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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2987 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1424 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Aquaculture Reports
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2352-5134
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3034 journals]
  • Metabolomic analysis of marine and mud crabs based on antibacterial
           activity

    • Authors: A.A. Laith; M. Ambak; A.B. Abol-Munafi; W.W.I. Nurhafizah; M. Najiah
      Pages: 7 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): A.A. Laith, M. Ambak, A.B. Abol-Munafi, W.W.I. Nurhafizah, M. Najiah
      Isolated compounds from marine invertebrates are being increasingly known to possess various pharmacological activities with which many useful drugs have been developed. Crabs contain bioactive compounds including antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral metabolites, isolated from various tissues and organs that have revolutionized treatment of serious diseases. The present study represents the first attempt to investigate and compare the natural antibacterial properties from whole extract of marine blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus, and mud crab, Scylla tranquebarica, against fish pathogenic bacteria. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry utilizing a time-of-flight (TOF) mass analyser (LC/MS-QTOF) based metabolomics approach was used to characterize the variation in secondary metabolite production in P. pelagicus and S. tranquebarica crab habitats in Malaysia. Different metabolites are evaluated in both crab species using LC/MS-QTOF. Initially a total of 75 metabolites were identified and only 19 metabolites satisfied the P-Corr cut-off point of less than 0.01 and at least 2-fold change. These metabolites, which contain anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, were down regulated in S. tranquebarica samples and up regulated in P. pelagicus samples. In vitro bioassay of methanolic P. pelagicus extracts showed the best antimicrobial response against Gram positive bacteria, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Gram negative bacteria, Vibrio alginolyticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli, with a statistically significant difference (P< 0.05) of P. pelagicus extracts as compared to S. tranquebarica. The results indicate that both types of crab extracts are bactericidal at higher concentrations and bacteriostatic at lower concentrations. This manuscript reports the role of marine and mud crabs with specific emphasis on their secondary metabolites, and discusses current and future developments in both the production of desired crab metabolites and their potential uses in pharmaceutical industries.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T12:55:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Effect of fish vitellogenin on the growth of juvenile catfish, Clarias
           gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

    • Authors: Subir Kumar Juin; Shrabanti Sarkar; Sudipta Maitra; Panchanan Nath
      Pages: 16 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Subir Kumar Juin, Shrabanti Sarkar, Sudipta Maitra, Panchanan Nath
      The effect of heterologous fish vitellogenin (Vg)- implantation on growth performance in the juveniles of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus, was evaluated under ambient photoperiod and temperature during February–April (experiment 1) and again at May–August (experiment 2). Compared to either unimplanted (control) or bovine serum albumin (BSA)-implanted group, juveniles (average body weight: 3.5–4g) implanted (im) with Vg pellets (each containing 100μg of Clarias batrachus Vg, three per fish, at one month interval), revealed significantly (P< 0.05) higher specific growth rate (SGR) at 90days during both time frames. Congruent with accelerated somatic growth due to Vg-implantation, a trend of increase in plasma level of growth hormone (GH), estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) was recorded during expt. 1. While plasma E2 and T did not vary significantly, Vg-implantation promoted significant (P< 0.05) increase in plasma GH level in both the sexes during the course of expt. 2. Moreover, Vg-implantation could trigger significant alteration in gonadal growth; while control testis contained primarily spermatogonia (SG) and spermatocytes (SC), appearance of spermatozoa (SZ) was noticed in either Vg-implanted (expt. 1) or both BSA- and Vg-treated juveniles (expt. 2). Conversely, a robust increase in S III yolky oocytes was observed in Vg-implanted ovary during May–Aug; but not during expt. 1 (Feb–Apr). However, oocytes at earlier stages (S I and/or S II) of follicular growth and development were predominant in control ovary. Though the underlying mechanism is not yet clearly understood, present data indicate that implantation of Vg pellets in juvenile C. gariepinus may influence somatic growth indices; e.g., body weight gain and GH synthesis along with precocious gonadal growth in a manner sensitive to gonadal steroidogenesis.

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T14:08:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Long-term maintenance of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in culture

    • Authors: Paola Cirino; Martina Ciaravolo; Angela Paglialonga; Alfonso Toscano
      Pages: 27 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Paola Cirino, Martina Ciaravolo, Angela Paglialonga, Alfonso Toscano
      The common sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) is an important commercial species in the Mediterranean Sea for the consumption of its gonads (roe). This species has also long been used as an animal model in developmental biology and as an indicator in the assessment of environmental quality. In recent decades, the exploitation of this marine resource has become increasingly intensive, causing the depletion of wild stocks. The ripple effect observed in the laboratory use of this species has been the growing difficulty in finding valiant mature animals in the wild. We focused on the long-term maintenance of wild P. lividus and on the essential question of diet to maintain the animals and improve gonad development. The use of practical ration blocks which are nutrient-rich and show stability, easy storage and handling, resulted reduction in labor requirement and time for feeding streamlining the feeding practice. A significantly higher gonad production and a prolonged period of reproduction were obtained compared to wild caught individuals over the same period of time.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T17:07:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Nutritional value of toasted pigeon pea, Cajanus cajan seed and its
           utilization in the diet of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings
           

    • Authors: Solomon Gabriel Solomon; Victor Tosin Okomoda; Samson Omirenya Oda
      Pages: 34 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Solomon Gabriel Solomon, Victor Tosin Okomoda, Samson Omirenya Oda
      The nutritional value of toasted pigeon pea Cajanus cajan seed in the diet of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) was investigated in this study by progressively increasing its inclusion level (100, 200, 300 and 400gkg−1) in isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) and isoenergetic (17.7kJg−1) diets. Toasting of the C. cajan seed significantly reduced the anti-nutrients and increased most essential amino acid, protein, and fibre in the seeds. The growth of C. gariepinus (1.36±0.05g) fingerlings fed in triplicate 1×1×1m3 hapa pond system (n =40 in triplicates) was significantly improved by the different inclusion levels of toasted C. cajan in the diets after 56days. Comparing the performance of the fish fed 400gkg−1 of toasted C. cajan with that fed raw seed (400gkg−1) reveal the efficacy of this processing method in improving the utilization of the feedstuff. Mortality was significantly higher (32%) in fish fed the diet containing raw inclusion compared to that fed the control diet or inclusion of toasted C. cajan (<5%). Cost analysis revealed that it was economically cheaper to raise the African catfish using toasted C. cajan at 400gkg−1. It was therefore concluded that toasting improves the nutritional quality of C. cajan, resulting in better performance at higher inclusion levels, hence, can possibly reduce the cost of catfish production.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T17:07:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Use practices of antimicrobials and other compounds by shrimp and fish
           farmers in Northern Vietnam

    • Authors: Tran Thi Kim Chi; Jesper H. Clausen; Phan Thi Van; Britt Tersbøl; Anders Dalsgaard
      Pages: 40 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Tran Thi Kim Chi, Jesper H. Clausen, Phan Thi Van, Britt Tersbøl, Anders Dalsgaard
      Aquaculture production is increasing in Vietnam, but is hampered by frequent disease outbreaks and widespread use of various compounds used to treat the fish and shrimp. The objective of this study was to analyse factors influencing farmer use practices of antimicrobials and other compounds by a questionnaire and observational survey conducted with 60 whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and 25 fish farmers in three coastal provinces in Northern Vietnam. Personnel in 22 shops distributing feed and chemicals for aquaculture were interviewed about their advice on sale to the farmers. Results showed that 20 different antimicrobial products were used for disease prevention and treatment in shrimp and marine fish culture. Banned products used included chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin and malachite green. Cage fish farmers said they purchased antimicrobial tablets readily available at a local pharmacy and sold for human use. Chinese traders were the main drug suppliers to the shrimp farmers in Quang Ninh and others provinces. Their products were sold with labels and product information written in Chinese only. Farmers appeared to have little awareness and concern about the disease aetiology when applying specific antimicrobials. Up to 50% of the shrimp farmers used up to 20 different disinfectants, e.g. chlorine-based compounds, to disinfect water in storage ponds, often without knowledge of the type of disinfectants and their mode of action. A variety of probiotics, vitamins, minerals and herbal extracts were routinely used by mainly shrimp farmers to enhance shrimp immunity. There is an urgent need to provide aquaculture farmers access to diagnostic and independent disease control advisory services and quality medicated feed, since the current indiscriminate use of antimicrobials and other compounds are inefficient, costly, and hazardous to the aquatic animal and farmer’s health, the environment and food safety.

      PubDate: 2017-06-09T17:28:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Egg quality traits and predictors of embryo and fry viability in red
           snapper Lutjanus campechanus

    • Authors: Agnès Bardon-Albaret; Eric Saillant
      Pages: 48 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Agnès Bardon-Albaret, Eric Saillant
      The quality of red snapper eggs is highly variable and unpredictable in aquaculture, leading to high mortality during early larval rearing. In this work, the viability of red snapper eggs was monitored from fertilization until unfed larvae expired because of exhaustion of vitelline reserves to determine egg quality traits in this species. The spawns were obtained via strip spawning wild-caught females following hormonal induction with chorionic gonadotropin. Females were induced immediately after capture (wild group, n=17) or held captive for the entire maturation period prior to induction (captive group, n=7). Candidate predictors of egg quality measured on the female parent at the time of induction or on the spawn at ovulation were evaluated using correlation and multiple regression analysis. The fertilization rate, the hatching rate, and the duration of survival of unfed larvae post hatch were weakly correlated to each other (-0.23< r< −0.08), revealing occurrence of distinct and independent components of egg quality. Spawns from captive females were characterized by a longer latency interval between hormonal induction and ovulation, lower fecundity, and lower hatching rates, as compared to those from wild females. Among the wild brood fish, a positive correlation was observed between the age of the female and the hatching rate. The best model optimized during stepwise multiple regression analysis of hatching rate data only explained 34% of the variance for this trait and no model could be optimized for the prediction of fertilization rate or the duration of survival post hatch. These results highlight the need to develop alternative egg quality measures to predict the viability of fry with confidence.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T18:45:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Light and scanning electron microscopic studies of Myxobolus indica n. sp.
           and a report of three Myxozoan (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) parasites of
           cultured ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus L. for the first time in
           India

    • Authors: Mandira Saha; P.K. Bandyopadhyay
      Pages: 66 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Mandira Saha, P.K. Bandyopadhyay
      The ornamental fish industry is an economically viable sector in India which suffers from different ectoparasitic infestations, including the myxozoan parasites. An icthyoparasitological survey of myxozoan infections in ornamental fish farms in India revealed the presence of four myxozoan parasites belonging to the family Myxobolidae, in the genera Myxobolus and Thelohanellus. The myxozoan spores were small to large, spherical to ellipsoidal in size. The plasmodia measured 0.5–3.0mm in diameter with disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores. During the survey the authors identified for the first time in India, three previously described species, namely, M. mehlhorni, T. nikolskii and T. batae; and one new species M. indica n. sp., all infecting the ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus. The present study thus reports a new host, and a new locality for T. batae and M. mehlhorni. The description of T. nikolskii is the first record found in India. The spore of M. indica n. sp. measures 5.8±0.2×4.1±0.5μm in size, having two equal shaped pyriform polar capsules measuring 4.1±0.4×2.7±0.6μm. The results from a combination of light and scanning electron microscopic observations along with a comparison with closely related species were incorporated here. Molecular data is needed to complete the description of the new species.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-19T19:38:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Effects of dietary lipid levels on growth, body composition and
           antioxidants of clamworm (Perinereis aibuhitensis)

    • Authors: Fu Lv; Fei Liu; Yebing Yu; Aimin Wang; Wenping Yang; Qing Nie; Tian Wang
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Fu Lv, Fei Liu, Yebing Yu, Aimin Wang, Wenping Yang, Qing Nie, Tian Wang
      To determine the effects of dietary lipid levels on growth performance, body composition and antioxidant parameters of clamworm (Perinereis aibuhitensis), 1050 clamworms were fed diets with seven lipid levels (2.37%, 4.35%, 6.29%, 8.41%, 10.31%, 12.29% and 14.33%, named L2.37, L4.35, L6.29, L8.41, L10.31, L12.29 and L14.33, respectively) for 10 weeks. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 50 clamworms. The results showed that the growth performance and protein efficiency ratio were significantly affected by the lipid levels. Clamworms fed L8.41 diet exhibited higher growth performance than others and the maximum specific growth rate can be possibly obtained when the diets were supplemented with 7.54% lipid level. The dietary lipid levels had significant influences on the whole body crude protein, crude lipid, moisture contents and ash profile of P. aibuhitensis. The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were also enhanced with increasing dietary lipid levels in whole body analyses. The contents of malonaldehyde (MDA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in clamworms increased significantly with increasing dietary lipid levels. Meanwhile, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and total autioxidative capacity (T-AOC) tended to strengthen with dietary lipid levels increasing from 2.37% to 10.31% (except the GPX with 12.29% dietary lipid levels), and weaken with dietary lipid levels increasing from 10.31% to 14.33%. These results demonstrated that a proper dietary lipid level of 7.54%–10.31% could maintain solid growth performance and antioxidant capacity of juvenile P. aibuhitensis.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T17:53:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Effects of canarium fruit (Canarium odontophyllum) oil as a dietary lipid
           source for juvenile mahseer (Tor tambroides) performance

    • Authors: M.L. Bami; M.S. Kamarudin; C.R. Saad; A. Arshad; M. Ebrahimi
      Pages: 8 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): M.L. Bami, M.S. Kamarudin, C.R. Saad, A. Arshad, M. Ebrahimi
      Canarium is among the riverine fruits that are commonly found in the natural diet of Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides. The fruit contains a high percentage of lipids. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of canarium crude oil on the growth performance, body composition and fatty acid profile of juvenile T. tambroides. Five isonitrogenous (40% crude protein) diets containing varying canarium oil levels (0, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5%) were prepared. Crude palm oil (CPO) was used as the control. The juveniles (2.08±0.10g) were given the test diets for 12 weeks in triplicate groups. Diets containing canarium oil were found to be less accepted by the fish which led to a significantly lower (P< 0.05) daily feed intake than diet including 0% canarium oil. Juveniles fed on 1.25–5% canarium oil also showed significantly lower (P<0.05) weight gain, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio than those fed 0% canarium oil. However, the canarium oil level did not have any significant effect (P>0.05) on survival and lean portion of juvenile T. tambroides. The fish fed canarium oil-free diet also had better tissue fatty acid profile (especially n-3 and n-6 PUFA) as well as better protein, lipid and energy retention than those fed diets including canarium oil. From the results, canarium oil extracted from the whole fruit was not recommended as a dietary lipid source for T. tambroides. Moreover, juveniles fed on 0% canarium oil (5% CPO) utilized dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) more efficiently for their energy requirement than fish given canarium oil.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T00:33:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Effects of dietary tannin on growth, feed utilization and digestibility,
           and carcass composition in juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax
           L.)

    • Authors: Marie-Hélène Omnes; Julien Le Goasduff; Hervé Le Delliou; Nicolas Le Bayon; Patrick Quazuguel; Jean H. Robin
      Pages: 21 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Marie-Hélène Omnes, Julien Le Goasduff, Hervé Le Delliou, Nicolas Le Bayon, Patrick Quazuguel, Jean H. Robin
      Plant-based products in fish diets are valuable protein alternatives to fishmeal for the aquafeed industry. Many plant feed ingredients contain polyphenolic compounds, including tannins, which can have beneficial or adverse effects. The tolerable threshold of ingested tannins is unknown for marine carnivorous fishes. We studied the effects of tannic acid (TA) supplementation to the diet of juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) by measuring growth, feed utilization and digestibility, and carcass composition. We randomly allocated groups of fish (initial mean body weight of 10.2±0.7g; n =40 fish per tank) to 12 replicate cylindrical-conical tanks (three per treatment). The fish were assigned to one of four dietary treatments for five weeks: control diet (C) with tannin-free protein sources (mostly fishmeal as the base diet, containing 55.7% dry matter (DM) crude protein, gross energy 22.3kJg−1 DM) and three experimental diets supplemented with 10, 20, or 30gTAkg−1 (called TA1, TA2, and TA3, respectively). Tannin ingestion resulted in significantly decreased cumulative feed intake, growth, feed and protein efficiencies, apparent digestibility coefficients, hepatosomatic index, and carcass lipids. The protein digestibility in fish fed the 10gkg−1 tannin-containing diet was significantly lower than that in fish fed the control diet. This threshold should be taken into account when using novel terrestrial and aquatic plant ingredients for temperate marine fishes.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T04:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Productive performance and digestibility in the initial growth phase of
           tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fed diets with different carbohydrate and
           lipid levels

    • Authors: L.C.G. Sandre; H. Buzollo; T.M.T. Nascimento; L.M. Neira; R.K. Jomori; D.J. Carneiro
      Pages: 28 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): L.C.G. Sandre, H. Buzollo, T.M.T. Nascimento, L.M. Neira, R.K. Jomori, D.J. Carneiro
      The use of dietary protein can be optimized by increasing diet energy, which can be achieved by adding non-protein nutrients such as carbohydrates and lipids. If incorporated in suitable amounts, these items can promote the protein sparing effect, reducing nitrogen excretion and improving the quality of fish farming effluents. The study assessed productive performance, body composition, nutrient and energy retention efficiency and digestibility of the omnivorous fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fed diets with three carbohydrate (410, 460 and 510gkg−1) and two lipid levels (40 and 80gkg−1) in the initial growth phase (juvenile weighing between 10 and 250g). The experiment was completely randomized, with six treatments and four replicas arranged in a 3×2 factorial design. The 1080 tambaqui tested (10.88±0.13g body weight) were randomly distributed into 24 tanks (500L; 45 fish/tank) and fed the test diets for 120days. The highest carbohydrate inclusion (510gkg−1) reduced food intake and fish growth. A protein sparing effect was observed in the growth of tambaqui fed 460gkg−1 carbohydrates since they showed higher weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, protein productive value and crude protein participation in weight gain. The increase in lipid levels from 40gkg−1 to 80gkg−1 increased body fat deposition and decreased the digestibility coefficients of diet nutrients and diet energy. The results demonstrate that the ideal balanced diet to grow juvenile tambaqui is 460gkg−1 carbohydrates and 40gkg−1 lipids.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T04:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Copepod swimming behavior, respiration, and expression of stress-related
           genes in response to high stocking densities

    • Authors: Birgitte Nilsson; Hans H. Jakobsen; Peter Stief; Guillaume Drillet; Benni W. Hansen
      Pages: 35 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Birgitte Nilsson, Hans H. Jakobsen, Peter Stief, Guillaume Drillet, Benni W. Hansen
      Using copepod nauplii as live feed in aquaculture hatcheries could solve high mortality rates of first-feeding fish larvae due to malnutrition. However, implementing the use of copepod nauplii on an intensive production scale requires a stable production at preferably high densities, which is problematic for calanoid copepod species like Acartia tonsa. In the present study, we evaluated the response of copepods experiencing stress under high-density conditions by assessing the acute stress level of A. tonsa. Control density was at 100ind.L−1 while the treatments were increased stepwise up to 10,000ind.L−1. Three biological/physiological end-points were studied: swimming behavior, respiration rate and expression level of stress-related genes. None of the elevated densities caused any significant change in swimming behavior, respiration rate or gene expression level. This study suggests that adults of A. tonsa do not exhibit any measurable acute stress response when exposed to high culture densities for 12h.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T04:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Comparison growth of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae)
           cultivation in floating cage and longline in Indonesia

    • Authors: Ma’ruf Kasim; Ahmad Mustafa
      Pages: 49 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Ma’ruf Kasim, Ahmad Mustafa
      Currently, cultivation using cages for Kappaphycus alvarezii was limited reported before. This study aims to reveal growth of K. alvarezii cultivated in floating cages and longline. The study was conducted in one of cultivation areas in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Total gross weight, propagule growth rate and specific growth rate were performing in this study. During our field experiment, total gross weight of K. alvarezii after 40 days, from 5kg was growth to 22.5±1.40kg and 38.8±1.6kg on longline and floating cages, respectively. Propagule growth rate after 40 days, from 50g was 107.8±7.0g and 152.5±7.9g during April, and 132.0±8.0g and 218.8±8.6g during August, on longline and floating cage, respectively. Specific growth rate of K. alvarezii was high during August, 2.43%day−1 and 3.69%day−1 cultivated in longline and floating cage, respectively. Propagule morphology was white and damage in 40% cultivated by longline and no damage by using floating cage particular in August and September while high dense of herbivorous fish surrounding the experimental sites.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T11:22:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Comparative efficacy of benzocaine, tricaine methanesulfonate and eugenol
           as anesthetic agents in the guppy Poecilia vivipara

    • Authors: Sergio Néstor Bolasina; Alexandre de Azevedo; Ana Cristina Petry
      Pages: 56 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Sergio Néstor Bolasina, Alexandre de Azevedo, Ana Cristina Petry
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy and determine the lowest effective concentration in the guppy, Poecilia vivipara. Fishes were exposed to benzocaine, tricaine methanesulfonate and eugenol at three different concentrations. After induction, they were transferred to an aquarium free of anesthetic for evaluating their recovery time. At the lowest concentration of the three anesthetics (50mgL−1), fish did not reach complete induction. Time to accomplish a light sedation stage was significantly negative-related with concentration using tricaine (145±13.4s with 50mgL−1 to 4.7±0.7s with 200mgL−1) and benzocaine (152.8±13s with 50mgL−1 to 4.0±0.9s with 200mgL−1). For eugenol, significant differences were found between the lowest concentration, 50mgL−1 (241±57.6s) with 100mgL−1 (13.3±3.9s) and 200mgL−1 (9.5±2.6s). Recovery times were significantly longer (P<0.05) with the increase of eugenol concentration from 100mgL−1 to 200mgL−1, with no differences found between the different concentrations of benzocaine and tricaine. Complete induction times were significantly greater (P<0.05) when using eugenol comparing with the other two anesthetic agents in fish exposed at the highest concentrations (200mgL−1). This parameter showed a great dispersion when using eugenol at this concentration. Three fish exposed to 200mgL−1 of eugenol did not recovered from the anesthetic after 180s and presented ventilatory failure. Significantly shorter recovery times (P<0.05) were found using tricaine comparing with eugenol (120±24.8s and 163.5±57.1s, respectively) at the higher concentration (200mgL−1). The optimum dose rates of benzocaine and tricaine for induction within the efficacy criteria stated in this study was 200mgL−1. It can be concluded these anesthetics are the more effective ones, being benzocaine more economically affordable for large-scale use on handling P. vivipara.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T11:22:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Conspecific vitellogenin induces the expression of vg gene in the Indian
           male walking catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.)

    • Authors: Subir Kumar Juin; Bidhan Chandra Mukhopadhyay; Swadesh Ranjan Biswas; Panchanan Nath
      Pages: 61 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Subir Kumar Juin, Bidhan Chandra Mukhopadhyay, Swadesh Ranjan Biswas, Panchanan Nath
      To understand the regulatory mechanism of Vg induced vitellogenin synthesis the vg gene expression in Indian male walking catfish, Clarias batrachus was investigated. Semipurified conspecific Vg containing Vg1 and Vg2 in a ratio of 2.7:1.0 was administered into male catfish and vg cDNA (1.1kb) was amplified from total RNA in liver by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers designed from published sequence of Clarias macrocephalus. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA shared maximum similarities (98–100%) with the corresponding sequences of known E2-induced Vg of C. batrachus and C. macrocephalus in the database. A 0.178kb cDNA fragment nested within the 1.1kb DNA was then amplified by real time PCR to evaluate the role of Vg on relative expression of vg gene. The result revealed a significant upregulation (1.79 fold) of vg mRNA at 6h reaching maximum level (9.78 fold) at 24h post Vg injection as compared to the saline control. Similarly, E2-treatment also showed maximum mRNA expression (7.73 fold) at 24h post injection. The findings suggest that like E2, Vg itself can induce vg gene expression resulting in a significant increase in plasma Vg levels (9.11±0.73mg/ml for Vg1 and 3.02±0.28mg/ml for Vg 2) in male catfish where E2 is lacking. The work provides further opportunity to study the regulatory mechanism of vg gene expression by Vg.

      PubDate: 2017-04-29T12:01:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Economic feasibility of producing oysters using a small-scale Hawaiian
           fishpond model

    • Authors: Jessie Q. Chen; Maria C. Haws; Quentin S.W. Fong; PingSun Leung
      Pages: 41 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Jessie Q. Chen, Maria C. Haws, Quentin S.W. Fong, PingSun Leung
      Traditional fishpond aquaculture in Hawai‘i has declined since global trade provided access to cheaper, imported food. Farming non-native species like the Pacific oyster may prove more profitable than traditional species, and may help maintain the practice of fishpond aquaculture. Little literature exists on the economics of Hawai‘i’s oyster culture or the unique practices involved in fishpond-based production. Based on information supplied by a currently operating farm, we developed an enterprise budget for a model farm in order to 1) assess profitability, 2) determine sensitive input parameters, and 3) use stochastic modeling to determine the likelihood of different economic outcomes. The budget returned a marginally negative profit, with the bulk of operating costs from labor. Decision reversal analysis showed the model farm can be profitable with an increase in market price from US $1.25 to US $1.35 per oyster or a decrease in mortality rate from 50% to 45.9% – both are within reasonable reach in the near future.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T20:24:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
       
  • Effects of substituting fishmeal with soybean meal on growth performance
           and intestinal morphology in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)
           

    • Authors: Ya-ru Wang; Ling Wang; Chun-xiao Zhang; Kai Song
      Pages: 52 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Ya-ru Wang, Ling Wang, Chun-xiao Zhang, Kai Song
      The aim of this study was to determine the impact of replacing fishmeal (FM) with soybean meal (SBM) in the diet of orange-spotted grouper on growth and intestinal tissue structure. FM was replaced with 0%, 50%, or 100% SBM (FM100, FM50, FM0, respectively) to create three iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic experimental diets. Five orange-spotted grouper (initial mean body weight: 59±3g) were stocked into 150-L tanks on a recirculating system, and each dietary treatment level was assigned to three replicate tanks. Fish were fed twice daily for 30 days. Weight gain rate, feed intake and feed efficiency significantly decreased as the proportion of SBM increased. Villus height decreased while lesioning, damage and mixed leucocytes infiltration significantly increased in the intestines of fish fed the FM0 and FM50 diets (P <0.05). With increasing SBM, the expression levels of IL-1β and IL-16 mRNA significantly increased, while the expression level of IL-10 mRNA significantly decreased (P <0.05). In conclusion, increasing the amount of soybean meal in the diets of orange-spotted grouper leads to decrease growth performance and increase intestinal harm.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T20:24:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of a reliable non-invasive molecular test for the diagnosis of
           the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease of shrimp

    • Authors: Jee Eun Han; Kathy F.J. Tang; Patharapol Piamsomboon; Carlos R. Pantoja
      Pages: 58 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Jee Eun Han, Kathy F.J. Tang, Patharapol Piamsomboon, Carlos R. Pantoja
      Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND, also known as early mortality syndrome, EMS) has caused substantial mortality, up to 100%, in populations of penaeid shrimp cultured in SE Asia and in Latin America. The disease is caused by the bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which secretes binary toxins (PirA vp and PirB vp ) resulting in the deterioration of the hepatopancreas tissue of infected shrimp. Diagnosis, screening, and monitoring of AHPND in shrimp populations involve sacrificing individuals to obtain tissue samples. This sampling method is undesirable when applied to valuable populations of broodstock. Here, we evaluated a non-invasive diagnostic method based on shrimp fecal samples that are analyzed by PCR. Small groups of Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei were exposed to low levels of AHPND-bacteria and their feces were collected prior to any mortality observed (in the bioassays #1 and #2). Two protocols were evaluated. In one, DNA extracted from the fecal samples was directly analyzed by PCR. In the other, the fecal samples were cultured in TSB+ for 6h to enrich the bacterial populations, then the enriched bacterial broth was used for PCR analyses. Our results showed that the presence of V. parahaemolyticus could be detected both in fecal DNA samples and in the enriched bacterial broth, but the bands from the bacterial broth showed stronger amplification than the DNA; 12 strong positive in the enriched bacterial broth, but only 7 strong positive in the fecal DNA samples. Also, the AHPND bacteria present in the feces is infectious, determined by a bioassay of feeding specific pathogen free indicator shrimp with AHPND-feces (in the bioassay #3), and this proves that the AHPND can be transmitted through a fecal-oral route.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T22:42:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
       
  • Characterization of the nutritional quality of amaranth leaf protein
           concentrates and suitability of fish meal replacement in Nile tilapia
           feeds

    • Authors: Charles C. Ngugi; Elijah Oyoo-Okoth; Julius O. Manyala; Kevin Fitzsimmons; Ann Kimotho
      Pages: 62 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Charles C. Ngugi, Elijah Oyoo-Okoth, Julius O. Manyala, Kevin Fitzsimmons, Ann Kimotho
      A number of leafy vegetables, their protein concentrates and hydrolasates are under evaluation as alternative protein ingredients to fish meal (FM) in aquafeeds. This study evaluated the nutritional characteristics and suitability of replacing FM with the amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus) leaf protein concentrates (ALPC) as a protein ingredient in the diet of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Experimental diets were formulated, where 100%, 75%, 50%, 40%, 20% and 0% FM protein was substituted by protein from ALPC. The six dietary treatments were tested in triplicate in static flow-through tanks. The substitution effects were compared in terms of fish growth performance, nutrient utilization, whole body composition and apparent nutrient digestibility. After 160days of feeding, the growth, nutrient utilization and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) in fish fed diets containing 100%, 75%, 50%, 40% and 20% FM were better (P< 0.05) than those fed diet with 0% FM. The Apparent nutrient digestibility was high for protein, lipid and energy and differed significantly among the dietary treatments (P< 0.05). Protein digestibility in fish was highest in feed formulated with 100%, 75%, 50% and 40% FM, which were significantly (P< 0.05) higher than at 25% and 0% FM. Lipid digestibility was comparable for all the diets except fish fed 0% FM. Digestible carbohydrates and dry matter were similar for all dietary treatments (P< 0.05). We demonstrate that it is possible to replace up to 80% of fish meal with ALPC without compromising the performance O. niloticus. These results demonstrate that although it is possible to replace large part of fish meal with ALPC, it is not possible to eliminate it in Nile tilapia diet as alternative protein ingredient.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T01:50:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
       
  • Synergistic effects of dietary nano selenium and vitamin C on growth,
           feeding, and physiological parameters of mahseer fish (Tor putitora)

    • Authors: Kifayat Ullah Khan; Amina Zuberi; Samina Nazir; Imdad Ullah; Zeenat Jamil; Huda Sarwar
      Pages: 70 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Kifayat Ullah Khan, Amina Zuberi, Samina Nazir, Imdad Ullah, Zeenat Jamil, Huda Sarwar
      The current study was conducted to determine the synergistic effects of dietary nano selenium (Nano Se) and vitamin C on growth, feeding, and physiological parameters of juvenile mahseer, Tor putitora. L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (APP) was used as a source of vitamin C. Four semi-purified experimental diets were prepared. A basal diet kept without the supplementation of any micronutrient and the other three diets were formulated such that three different levels of APP (100, 200, and 300mgkg−1) were used in combination with a pre-determined dose of Nano Se (0.68mgkg−1). The results showed that both the micronutrients positively synergized the effects of each other. APP at the rate of 300mgkg−1 showed strong interaction with Nano Se. The APP300 +Nano Se0.68 mgkg−1 diet supplemented diet significantly decreased (P<0.05) the feed conversion ratio (FCR) while significantly increased (P<0.05) the weight gain percentage (WG%), feed conversion efficiency (FCE%), specific growth rate (SGR), and serum growth hormone (GH) concentration. Similarly, the physiological parameters such as red blood cells count (RBCs), hemoglobin level (Hb), hematocrit value (Hct), and serum lysozyme activity were also significantly increased in group of fish fed diet supplemented with APP100 mgkg−1 in combination with Nano Se0.68 mgkg−1 as compared to the control group. The present results clearly indicated the beneficent synergistic effects of Nano Se and APP in mahseer fish. Moreover, the current finding also supported our hypothesis that Nano Se and APP potentiate positively the effect of each other when both the micronutrients are supplemented together in the same fish feed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T01:50:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
       
  • Replacement of fishmeal with processed meal from knife fish Chitala ornata
           in diets of juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    • Authors: Sherilyn T. Abarra; Stephanie F. Velasquez; Kristina Daniela D.C. Guzman; Jaime Lorenzo F. Felipe; Melchor M. Tayamen; Janice A. Ragaza
      Pages: 76 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Sherilyn T. Abarra, Stephanie F. Velasquez, Kristina Daniela D.C. Guzman, Jaime Lorenzo F. Felipe, Melchor M. Tayamen, Janice A. Ragaza
      A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to assess the effects of processed meal from knife fish Chitala ornata (KFM) as fishmeal replacement in diets of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles. Five iso-nitrogenous (36.4% in dry matter) and isolipidic diets (8.6% in dry matter) with 0 (D1), 25 (D2), 50 (D3), 75 (D4) and 100% (D5) KFM inclusions were prepared. With a stocking density of 15 fish (0.59±0.01g) per tank, tilapia juveniles were distributed randomly in fifteen 30-L tanks. Results indicate a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the percent average weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed intake with increasing KFM inclusion up to the level of 75%. There were no adverse effects observed in both blood profile and carcass composition of the tilapia. Hepatosomatic index of fish significantly increased (P <0.05) when KFM was included into the diet of tilapia, compared to those fed D1. Viscerosomatic indices were not significantly different (P >0.05) among treatments. Results of hepatic histopathology showed absence of tumors, lesions and parenchymal inflammation in all treatments. However, mild cell membrane lysis and mild and mild to moderate apoptosis were evident in liver samples. Based on the results, KFM can partially and completely replace dietary protein from fishmeal. Moreover, D4 (75% KFM) is considered the optimal KFM replacement level for Nile tilapia juveniles.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T01:50:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
       
  • Cellular muscle growth and molecular cloning and expression of
           growth-related gene of Malaysian Mahseer Tor tambroides larvae fed with
           live and formulated feeds in indoor nursery rearing system

    • Authors: Md. Asaduzzaman; Daisuke Ikeda; Md. Abdul Kader; Shigeharu Kinoshita; Mazlan Abd Ghaffar; Ambok Bolong Abol-Munafi
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Md. Asaduzzaman, Daisuke Ikeda, Md. Abdul Kader, Shigeharu Kinoshita, Mazlan Abd Ghaffar, Ambok Bolong Abol-Munafi
      The influences of live and formulated feeds on growth performances, muscle fibers morphometry and muscle growth-related gene expression of Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides larvae were evaluated in indoor nursery rearing system. Quadruplicate groups of T. tambroides larvae (0.07±0.01g, mean±SE) were stocked in sixteen aquaria (60×30×30cm), randomly arranged in four dietary treatments viz. larvae fed artemia (LA), moina (LM), daphnia (LD) and formulated feed (FF) with stocking density of 34 larvae per aquarium. The larvae were fed to visually near satiation in two equal feedings per day, seven days per week for 75days. The growth-related parameters (mean weight gain and specific growth rate) were significantly highest in treatment FF, followed by treatment LA and the lowest in treatment LD or LM. Histological observation and muscle morphometric analysis revealed that mosaic hyperplasia was observed after 50days of the feeding trial. Hypertrophic (diameter class 50=40>d≤50μm and class 60=d>50μm), but not hyperplastic (diameter class ≤10μm), muscle fibers frequencies were significantly highest in larvae fed FF compared to those fed live feeds. The entire open reading frame cDNA sequences of two important growth-related genes, myogenin and MyoD, were successfully amplified and cloned from T. tambroides larvae. The nucleotide sequences alignment using CLUSTAL W in BioEdit program of both MyoD and myogenin genes showed the sign of existence of isoforms and highly conserved with other cyprinid fishes. Real-time PCR data demonstrated that myogenin and MyoD gene expressions were significantly upregulated in larvae fed FF. The results of the present experiment concluded that the nursery rearing of T. tambroides larvae with formulated feed showed augmented muscle growth and upregulated growth-related gene expression than feeding live feeds.

      PubDate: 2016-11-29T01:05:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Potential profitability of pearl culture in coastal communities in
           Tanzania

    • Authors: Ismail Saidi; Bill Johnston; Paul C. Southgate
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Ismail Saidi, Bill Johnston, Paul C. Southgate
      Artisanal half-pearl culture has been shown to provide livelihood and economic opportunities for coastal communities in Tanzania that depend directly on exploitation of marine resources. However, these pilot research studies have been supported by donor organisations and the economic feasibility of such development has not yet been assessed. Furthermore, there is little understanding of the costs required to establish pearl farms and the relative impacts of farm size on production, running costs, profitability and risks involved in production. The aim of this study was to develop economic models for subsistence level half-pearl culture in Tanzania. Models were generated for various scenarios relating to farm size and products (i.e. half-pearls and juvenile oyster or ‘spat’ collection) and they give detail on infrastructure costs, operational costs and income generated for various levels of operation. We concluded that the most profitable model for community-based pearl farming is to culture at least 600 oysters for half-pearl production. However, for communities to be able to run a sustainable and profitable enterprise, development of a sustainable source of oysters is crucial. Farmers can also generate income from collection of juvenile oysters and their subsequent sale to pearl farmers, but this is less profitable than half-pearl farming and requires a longer operational period before profits are made. Like pearl farming, there were major benefits or economies of scale with the largest farms tested providing greatest profit and/or a shorter time required to reach profitability. Our results provide a valuable source of information for prospective pearl farmers, donors, funding bodies and other stakeholders, and valuable extension information supporting further development of pearl culture in Tanzania.

      PubDate: 2016-12-06T05:49:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Evaluation of Imbrasia belina meal as a fishmeal substitute in Oreochromis
           mossambicus diets: Growth performance, histological analysis and enzyme
           activity

    • Authors: Mmaditshaba M. Rapatsa; Ngonidzashe A.G. Moyo
      Pages: 18 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Mmaditshaba M. Rapatsa, Ngonidzashe A.G. Moyo
      The main objective of this study was to investigate mopane worm (Imbrasia belina) as a protein source in the diet of Oreochromis mossambicus. One thousand five hundred O. mossambicus fingerlings (40±2.5g) were fed five isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isoenergetic diets formulated to contain 30% crude protein and 20MJ/kggross energy (dry matter basis) for 51days. Fifteen indoor rectangular concrete tanks (1.5m3) connected to a recirculating system were used. Water temperature ranged between 27 and 29°C. The diets were prepared by replacing fishmeal with mopane worm meal at 10%, 20%, 40% and 60%. The diets were coded D2, D3, D4 and D5 respectively. A control diet with no mopane worm meal was coded D1. The diets were fed to triplicate groups of O. mossambicus twice a day. Specific growth rate (SGR), Thermal-unit growth coefficient (TGC), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) increased with higher inclusion levels of mopane worm meal. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) also improved with higher inclusion levels. However, the highest growth performance (SGR: 3.49%; FCR: 1.29) was recorded in fish fed the fishmeal based control diet. Protease, amylase and lipase activities were determined in the intestines. Both protease and amylase activity were significantly higher (P<0.05) at high mopane worm inclusion levels. It is suggested that the high protein levels of the mopane worm diet elicited high protease activity. The health status of the fish was evaluated by examining the liver and intestine histology. There were no evident histological alterations of either liver or intestine as mopane worm meal inclusion levels increased. This showed that mopane worm meal may be a good candidate for the replacement of fishmeal in O. mossambicus diets. The highest profit index (1.67) was recorded in the 60% mopane worm inclusion level. The lowest profit index was in the control. More studies on mopane worm meal as a substitute of fishmeal are recommended in other fish species.

      PubDate: 2016-12-06T05:49:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Potential of metal contamination to affect the food safety of seaweed
           (Caulerpa spp.) cultured in coastal ponds in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    • Authors: Shane E. Perryman; Imran Lapong; Akhmad Mustafa; Rosiana Sabang; Michael A. Rimmer
      Pages: 27 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Shane E. Perryman, Imran Lapong, Akhmad Mustafa, Rosiana Sabang, Michael A. Rimmer
      This study evaluated metal concentrations in Caulerpa spp. cultured in ‘traditional’ coastal ponds in South Sulawesi and consumed locally as food. Although Caulerpa spp. are a rich source of supplemental dietary nutrients, like many macroalgal species they are also capable of bioaccumulating potentially toxic metals. We measured the metal concentrations of Caulerpa spp. from several locations in South Sulawesi to determine (1) whether cultivated Caulerpa spp. posed a potential risk to consumers, (2) whether Caulerpa spp. from cultivated ponds had different metal content that varied between localities and (3) whether there was any evidence for increased concentrations of heavy metals in Caulerpa spp. cultivated in ponds with known acid sulfate soils (ASS). Of the metals studied only As (0.7mgkg−1) and Pb (0.35mgkg−1) were recorded at concentrations approaching the national food safety (BSN) limits of Indonesia (1.0 and 0.5mgkg−1 respectively). Locality differences were observed between samples that could be explained by the background geography of sites. There was some indication that ASS conditions could lead to elevated levels of heavy metals. Consequently, we propose that the potential acidity of pond soil is considered when cultivating Caulerpa.

      PubDate: 2016-12-13T08:23:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Effects of microbe- and mussel-based diets on the gut microbiota in Arctic
           charr (Salvelinus alpinus)

    • Authors: Andreas Nyman; David Huyben; Torbjörn Lundh; Johan Dicksved
      Pages: 34 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Andreas Nyman, David Huyben, Torbjörn Lundh, Johan Dicksved
      A major challenge in aquaculture is finding nutrient resources that do not compete with human demand and do not threaten ecological sustainability. Single cell proteins, such as filamentous fungi and yeasts, have similar nutrient profiles to fish meal, grow fast under optimal conditions and contain high amounts of protein, making them attractive candidates as alternative nutrient sources for farmed fish. Moreover, the cell walls of yeasts and filamentous fungi have bioactive properties, potentially mediated via the intestinal microbiota, that positively affect the intestinal health of fish. The microbiota in fish is not well explored and it is uncertain how different dietary components influence its composition. Five experimental diets were fed to Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) to investigate their effects on gut microbiota. The fish meal in a reference diet was replaced with either intact or extracted yeast cells of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the filamentous fungi Rhizopus oryzae or meal from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis). The microbiota was characterised in samples collected from the proximal and distal intestine using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing with Illumina MiSeq. Sequence data showed that the gut microbiota was dominated by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, which represented 85% of total community abundance, with lactic acid bacteria representing 36.2%. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data revealed that the microbiota in proximal and distal regions of the intestine had similar composition and that replacement of fish meal with yeast and filamentous fungi affected microbiota composition, primarily with higher relative proportions of Photobacterium and Lactobacillus. Lactic acid bacteria were a dominant fraction of the intestinal microbiota in Arctic charr. Microbial based feeds were associated with similar changes in microbiota composition, but contrasting to the fish-meal based reference diet. Microbiota composition was similar in the proximal and distal gut, but dietary responses were specific to gut segment.

      PubDate: 2016-12-20T12:00:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
 
 
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