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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2982 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1420 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 231)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Aquaculture Reports
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   ISSN (Print) 2352-5134
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Freshwater fish for nutrition security in India: Evidence from FAO data

    • Authors: Nagesh Kumar Barik
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Nagesh Kumar Barik
      The nutritional dimension is integral to the concept of food security. A wide range of food commodities are required to fulfill nutritional security need of the people. Animal proteins which include milk, fish, meat and egg are essentially required for nutritionally balanced diets which are available from diverse food commodities. The fish in general and freshwater fish in particular are among the fast growing sectors with increasing contributions in the nutrition security of Indian consumers. The present paper analyses relative role of fish in the nutritional security of India based on the food balance sheet data of FAO available for the period 1961–2013. The apparent fish consumption per capita per year in India has increased primarily due to increase in freshwater fish availability from 0.7kg/cap/year in 1961–3.48kg/cap/year in 2013, enabling increase in the overall fish availability from 1.9 to 5.04kg/cap/year during this period. During 1961–2013, contributions of freshwater fish to non-vegetarian protein, animal protein and total protein increased from 9.1 to 27.2, 3.3–8.7 and 0.4–1.7%, respectively

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T12:44:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Metabolomic analysis of marine and mud crabs based on antibacterial
           activity

    • Authors: A.A. Laith; M. Ambak; A.B. Abol-Munafi; W.W.I. Nurhafizah; M. Najiah
      Pages: 7 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): A.A. Laith, M. Ambak, A.B. Abol-Munafi, W.W.I. Nurhafizah, M. Najiah
      Isolated compounds from marine invertebrates are being increasingly known to possess various pharmacological activities with which many useful drugs have been developed. Crabs contain bioactive compounds including antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral metabolites, isolated from various tissues and organs that have revolutionized treatment of serious diseases. The present study represents the first attempt to investigate and compare the natural antibacterial properties from whole extract of marine blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus, and mud crab, Scylla tranquebarica, against fish pathogenic bacteria. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry utilizing a time-of-flight (TOF) mass analyser (LC/MS-QTOF) based metabolomics approach was used to characterize the variation in secondary metabolite production in P. pelagicus and S. tranquebarica crab habitats in Malaysia. Different metabolites are evaluated in both crab species using LC/MS-QTOF. Initially a total of 75 metabolites were identified and only 19 metabolites satisfied the P-Corr cut-off point of less than 0.01 and at least 2-fold change. These metabolites, which contain anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, were down regulated in S. tranquebarica samples and up regulated in P. pelagicus samples. In vitro bioassay of methanolic P. pelagicus extracts showed the best antimicrobial response against Gram positive bacteria, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Gram negative bacteria, Vibrio alginolyticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli, with a statistically significant difference (P< 0.05) of P. pelagicus extracts as compared to S. tranquebarica. The results indicate that both types of crab extracts are bactericidal at higher concentrations and bacteriostatic at lower concentrations. This manuscript reports the role of marine and mud crabs with specific emphasis on their secondary metabolites, and discusses current and future developments in both the production of desired crab metabolites and their potential uses in pharmaceutical industries.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T12:55:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Effects of dietary lipid levels on growth, body composition and
           antioxidants of clamworm (Perinereis aibuhitensis)

    • Authors: Fu Lv; Fei Liu; Yebing Yu; Aimin Wang; Wenping Yang; Qing Nie; Tian Wang
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Fu Lv, Fei Liu, Yebing Yu, Aimin Wang, Wenping Yang, Qing Nie, Tian Wang
      To determine the effects of dietary lipid levels on growth performance, body composition and antioxidant parameters of clamworm (Perinereis aibuhitensis), 1050 clamworms were fed diets with seven lipid levels (2.37%, 4.35%, 6.29%, 8.41%, 10.31%, 12.29% and 14.33%, named L2.37, L4.35, L6.29, L8.41, L10.31, L12.29 and L14.33, respectively) for 10 weeks. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 50 clamworms. The results showed that the growth performance and protein efficiency ratio were significantly affected by the lipid levels. Clamworms fed L8.41 diet exhibited higher growth performance than others and the maximum specific growth rate can be possibly obtained when the diets were supplemented with 7.54% lipid level. The dietary lipid levels had significant influences on the whole body crude protein, crude lipid, moisture contents and ash profile of P. aibuhitensis. The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were also enhanced with increasing dietary lipid levels in whole body analyses. The contents of malonaldehyde (MDA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in clamworms increased significantly with increasing dietary lipid levels. Meanwhile, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and total autioxidative capacity (T-AOC) tended to strengthen with dietary lipid levels increasing from 2.37% to 10.31% (except the GPX with 12.29% dietary lipid levels), and weaken with dietary lipid levels increasing from 10.31% to 14.33%. These results demonstrated that a proper dietary lipid level of 7.54%–10.31% could maintain solid growth performance and antioxidant capacity of juvenile P. aibuhitensis.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T17:53:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Effects of canarium fruit (Canarium odontophyllum) oil as a dietary lipid
           source for juvenile mahseer (Tor tambroides) performance

    • Authors: M.L. Bami; M.S. Kamarudin; C.R. Saad; A. Arshad; M. Ebrahimi
      Pages: 8 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): M.L. Bami, M.S. Kamarudin, C.R. Saad, A. Arshad, M. Ebrahimi
      Canarium is among the riverine fruits that are commonly found in the natural diet of Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides. The fruit contains a high percentage of lipids. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of canarium crude oil on the growth performance, body composition and fatty acid profile of juvenile T. tambroides. Five isonitrogenous (40% crude protein) diets containing varying canarium oil levels (0, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5%) were prepared. Crude palm oil (CPO) was used as the control. The juveniles (2.08±0.10g) were given the test diets for 12 weeks in triplicate groups. Diets containing canarium oil were found to be less accepted by the fish which led to a significantly lower (P< 0.05) daily feed intake than diet including 0% canarium oil. Juveniles fed on 1.25–5% canarium oil also showed significantly lower (P<0.05) weight gain, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio than those fed 0% canarium oil. However, the canarium oil level did not have any significant effect (P>0.05) on survival and lean portion of juvenile T. tambroides. The fish fed canarium oil-free diet also had better tissue fatty acid profile (especially n-3 and n-6 PUFA) as well as better protein, lipid and energy retention than those fed diets including canarium oil. From the results, canarium oil extracted from the whole fruit was not recommended as a dietary lipid source for T. tambroides. Moreover, juveniles fed on 0% canarium oil (5% CPO) utilized dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) more efficiently for their energy requirement than fish given canarium oil.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T00:33:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Effects of dietary tannin on growth, feed utilization and digestibility,
           and carcass composition in juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax
           L.)

    • Authors: Marie-Hélène Omnes; Julien Le Goasduff; Hervé Le Delliou; Nicolas Le Bayon; Patrick Quazuguel; Jean H. Robin
      Pages: 21 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Marie-Hélène Omnes, Julien Le Goasduff, Hervé Le Delliou, Nicolas Le Bayon, Patrick Quazuguel, Jean H. Robin
      Plant-based products in fish diets are valuable protein alternatives to fishmeal for the aquafeed industry. Many plant feed ingredients contain polyphenolic compounds, including tannins, which can have beneficial or adverse effects. The tolerable threshold of ingested tannins is unknown for marine carnivorous fishes. We studied the effects of tannic acid (TA) supplementation to the diet of juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) by measuring growth, feed utilization and digestibility, and carcass composition. We randomly allocated groups of fish (initial mean body weight of 10.2±0.7g; n =40 fish per tank) to 12 replicate cylindrical-conical tanks (three per treatment). The fish were assigned to one of four dietary treatments for five weeks: control diet (C) with tannin-free protein sources (mostly fishmeal as the base diet, containing 55.7% dry matter (DM) crude protein, gross energy 22.3kJg−1 DM) and three experimental diets supplemented with 10, 20, or 30gTAkg−1 (called TA1, TA2, and TA3, respectively). Tannin ingestion resulted in significantly decreased cumulative feed intake, growth, feed and protein efficiencies, apparent digestibility coefficients, hepatosomatic index, and carcass lipids. The protein digestibility in fish fed the 10gkg−1 tannin-containing diet was significantly lower than that in fish fed the control diet. This threshold should be taken into account when using novel terrestrial and aquatic plant ingredients for temperate marine fishes.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T04:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Productive performance and digestibility in the initial growth phase of
           tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fed diets with different carbohydrate and
           lipid levels

    • Authors: L.C.G. Sandre; H. Buzollo; T.M.T. Nascimento; L.M. Neira; R.K. Jomori; D.J. Carneiro
      Pages: 28 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): L.C.G. Sandre, H. Buzollo, T.M.T. Nascimento, L.M. Neira, R.K. Jomori, D.J. Carneiro
      The use of dietary protein can be optimized by increasing diet energy, which can be achieved by adding non-protein nutrients such as carbohydrates and lipids. If incorporated in suitable amounts, these items can promote the protein sparing effect, reducing nitrogen excretion and improving the quality of fish farming effluents. The study assessed productive performance, body composition, nutrient and energy retention efficiency and digestibility of the omnivorous fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fed diets with three carbohydrate (410, 460 and 510gkg−1) and two lipid levels (40 and 80gkg−1) in the initial growth phase (juvenile weighing between 10 and 250g). The experiment was completely randomized, with six treatments and four replicas arranged in a 3×2 factorial design. The 1080 tambaqui tested (10.88±0.13g body weight) were randomly distributed into 24 tanks (500L; 45 fish/tank) and fed the test diets for 120days. The highest carbohydrate inclusion (510gkg−1) reduced food intake and fish growth. A protein sparing effect was observed in the growth of tambaqui fed 460gkg−1 carbohydrates since they showed higher weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, protein productive value and crude protein participation in weight gain. The increase in lipid levels from 40gkg−1 to 80gkg−1 increased body fat deposition and decreased the digestibility coefficients of diet nutrients and diet energy. The results demonstrate that the ideal balanced diet to grow juvenile tambaqui is 460gkg−1 carbohydrates and 40gkg−1 lipids.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T04:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Copepod swimming behavior, respiration, and expression of stress-related
           genes in response to high stocking densities

    • Authors: Birgitte Nilsson; Hans H. Jakobsen; Peter Stief; Guillaume Drillet; Benni W. Hansen
      Pages: 35 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Birgitte Nilsson, Hans H. Jakobsen, Peter Stief, Guillaume Drillet, Benni W. Hansen
      Using copepod nauplii as live feed in aquaculture hatcheries could solve high mortality rates of first-feeding fish larvae due to malnutrition. However, implementing the use of copepod nauplii on an intensive production scale requires a stable production at preferably high densities, which is problematic for calanoid copepod species like Acartia tonsa. In the present study, we evaluated the response of copepods experiencing stress under high-density conditions by assessing the acute stress level of A. tonsa. Control density was at 100ind.L−1 while the treatments were increased stepwise up to 10,000ind.L−1. Three biological/physiological end-points were studied: swimming behavior, respiration rate and expression level of stress-related genes. None of the elevated densities caused any significant change in swimming behavior, respiration rate or gene expression level. This study suggests that adults of A. tonsa do not exhibit any measurable acute stress response when exposed to high culture densities for 12h.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T04:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Characterization of tilapia farming in net cages at a tropical reservoir
           in Brazil

    • Authors: Geórgia Dantas Roriz; Marina Karina de Veiga Cabral Delphino; Ian A. Gardner; Vitor Salvador Picão Gonçalves
      Pages: 43 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Geórgia Dantas Roriz, Marina Karina de Veiga Cabral Delphino, Ian A. Gardner, Vitor Salvador Picão Gonçalves
      Fish farming in reservoirs is a growing aquaculture sector in Brazil. This study aimed to characterize Nile tilapia health and production patterns in net cages at a tropical reservoir in Brazil, to provide baseline information for future studies and policies. The study was carried out in 2015, at the Reservoir of Três Marias, Minas Gerais, and involved all (32) fish farmers in the most important fish production area of the reservoir. Tilapia was the only species commercially farmed and was sold to local slaughterhouses. Aquaculture was the sole income-generating activity for 17% of farmers. Only two farms received regular technical assistance. Most farmers cleaned fish cages and tools, did not share equipment with other farms and appropriately discarded dead or dying fish in ditches. Farmers perceived the primary causes of fish mortality in the reservoir to be water temperature and water level (72%), fingerling quality (31%) and improper feed management (24%). Farmers’ main concerns were: difficulty in getting environmental licenses (59%), high cost of animal feed (34%) and low water reservoir level (31%). The fish culture in the studied reservoir is an emerging value-chain of small-scale farmers, with limited production technology. Its sustainable development needs to consider environmental issues and requires better access to health and extension services.

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T13:16:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Comparison growth of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae)
           cultivation in floating cage and longline in Indonesia

    • Authors: Ma’ruf Kasim; Ahmad Mustafa
      Pages: 49 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Ma’ruf Kasim, Ahmad Mustafa
      Currently, cultivation using cages for Kappaphycus alvarezii was limited reported before. This study aims to reveal growth of K. alvarezii cultivated in floating cages and longline. The study was conducted in one of cultivation areas in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Total gross weight, propagule growth rate and specific growth rate were performing in this study. During our field experiment, total gross weight of K. alvarezii after 40 days, from 5kg was growth to 22.5±1.40kg and 38.8±1.6kg on longline and floating cages, respectively. Propagule growth rate after 40 days, from 50g was 107.8±7.0g and 152.5±7.9g during April, and 132.0±8.0g and 218.8±8.6g during August, on longline and floating cage, respectively. Specific growth rate of K. alvarezii was high during August, 2.43%day−1 and 3.69%day−1 cultivated in longline and floating cage, respectively. Propagule morphology was white and damage in 40% cultivated by longline and no damage by using floating cage particular in August and September while high dense of herbivorous fish surrounding the experimental sites.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T11:22:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Comparative efficacy of benzocaine, tricaine methanesulfonate and eugenol
           as anesthetic agents in the guppy Poecilia vivipara

    • Authors: Sergio Néstor Bolasina; Alexandre de Azevedo; Ana Cristina Petry
      Pages: 56 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Sergio Néstor Bolasina, Alexandre de Azevedo, Ana Cristina Petry
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy and determine the lowest effective concentration in the guppy, Poecilia vivipara. Fishes were exposed to benzocaine, tricaine methanesulfonate and eugenol at three different concentrations. After induction, they were transferred to an aquarium free of anesthetic for evaluating their recovery time. At the lowest concentration of the three anesthetics (50mgL−1), fish did not reach complete induction. Time to accomplish a light sedation stage was significantly negative-related with concentration using tricaine (145±13.4s with 50mgL−1 to 4.7±0.7s with 200mgL−1) and benzocaine (152.8±13s with 50mgL−1 to 4.0±0.9s with 200mgL−1). For eugenol, significant differences were found between the lowest concentration, 50mgL−1 (241±57.6s) with 100mgL−1 (13.3±3.9s) and 200mgL−1 (9.5±2.6s). Recovery times were significantly longer (P<0.05) with the increase of eugenol concentration from 100mgL−1 to 200mgL−1, with no differences found between the different concentrations of benzocaine and tricaine. Complete induction times were significantly greater (P<0.05) when using eugenol comparing with the other two anesthetic agents in fish exposed at the highest concentrations (200mgL−1). This parameter showed a great dispersion when using eugenol at this concentration. Three fish exposed to 200mgL−1 of eugenol did not recovered from the anesthetic after 180s and presented ventilatory failure. Significantly shorter recovery times (P<0.05) were found using tricaine comparing with eugenol (120±24.8s and 163.5±57.1s, respectively) at the higher concentration (200mgL−1). The optimum dose rates of benzocaine and tricaine for induction within the efficacy criteria stated in this study was 200mgL−1. It can be concluded these anesthetics are the more effective ones, being benzocaine more economically affordable for large-scale use on handling P. vivipara.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T11:22:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Conspecific vitellogenin induces the expression of vg gene in the Indian
           male walking catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.)

    • Authors: Subir Kumar Juin; Bidhan Chandra Mukhopadhyay; Swadesh Ranjan Biswas; Panchanan Nath
      Pages: 61 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Subir Kumar Juin, Bidhan Chandra Mukhopadhyay, Swadesh Ranjan Biswas, Panchanan Nath
      To understand the regulatory mechanism of Vg induced vitellogenin synthesis the vg gene expression in Indian male walking catfish, Clarias batrachus was investigated. Semipurified conspecific Vg containing Vg1 and Vg2 in a ratio of 2.7:1.0 was administered into male catfish and vg cDNA (1.1kb) was amplified from total RNA in liver by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers designed from published sequence of Clarias macrocephalus. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA shared maximum similarities (98–100%) with the corresponding sequences of known E2-induced Vg of C. batrachus and C. macrocephalus in the database. A 0.178kb cDNA fragment nested within the 1.1kb DNA was then amplified by real time PCR to evaluate the role of Vg on relative expression of vg gene. The result revealed a significant upregulation (1.79 fold) of vg mRNA at 6h reaching maximum level (9.78 fold) at 24h post Vg injection as compared to the saline control. Similarly, E2-treatment also showed maximum mRNA expression (7.73 fold) at 24h post injection. The findings suggest that like E2, Vg itself can induce vg gene expression resulting in a significant increase in plasma Vg levels (9.11±0.73mg/ml for Vg1 and 3.02±0.28mg/ml for Vg 2) in male catfish where E2 is lacking. The work provides further opportunity to study the regulatory mechanism of vg gene expression by Vg.

      PubDate: 2017-04-29T12:01:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Economic feasibility of producing oysters using a small-scale Hawaiian
           fishpond model

    • Authors: Jessie Q. Chen; Maria C. Haws; Quentin S.W. Fong; PingSun Leung
      Pages: 41 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Jessie Q. Chen, Maria C. Haws, Quentin S.W. Fong, PingSun Leung
      Traditional fishpond aquaculture in Hawai‘i has declined since global trade provided access to cheaper, imported food. Farming non-native species like the Pacific oyster may prove more profitable than traditional species, and may help maintain the practice of fishpond aquaculture. Little literature exists on the economics of Hawai‘i’s oyster culture or the unique practices involved in fishpond-based production. Based on information supplied by a currently operating farm, we developed an enterprise budget for a model farm in order to 1) assess profitability, 2) determine sensitive input parameters, and 3) use stochastic modeling to determine the likelihood of different economic outcomes. The budget returned a marginally negative profit, with the bulk of operating costs from labor. Decision reversal analysis showed the model farm can be profitable with an increase in market price from US $1.25 to US $1.35 per oyster or a decrease in mortality rate from 50% to 45.9% – both are within reasonable reach in the near future.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T20:24:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
       
  • Effects of substituting fishmeal with soybean meal on growth performance
           and intestinal morphology in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)
           

    • Authors: Ya-ru Wang; Ling Wang; Chun-xiao Zhang; Kai Song
      Pages: 52 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Ya-ru Wang, Ling Wang, Chun-xiao Zhang, Kai Song
      The aim of this study was to determine the impact of replacing fishmeal (FM) with soybean meal (SBM) in the diet of orange-spotted grouper on growth and intestinal tissue structure. FM was replaced with 0%, 50%, or 100% SBM (FM100, FM50, FM0, respectively) to create three iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic experimental diets. Five orange-spotted grouper (initial mean body weight: 59±3g) were stocked into 150-L tanks on a recirculating system, and each dietary treatment level was assigned to three replicate tanks. Fish were fed twice daily for 30 days. Weight gain rate, feed intake and feed efficiency significantly decreased as the proportion of SBM increased. Villus height decreased while lesioning, damage and mixed leucocytes infiltration significantly increased in the intestines of fish fed the FM0 and FM50 diets (P <0.05). With increasing SBM, the expression levels of IL-1β and IL-16 mRNA significantly increased, while the expression level of IL-10 mRNA significantly decreased (P <0.05). In conclusion, increasing the amount of soybean meal in the diets of orange-spotted grouper leads to decrease growth performance and increase intestinal harm.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T20:24:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of a reliable non-invasive molecular test for the diagnosis of
           the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease of shrimp

    • Authors: Jee Eun Han; Kathy F.J. Tang; Patharapol Piamsomboon; Carlos R. Pantoja
      Pages: 58 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Jee Eun Han, Kathy F.J. Tang, Patharapol Piamsomboon, Carlos R. Pantoja
      Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND, also known as early mortality syndrome, EMS) has caused substantial mortality, up to 100%, in populations of penaeid shrimp cultured in SE Asia and in Latin America. The disease is caused by the bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which secretes binary toxins (PirA vp and PirB vp ) resulting in the deterioration of the hepatopancreas tissue of infected shrimp. Diagnosis, screening, and monitoring of AHPND in shrimp populations involve sacrificing individuals to obtain tissue samples. This sampling method is undesirable when applied to valuable populations of broodstock. Here, we evaluated a non-invasive diagnostic method based on shrimp fecal samples that are analyzed by PCR. Small groups of Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei were exposed to low levels of AHPND-bacteria and their feces were collected prior to any mortality observed (in the bioassays #1 and #2). Two protocols were evaluated. In one, DNA extracted from the fecal samples was directly analyzed by PCR. In the other, the fecal samples were cultured in TSB+ for 6h to enrich the bacterial populations, then the enriched bacterial broth was used for PCR analyses. Our results showed that the presence of V. parahaemolyticus could be detected both in fecal DNA samples and in the enriched bacterial broth, but the bands from the bacterial broth showed stronger amplification than the DNA; 12 strong positive in the enriched bacterial broth, but only 7 strong positive in the fecal DNA samples. Also, the AHPND bacteria present in the feces is infectious, determined by a bioassay of feeding specific pathogen free indicator shrimp with AHPND-feces (in the bioassay #3), and this proves that the AHPND can be transmitted through a fecal-oral route.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T22:42:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
       
  • Characterization of the nutritional quality of amaranth leaf protein
           concentrates and suitability of fish meal replacement in Nile tilapia
           feeds

    • Authors: Charles C. Ngugi; Elijah Oyoo-Okoth; Julius O. Manyala; Kevin Fitzsimmons; Ann Kimotho
      Pages: 62 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Charles C. Ngugi, Elijah Oyoo-Okoth, Julius O. Manyala, Kevin Fitzsimmons, Ann Kimotho
      A number of leafy vegetables, their protein concentrates and hydrolasates are under evaluation as alternative protein ingredients to fish meal (FM) in aquafeeds. This study evaluated the nutritional characteristics and suitability of replacing FM with the amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus) leaf protein concentrates (ALPC) as a protein ingredient in the diet of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Experimental diets were formulated, where 100%, 75%, 50%, 40%, 20% and 0% FM protein was substituted by protein from ALPC. The six dietary treatments were tested in triplicate in static flow-through tanks. The substitution effects were compared in terms of fish growth performance, nutrient utilization, whole body composition and apparent nutrient digestibility. After 160days of feeding, the growth, nutrient utilization and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) in fish fed diets containing 100%, 75%, 50%, 40% and 20% FM were better (P< 0.05) than those fed diet with 0% FM. The Apparent nutrient digestibility was high for protein, lipid and energy and differed significantly among the dietary treatments (P< 0.05). Protein digestibility in fish was highest in feed formulated with 100%, 75%, 50% and 40% FM, which were significantly (P< 0.05) higher than at 25% and 0% FM. Lipid digestibility was comparable for all the diets except fish fed 0% FM. Digestible carbohydrates and dry matter were similar for all dietary treatments (P< 0.05). We demonstrate that it is possible to replace up to 80% of fish meal with ALPC without compromising the performance O. niloticus. These results demonstrate that although it is possible to replace large part of fish meal with ALPC, it is not possible to eliminate it in Nile tilapia diet as alternative protein ingredient.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T01:50:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
       
  • Synergistic effects of dietary nano selenium and vitamin C on growth,
           feeding, and physiological parameters of mahseer fish (Tor putitora)

    • Authors: Kifayat Ullah Khan; Amina Zuberi; Samina Nazir; Imdad Ullah; Zeenat Jamil; Huda Sarwar
      Pages: 70 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Kifayat Ullah Khan, Amina Zuberi, Samina Nazir, Imdad Ullah, Zeenat Jamil, Huda Sarwar
      The current study was conducted to determine the synergistic effects of dietary nano selenium (Nano Se) and vitamin C on growth, feeding, and physiological parameters of juvenile mahseer, Tor putitora. L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (APP) was used as a source of vitamin C. Four semi-purified experimental diets were prepared. A basal diet kept without the supplementation of any micronutrient and the other three diets were formulated such that three different levels of APP (100, 200, and 300mgkg−1) were used in combination with a pre-determined dose of Nano Se (0.68mgkg−1). The results showed that both the micronutrients positively synergized the effects of each other. APP at the rate of 300mgkg−1 showed strong interaction with Nano Se. The APP300 +Nano Se0.68 mgkg−1 diet supplemented diet significantly decreased (P<0.05) the feed conversion ratio (FCR) while significantly increased (P<0.05) the weight gain percentage (WG%), feed conversion efficiency (FCE%), specific growth rate (SGR), and serum growth hormone (GH) concentration. Similarly, the physiological parameters such as red blood cells count (RBCs), hemoglobin level (Hb), hematocrit value (Hct), and serum lysozyme activity were also significantly increased in group of fish fed diet supplemented with APP100 mgkg−1 in combination with Nano Se0.68 mgkg−1 as compared to the control group. The present results clearly indicated the beneficent synergistic effects of Nano Se and APP in mahseer fish. Moreover, the current finding also supported our hypothesis that Nano Se and APP potentiate positively the effect of each other when both the micronutrients are supplemented together in the same fish feed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T01:50:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
       
  • Replacement of fishmeal with processed meal from knife fish Chitala ornata
           in diets of juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    • Authors: Sherilyn T. Abarra; Stephanie F. Velasquez; Kristina Daniela D.C. Guzman; Jaime Lorenzo F. Felipe; Melchor M. Tayamen; Janice A. Ragaza
      Pages: 76 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Sherilyn T. Abarra, Stephanie F. Velasquez, Kristina Daniela D.C. Guzman, Jaime Lorenzo F. Felipe, Melchor M. Tayamen, Janice A. Ragaza
      A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to assess the effects of processed meal from knife fish Chitala ornata (KFM) as fishmeal replacement in diets of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles. Five iso-nitrogenous (36.4% in dry matter) and isolipidic diets (8.6% in dry matter) with 0 (D1), 25 (D2), 50 (D3), 75 (D4) and 100% (D5) KFM inclusions were prepared. With a stocking density of 15 fish (0.59±0.01g) per tank, tilapia juveniles were distributed randomly in fifteen 30-L tanks. Results indicate a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the percent average weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed intake with increasing KFM inclusion up to the level of 75%. There were no adverse effects observed in both blood profile and carcass composition of the tilapia. Hepatosomatic index of fish significantly increased (P <0.05) when KFM was included into the diet of tilapia, compared to those fed D1. Viscerosomatic indices were not significantly different (P >0.05) among treatments. Results of hepatic histopathology showed absence of tumors, lesions and parenchymal inflammation in all treatments. However, mild cell membrane lysis and mild and mild to moderate apoptosis were evident in liver samples. Based on the results, KFM can partially and completely replace dietary protein from fishmeal. Moreover, D4 (75% KFM) is considered the optimal KFM replacement level for Nile tilapia juveniles.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T01:50:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
       
  • Cellular muscle growth and molecular cloning and expression of
           growth-related gene of Malaysian Mahseer Tor tambroides larvae fed with
           live and formulated feeds in indoor nursery rearing system

    • Authors: Md. Asaduzzaman; Daisuke Ikeda; Md. Abdul Kader; Shigeharu Kinoshita; Mazlan Abd Ghaffar; Ambok Bolong Abol-Munafi
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Md. Asaduzzaman, Daisuke Ikeda, Md. Abdul Kader, Shigeharu Kinoshita, Mazlan Abd Ghaffar, Ambok Bolong Abol-Munafi
      The influences of live and formulated feeds on growth performances, muscle fibers morphometry and muscle growth-related gene expression of Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides larvae were evaluated in indoor nursery rearing system. Quadruplicate groups of T. tambroides larvae (0.07±0.01g, mean±SE) were stocked in sixteen aquaria (60×30×30cm), randomly arranged in four dietary treatments viz. larvae fed artemia (LA), moina (LM), daphnia (LD) and formulated feed (FF) with stocking density of 34 larvae per aquarium. The larvae were fed to visually near satiation in two equal feedings per day, seven days per week for 75days. The growth-related parameters (mean weight gain and specific growth rate) were significantly highest in treatment FF, followed by treatment LA and the lowest in treatment LD or LM. Histological observation and muscle morphometric analysis revealed that mosaic hyperplasia was observed after 50days of the feeding trial. Hypertrophic (diameter class 50=40>d≤50μm and class 60=d>50μm), but not hyperplastic (diameter class ≤10μm), muscle fibers frequencies were significantly highest in larvae fed FF compared to those fed live feeds. The entire open reading frame cDNA sequences of two important growth-related genes, myogenin and MyoD, were successfully amplified and cloned from T. tambroides larvae. The nucleotide sequences alignment using CLUSTAL W in BioEdit program of both MyoD and myogenin genes showed the sign of existence of isoforms and highly conserved with other cyprinid fishes. Real-time PCR data demonstrated that myogenin and MyoD gene expressions were significantly upregulated in larvae fed FF. The results of the present experiment concluded that the nursery rearing of T. tambroides larvae with formulated feed showed augmented muscle growth and upregulated growth-related gene expression than feeding live feeds.

      PubDate: 2016-11-29T01:05:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Potential profitability of pearl culture in coastal communities in
           Tanzania

    • Authors: Ismail Saidi; Bill Johnston; Paul C. Southgate
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Ismail Saidi, Bill Johnston, Paul C. Southgate
      Artisanal half-pearl culture has been shown to provide livelihood and economic opportunities for coastal communities in Tanzania that depend directly on exploitation of marine resources. However, these pilot research studies have been supported by donor organisations and the economic feasibility of such development has not yet been assessed. Furthermore, there is little understanding of the costs required to establish pearl farms and the relative impacts of farm size on production, running costs, profitability and risks involved in production. The aim of this study was to develop economic models for subsistence level half-pearl culture in Tanzania. Models were generated for various scenarios relating to farm size and products (i.e. half-pearls and juvenile oyster or ‘spat’ collection) and they give detail on infrastructure costs, operational costs and income generated for various levels of operation. We concluded that the most profitable model for community-based pearl farming is to culture at least 600 oysters for half-pearl production. However, for communities to be able to run a sustainable and profitable enterprise, development of a sustainable source of oysters is crucial. Farmers can also generate income from collection of juvenile oysters and their subsequent sale to pearl farmers, but this is less profitable than half-pearl farming and requires a longer operational period before profits are made. Like pearl farming, there were major benefits or economies of scale with the largest farms tested providing greatest profit and/or a shorter time required to reach profitability. Our results provide a valuable source of information for prospective pearl farmers, donors, funding bodies and other stakeholders, and valuable extension information supporting further development of pearl culture in Tanzania.

      PubDate: 2016-12-06T05:49:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Evaluation of Imbrasia belina meal as a fishmeal substitute in Oreochromis
           mossambicus diets: Growth performance, histological analysis and enzyme
           activity

    • Authors: Mmaditshaba M. Rapatsa; Ngonidzashe A.G. Moyo
      Pages: 18 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Mmaditshaba M. Rapatsa, Ngonidzashe A.G. Moyo
      The main objective of this study was to investigate mopane worm (Imbrasia belina) as a protein source in the diet of Oreochromis mossambicus. One thousand five hundred O. mossambicus fingerlings (40±2.5g) were fed five isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isoenergetic diets formulated to contain 30% crude protein and 20MJ/kggross energy (dry matter basis) for 51days. Fifteen indoor rectangular concrete tanks (1.5m3) connected to a recirculating system were used. Water temperature ranged between 27 and 29°C. The diets were prepared by replacing fishmeal with mopane worm meal at 10%, 20%, 40% and 60%. The diets were coded D2, D3, D4 and D5 respectively. A control diet with no mopane worm meal was coded D1. The diets were fed to triplicate groups of O. mossambicus twice a day. Specific growth rate (SGR), Thermal-unit growth coefficient (TGC), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) increased with higher inclusion levels of mopane worm meal. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) also improved with higher inclusion levels. However, the highest growth performance (SGR: 3.49%; FCR: 1.29) was recorded in fish fed the fishmeal based control diet. Protease, amylase and lipase activities were determined in the intestines. Both protease and amylase activity were significantly higher (P<0.05) at high mopane worm inclusion levels. It is suggested that the high protein levels of the mopane worm diet elicited high protease activity. The health status of the fish was evaluated by examining the liver and intestine histology. There were no evident histological alterations of either liver or intestine as mopane worm meal inclusion levels increased. This showed that mopane worm meal may be a good candidate for the replacement of fishmeal in O. mossambicus diets. The highest profit index (1.67) was recorded in the 60% mopane worm inclusion level. The lowest profit index was in the control. More studies on mopane worm meal as a substitute of fishmeal are recommended in other fish species.

      PubDate: 2016-12-06T05:49:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Potential of metal contamination to affect the food safety of seaweed
           (Caulerpa spp.) cultured in coastal ponds in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    • Authors: Shane E. Perryman; Imran Lapong; Akhmad Mustafa; Rosiana Sabang; Michael A. Rimmer
      Pages: 27 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Shane E. Perryman, Imran Lapong, Akhmad Mustafa, Rosiana Sabang, Michael A. Rimmer
      This study evaluated metal concentrations in Caulerpa spp. cultured in ‘traditional’ coastal ponds in South Sulawesi and consumed locally as food. Although Caulerpa spp. are a rich source of supplemental dietary nutrients, like many macroalgal species they are also capable of bioaccumulating potentially toxic metals. We measured the metal concentrations of Caulerpa spp. from several locations in South Sulawesi to determine (1) whether cultivated Caulerpa spp. posed a potential risk to consumers, (2) whether Caulerpa spp. from cultivated ponds had different metal content that varied between localities and (3) whether there was any evidence for increased concentrations of heavy metals in Caulerpa spp. cultivated in ponds with known acid sulfate soils (ASS). Of the metals studied only As (0.7mgkg−1) and Pb (0.35mgkg−1) were recorded at concentrations approaching the national food safety (BSN) limits of Indonesia (1.0 and 0.5mgkg−1 respectively). Locality differences were observed between samples that could be explained by the background geography of sites. There was some indication that ASS conditions could lead to elevated levels of heavy metals. Consequently, we propose that the potential acidity of pond soil is considered when cultivating Caulerpa.

      PubDate: 2016-12-13T08:23:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Effects of microbe- and mussel-based diets on the gut microbiota in Arctic
           charr (Salvelinus alpinus)

    • Authors: Andreas Nyman; David Huyben; Torbjörn Lundh; Johan Dicksved
      Pages: 34 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Andreas Nyman, David Huyben, Torbjörn Lundh, Johan Dicksved
      A major challenge in aquaculture is finding nutrient resources that do not compete with human demand and do not threaten ecological sustainability. Single cell proteins, such as filamentous fungi and yeasts, have similar nutrient profiles to fish meal, grow fast under optimal conditions and contain high amounts of protein, making them attractive candidates as alternative nutrient sources for farmed fish. Moreover, the cell walls of yeasts and filamentous fungi have bioactive properties, potentially mediated via the intestinal microbiota, that positively affect the intestinal health of fish. The microbiota in fish is not well explored and it is uncertain how different dietary components influence its composition. Five experimental diets were fed to Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) to investigate their effects on gut microbiota. The fish meal in a reference diet was replaced with either intact or extracted yeast cells of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the filamentous fungi Rhizopus oryzae or meal from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis). The microbiota was characterised in samples collected from the proximal and distal intestine using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing with Illumina MiSeq. Sequence data showed that the gut microbiota was dominated by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, which represented 85% of total community abundance, with lactic acid bacteria representing 36.2%. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data revealed that the microbiota in proximal and distal regions of the intestine had similar composition and that replacement of fish meal with yeast and filamentous fungi affected microbiota composition, primarily with higher relative proportions of Photobacterium and Lactobacillus. Lactic acid bacteria were a dominant fraction of the intestinal microbiota in Arctic charr. Microbial based feeds were associated with similar changes in microbiota composition, but contrasting to the fish-meal based reference diet. Microbiota composition was similar in the proximal and distal gut, but dietary responses were specific to gut segment.

      PubDate: 2016-12-20T12:00:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • The effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog on yellowtail
           kingfish Seriola lalandi (Valenciennes, 1833) spawning and egg quality

    • Authors: A.N. Setiawan; S. Muncaster; S. Pether; A. King; G.W. Irvine; P.M. Lokman; J.E. Symonds
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): A.N. Setiawan, S. Muncaster, S. Pether, A. King, G.W. Irvine, P.M. Lokman, J.E. Symonds
      Communal spawning behaviour in marine aquaculture species often results in a few individuals contributing disproportionate amounts of gametes. This can lead to a reduction in genetic variability and increases the risk of inbreeding among successive generations. Therefore, long term sustainability of captive breeding programmes for such species partly depends upon maintaining a sufficiently high proportion of parents contributing high quality gametes during spawning. The current study was conducted to evaluate if the use of slow-release gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) implants could increase the number of females spawning high quality gametes, and thus increase genetic variation in a captive population of yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi (Valenciennes, 1833). Broodstock fish received implants with or without 500μg of GnRHa during the spawning season. GnRHa treatment was associated with a higher proportion of females contributing to spawning. However, compared to eggs from non-GnRHa-treated broodstock, GnRHa significantly decreased the floating rate, fertilisation rate, number of viable eggs and egg oil globule diameter. Overall, the use of slow-release GnRHa implants is a useful tool to increase parental contribution to spawning, but this benefit must be carefully balanced against lower egg quality.

      PubDate: 2016-06-08T07:29:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Effect of dietary lipid on growth performance, body composition, plasma
           biochemical parameters and liver fatty acids content of juvenile yellow
           drum Nibea albiflora

    • Authors: Ligai Wang; Qiong Lu; Shengyu Luo; Wei Zhan; Ruiyi Chen; Bao Lou; Dongdong Xu
      Pages: 10 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Ligai Wang, Qiong Lu, Shengyu Luo, Wei Zhan, Ruiyi Chen, Bao Lou, Dongdong Xu
      A feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary lipid requirement and its effects on body composition, plasma biochemical parameters and liver fatty acids content in juvenile yellow drum Nibea albiflora. Six animal groups (initial weights, 17.7±0.20g) were fed isonitrogenous diets formulated with increasing lipid levels (52, 70, 94, 111, 129 and 153gkg−1, labeled as L50, L70, L90, L110, L130, L150, respectively) using menhaden oil, twice daily to apparent satiation, for 8 weeks. The results showed that the weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR) of fish fed L130 and L150 lipid diets were significantly higher than those of the animals on the L50 lipid diet. The feed conversion rate (FCR) of fish fed the L130 lipid diet was significantly lower compared with the values obtained for the other groups. Hepatosomatic index (HSI) of fish fed the L90 lipid diet was significantly higher than that of animals on L150 lipid. Whole body and muscle lipid contents increased with increasing dietary lipid level, and the dietary fatty acid profile was reflected in liver tissue. Liver eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) contents in fish fed with the L150 diet were significantly higher compared with the values recorded in the other groups. Total highly-unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) content in liver showed an increasing trend, whereas total saturated fatty acid (SFA) and mono-unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) contents in liver tended to decrease with increasing dietary lipid levels. The plasma triglyceride and cholesterol contents of juvenile N. albiflora increased with the increasing dietary lipid level. Analysis by the broken-line model of percent weight gain indicated the optimal dietary lipid level in juvenile N. albiflora to be 120gkg−1 of the diet.

      PubDate: 2016-06-08T07:29:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • The effects of stocking density and ration on survival and growth of
           winged pearl oyster (Pteria penguin) larvae fed commercially available
           micro-algae concentrates

    • Authors: Matthew Wassnig; Paul C. Southgate
      Pages: 17 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Matthew Wassnig, Paul C. Southgate
      Commercially available micro-algae concentrates have been successfully used as an alternative to live micro-algae as a food source during routine larval culture of the winged pearl oyster, Pteria penguin. This supports the development of simplified hatchery facilities and larval rearing protocols that are more appropriate to Pacific island nations. An optimal feeding regime based on these products that also accounts for larval stocking density is yet to be developed. Two experiments were conducted at a commercial pearl oyster hatchery facility in the Kingdom of Tonga to examine the combined effects of stocking density and ration on survival and growth of both D-stage (from 1 to 8 days post-fertilsation) and umbo-stage (from 8 to 17 days) P. penguin larvae. Both experiments used a factorial design combining three larval stocking densities (D-stage: 2, 6 & 10 larvaemL−1; umbo-stage: 1, 3 & 5 larvaemL−1) and three rations (D-stage: 5, 10 & 15 cellsmL−1; umbo-stage: 10, 15 & 20 cellsmL−1). Survival during D-stage was significantly improved in aquaria stocked below 10 larvaemL−1, whereby a density of 6mL−1 maximised larval production. An intermediate ration of 10×103 cellsmL−1 maximised both survival and growth during D-stage. Increasing the initial stocking density of umbo-stage larvae from 1 to 3mL−1 resulted in significant reductions in both survival and growth. Growth of umbo-stage larvae stocked at a density of 1mL−1 increased significantly when ration remained below 20×103 cellsmL−1. The results of this study provide a basis for optimised hatchery culture protocols for P. penguin that are more appropriate to Pacific island nations.

      PubDate: 2016-06-14T07:47:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Effect of ascidian (Halocynthia roretzi, Drasche 1884) tunics carotenoids
           on enhancing growth and muscle coloring of sea-reared rainbow trout
           (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792)

    • Authors: Zuliyati Rohmah; U-cheol Jeong; Bernadeth F. Ticar; Jin-Soo Kim; Jae-Joon Lee; Seok Joong Kang; Byeong Dae Choi
      Pages: 22 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Zuliyati Rohmah, U-cheol Jeong, Bernadeth F. Ticar, Jin-Soo Kim, Jae-Joon Lee, Seok Joong Kang, Byeong Dae Choi
      A 120days trial was conducted to investigate the effect of sea squirt (Halocynthia roretzi, Drasche 1884) tunic’s carotenoid to sea-reared rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792) growth and muscle color. Sea-rearing was done at Tongyeong sea area, Korea. Three dietary treatments, namely control (C), CT, and AT, were administered to 6 groups of fish (n=490-520). C was given basal diet which has contained 40mgkg−1 of astaxanthin. A further inclusion of 10mgkg−1 canthaxanthin was added to diet of CT, while AT’s feed was supplemented with 10mgkg−1 H. roretzi tunics carotenoids extract. The result revealed that AT has the highest final weight (1119.2±82.4g) compare to those of C (881.0±121.2g) and CT (1068.2±4.3g). The specific growth rate (SGR) of AT (1.0±0.07%/day) was significantly higher than C (0.7±0.22%/day) and CT (0.7±0.25%/day) while the feed conversion ratio (FCR) were 1.5±0.6, 1.4±0.6, and 1.2±0.1 for C, CT and AT respectively. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) and Viscerosomatic index (VSI) of all groups showed no significant difference (p > 0.05). The muscle color was also positively affected by the treatments, CT and AT were significantly different from C (p < 005). The initial muscle color score was 1.7±0.0 and the final scores were 3.4±0.2, 5.6±0.1, and 5.7±0.0 for C, CT, and AT respectively. Moreover, muscle carotenoids content of AT (8.5±0.2mgkg−1) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those of CT (6.9±0.3mgkg−1) and C (6.1±0.2mgkg−1). Astaxanthin evidently is the most prominent carotenoid present in the muscle from all groups.

      PubDate: 2016-06-14T07:47:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Expression analyses of interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha and
           inducible nitric oxide synthase in the hemocyte morphotypes of two
           commercially important Indian molluscs

    • Authors: Mitali Ray; Niladri Sekhar Bhunia; Anindya Sundar Bhunia; Sajal Ray
      Pages: 30 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Mitali Ray, Niladri Sekhar Bhunia, Anindya Sundar Bhunia, Sajal Ray
      Bellamya bengalensis and Lamellidens marginalis are the two common species of molluscs of Indian subcontinent which bear immense aquacultural prospect. These edible varieties of freshwater molluscs have nutritional, ecological, ethnomedicinal and industrial significance. Report of nonspecific immunological status of them is grossly inadequate in the current scientific literature. Hemocytes, the circulating blood cells of invertebrate molluscs play a pivotal role in cell mediated immunity. Information of existence of cytokines like IFNγ, TNFα and enzyme iNOS is very limited and controversial in molluscan hemocytes. We detected IFNγ, an immunomodulatory molecule and TNFα, a tumoricidal and apoptosis inducing cytokine in hemocyte morphotypes of molluscs B. bengalensis and L. marginalis by flow cytometry, iNOS had been detected in the hemocyte morphotypes of B. bengalensis and not in L. marginalis. We report the existence of IFNγ in molluscs for the first time. Comparative expression of IFNγ, TNFα and iNOS in hemocytes would provide a better information base to understand biology, evolution and immunological role of these molecules in molluscs and related metazoans.

      PubDate: 2016-06-14T07:47:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • First isolation of Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida from
           diseased sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.), cultured in Spain

    • Authors: Clara Fernández-Álvarez; Daniel Gijón; Mireya Álvarez; Ysabel Santos
      Pages: 36 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Clara Fernández-Álvarez, Daniel Gijón, Mireya Álvarez, Ysabel Santos
      This work represents the first description of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida as causative agent of furunculosis in cultured sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.). Cumulative mortality in affected fish from two floating cages in the Mediterranean coast of Spain was 3.8%. Affected sea bass did not show the typical external signs of furunculosis in the first stages of the disease, however, when the disease progressed, open ulcers appeared on the skin and muscle. Internally, splenomegaly was the only pathological sign observed. Samples from diseased fish were subjected to standardized assays for pathogens screening. Negative results were obtained for parasites and fish viruses. A Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped bacterium was observed in smears from liver, kidney and spleen of all analysed fish. Pure bacterial cultures were recovered from liver, kidney and spleen of all diseased fish sampled during the two different outbreaks. Bacteriological, serological, molecular and chemotaxonomic analysis allowed the identification of the causative agent of sea bass mortalities as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. The bacterial strains were susceptible to most of antimicrobial agents usually employed in aquaculture except to oxytetracycline. Pathogenicity assays demonstrated that the isolated bacteria were virulent for sea bass, turbot and rainbow trout.

      PubDate: 2016-06-14T07:47:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Replacement of freshwater small-size fish by formulated feed in snakehead
           (Channa striata) aquaculture: Experimental and commercial-scale pond
           trials, with economic analysis

    • Authors: Tran Thi Thanh Hien; Nguyen Hoang Duc Trung; Bui Minh Tâm; Vo Minh Que Chau; Nguyen Hoang Huy; Chong M. Lee; David A. Bengtson
      Pages: 42 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Tran Thi Thanh Hien, Nguyen Hoang Duc Trung, Bui Minh Tâm, Vo Minh Que Chau, Nguyen Hoang Huy, Chong M. Lee, David A. Bengtson
      Traditional snakehead culture in Southeast Asia relies on use of small-size (trash) fish as food, an unsustainable practice. Following development of weaning methods and testing of formulated feed (FF) in laboratory experiments, we conducted feeding trials of FF vs. trash fish (TF) in experimental ponds at Can Tho University (CTU), followed by similar trials on commercial farms in two provinces in Vietnam. CTU pond trials consisted of five treatments (in triplicate), in which TF was replaced by FF in increasing percentages: 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, and 100% replacement of TF by FF (i.e., three treatments had mixed TF/FF diets). Although survival was significantly reduced in the 100% replacement treatment, and growth was significantly reduced in the 75% and 100% replacement treatments, the cost per kg of fish produced was 28–35% less in those high-replacement treatments compared to the 0% replacement treatment. On-farm trials were then conducted at two farms in An Giang and Dong Thap provinces for 6 months with snakehead fed TF only or FF only. At both farms, survival (73–80%) was not significantly different, but growth was significantly better on FF diet at both; however, FF-fed fish at the An Giang farm showed significantly higher levels of abnormal development. Overall production was about twice as high at the An Giang farm as at Dong Thap, but significantly greater production by FF-fed fish vs. TF-fed fish was only seen at Dong Thap. Sensory evaluation by a tasting panel found no difference in product quality between FF-fed fish, TF-fed fish, and a commercial sample bought in the market. Economic analysis indicated that profits were higher for FF-fed fish from both farms, although production costs and sales varied greatly, reflecting market differences in the two provinces.

      PubDate: 2016-06-29T14:11:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Farm-level returns and costs of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)
           aquaculture in Guangdong and Zhejiang provinces, China

    • Authors: Beibei Jia; Sophie St-Hilaire; Kehar Singh; Ian A. Gardner
      Pages: 48 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Beibei Jia, Sophie St-Hilaire, Kehar Singh, Ian A. Gardner
      Freshwater aquaculture in China is expanding and intensifying as this country experiences rapid economic growth, and understanding farm-level profitability is necessary if farmers are to make reasonable decisions about their production plans. We conducted a survey of yellow catfish farmers in 2014 in Guangdong and Zhejiang provinces in order to estimate farm-level profitability of pond aquaculture. We selected representative prefectures from the 2 provinces as study areas and used convenience sampling. Eighty-seven farmers were interviewed between April and May 2014 and the questionnaire collected detailed information on: (1) farmers’ demographics (age, gender, education, training, and experience); (2) production inputs (land, labor, fingerlings, feed, chemicals, machinery, and other miscellaneous costs); and (3) outputs (weight and revenue of harvested fish). Responses of 61 farmers included in the data analysis were post-stratified into 3 categories of farm size (<1.47ha, 1.47–3.67ha, and >3.67ha). We calculated production cost components, returns, and returns-costs ratios by farm size in each province. The overall returns-costs ratio was 1.31 in Guangdong and 1.17 in Zhejiang. Farmers in Guangdong invested more in land and machinery and had higher percentages of labor costs and chemical expenditures, but achieved better returns-costs ratios than farmers in Zhejiang. Higher land rent might be associated with greater yields of yellow catfish in Guangdong, which were almost twice those of Zhejiang.

      PubDate: 2016-07-03T14:23:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Associations of water quality and bacteria presence in cage cultured red
           hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus×O. mossambicus

    • Authors: Nurul Izzatul Aliya Ismail; Mohammad Noor Azmai Amal; Shamarina Shohaimi; Mohd Zamri Saad; Siti Zahrah Abdullah
      Pages: 57 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Nurul Izzatul Aliya Ismail, Mohammad Noor Azmai Amal, Shamarina Shohaimi, Mohd Zamri Saad, Siti Zahrah Abdullah
      This study was conducted to understand the associations between water quality and the presence of bacteria in cage cultured red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus×O. mossambicus. Tilapia from commercial floating net cage culture systems in lakes and river in Peninsular Malaysia were randomly sampled over a 24-month period. The eye, brain and kidney were sampled for bacterial isolation, following identification using biochemical test and commercial identification kits. The water clarity, velocity, depth, temperature, pH, iron, sulfide, ammonia, nitrite, phosphate, conductivity and dissolved oxygen at each sampling site were also measured. A total of 44 bacterial species were isolated, which are comprised of 28 Gram-positive and 16 Gram-negative bacteria. Terengganu River (506 isolates, 41 species) recorded the highest number of bacterial isolation and species, compared to Pedu Lake (286 isolates, 25 species) and Kenyir Lake (179 isolates, 25 species). The highest number of isolates was Streptococcus agalactiae (28.3%), followed by Lactococcus lactis (8.4%) and Micrococcus spp. (7.3%). Terengganu River had significantly lower (P <0.05) water dissolved oxygen, temperature and pH compared to Pedu and Kenyir lakes. On the other hand, water iron, nitrite, sulfide, ammonia and velocity were significantly higher (P <0.05) in Terengganu River compared to Pedu and Kenyir lakes. Multivariate analyses showed that each sampling site has different water quality parameters that were associated with the presence of bacteria. However, water temperature and ammonia have been identified as the most significant parameters, as they were observed to have strong associations with the bacteria presence in all of the study sites.

      PubDate: 2016-07-03T14:23:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • First report of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from Oreochromis
           niloticus in Piura, Peru: Molecular identification and histopathological
           lesions

    • Authors: Yessica Ortega Asencios; Frank Barreiro Sánchez; Hamilton Bueno Mendizábal; Karina Huancaré Pusari; Henry Ostos Alfonso; Alberto Manchego Sayán; Mayra Araguaia Pereira Figueiredo; Wilson Gómez Manrique; Marco Antonio de Andrade Belo; Nieves Sandoval Chaupe
      Pages: 74 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Yessica Ortega Asencios, Frank Barreiro Sánchez, Hamilton Bueno Mendizábal, Karina Huancaré Pusari, Henry Ostos Alfonso, Alberto Manchego Sayán, Mayra Araguaia Pereira Figueiredo, Wilson Gómez Manrique, Marco Antonio de Andrade Belo, Nieves Sandoval Chaupe
      The aim of this study was to identify the bacterium Streptococcus agalactiae isolated in farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Piura, Peru and to characterize the histopathological lesions caused by this pathogen. Sixteen tilapias were sampled with clinic signs of the disease such as erratic swimming, exophthalmia and haemorrhages on the body and fins. Qualitative PCR in real time and histopathological analysis were performed. Nine fishes positives to S. agalactiae were found. The main histopathological findings were fibrinosuppurative epicarditis, periesplenitis, meninigitis and panophtaltmitis with predominance of mononuclear infiltration in all tissues. The correlation between qPCR and histopathological findings demonstrated nine fish (prevalence of 56.25%) with Cq lower than 30, associated to high degree of tissue injuries. This study reports the first isolation of S. agalactiae by PCR in real time in tilapia farmed in Peru and characterizes the major histopathological changes caused by this bacterium.

      PubDate: 2016-07-13T21:34:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Changes in hematological parameters, plasma cortisol, and
           acetylcholinesterase of juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii
           supplemented with the dietary ascorbic acid

    • Authors: Jun-Hwan Kim; Ju-Chan Kang
      Pages: 80 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Jun-Hwan Kim, Ju-Chan Kang
      Juvenile rockfish (mean length 13.6±1.4cm, and mean weight 53.6±4.2g) were fed diets containing different levels of ascorbic acid (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Fish were fed twice daily (08:30 and 18:30). The major hematological findings were significant increases in the red blood cell count, hematocrit value, and hemoglobin level in the rockfish fed diets over 100mg/kg ascorbic acid. The dietary ascorbic acid supplementation caused significant increases in the glucose and total protein, whereas notable decreases were observed in GOT and GPT. However, alterations in calcium and magnesium were not observed by the ascorbic acid supplementation. Plasma cortisol was substantially decreased over 50mg/kg ascorbic acid. Acetylcholinesterase activity of the rockfish was significantly increased over 200mg/kg ascorbic acid. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the dietary ascorbic acid supplementation in the rockfish induces considerable increases in hematological parameters, alterations in plasma components, and increase in AChE activity.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T21:58:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Paenibacillus polymyxa as a water additive improved immune response of
           Cyprinus carpio and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila

    • Authors: Akhil Gupta; Paromita Gupta; Asha Dhawan
      Pages: 86 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Akhil Gupta, Paromita Gupta, Asha Dhawan
      The present study was undertaken to investigate the impact of Paenibacillus polymyxa as water additive probiotic bacterium in common carp, Cyprinus carpio based on water quality, survival, innate immune responses and disease resistance. The completely randomized experiment design was conducted for eight weeks and treatments consisted of three levels of P. polymyxa added in water at concentration of 103 cfumL−1 (PP1), 104 cfumL−1 (PP2) and 105 cfumL−1 (PP3) and one control (Con, without any probiotic). No significant differences (p >0.05) in water quality parameters, such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonical nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen were observed throughout the experimental period among treatments. The influences of P. polymyxa at different concentrations significantly improved survival (p <0.05). Study of different innate immunological parameters viz. lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay, myeloperoxidase content, catalase and superoxidase dismutase activities showed significant (p <0.05) improved immune responses in fish exposed to P. polymyxa as water additive at 103 (PP1) and 104 (PP2)cfumL−1. The supplementation of probiotic in challenge test significantly (p <0.05) enhanced the resistance of fish against A. hydrophila infection. In view of recent reports of antibiotic failure from many countries to stop spread of fish diseases, renewed interest in a more complete understanding of the fish immune response to infectious diseases will be critical in developing new eco-friendly control strategies for future. Therefore, the application of probiotic P. polymyxa as water additive could be applied in aquaculture to improve immune responses and disease resistance of C. carpio.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T21:58:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Suitability of different fish species for cultivation in integrated
           floating cage aquageoponics system (IFCAS) in Bangladesh

    • Authors: Hazrat Ali; Mohammad Mahfujul Haque; Khondker Murshed-e-Jahan; Md. Lifat Rahi; Mir Mohammad Ali; Md. Al-Masud; Golam Faruque
      Pages: 93 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Hazrat Ali, Mohammad Mahfujul Haque, Khondker Murshed-e-Jahan, Md. Lifat Rahi, Mir Mohammad Ali, Md. Al-Masud, Golam Faruque
      Farmer participatory action research was performed to assess production performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Vietnamese perch (Anabas testudineus) in monoculture and polyculture systems via integrated floating cage aquageoponics system in Bangladesh. The term aquageoponics is the combination of aqua, geo and ponics which mean pond water, pond mud/soil and cultivation, respectively (Haque et al., 2015). Three treatments, namely T1 (tilapia), T2 (Vietnamese perch) and T3 (tilapia and Vietnamese perch=1:1) in moderately shaded ponds (MSP) and 3 treatments, namely T4 (tilapia), T5 (Vietnamese perch) and T6 (tilapia and Vietnamese perch=1:1), in heavily shaded ponds (HSP) were used each with 3 replicates and fish were stocked at a rate of 56m−2 per cage. Fish were fed floating feed twice daily and significantly higher (P <0.05) individual growth rate (161±2.4g) and productivity (76±1.7kg) for tilapia were found in T1 while the individual growth rate (93±12g) and productivity (49±1.3kg) of Vietnamese perch was higher in T2 but this was not significantly different (P >0.05) between treatments. While higher (P >0.05) specific growth rate was observed in monoculture compared with polyculture for tilapia; no significantly difference was observed for Vietnamese perch. There was also no significant difference (P >0.05) in growth performance for Vietnamese perch between the MSP and HSP treatments. While females participated more actively in action research in the HSP condition with production of vegetables and fish in IFCAS; vegetables production were not different (P >0.05) among treatments. The benefit-cost ratio of different treatments was >1, indicating that investment was financially efficient for all treatments.

      PubDate: 2016-07-28T21:58:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Evaluation of production performance and profitability of hybrid red
           tilapia and genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) strains in the
           carbon/nitrogen controlled periphyton-based (C/N- CP) on-farm prawn
           culture system in Bangladesh

    • Authors: M. Rezoanul Haque; M. Ashraful Islam; M. Abdul Wahab; Md. Enamul Hoq; M. Mojibar Rahman; M. Ekram Azim
      Pages: 101 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): M. Rezoanul Haque, M. Ashraful Islam, M. Abdul Wahab, Md. Enamul Hoq, M. Mojibar Rahman, M. Ekram Azim
      Performance of hybrid red tilapia (Mutant, Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis mossambicus) and GIFT tilapia strain (Oreochromis niloticus) in C/N-CP prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming system was evaluated at the farmers' pond at Bailor union under Trishal upazilla of Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. The on-farm trial had two treatments: TR and TG (named according to the tilapia strains) with three replications. Six rectangular ponds of varying sizes (400–880m2) were used for this experiment. Hybrid red and GIFT tilapia stains were stocked with prawn at the stocking densities of 1 tilapia fingerlings (either red or GIFT strain) and 3 prawn juveniles m-2 in both treatments. Bamboo side shoot were posted vertically as periphyton substrate. This resulted in an additional substrate surface area of 1067m2 for periphyton development equaling 147% of the pond surface area. Considering the body weight of freshwater prawn only, feeding rates were 10% of body weight at the beginning of the study (up to 30days), and feeding application was gradually reduced to 3% in the last month assuming 80% survival. The abundance of total benthos and periphyton as well as total periphytic biomass were significantly higher (P<0.05) in TR than TG treatment and they were also differed significantly (P<0.05) among different months with a decreasing trends (exception to some extent) over the experimental period. The individual harvesting weight, individual weight gain, specific growth rate, Food Conversion Ratio (FCR), survival (%), gross and net yields of prawn were similar in two treatments. In contrast, the GIFT tilapia strain showed a higher (P<0.05) individual harvesting weight, individual weight gain, specific growth rate ((SGR, % bw d-1), survival, gross and net yields (1935 and 1825kgha-1, respectively) combined gross and net yields (2952 and 2784kgha-1, respectively), and economic return (3755 US$ with BCR 0.82) than the hybrid Red tilapia.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T07:56:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Impact of commercial probiotics application on growth and production of
           giant fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium Rosenbergii De Man, 1879)

    • Authors: Alokesh Kumar Ghosh; Joyanta Bir; Md. Abul Kalam Azad; Abul Farah Md. Hasanuzzaman; Md. Sanaul Islam; Khandaker Anisul Huq
      Pages: 112 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Alokesh Kumar Ghosh, Joyanta Bir, Md. Abul Kalam Azad, Abul Farah Md. Hasanuzzaman, Md. Sanaul Islam, Khandaker Anisul Huq
      The study was conducted to observe the impact of commercial probiotics application on growth and production performance of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) from August 2011 to March 2012. There were four experimental groups viz (a) control or without probiotics treated prawn (T1), (b) feed probiotics- Zymetin (T2) treated prawn, (c) soil probiotics- Super PS (T3) treated prawn and (d) Both Zymetin and Super PS (T4) treated prawn. Twelve ponds (each 120m2) were used where stocking density was 2/m2 for all treatments and control and each was triplicated. After pond preparation, prawn PL was reared in the nursery pond for 45days to become juvenile. At the time of stocking in growout ponds, average body weight of juvenile prawn was 1.04g. After eight months (240days) of culture, the mean final weight became 39.5±12.03, 43.4±14.91, 48.0±16.73 and 51.6±15.58g in T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. Significance difference was found among all treatments and T4 showed highest growth. The SGR was found to be 1.50±0.13, 1.53±0.13, 1.58±0.13 and 1.61±0.11 (%BW/day) in T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively and the difference was significant. The survival rate did not differ significantly but highest survival rate was found in T4 (90%). The average FCR was significantly lowest in T4 (1.39) and highest in T1 (1.9). The net average production was found to be significantly higher in T4 (914kg/ha) which was 35% and 21 % higher than the control group (T1) and feed probiotics (T2) respectively. Water and soil quality parameters were measured and were within the culturable range. The production of probiotics treated ponds was always higher than without probiotics treated ponds but highest growth and production were found in T4 where Zymetin and Super PS were used combinedly. The results of this study can be applied in the farmer’s pond to increase the total production of prawn in the country.

      PubDate: 2016-09-03T11:57:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Effect of temperature and diet on growth and gastric emptying time of the
           hybrid, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀×E. lanceolatus ♂

    • Authors: Moumita De; Mazlan Abd. Ghaffar; Yosni Bakar; Simon Kumar Das
      Pages: 118 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Moumita De, Mazlan Abd. Ghaffar, Yosni Bakar, Simon Kumar Das
      The effects of temperatures (22, 26, 30 and 34°C) and diets (commercial pellet and shrimp) on the growth properties and gastric emptying time (GET) of the tiger grouper × giant grouper (TGGG) hybrid were analyzed over a 30day experimental period under controlled laboratory conditions. Food consumption (FC), food conversion rate (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR) and GET were significantly influenced by temperature and diet type. The highest mean SGR (1.00% BM day−1, p <0.05) was observed in the 30°C+shrimp group of fish, while the lowest SGR was observed in the 22°C+pellet group (0.59% BM day−1). No significant differences in growth (P >0.05) were observed between any of the groups at 22 and 34°C fed on either the shrimp or the pellet diet. The lowest statistically significant (p <0.05) FC was observed at 22°C on both diets. The highest FCR (1.208, p <0.05) was observed in the 22°C+shrimp and 22°C+pellet groups. The fastest GETs were observed at 30°C, 12h for fish on the shrimp diet and 13h for fish on the pellet diet. A significant delay in gastric emptying (16h) was observed at 22°C in the group fed the commercial pellet diet (16h). The best growth performances and digestion rates were observed at 30°C followed by 26, 34 and 22°C regardless of diet. The results suggest that 26 and 30°C are optimum water temperatures for the aquaculture of this newly developed fish species fed on either a shrimp or pellet diet.

      PubDate: 2016-09-03T11:57:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Effect of salinity on the growth performance, osmolarity and
           metabolism-related gene expression in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    • Authors: Weihua Gao; Luo Tian; Tinghua Huang; Min Yao; Wei Hu; Qiaoqing Xu
      Pages: 125 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Weihua Gao, Luo Tian, Tinghua Huang, Min Yao, Wei Hu, Qiaoqing Xu
      An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of long-term low-salinity stress on the growth performance, and expression of osmolarity and metabolism-related genes (Na+-K+-ATPase α-subunit and in gills, trypsin and chymotypsin in hepatopancreas) in white shrimp (L. vannamei). Four groups of the white shrimp (mean initial weight, 0.31±0.02g) were cultivated at salinity of 2, 10, 20 and 30psu for 8-week. All treatments were conducted in triplicate of 40 each. The results indicated that shrimps reared at salinity 20psu and 30psu were significantly higher in final weight, weight gain and specific growth ratio than the other treatments (p <0.05 when compared to 2 and 10), and those reared at salinity 2psu were significantly lower than the other treatments in growth performance and survival (p <0.05 when compared to other treatments). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results indicated that Na+-K+-ATPase α-subunit and carbonic anhydrase mRNA levels at salinity 2psu and 10psu were increased significantly 1.79-, 1.65-fold and 3.22-, 2.31-fold respectively according to salinity 20psu, chymotrypsin and trypsin mRNA level at salinity 10psu and 2psu decreased significantly 15%, 36% and 72%, 45% respectively according to salinity 30psu. In conclusion, low salinity could, to some extent, reduce growth performance and survival significantly, and influence transcript levels of Na+-K+-ATPase α-subunit, carbonic anhydrase in gills and chymotrypsin, trypsin in hepatopancreas.

      PubDate: 2016-09-20T13:36:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Feasibility of green mussel, Perna viridis farming in Marudu Bay, Malaysia

    • Authors: Tan Kar Soon; Julian Ransangan
      Pages: 130 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Tan Kar Soon, Julian Ransangan
      Bivalve aquaculture is an important source of affordable animal protein for coastal community. The success and sustainability of this industry is highly influenced by the suitability of the environment in which it is carried out. Present study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of green mussel (Perna viridis) farming in Marudu Bay. The site suitability for green mussel farming was evaluated based on biophysical parameters and food availability. The in situ environmental parameters, phytoplankton abundance and composition were collected from 10 sampling stations on monthly interval from May 2014 to April 2015. The results showed that the environmental parameters and food availability in most of the sampling stations were suitable for green mussel. However, the presence of phytoplankton taxa (Chaetoceraceae) which are unfavorable by green mussel in most of the stations located at the bay pocket make those areas less recommended for green mussel farming. In contrast, stations located on the mouth of the bay exhibited high site suitability rating points and hence are highly recommended for cultivation of green mussel.

      PubDate: 2016-09-20T13:36:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Peracetic acid is a suitable disinfectant for recirculating
           fish-microalgae integrated multi-trophic aquaculture systems

    • Authors: Dibo Liu; Sascha Behrens; Lars-Flemming Pedersen; David L. Straus; Thomas Meinelt
      Pages: 136 - 142
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Dibo Liu, Sascha Behrens, Lars-Flemming Pedersen, David L. Straus, Thomas Meinelt
      Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) is a promising direction for the sustainable development of aquaculture. Microalgae have good potential to be integrated with recirculating aquaculture systems because they can use the nitrogen excreted from fish and share the same optimal pH value as in aquaculture. As a byproduct, the microalgae biomass can be used for fish feed or biofuel. However, the recirculating fish-microalgae IMTA system is under constant threat from fish pathogens and phytoplankton-lytic bacteria. Therefore, it is necessary to apply proper disinfectants as prophylaxis or treatment which are effective against these threats, but safe to fish and microalgae. For this purpose, peracetic acid (PAA) is a valid option because it is highly effective against fish pathogens and bacteria at low concentrations and degrades spontaneously to harmless residues. In the present study, we exposed the culture of a marine microalgae Tetraselmis chuii once per day for four days to four PAA products with differing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)/PAA proportions at two concentrations (1 and 2mgL−1 PAA). The H2O2 solutions at equivalent total peroxide (H2O2 +PAA) concentrations were tested in parallel. The results show that the growth and photosynthesis of T. chuii were not affected by three of the PAA products (Wofasteril® E400, Wofasteril® E250 and Applichem® 150) and equivalent H2O2 solutions at both concentrations. In contrast, Wofasteril® Lspez and an equivalent H2O2 solution at both concentrations caused irreversible culture collapse, photosynthesis dysfunction and irreversible cell damage. In conclusion, PAA products with low proportions of H2O2 are optimal disinfectants for fish-microalgae IMTA systems.

      PubDate: 2016-09-25T14:53:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Influence of polyherbal formulation (AquaImmu) as a potential growth
           promotor and immunomodulator in shrimp Penaeus monodon

    • Authors: M. Navin Chandran; S. Moovendhan; A.M. Suganya; A. Tamilselvi; Bebin; G. Immanuel; A. Palavesam
      Pages: 143 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): M. Navin Chandran, S. Moovendhan, A.M. Suganya, A. Tamilselvi, Bebin, G. Immanuel, A. Palavesam
      Growth enhancing and immunostimulating potential of a polyherbal formulation AquaImmu was assessed in Penaeus monodon outdoor culture system which was tested for 90 days. For this 100 (A1), 200 (A2), 300 (A3) and 400 (A4) mg/100g AquaImmu supplemented diets were prepared and fed to shrimp. The growth performance of shrimp was assessed during the 30th, 60th and 90th days of feeding experiment. It showed that shrimp fed on A3 diet displayed better growth performance such as SGR (5.46±0.138%), Food conversion efficiency (66.32±1.258%) and Food conversion ratio (1.50±0.060) during the 90th day of feeding experiment. Immunological parameters such as total haemocyte count (243.0±2.94×105 cells/ml), superoxide anion activity (0.297±0.011 O.D), phenoloxidase activity (0.113±0.003 O.D), lysozyme activity (0.354±0.006U/ml), plasma protein content (57.70±2.01mg/ml) and bactericidal activity (72.0±2.18%) were higher in shrimp fed on diet A3 during 90th day of feeding experiment. The result inferred that the polyherbal formulation AquaImmu at a concentration of 300mg/100g feed served as a potent growth promoter and immune modulator in shrimp P. monodon.

      PubDate: 2016-11-01T02:51:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Analysis of transaction records of live freshwater finfish in China: A
           case study of customers’ claims of fish mortality using cross-classified
           modeling

    • Authors: Beibei Jia; Sophie St-Hilaire; Henrik Stryhn; Jenny Yu; David B. Groman; Ian A. Gardner
      Pages: 150 - 155
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Beibei Jia, Sophie St-Hilaire, Henrik Stryhn, Jenny Yu, David B. Groman, Ian A. Gardner
      Customers of finfish in China place a high priority on healthy fish at the point of sale but factors that increase the risk of morbidity and mortality during transportation have had limited study. We designed a case study to investigate variation of mortalities claimed by customers receiving fish at markets with above-normal mortalities. We used daily transaction records of the 3 species transported from a company located in Guangdong province to its destination markets in Beijing between April and July 2013: largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi), and longsnout catfish (Leiocassis longirostris). We quantified magnitudes and patterns of weekly mortalities of transported fish, and used cross-classified random-effect modeling to explore variation and clustering of fish mortality claims at wholesale destinations. Random effects for customer and market-week were interpreted by variance partition coefficients (VPC) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). A significant fixed effect of market was found in the model of mortality claims for longsnout catfish (p<0.05), and changing patterns of VPC and ICC suggested that customers ordering longsnout catfish had more variation in claims than those ordering the other 2 species. Our findings indicate a need for better customer communication for live fish transportation and a need for detailed measurements during the process including physiological factors and transportation conditions, to better understand their role in reported mortalities.

      PubDate: 2016-11-01T02:51:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Biochemical composition and growth performances of Malaysian Mahseer Tor
           tambroides larvae fed with live and formulated feeds in indoor nursery
           rearing system

    • Authors: Md. Asaduzzaman; Md. Abdul Kader; Mahbuba Bulbul; Ambak Bolong Abol-Munafi; Mazlan Abd Ghaffer; Marc Verdegem
      Pages: 156 - 163
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Md. Asaduzzaman, Md. Abdul Kader, Mahbuba Bulbul, Ambak Bolong Abol-Munafi, Mazlan Abd Ghaffer, Marc Verdegem
      The consequences of live and formulated feeds on carcass biochemical composition and growth performances of Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides larvae were assessed in indoor nursery rearing systems. Quadruplicate groups of T. tambroides larvae (0.07±0.01g, mean±SE) were stocked in sixteen aquaria (60×30×30cm), randomly arranged in four dietary treatments: larvae fed artemia (LA), moina (LM), daphnia (LD) and formulated feed (FF) with stocking density of 34 larvae per aquarium. An additional experiment was conducted with the same dietary treatments in four circular tanks (1000L capacity) with stocking density of 100 larvae per tank. In both experiments, the larvae were fed to visually near satiation in two equal feedings per day, seven days per week for 75days. Treatments results were compared using ANOVA (α=0.05). At the end of the feeding trial, the significantly highest whole body crude protein and lipid contents were found in larvae fed FF compared to those fed live feeds. Whole body polyunsaturated fatty acids were highest in the larvae fed FF compared to those fed live feeds. The significantly highest RNA/DNA ratio was observed in larvae fed FF, followed by those fed LA, and the lowest values were observed in larvae fed LM or LD. The growth-related parameters (mean final weight, mean weight gain and specific growth rate) were significantly highest in treatment FF, followed by treatment LA and lowest in treatment LD or LM. The results of the present experiment demonstrated that the nursery rearing of T. tambroides larvae with formulated feed gave better results than feeding live feeds.

      PubDate: 2016-11-01T02:51:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Effect of harvesting processes on the lipid yield and fatty acid profile
           of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata

    • Authors: Lucelia Borges; Sergiane Caldas; Marcelo G. Montes D’Oca; Paulo Cesar Abreu
      Pages: 164 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Lucelia Borges, Sergiane Caldas, Marcelo G. Montes D’Oca, Paulo Cesar Abreu
      The effect of different methods of biomass concentration and salt removal on the lipid yield and fatty acid profile of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata was evaluated. The microalgae were subjected to nine treatments: (1) centrifugation, (2) centrifugation+washing with H2O, (3) centrifugation+washing with ammonium formate, (4) flocculation with NaOH, (5) flocculation with NaOH+washing with H2O, (6) flocculation with NaOH+washing with ammonium formate, (7) flocculation with NaOH and neutralization with HCl, (8) flocculation with NaOH, neutralization with HCl+washing with H2O, and (9) flocculation with NaOH, neutralization with HCl+washing with ammonium formate. Flocculation with the addition of NaOH was effective at concentrating biomass (>90%) but interfered with lipid extraction because it exhibited a lower lipid yield (4.40±0.1%) compared with centrifugation (45.4±0.8%). Moreover, important polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA C20:5) and eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA C20:4), disappeared when NaOH was used. Centrifugation plus washing the biomass with ammonium formate was more effective than other treatments, leading to higher lipid yields, as well as larger amounts of the polyunsaturated fatty acids EPA and ETA. However, it is a very expensive harvesting method. Thus, the main finding of the present study is that microalgae concentration processes can affect lipid and fatty acid extraction in massive microalgae production; therefore, it is necessary to carefully choose the harvest process to be used in large-scale microalgae production.

      PubDate: 2016-11-08T07:13:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Economic assessment of hatchery production of Argopecten nucleus spat to
           support the development of scallop aquaculture in the wider Caribbean

    • Authors: Diego Valderrama; Luz A. Velasco; Niver Quiroz
      Pages: 169 - 177
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Diego Valderrama, Luz A. Velasco, Niver Quiroz
      Many communities of fishermen throughout the Caribbean are facing economic difficulties due to the decline of marine resources following decades of overexploitation and poor governance of fish stocks. The farming of native species of scallops could provide an alternative path for a more sustainable utilization of marine resources in the region. This paper presents a cost–benefit analysis of a public scallop hatchery in the fishing village of Taganga, Colombian Caribbean, which has been producing spat of nucleus scallop (Argopecten nucleus) since the early 2000s, and actively promoting scallop aquaculture among the community of local fishermen since 2010. Based on a projected annual output of 3.78 million spat, financial indicators were rather positive: the 20-year Internal Rate of Return (IRR) was 25.5 percent and total production cost was USD 0.026 per 10-mm spat. Recent innovations in hatchery protocols during the settling stage have led to marked improvements in spat recovery rates, substantially lowering production costs and reducing the hatchery's initial reliance on subsidies. Because the hatchery seems able to produce spat at a much lower cost than other outfits that have operated in the Caribbean, it could potentially emerge as a regional supplier of high quality seed for the wider Caribbean. A major factor affecting competitiveness is the high electricity prices normally found in the Colombian Caribbean and elsewhere in the region. Further research on the economics of ocean growout technologies is warranted to better understand the potential of scallop aquaculture as a livelihood alternative for Caribbean fishing communities.

      PubDate: 2016-11-08T07:13:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Comparative efficacy of different inducing agents on breeding performance
           of a near threatened cyprinid Osteobrama belangeri in captivity

    • Authors: Pronob Das; B.K. Behera; D.K. Meena; S.K. Singh; S.C. Mandal; S. Sahoo Das; A.K. Yadav; B.K. Bhattacharjya
      Pages: 178 - 182
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Pronob Das, B.K. Behera, D.K. Meena, S.K. Singh, S.C. Mandal, S. Sahoo Das, A.K. Yadav, B.K. Bhattacharjya
      An experiment was conducted to breed a near threatened Cyprinid Osteobrama belangeri in captivity through hormonal inducement. Carp pituitary extract (CPE) and three different GnRH based synthetic hormones viz., Ovaprim, Ovatide and Wova-FH were used as inducing agents. Experiment was conducted following a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The brooders were injected with different doses of hormones and kept in the breeding hapas at 2:1 male to female ratio. All the inducing agents induced the fishes to breed, whereas no breeding was observed in the control set. Spawning success rate varied depending on the rate of inducement and the type of inducing agent used. CPE at a dose of 9mgkg−1 of female and 3mgkg−1 of male as well as the synthetic hormones at 0.5mlkg−1 of female and 0.2mlkg−1 of male brooders were found to be effective in inducing the fishes to breed in captivity. Efficacy of the synthetic hormones was significantly higher than that of CPE (P <0.05). Dose of hormone apparently affected the percentage of fertilization, egg output, hatching rate and spawn production. Administering an over-dose of the inducing agents caused early milting resulting in poor fertilization and under-dosing might cause late inducement in males. The present breeding protocol is simple and can be taken up by small breeders. It will be helpful in aquaculture and conservation of O. belangeri.

      PubDate: 2016-11-22T14:07:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
       
  • Feeding stimulants in an omnivorous species, crucian carp Carassius
           carassius (Linnaeus 1758)

    • Authors: Lundh
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): K.Håkan Olsén, Torbjörn Lundh
      Many fish are during feeding dependent on both an olfactory and gustatory sense. Olfaction that acts as the distance sense induces arousal, food search behaviour and attraction to the source, followed by examination of food items by the gustatory sense. During buccal handling the fish decide if the feed will be rejected or swallowed. Amino acids are often stimulatory to the gustatory sense and can act as feeding stimulants. There are, however, inter-species differences concerning what kinds of amino acids act as feeding stimulants or deterrents. The species differences are probably dependent on the natural food choice. As feeding stimulating molecules increase feeding and growth, but deterrents have the reverse effect, it is important to know what kind of molecules have either effect. In the present study we record mouth handling time in the omnivorous crucian carp, Carassius carassius, of agar pellets containing water extracts of meal consisting of ordinary food pellets, blue mussels or a commercial carp attractant. These tests were followed by testing with agar pellets with synthetic amino acids, based on the content of the water extracts of the food pellets that was the only feeding stimulant. Neither extracts of mussel meal or of commercial carp attractants had a stimulating effect, i.e. no significant difference in handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. A mixture of five of the major amino acids in the food pellet extract (40mM alanine, 20mM glycine, 20mM arginine, 8mM serine, 8mM leucin) gave a significant longer handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. The handling time was also longer for the three amino acids that had the highest concentrations (40mM Ala, 20mM Gly, 20mM Arg) and finally with only alanine (128mM). Agar pellets with only Ala gave, however, a significant shorter handling time compared to agar pellets with food pellet extract. The mussel meal extract had the same content of free amino acids and their ranking order was the same as in extracts of food pellets, but at much higher concentrations. Based on the free amino acid content, the mussel extract should have stimulated feeding. This indicates that the mussel extract contained compounds that acted as feeding deterrents in omnivorous crucian carp that do not feed on blue mussels in their natural environment. Previous studies have shown that blue mussel extracts act as feeding stimulants in several bottom feeding carnivorous fish. We finally tested betaine (100mM) but the molecule had no significant stimulating effect that has been observed in some other fish species.

      PubDate: 2016-07-08T17:57:05Z
       
 
 
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