer alleviated the extent doxorubicin-induced cellular senescence. This repressive effect of SETD8 in senescence was mediated by directly maintaining the silencing mark H4K20me1 at the locus of the senescence switch gene p21. Further in support of this regulatory link, depletion of p21 reversed this SETD8-mediated cellular senescence. Additionally, we found that PPARγ acts upstream and regulates SETD8 expression in proliferating cells. Downregulation of PPARγ coincided with the senescence induction, while its activation inhibited the progression of this process. Viewed together, our findings delineated a new epigenetic pathway through which the PPARγ-SETD8 axis directly silences p21 expression and consequently impinges on its senescence-inducing function. This implies that SETD8 may be part of a cell proliferation checkpoint mechanism and has important implications in antitumor therapeutics.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17T04:25:44.606816-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12607
  • Caveolin-1 deficiency induces premature senescence with mitochondrial

    • Authors: Dong-Min Yu; Seung Hee Jung, Hyoung-Tae An, Sungsoo Lee, Jin Hong, Jun Sub Park, Hyun Lee, Hwayeon Lee, Myeong-Suk Bahn, Hyung Chul Lee, Na-Kyung Han, Jesang Ko, Jae-Seon Lee, Young-Gyu Ko
      Abstract: Paradoxical observations have been made regarding the role of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) during cellular senescence. For example, caveolin-1 deficiency prevents reactive oxygen species-induced cellular senescence despite mitochondrial dysfunction, which leads to senescence. To resolve this paradox, we re-addressed the role of caveolin-1 in cellular senescence in human diploid fibroblasts, A549, HCT116, and Cav-1−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cav-1 deficiency (knockout or knockdown) induced cellular senescence via a p53-p21-dependent pathway, downregulating the expression level of the cardiolipin biosynthesis enzymes and then reducing the content of cardiolipin, a critical lipid for mitochondrial respiration. Our results showed that Cav-1 deficiency decreased mitochondrial respiration, reduced the activity of oxidative phosphorylation complex I (CI), inactivated SIRT1, and decreased the NAD+/NADH ratio. From these results, we concluded that Cav-1 deficiency induces premature senescence via mitochondrial dysfunction and silent information regulator 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) inactivation.
      PubDate: 2017-05-17T04:16:45.01602-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12606
  • The space where aging acts: focus on the GABAergic synapse

    • Authors: Aleksandra Rozycka; Monika Liguz-Lecznar
      Abstract: As it was established that aging is not associated with massive neuronal loss, as was believed in the mid-20th Century, scientific interest has addressed the influence of aging on particular neuronal subpopulations and their synaptic contacts, which constitute the substrate for neural plasticity. Inhibitory neurons represent the most complex and diverse group of neurons, showing distinct molecular and physiological characteristics and possessing a compelling ability to control the physiology of neural circuits. This review focuses on the aging of GABAergic neurons and synapses. Understanding how aging affects synapses of particular neuronal subpopulations may help explain the heterogeneity of aging-related effects. We reviewed the literature concerning the effects of aging on the numbers of GABAergic neurons and synapses as well as aging-related alterations in their presynaptic and postsynaptic components. Finally, we discussed the influence of those changes on the plasticity of the GABAergic system, highlighting our results concerning aging in mouse somatosensory cortex and linking them to plasticity impairments and brain disorders. We posit that aging-induced impairments of the GABAergic system lead to an inhibitory/excitatory imbalance, thereby decreasing neuron's ability to respond with plastic changes to environmental and cellular challenges, leaving the brain more vulnerable to cognitive decline and damage by synaptopathic diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T02:20:27.368405-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12605
  • Enhanced NOLC1 promotes cell senescence and represses hepatocellular
           carcinoma cell proliferation by disturbing the organization of nucleolus

    • Authors: Fuwen Yuan; Yu Zhang, Liwei Ma, Qian Cheng, Guodong Li, Tanjun Tong
      Abstract: The nucleolus is a key organelle that is responsible for the synthesis of rRNA and assembly of ribosomal subunits, which is also the center of metabolic control because of the critical role of ribosomes in protein synthesis. Perturbations of rRNA biogenesis are closely related to cell senescence and tumor progression; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we report that cellular senescence-inhibited gene (CSIG) knockdown up-regulated NOLC1 by stabilizing the 5′UTR of NOLC1 mRNA, and elevated NOLC1 induced the retention of NOG1 in the nucleolus, which is responsible for rRNA processing. Besides, the expression of NOLC1 was negatively correlated with CSIG in the aged mouse tissue and replicative senescent 2BS cells, and the down-regulation of NOLC1 could rescue CSIG knockdown-induced 2BS senescence. Additionally, NOLC1 expression was decreased in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue, and the ectopic expression of NOLC1 repressed the proliferation of HCC cells and tumor growth in a HCC xenograft model.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T23:11:01.937446-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12602
  • Mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase 2 is elevated in long-lived primate as
           well as rodent species and extends fly mean lifespan

    • Authors: Andrew M. Pickering; Marcus Lehr, Christi M. Gendron, Scott D. Pletcher, Richard A. Miller
      Abstract: In a survey of enzymes related to protein oxidation and cellular redox state, we found activity of the redox enzyme thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD) to be elevated in cells from long-lived species of rodents, primates, and birds. Elevated TXNRD activity in long-lived species reflected increases in the mitochondrial form, TXNRD2, rather than the cytosolic forms TXNRD1 and TXNRD3. Analysis of published RNA-Seq data showed elevated TXNRD2 mRNA in multiple organs of longer-lived primates, suggesting that the phenomenon is not limited to skin-derived fibroblasts. Elevation of TXNRD2 activity and protein levels was also noted in liver of three different long-lived mutant mice, and in normal male mice treated with a drug that extends lifespan in males. Overexpression of mitochondrial TXNRD2 in Drosophila melanogaster extended median (but not maximum) lifespan in female flies with a small lifespan extension in males; in contrast, overexpression of the cytosolic form, TXNRD1, did not produce a lifespan extension.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05T02:00:36.748008-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12596
  • Quantitative identification of senescent cells in aging and disease

    • Authors: Anat Biran; Lior Zada, Paula Abou Karam, Ezra Vadai, Lior Roitman, Yossi Ovadya, Ziv Porat, Valery Krizhanovsky
      Abstract: Senescent cells are present in premalignant lesions and sites of tissue damage and accumulate in tissues with age. In vivo identification, quantification and characterization of senescent cells are challenging tasks that limit our understanding of the role of senescent cells in diseases and aging. Here, we present a new way to precisely quantify and identify senescent cells in tissues on a single-cell basis. The method combines a senescence-associated beta-galactosidase assay with staining of molecular markers for cellular senescence and of cellular identity. By utilizing technology that combines flow cytometry with high-content image analysis, we were able to quantify senescent cells in tumors, fibrotic tissues, and tissues of aged mice. Our approach also yielded the finding that senescent cells in tissues of aged mice are larger than nonsenescent cells. Thus, this method provides a basis for quantitative assessment of senescent cells and it offers proof of principle for combination of different markers of senescence. It paves the way for screening of senescent cells for identification of new senescence biomarkers, genes that bypass senescence or senolytic compounds that eliminate senescent cells, thus enabling a deeper understanding of the senescent state in vivo.
      PubDate: 2017-04-28T23:22:09.691772-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12592
  • Autophagy compensates impaired energy metabolism in CLPXP-deficient
           Podospora anserina strains and extends healthspan

    • Authors: Laura Knuppertz; Heinz D. Osiewacz
      Abstract: The degradation of nonfunctional mitochondrial proteins is of fundamental relevance for maintenance of cellular homeostasis. The heteromeric CLPXP protein complex in the mitochondrial matrix is part of this process. In the fungal aging model Podospora anserina, ablation of CLPXP leads to an increase in healthy lifespan. Here, we report that this counterintuitive increase depends on a functional autophagy machinery. In PaClpXP mutants, autophagy is involved in energy conservation and the compensation of impairments in respiration. Strikingly, despite the impact on mitochondrial function, it is not mitophagy but general autophagy that is constitutively induced and required for longevity. In contrast, in another long-lived mutant ablated for the mitochondrial PaIAP protease, autophagy is neither induced nor required for lifespan extension. Our data provide novel mechanistic insights into the capacity of different forms of autophagy to compensate impairments of specific components of the complex mitochondrial quality control network and about the biological role of mitochondrial CLPXP in the control of cellular energy metabolism.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T12:20:53.684724-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12600
  • Endoplasmic reticulum proteostasis impairment in aging

    • Authors: Gabriela Martínez; Claudia Duran-Aniotz, Felipe Cabral-Miranda, Juan P. Vivar, Claudio Hetz
      Abstract: Perturbed neuronal proteostasis is a salient feature shared by both aging and protein misfolding disorders. The proteostasis network controls the health of the proteome by integrating pathways involved in protein synthesis, folding, trafficking, secretion, and their degradation. A reduction in the buffering capacity of the proteostasis network during aging may increase the risk to undergo neurodegeneration by enhancing the accumulation of misfolded proteins. As almost one-third of the proteome is synthetized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), maintenance of its proper function is fundamental to sustain neuronal function. In fact, ER stress is a common feature of most neurodegenerative diseases. The unfolded protein response (UPR) operates as central player to maintain ER homeostasis or the induction of cell death of chronically damaged cells. Here, we discuss recent evidence placing ER stress as a driver of brain aging, and the emerging impact of neuronal UPR in controlling global proteostasis at the whole organismal level. Finally, we discuss possible therapeutic interventions to improve proteostasis and prevent pathological brain aging.
      PubDate: 2017-04-23T20:10:32.178017-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12599
  • Genetic interplay between human longevity and metabolic pathways — a
           large-scale eQTL study

    • Authors: Robert Häsler; Geetha Venkatesh, Qihua Tan, Friederike Flachsbart, Anupam Sinha, Philip Rosenstiel, Wolfgang Lieb, Stefan Schreiber, Kaare Christensen, Lene Christiansen, Almut Nebel
      Abstract: Human longevity is a complex phenotype influenced by genetic and environmental components. Unraveling the contribution of genetic vs. nongenetic factors to longevity is a challenging task. Here, we conducted a large-scale RNA-sequencing-based expression quantitative trait loci study (eQTL) with subsequent heritability analysis. The investigation was performed on blood samples from 244 individuals from Germany and Denmark, representing various age groups including long-lived subjects up to the age of 104 years. Our eQTL-based approach revealed for the first time that human longevity is associated with a depletion of metabolic pathways in a genotype-dependent and independent manner. Further analyses indicated that 20% of the differentially expressed genes are influenced by genetic variants in cis. The subsequent study of twins showed that the transcriptional activity of a third of the differentially regulated genes is heritable. These findings suggest that longevity-associated biological processes such as altered metabolism are, to a certain extent, also the driving force of longevity rather than just a consequence of old age.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T01:00:38.870491-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12598
  • DNA damage and senescence in osteoprogenitors expressing Osx1 may cause
           their decrease with age

    • Authors: Ha-Neui Kim; Jianhui Chang, Lijian Shao, Li Han, Srividhya Iyer, Stavros C. Manolagas, Charles A. O'Brien, Robert L. Jilka, Daohong Zhou, Maria Almeida
      Abstract: Age-related bone loss in mice results from a decrease in bone formation and an increase in cortical bone resorption. The former is accounted by a decrease in the number of postmitotic osteoblasts which synthesize the bone matrix and is thought to be the consequence of age-dependent changes in mesenchymal osteoblast progenitors. However, there are no specific markers for these progenitors, and conclusions rely on results from in vitro cultures of mixed cell populations. Moreover, the culprits of such changes remain unknown. Here, we have used Osx1-Cre;TdRFP mice in which osteoprogenitors express the TdRFP fluorescent protein. We report that the number of TdRFP-Osx1 cells, freshly isolated from the bone marrow, declines by more than 50% between 6 and 24 months of age in both female and male mice. Moreover, TdRFP-Osx1 cells from old mice exhibited markers of DNA damage and senescence, such as γH2AX foci, G1 cell cycle arrest, phosphorylation of p53, increased p21CIP1 levels, as well as increased levels of GATA4 and activation of NF-κB – two major stimulators of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Bone marrow stromal cells from old mice also exhibited elevated expression of SASP genes, including several pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines, and increased capacity to support osteoclast formation. These changes were greatly attenuated by the senolytic drug ABT263. Together, these findings suggest that the decline in bone mass with age is the result of intrinsic defects in osteoprogenitor cells, leading to decreased osteoblast numbers and increased support of osteoclast formation.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T03:42:10.859643-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12597
  • Caenorhabditis elegans orthologs of human genes differentially expressed
           with age are enriched for determinants of longevity

    • Authors: George L. Sutphin; Grant Backer, Susan Sheehan, Shannon Bean, Caroline Corban, Teresa Liu, Marjolein J. Peters, Joyce B. J. Meurs, Joanne M. Murabito, Andrew D. Johnson, Ron Korstanje,
      Abstract: We report a systematic RNAi longevity screen of 82 Caenorhabditis elegans genes selected based on orthology to human genes differentially expressed with age. We find substantial enrichment in genes for which knockdown increased lifespan. This enrichment is markedly higher than published genomewide longevity screens in C. elegans and similar to screens that preselected candidates based on longevity-correlated metrics (e.g., stress resistance). Of the 50 genes that affected lifespan, 46 were previously unreported. The five genes with the greatest impact on lifespan (>20% extension) encode the enzyme kynureninase (kynu-1), a neuronal leucine-rich repeat protein (iglr-1), a tetraspanin (tsp-3), a regulator of calcineurin (rcan-1), and a voltage-gated calcium channel subunit (unc-36). Knockdown of each gene extended healthspan without impairing reproduction. kynu-1(RNAi) alone delayed pathology in C. elegans models of Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. Each gene displayed a distinct pattern of interaction with known aging pathways. In the context of published work, kynu-1, tsp-3, and rcan-1 are of particular interest for immediate follow-up. kynu-1 is an understudied member of the kynurenine metabolic pathway with a mechanistically distinct impact on lifespan. Our data suggest that tsp-3 is a novel modulator of hypoxic signaling and rcan-1 is a context-specific calcineurin regulator. Our results validate C. elegans as a comparative tool for prioritizing human candidate aging genes, confirm age-associated gene expression data as valuable source of novel longevity determinants, and prioritize select genes for mechanistic follow-up.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T03:35:55.838489-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12595
  • Impact of early personal-history characteristics on the Pace of Aging:
           implications for clinical trials of therapies to slow aging and extend

    • Authors: Daniel W. Belsky; Avshalom Caspi, Harvey J. Cohen, William E. Kraus, Sandhya Ramrakha, Richie Poulton, Terrie E. Moffitt
      Abstract: Therapies to extend healthspan are poised to move from laboratory animal models to human clinical trials. Translation from mouse to human will entail challenges, among them the multifactorial heterogeneity of human aging. To inform clinical trials about this heterogeneity, we report how humans’ pace of biological aging relates to personal-history characteristics. Because geroprotective therapies must be delivered by midlife to prevent age-related disease onset, we studied young-adult members of the Dunedin Study 1972–73 birth cohort (n = 954). Cohort members’ Pace of Aging was measured as coordinated decline in the integrity of multiple organ systems, by quantifying rate of decline across repeated measurements of 18 biomarkers assayed when cohort members were ages 26, 32, and 38 years. The childhood personal-history characteristics studied were known predictors of age-related disease and mortality, and were measured prospectively during childhood. Personal-history characteristics of familial longevity, childhood social class, adverse childhood experiences, and childhood health, intelligence, and self-control all predicted differences in cohort members’ adulthood Pace of Aging. Accumulation of more personal-history risks predicted faster Pace of Aging. Because trials of anti-aging therapies will need to ascertain personal histories retrospectively, we replicated results using cohort members’ retrospective personal-history reports made in adulthood. Because many trials recruit participants from clinical settings, we replicated results in the cohort subset who had recent health system contact according to electronic medical records. Quick, inexpensive measures of trial participants’ early personal histories can enable clinical trials to study who volunteers for trials, who adheres to treatment, and who responds to anti-aging therapies.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T03:16:11.47942-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12591
  • Age-related decline in BubR1 impairs adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    • Authors: Zhongxi Yang; Heechul Jun, Chan-II Choi, Ki Hyun Yoo, Chang Hoon Cho, Syed Mohammed Qasim Hussaini, Ambrosia J. Simmons, Seonhee Kim, Jan M. Deursen, Darren J. Baker, Mi-Hyeon Jang
      Abstract: Aging causes significant declines in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and leads to cognitive disability. Emerging evidence demonstrates that decline in the mitotic checkpoint kinase BubR1 level occurs with natural aging and induces progeroid features in both mice and children with mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome. Whether BubR1 contributes to age-related deficits in hippocampal neurogenesis is yet to be determined. Here we report that BubR1 expression is significantly reduced with natural aging in the mouse brain. Using established progeroid mice expressing low amounts of BubR1, we demonstrate these mice exhibit deficits in neural progenitor proliferation and maturation, leading to reduction in new neuron production. Collectively, our identification of BubR1 as a new and critical factor controlling sequential steps across neurogenesis raises the possibility that BubR1 may be a key mediator regulating aging-related hippocampal pathology. Targeting BubR1 may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for age-related cognitive deficits.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T04:35:44.128095-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12594
  • Rapamycin inhibits the secretory phenotype of senescent cells by a
           Nrf2-independent mechanism

    • Authors: Rong Wang; Zhen Yu, Bharath Sunchu, James Shoaf, Ivana Dang, Stephanie Zhao, Kelsey Caples, Lynda Bradley, Laura M. Beaver, Emily Ho, Christiane V. Löhr, Viviana I. Perez
      Abstract: Senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology and loss of function, and their selective removal improves physiological function and extends longevity. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, inhibits cell senescence in vitro and increases longevity in several species. Nrf2 levels have been shown to decrease with aging and silencing Nrf2 gene induces premature senescence. Therefore, we explored whether Nrf2 is involved in the mechanism by which rapamycin delays cell senescence. In wild-type (WT) mouse fibroblasts, rapamycin increased the levels of Nrf2, and this correlates with the activation of autophagy and a reduction in the induction of cell senescence, as measured by SA-β-galactosidase (β-gal) staining, senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), and p16 and p21 molecular markers. In Nrf2KO fibroblasts, however, rapamycin still decreased β-gal staining and the SASP, but rapamycin did not activate the autophagy pathway or decrease p16 and p21 levels. These observations were further confirmed in vivo using Nrf2KO mice, where rapamycin treatment led to a decrease in β-gal staining and pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and fat tissue; however, p16 levels were not significantly decreased in fat tissue. Consistent with literature demonstrating that the Stat3 pathway is linked to the production of SASP, we found that rapamycin decreased activation of the Stat3 pathway in cells or tissue samples from both WT and Nrf2KO mice. Our data thus suggest that cell senescence is a complex process that involves at least two arms, and rapamycin uses Nrf2 to regulate cell cycle arrest, but not the production of SASP.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T23:10:46.96043-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12587
  • Aging of the skeletal muscle extracellular matrix drives a stem cell
           fibrogenic conversion

    • Authors: Kristen M. Stearns-Reider; Antonio D'Amore, Kevin Beezhold, Benjamin Rothrauff, Loredana Cavalli, William R. Wagner, David A. Vorp, Alkiviadis Tsamis, Sunita Shinde, Changqing Zhang, Aaron Barchowsky, Thomas A. Rando, Rocky S. Tuan, Fabrisia Ambrosio
      Abstract: Age-related declines in skeletal muscle regeneration have been attributed to muscle stem cell (MuSC) dysfunction. Aged MuSCs display a fibrogenic conversion, leading to fibrosis and impaired recovery after injury. Although studies have demonstrated the influence of in vitro substrate characteristics on stem cell fate, whether and how aging of the extracellular matrix (ECM) affects stem cell behavior has not been investigated. Here, we investigated the direct effect of the aged muscle ECM on MuSC lineage specification. Quantification of ECM topology and muscle mechanical properties reveals decreased collagen tortuosity and muscle stiffening with increasing age. Age-related ECM alterations directly disrupt MuSC responses, and MuSCs seeded ex vivo onto decellularized ECM constructs derived from aged muscle display increased expression of fibrogenic markers and decreased myogenicity, compared to MuSCs seeded onto young ECM. This fibrogenic conversion is recapitulated in vitro when MuSCs are seeded directly onto matrices elaborated by aged fibroblasts. When compared to young fibroblasts, fibroblasts isolated from aged muscle display increased nuclear levels of the mechanosensors, Yes-associated protein (YAP)/transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), consistent with exposure to a stiff microenvironment in vivo. Accordingly, preconditioning of young fibroblasts by seeding them onto a substrate engineered to mimic the stiffness of aged muscle increases YAP/TAZ nuclear translocation and promotes secretion of a matrix that favors MuSC fibrogenesis. The findings here suggest that an age-related increase in muscle stiffness drives YAP/TAZ-mediated pathogenic expression of matricellular proteins by fibroblasts, ultimately disrupting MuSC fate.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T23:11:52.77104-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12578
  • Aging-associated dysregulation of homeostatic immune response termination
           (and not initiation)

    • Authors: Goutham Pattabiraman; Karol Palasiewicz, John P. Galvin, David S. Ucker
      Abstract: Immunosenescence is a state of unbalanced immune responsiveness, characterized by a diverse repertoire of seemingly discreet and paradoxical alterations in all aspects of immunity arising in an aging-associated manner. We asked whether aging-associated alterations in the ability of apoptotic cells to elicit immunomodulatory responses (innate apoptotic immunity; IAI) or in IAI responses themselves might underlie the confounding aging-associated anomalies of immunosenescence. We explored this question by examining, as a function of animal age, responsiveness of murine macrophages on the single cell level. We monitored the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines cytofluorimetrically in response to pro-inflammatory Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation and anti-inflammatory treatment with apoptotic cells. While we found no alterations with age in the potency of apoptotic cells or in the initiation and magnitude of IAI responses, we did identify a cell-intrinsic deficiency in anti-inflammatory IAI response termination linked with age and preceding manifestations of immunosenescence. Further, we found that an aging-associated deficiency in response termination also is evident following TLR stimulation. These surprising observations reveal that a loss of homeostatic immune control with animal age results from the dysregulation of response termination (as distinct from response initiation) and is exerted on the level of transcription. We suggest that, with advancing age, cells become locked into relatively longer-lived response states. Aging-associated immune dysfunctions may reflect a diminution in the cellular nimbleness of immune responsiveness.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T23:11:26.588155-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12589
  • Residual Cdk1/2 activity after DNA damage promotes senescence

    • Authors: Erik Müllers; Helena Silva Cascales, Kamila Burdova, Libor Macurek, Arne Lindqvist
      Abstract: In response to DNA damage, a cell can be forced to permanently exit the cell cycle and become senescent. Senescence provides an early barrier against tumor development by preventing proliferation of cells with damaged DNA. By studying single cells, we show that Cdk activity persists after DNA damage until terminal cell cycle exit. This low level of Cdk activity not only allows cell cycle progression, but also promotes cell cycle exit at a decision point in G2 phase. We find that residual Cdk1/2 activity is required for efficient p21 production, allowing for nuclear sequestration of Cyclin B1, subsequent APC/CCdh1-dependent degradation of mitotic inducers and induction of senescence. We suggest that the same activity that triggers mitosis in an unperturbed cell cycle enforces senescence in the presence of DNA damage, ensuring a robust response when most needed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-26T19:45:30.381415-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12588
  • Disruption of the Cx43/miR21 pathway leads to osteocyte apoptosis and
           increased osteoclastogenesis with aging

    • Authors: Hannah M. Davis; Rafael Pacheco-Costa, Emily G. Atkinson, Lucas R. Brun, Arancha R. Gortazar, Julia Harris, Masahiro Hiasa, Surajudeen A. Bolarinwa, Toshiyuki Yoneda, Mircea Ivan, Angela Bruzzaniti, Teresita Bellido, Lilian I. Plotkin
      Abstract: Skeletal aging results in apoptosis of osteocytes, cells embedded in bone that control the generation/function of bone forming and resorbing cells. Aging also decreases connexin43 (Cx43) expression in bone; and osteocytic Cx43 deletion partially mimics the skeletal phenotype of old mice. Particularly, aging and Cx43 deletion increase osteocyte apoptosis, and osteoclast number and bone resorption on endocortical bone surfaces. We examined herein the molecular signaling events responsible for osteocyte apoptosis and osteoclast recruitment triggered by aging and Cx43 deficiency. Cx43-silenced MLO-Y4 osteocytic (Cx43def) cells undergo spontaneous cell death in culture through caspase-3 activation and exhibit increased levels of apoptosis-related genes, and only transfection of Cx43 constructs able to form gap junction channels reverses Cx43def cell death. Cx43def cells and bones from old mice exhibit reduced levels of the pro-survival microRNA miR21 and, consistently, increased levels of the miR21 target phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and reduced phosphorylated Akt, whereas PTEN inhibition reduces Cx43def cell apoptosis. miR21 reduction is sufficient to induce apoptosis of Cx43-expressing cells and miR21 deletion in miR21fl/fl bones increases apoptosis-related gene expression, whereas a miR21 mimic prevents Cx43def cell apoptosis, demonstrating that miR21 lies downstream of Cx43. Cx43def cells release more osteoclastogenic cytokines [receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL)/high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1)], and caspase-3 inhibition prevents RANKL/HMGB1 release and the increased osteoclastogenesis induced by conditioned media from Cx43def cells, which is blocked by antagonizing HMGB1-RAGE interaction. These findings identify a novel Cx43/miR21/HMGB1/RANKL pathway involved in preventing osteocyte apoptosis that also controls osteoclast formation/recruitment and is impaired with aging.
      PubDate: 2017-03-19T21:16:07.252551-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12586
  • Chemical screening identifies ROCK as a target for recovering
           mitochondrial function in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome

    • Authors: Hyun Tae Kang; Joon Tae Park, Kobong Choi, Hyo Jei Claudia Choi, Chul Won Jung, Gyu Ree Kim, Young-Sam Lee, Sang Chul Park
      Abstract: Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) constitutes a genetic disease wherein an aging phenotype manifests in childhood. Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in HGPS phenotype progression. Thus, pharmacological reduction in ROS levels has been proposed as a potentially effective treatment for patient with this disorder. In this study, we performed high-throughput screening to find compounds that could reduce ROS levels in HGPS fibroblasts and identified rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor (Y-27632) as an effective agent. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of ROCK in regulating ROS levels, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen and discovered that ROCK1 interacts with Rac1b. ROCK activation phosphorylated Rac1b at Ser71 and increased ROS levels by facilitating the interaction between Rac1b and cytochrome c. Conversely, ROCK inactivation with Y-27632 abolished their interaction, concomitant with ROS reduction. Additionally, ROCK activation resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, whereas ROCK inactivation with Y-27632 induced the recovery of mitochondrial function. Furthermore, a reduction in the frequency of abnormal nuclear morphology and DNA double-strand breaks was observed along with decreased ROS levels. Thus, our study reveals a novel mechanism through which alleviation of the HGPS phenotype is mediated by the recovery of mitochondrial function upon ROCK inactivation.
      PubDate: 2017-03-19T21:15:47.648079-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12584
  • The DrugAge database of aging-related drugs

    • Authors: Diogo Barardo; Daniel Thornton, Harikrishnan Thoppil, Michael Walsh, Samim Sharifi, Susana Ferreira, Andreja Anžič, Maria Fernandes, Patrick Monteiro, Tjaša Grum, Rui Cordeiro, Evandro Araújo De-Souza, Arie Budovsky, Natali Araujo, Jan Gruber, Michael Petrascheck, Vadim E. Fraifeld, Alexander Zhavoronkov, Alexey Moskalev, João Pedro Magalhães
      Abstract: Aging is a major worldwide medical challenge. Not surprisingly, identifying drugs and compounds that extend lifespan in model organisms is a growing research area. Here, we present DrugAge (, a curated database of lifespan-extending drugs and compounds. At the time of writing, DrugAge contains 1316 entries featuring 418 different compounds from studies across 27 model organisms, including worms, flies, yeast and mice. Data were manually curated from 324 publications. Using drug–gene interaction data, we also performed a functional enrichment analysis of targets of lifespan-extending drugs. Enriched terms include various functional categories related to glutathione and antioxidant activity, ion transport and metabolic processes. In addition, we found a modest but significant overlap between targets of lifespan-extending drugs and known aging-related genes, suggesting that some but not most aging-related pathways have been targeted pharmacologically in longevity studies. DrugAge is freely available online for the scientific community and will be an important resource for biogerontologists.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T00:45:54.50077-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12585
  • Insulin-like growth factor 1 deficiency exacerbates hypertension-induced
           cerebral microhemorrhages in mice, mimicking the aging phenotype

    • Authors: Stefano Tarantini; Noa M. Valcarcel-Ares, Andriy Yabluchanskiy, Zsolt Springo, Gabor A. Fulop, Nicole Ashpole, Tripti Gautam, Cory B. Giles, Jonathan D. Wren, William E. Sonntag, Anna Csiszar, Zoltan Ungvari
      Abstract: Clinical and experimental studies show that aging exacerbates hypertension-induced cerebral microhemorrhages (CMHs), which progressively impair neuronal function. There is growing evidence that aging promotes insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) deficiency, which compromises multiple aspects of cerebromicrovascular and brain health. To determine the role of IGF-1 deficiency in the pathogenesis of CMHs, we induced hypertension in mice with liver-specific knockdown of IGF-1 (Igf1f/f + TBG-Cre-AAV8) and control mice by angiotensin II plus l-NAME treatment. In IGF-1-deficient mice, the same level of hypertension led to significantly earlier onset and increased incidence and neurological consequences of CMHs, as compared to control mice, as shown by neurological examination, gait analysis, and histological assessment of CMHs in serial brain sections. Previous studies showed that in aging, increased oxidative stress-mediated matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activation importantly contributes to the pathogenesis of CMHs. Thus, it is significant that hypertension-induced cerebrovascular oxidative stress and MMP activation were increased in IGF-1-deficient mice. We found that IGF-1 deficiency impaired hypertension-induced adaptive media hypertrophy and extracellular matrix remodeling, which together with the increased MMP activation likely also contributes to increased fragility of intracerebral arterioles. Collectively, IGF-1 deficiency promotes the pathogenesis of CMHs, mimicking the aging phenotype, which likely contribute to its deleterious effect on cognitive function. Therapeutic strategies that upregulate IGF-1 signaling in the cerebral vessels and/or reduce microvascular oxidative stress, and MMP activation may be useful for the prevention of CMHs, protecting cognitive function in high-risk elderly patients.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T04:40:58.377316-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12583
  • Parallel evolution of genes controlling mitonuclear balance in short-lived
           annual fishes

    • Authors: Arne Sahm; Martin Bens, Matthias Platzer, Alessandro Cellerino
      Abstract: The current molecular understanding of the aging process derives almost exclusively from the study of random or targeted single-gene mutations in highly inbred laboratory species, mostly invertebrates. Little information is available as to the genetic mechanisms responsible for natural lifespan variation and the evolution of lifespan, especially in vertebrates. Here, we investigated the pattern of positive selection in annual (i.e., short-lived) and nonannual (i.e., longer-lived) African killifishes to identify a genomic substrate for evolution of annual life history (and reduced lifespan). We identified genes under positive selection in all steps of mitochondrial biogenesis: mitochondrial (mt) DNA replication, transcription from mt promoters, processing and stabilization of mt RNAs, mt translation, assembly of respiratory chain complexes, and electron transport chain. Signs of paralleled evolution (i.e., evolution in more than one branch of Nothobranchius phylogeny) are observed in four out of five steps. Moreover, some genes under positive selection in Nothobranchius are under positive selection also in long-lived mammals such as bats and mole-rats. Complexes of the respiratory chain are formed in a coordinates multistep process where nuclearly and mitochondrially encoded components are assembled and inserted into the inner mitochondrial membrane. The coordination of this process is named mitonuclear balance, and experimental manipulations of mitonuclear balance can increase longevity of laboratory species. Our data strongly indicate that these genes are also casually linked to evolution lifespan in vertebrates.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T00:10:41.662357-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12577
  • Pathophysiology of heart failure and frailty: a common inflammatory

    • Authors: Lavanya Bellumkonda; Daniel Tyrrell, Scott L. Hummel, Daniel R. Goldstein
      Abstract: Frailty, a clinical syndrome that typically occurs in older adults, implies a reduced ability to tolerate biological stressors. Frailty accompanies many age-related diseases but can also occur without overt evidence of end-organ disease. The condition is associated with circulating inflammatory cytokines and sarcopenia, features that are shared with heart failure (HF). However, the biological underpinnings of frailty remain unclear and the interaction with HF is complex. Here, we describe the inflammatory pathophysiology that is associated with frailty and speculate that the inflammation that occurs with frailty shares common origins with HF. We discuss the limitations in investigating the pathophysiology of frailty due to few relevant experimental models. Leveraging current therapies for advanced HF and current known therapies to address frailty in humans may enable translational studies to better understand the inflammatory interactions between frailty and HF.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T04:55:29.077961-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12581
  • Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c orchestrates metabolic
           remodeling of white adipose tissue by caloric restriction

    • Authors: Namiki Fujii; Takumi Narita, Naoyuki Okita, Masaki Kobayashi, Yurika Furuta, Yoshikazu Chujo, Masahiro Sakai, Atsushi Yamada, Kanae Takeda, Tomokazu Konishi, Yuka Sudo, Isao Shimokawa, Yoshikazu Higami
      Abstract: Caloric restriction (CR) can delay onset of several age-related pathophysiologies and extend lifespan in various species, including rodents. CR also induces metabolic remodeling involved in activation of lipid metabolism, enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis, and reduction of oxidative stress in white adipose tissue (WAT). In studies using genetically modified mice with extended lifespans, WAT characteristics influenced mammalian lifespans. However, molecular mechanisms underlying CR-associated metabolic remodeling of WAT remain unclear. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (Srebp-1c), a master transcription factor of fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis, is responsible for the pathogenesis of fatty liver (steatosis). Our study showed that, under CR conditions, Srebp-1c enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis via increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and upregulated expression of proteins involved in FA biosynthesis within WAT. However, via Srebp-1c, most of these CR-associated metabolic alterations were not observed in other tissues, including the liver. Moreover, our data indicated that Srebp-1c may be an important factor both for CR-associated suppression of oxidative stress, through increased synthesis of glutathione in WAT, and for the prolongevity action of CR. Our results strongly suggested that Srebp-1c, the primary FA biosynthesis-promoting transcriptional factor implicated in fatty liver disease, is also the food shortage-responsive factor in WAT. This indicated that Srebp-1c is a key regulator of metabolic remodeling leading to the beneficial effects of CR.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T00:10:55.19747-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12576
  • Aging yeast gain a competitive advantage on non-optimal carbon sources

    • Authors: Stephen Frenk; Grazia Pizza, Rachael V. Walker, Jonathan Houseley
      Abstract: Animals, plants and fungi undergo an aging process with remarkable physiological and molecular similarities, suggesting that aging has long been a fact of life for eukaryotes and one to which our unicellular ancestors were subject. Key biochemical pathways that impact longevity evolved prior to multicellularity, and the interactions between these pathways and the aging process therefore emerged in ancient single-celled eukaryotes. Nevertheless, we do not fully understand how aging impacts the fitness of unicellular organisms, and whether such cells gain a benefit from modulating rather than simply suppressing the aging process. We hypothesized that age-related loss of fitness in single-celled eukaryotes may be counterbalanced, partly or wholly, by a transition from a specialist to a generalist life-history strategy that enhances adaptability to other environments. We tested this hypothesis in budding yeast using competition assays and found that while young cells are more successful in glucose, highly aged cells outcompete young cells on other carbon sources such as galactose. This occurs because aged yeast divide faster than young cells in galactose, reversing the normal association between age and fitness. The impact of aging on single-celled organisms is therefore complex and may be regulated in ways that anticipate changing nutrient availability. We propose that pathways connecting nutrient availability with aging arose in unicellular eukaryotes to capitalize on age-linked diversity in growth strategy and that individual cells in higher eukaryotes may similarly diversify during aging to the detriment of the organism as a whole.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01T02:20:36.890239-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12582
  • Expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells with aging in the bone
           marrow of mice through a NF-κB-dependent mechanism

    • Authors: Rafael R. Flores; Cheryl L. Clauson, Joonseok Cho, Byeong-Chel Lee, Sara J. McGowan, Darren J. Baker, Laura J. Niedernhofer, Paul D. Robbins
      Abstract: With aging, there is progressive loss of tissue homeostasis and functional reserve, leading to an impaired response to stress and an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. A key mediator of the cellular response to damage and stress is the transcription factor NF-κB. We demonstrated previously that NF-κB transcriptional activity is upregulated in tissues from both natural aged mice and in a mouse model of a human progeroid syndrome caused by defective repair of DNA damage (ERCC1-deficient mice). We also demonstrated that genetic reduction in the level of the NF-κB subunit p65(RelA) in the Ercc1−/∆ progeroid mouse model of accelerated aging delayed the onset of age-related pathology including muscle wasting, osteoporosis, and intervertebral disk degeneration. Here, we report that the largest fraction of NF-κB -expressing cells in the bone marrow (BM) of aged (>2 year old) mice (C57BL/6-NF-κBEGFP reporter mice) are Gr-1+CD11b+myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). There was a significant increase in the overall percentage of MDSC present in the BM of aged animals compared with young, a trend also observed in the spleen. However, the function of these cells appears not to be compromised in aged mice. A similar increase of MDSC was observed in BM of progeroid Ercc1−/∆ and BubR1H/H mice. The increase in MDSC in Ercc1−/∆ mice was abrogated by heterozygosity in the p65/RelA subunit of NF-κB. These results suggest that NF-κB activation with aging, at least in part, drives an increase in the percentage of MDSCs, a cell type able to suppress immune cell responses.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T00:11:03.038958-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12571
  • Evidence that a mitochondrial death spiral underlies antagonistic

    • Authors: Michael Stern
      Abstract: The antagonistic pleiotropy (AP) theory posits that aging occurs because alleles that are detrimental in older organisms are beneficial to growth early in life and thus are maintained in populations. Although genes of the insulin signaling pathway likely participate in AP, the insulin-regulated cellular correlates of AP have not been identified. The mitochondrial quality control process called mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy), which is inhibited by insulin signaling, might represent a cellular correlate of AP. In this view, rapidly growing cells are limited by ATP production; these cells thus actively inhibit mitophagy to maximize mitochondrial ATP production and compete successfully for scarce nutrients. This process maximizes early growth and reproduction, but by permitting the persistence of damaged mitochondria with mitochondrial DNA mutations, becomes detrimental in the longer term. I suggest that as mitochondrial ATP output drops, cells respond by further inhibiting mitophagy, leading to a further decrease in ATP output in a classic death spiral. I suggest that this increasing ATP deficit is communicated by progressive increases in mitochondrial ROS generation, which signals inhibition of mitophagy via ROS-dependent activation of insulin signaling. This hypothesis clarifies a role for ROS in aging, explains why insulin signaling inhibits autophagy, and why cells become progressively more oxidized during aging with increased levels of insulin signaling and decreased levels of autophagy. I suggest that the mitochondrial death spiral is not an error in cell physiology but rather a rational approach to the problem of enabling successful growth and reproduction in a competitive world of scarce nutrients.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T22:05:27.296237-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12579
  • Detecting senescence: a new method for an old pigment

    • Authors: Hanna Salmonowicz; João F. Passos
      Abstract: Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible cell cycle arrest induced by different types of cellular stresses. The field of senescence has made significant advances in the understanding of many of the mechanisms governing this phenomenon; however, a universal biomarker that unambiguously distinguishes senescent from proliferating cells has not been found. In this issue of Aging Cell, Evangelou and colleagues developed a sensitive method for identification of senescent cells in different types of biological material based on the detection of lipofuscin using an analogue of Sudan Black B (SBB) histochemical dye coupled with biotin, which they named GL13. The authors propose that this method is more sensitive and versatile than using SBB alone. Lipofuscin, a nondegradable oxidation product of lipids, proteins and metals, is found in senescent cells. Detection of lipofuscin using GL13 staining may be a more feasible method than others currently used for identification of senescent cells both in cell culture and tissues.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T22:00:25.055742-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12580
  • Muscle strength mediates the relationship between mitochondrial energetics
           and walking performance

    • Authors: Ariel C. Zane; David A. Reiter, Michelle Shardell, Donnie Cameron, Eleanor M. Simonsick, Kenneth W. Fishbein, Stephanie A. Studenski, Richard G. Spencer, Luigi Ferrucci
      Abstract: Skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity declines with age and negatively affects walking performance, but the mechanism for this association is not fully clear. We tested the hypothesis that impaired oxidative capacity affects muscle performance and, through this mechanism, has a negative effect on walking speed. Muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity was measured by in vivo phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy as the postexercise phosphocreatine resynthesis rate, kPCr, in 326 participants (154 men), aged 24–97 years (mean 71), in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Muscle strength and quality were determined by knee extension isokinetic strength, and the ratio of knee extension strength to thigh muscle cross-sectional area derived from computed topography, respectively. Four walking tasks were evaluated: a usual pace over 6 m and for 150 s, and a rapid pace over 6 m and 400 m. In multivariate linear regression analyses, kPCr was associated with muscle strength (β = 0.140, P = 0.007) and muscle quality (β = 0.127, P = 0.022), independent of age, sex, height, and weight; muscle strength was also a significant independent correlate of walking speed (P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T00:05:34.871517-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12568
  • Aging and caloric restriction impact adipose tissue, adiponectin, and
           circulating lipids

    • Authors: Karl N. Miller; Maggie S. Burhans, Josef P. Clark, Porsha R. Howell, Michael A. Polewski, Tyler M. DeMuth, Kevin W. Eliceiri, Mary J. Lindstrom, James M. Ntambi, Rozalyn M. Anderson
      Abstract: Adipose tissue expansion has been associated with system-wide metabolic dysfunction and increased vulnerability to diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. A reduction in adiposity is a hallmark of caloric restriction (CR), an intervention that extends longevity and delays the onset of these same age-related conditions. Despite these parallels, the role of adipose tissue in coordinating the metabolism of aging is poorly defined. Here, we show that adipose tissue metabolism and secretory profiles change with age and are responsive to CR. We conducted a cross-sectional study of CR in adult, late-middle-aged, and advanced-aged mice. Adiposity and the relationship between adiposity and circulating levels of the adipose-derived peptide hormone adiponectin were age-sensitive. CR impacted adiposity but only levels of the high molecular weight isoform of adiponectin responded to CR. Activators of metabolism including PGC-1a, SIRT1, and NAMPT were differentially expressed with CR in adipose tissues. Although age had a significant impact on NAD metabolism, as detected by biochemical assay and multiphoton imaging, the impact of CR was subtle and related to differences in reliance on oxidative metabolism. The impact of age on circulating lipids was limited to composition of circulating phospholipids. In contrast, the impact of CR was detected in all lipid classes regardless of age, suggesting a profound difference in lipid metabolism. These data demonstrate that aspects of adipose tissue metabolism are life phase specific and that CR is associated with a distinct metabolic state, suggesting that adipose tissue signaling presents a suitable target for interventions to delay aging.
      PubDate: 2017-02-03T02:35:35.666862-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12575
  • The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: IX. Global
           metabolomic screen reveals modulation of carnitines, sphingolipids and
           bile acids in the liver of C57BL/6 mice

    • Authors: Cara L. Green; Sharon E. Mitchell, Davina Derous, Yingchun Wang, Luonan Chen, Jing-Dong J. Han, Daniel E. L. Promislow, David Lusseau, Alex Douglas, John R. Speakman
      Abstract: Calorie restriction (CR) remains the most robust intervention to extend lifespan and improve health span. Using a global mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach, we identified 193 metabolites that were significantly differentially expressed (SDE) in the livers of C57BL/6 mice, fed graded levels of CR (10, 20, 30 and 40% CR) compared to mice fed ad libitum for 12 h a day. The differential expression of metabolites also varied with the different feeding groups. Pathway analysis revealed that graded CR had an impact on carnitine synthesis and the carnitine shuttle pathway, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signalling and methionine metabolism. S1P, sphingomyelin and L-carnitine were negatively correlated with body mass, leptin, insulin-like growth factor- 1 (IGF-1) and major urinary proteins (MUPs). In addition, metabolites which showed a graded effect, such as ceramide, S1P, taurocholic acid and L-carnitine, responded in the opposite direction to previously observed age-related changes. We suggest that the modulation of this set of metabolites may improve liver processes involved in energy release from fatty acids. S1P also negatively correlated with catalase activity and body temperature, and positively correlated with food anticipatory activity. Injecting mice with S1P or an S1P receptor 1 agonist did not precipitate changes in body temperature, physical activity or food intake suggesting that these correlations were not causal relationships.
      PubDate: 2017-01-31T03:01:00.571394-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12570
  • Issue Information

    • Pages: 429 - 431
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T21:58:07.144576-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12533
  • Hyaluronan keeps mesenchymal stem cells quiescent and maintains the
           differentiation potential over time

    • Authors: Tzyy Yue Wong; Chiung-Hsin Chang, Chen-Hsiang Yu, Lynn L. H. Huang
      Pages: 451 - 460
      Abstract: Hyaluronan (HA), an abundant polysaccharide found in human bodies, plays a role in the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) maintenance. We had previously found that HA prolonged the lifespan, and prevented the cellular aging of murine adipose-derived stromal cells. Recently, we had also summarized the potential pathways associated with HA regulation in human MSCs. In this study, we used the human placenta-derived MSCs (PDMSC) to investigate the effectiveness of HA in maintaining the PDMSC. We found that coating the culture surface coated with 30 μg cm−2 of HA (C) led to cluster growth of PDMSC, and maintained a higher number of PDMSC in quiescence compared to those grown on the normal tissue culture surface (T). PDMSC were treated for either 4 (short-term) or 19 (long-term) consecutive passages. PDMSC which were treated with HA for 19 consecutive passages had reduced cell enlargement, preserved MSCs biomarker expressions and osteogenic potential when compared to those grown only on T. The PDMSC transferred to T condition after long-term HA treatment showed preserved replicative capability compared to those on only T. The telomerase activity of the HA-treated PDMSC was also higher than that of untreated PDMSC. These data suggested a connection between HA and MSC maintenance. We suggest that HA might be regulating the distribution of cytoskeletal proteins on cell spreading in the event of quiescence to preserve MSC stemness. Maintenance of MSCs stemness delayed cellular aging, leading to the anti-aging phenotype of PDMSC.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T21:58:06.803186-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12567
  • Announcement

    • Pages: 605 - 605
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T21:58:09.195373-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/acel.12614
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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