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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2986 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1422 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 308)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Aquaculture Reports
  [3 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2352-5134
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3048 journals]
  • Growing halophytes floating at sea

    • Authors: Ricardo Radulovich; María José Rodríguez; Rebeca Mata
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 8
      Author(s): Ricardo Radulovich, María José Rodríguez, Rebeca Mata
      Freshwater shortages are increasingly limiting both irrigated and rainfed agriculture. To expand possibilities for controlled plant production without using land nor freshwater, we cultivated potted halophytes floating at sea that were provided with rain- and seawater. Plantlets of two mangroves (Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle) and plants of two herbaceous species, sea purslane (Sesuvium portulacastrum) and salt couch grass (Sporobolus virginicus) were grown in near-coastal tropical Pacific waters of Costa Rica for 733days. There were a total of 504 rainless days, including two dry periods of ca. 150 d long each, evidencing prolonged and exclusive reliance on seawater. Pots with a sandy soil mixture and the transplanted plants were placed on low-cost wooden floating rafts with their lower end perforated and immersed for capillary rise of water. Free seawater entry and exit through the bottom from bobbing with waves, which also occasionally added water from the top, effectively controlled soil salinity build-up even during the rainless seasons. Continuous leaching made necessary frequent fertilizer addition. No water deficit symptoms were observed and midday canopy temperature during rainless periods was not significantly different between species or from air temperature. With all-year-round growth, height increase of mangrove plantlets ranged from 208.1 to 401.5mmyr−1. Fresh biomass production of sea purslane and the grass was 10.9 and 3.0kgm−2 yr−1 respectively. High yield, edibility and protein content of 10.2% dry weight established sea purslane as a potential crop. While further research is needed, the method evidenced to be a viable plant production option of potentially far-reaching applications.

      PubDate: 2017-08-13T10:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2017)
       
  • Parasitological and histological analysis of a new species of the genus
           Thalohanellus and description of a myxozoan parasite (Myxosporea:
           Bivalvulida) from cultured ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus L.

    • Authors: Mandira Saha; P.K. Bandyopadhyay
      Pages: 8 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 8
      Author(s): Mandira Saha, P.K. Bandyopadhyay
      An ornamental fish parasitological survey of West Bengal, India during the year 2014–16 revealed that goldfish, Carassius auratus, was the most susceptible species for myxozoan infestation. This communication revealed the presence of two myxosporean species belonging to the genera Myxobolus and Thelohanellus. Although myxozoan infestation has been determined by isolating small to large, spherical to ellipsoidal plasmodia up to 0.5–2.5mm were filled with disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores. M. ichkeulensis and one new species T. dipaki n. sp. have been isolated infecting the ornamental goldfish (Carassius auratus) for the first time in India. In the present study, new host, and new locality for M. ichkeulensis have been reported. The description of M. ichkeulensis is being considered as a first report from India. Spore of T. dipaki n. sp. measures uniquely 13.99±0.60×9.82±0.60μm in size, having a one globular pyriform polar capsule measuring 7.45±0.62×5.91±0.39μm. The severity of newly isolated myxozoan infestation has also been assessed by the histopathological changes of fins of the hostfish. A combination of light and scanning electron microscopic observation along with its severity of infestation, comparison of same and closely related species has been incorporated to identify the new species. The paper deals with the diversity, distribution and taxonomic descriptions of new and known myxozoan species along with new host, locality records and incidence of infestation.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T07:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2017)
       
  • Effect of ammonia-N on histology and expression of immunoglobulin M and
           component C3 in the spleen and head kidney of Pelteobagrus vachellii

    • Authors: Chuan-jie Qin; Ting Shao; Yong-ming Wang; quan Gong; Qin Yang; Ping Bu
      Pages: 16 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 8
      Author(s): Chuan-jie Qin, Ting Shao, Yong-ming Wang, quan Gong, Qin Yang, Ping Bu
      Ammonia-N is toxic to many aquatic animals and serves as a key stress factor in aquatic environments. The effects of ammonia-N stress on the immune response of darkbarbel catfish Pelteobagrus vachellii were investigated in this study. Changes in overall histology, and in the expression of complement C3 and immunoglobulin M (IgM) in spleen and head kidney, and lysozyme and C3 in serum, were measured in 1 and 5mg/L ammonia-N. Hyperemia, melano-macrophage assembly and loose splenosis were evident in spleen tissue. Both lysozyme and component C3 were significantly reduced in serum (P< 0.05) under both stress treatments, although lysozyme was increased slightly at 24h in the 1mg/L treatment. C3 mRNA expression increased at 6h in spleen and 6–12h in head kidney then decreased rapidly (P <0.05), although C3 mRNA recovered to control levels in spleen at 96h after the 1mg/L treatment (P >0.05). IgM expression also increased significantly at 6–12h in spleen and 6–24h in head kidney after the 1mg/L treatment (P< 0.05). A similar overall pattern were observed with 5mg/L ammonia (P< 0.05); IgM mRNA expression was elevated at 6h in spleen and 6–12h in head kidney (P< 0.05) then decreased to levels below controls (P< 0.05). These results suggest exposure to 5mg/L ammonia-N could damage the histological structure of spleen, diminish lysozyme and component C3 serum content, and suppress C3 and IgM expression in spleen and head kidney.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T12:08:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2017)
       
  • Anti-oxidative effects of some dietary supplements on Yellow perch (Perca
           flavescens) exposed to different physical stressors

    • Authors: Hiam Elabd; Han-Ping Wang; Adel Shaheen; Hong Yao; Amany Abbass
      Pages: 21 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 8
      Author(s): Hiam Elabd, Han-Ping Wang, Adel Shaheen, Hong Yao, Amany Abbass
      In current study, Yellow perch (P. flavescens) was exposed to common forms of physical stressors and antioxidative effects of dietary incorporated Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) were assessed. To address this, for a four-week five groups of fish (31±1.0g, average weight) received 1, 2, and 3% (w/w) Glycyrrhiza glabra; and 1% G. glabra- A. membranaceus mixture daily. Control group fed an additive-free basal diet. Immunological, biochemical and histopathological profiles were evaluated; and fish were redistributed to be exposed to heat, cold, hypoxia and capture stressors. The current findings demonstrated that A. membranaceus and G. glabra dietary incorporation remarkably enhanced antioxidative and biochemical parameters. Also, the study showed markedly up-regulation of related genes expression; and revealed better liver histology in supplemented groups over the control. In conclusion, A. membranaceus and G. glabra dietary supplementation markedly enhanced antioxidantive responses throughout the experimental period, indicating the ability of both herbal plants to confer protection against different physical stressors.

      PubDate: 2017-09-16T12:35:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2017)
       
  • Effects of environmental factors on growth, survival, and metamorphosis of
           geoduck clam (Panopea japonica A. Adams, 1850) larvae

    • Authors: Zhongming Huo; Haowen Guan; M. Golam Rbbani; Youxiang Xiao; Xuekai Zhang; Chao Fan; Zhuang Li; Ying Li; Qidi Wu; Feng Yang; Xiwu Yan
      Pages: 31 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 8
      Author(s): Zhongming Huo, Haowen Guan, M. Golam Rbbani, Youxiang Xiao, Xuekai Zhang, Chao Fan, Zhuang Li, Ying Li, Qidi Wu, Feng Yang, Xiwu Yan
      A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of temperature, salinity, diet, and stocking density on the growth, survival, and metamorphosis of geoduck clam Panopea japonica larvae. The larvae all died at a temperature of 22°C after day 12, suggesting that the larvae of P. japonica could not survive when the temperature was higher than 22°C. P. japonica could be incubated at 19°C for the fast growth, high survival and metamorphosis of larvae. The embryos all died when the salinity was below 25 ppt. The larvae showed poor survival when the salinity was below 25 ppt, with all larvae dying before day 12, suggesting that larvae are sensitive to low salinity. The optimum salinity for the growth, survival and metamorphosis of larvae was 32 ppt. The use of a mixture of Isochrysis galbana and Nitzschia closterium (1:1) as a food source for the P. japonica larvae improved their growth, survival, and metamorphosis. A density of 20 individuals/ml appeared to be optimal for normal D-larvae of Panopea japonica, and 3–9 larvae/ml was optimal for the growth and survival of the P. japonica larvae raised in the hatchery.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T12:45:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2017)
       
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus a causative bacterium for tail rot disease in
           ornamental fish, Amphiprion sebae

    • Authors: Thangapandi Marudhupandi; Thipramalai Thankappan Ajith Kumar; Sanjeevi Prakash; Jeyagoby Balamurugan; Nagarajan Balachandran Dhayanithi
      Pages: 39 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 8
      Author(s): Thangapandi Marudhupandi, Thipramalai Thankappan Ajith Kumar, Sanjeevi Prakash, Jeyagoby Balamurugan, Nagarajan Balachandran Dhayanithi
      The present study was performed to identify the tail rot disease causing bacterium in marine ornamental fish, Amphiprion sebae. Bacteria were isolated from the infected immune organs and tail region of A. sebae. Five different bacterial isolates (S1-S5) with different shape, size and colour were chosen for the infection study. The isolated strains were individually challenged with A. sebae at a constant dose of 1×107 CFU/fish. The virulent strain was found to be S-3, which showed maximum reproducing ability in A. sebae by causing typical tail rot disease and mortality. Furthermore, S-3 strain was identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (KF738005), biochemical analysis and amplification of tox R gene. Subsequently, extracellular products (ECPs) of V. parahaemolyticus were prepared by cellophane overlay method. The LD50 value of V. parahaemolyticus and its ECPS were found to be 1×105 CFU and 5μg/fish. The histology results revealed that V. parahaemolyticus and its ECPS are the major cause of tail rot disease in A. sebae.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T14:26:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2017)
       
  • Effect of dietary supplements in American bullfrogs reared in low and high
           stocking densities

    • Authors: Jorgina Juliana Gradisse Freitas; Priscila Viau; Claudio Alvarenga Oliviera; Patricia Coelho Teixeira; Leonardo Tachibana; Danielle de Carla Dias; Marcio Hipolito; Isabella Cristina C. Bordon; Sthefany Rosa Alfaia; Claudia Maris Ferreira
      Pages: 45 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 8
      Author(s): Jorgina Juliana Gradisse Freitas, Priscila Viau, Claudio Alvarenga Oliviera, Patricia Coelho Teixeira, Leonardo Tachibana, Danielle de Carla Dias, Marcio Hipolito, Isabella Cristina C. Bordon, Sthefany Rosa Alfaia, Claudia Maris Ferreira
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the probiotic Bacillus subtillis and beta-glucan from the fungus Agaricus blazei on survival, growth and immunological capacity in bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) cultured in low and high stocking densities. Animals weighing 24.3±2.38g were randomly distributed into four treatments with four simultaneous replicates: D100: 100 frogs/m2 (control); D236: 236 frogs/m2; D236+Prob.: 236 frogs/m2 supplemented with probiotic; and D236+BG: 236 frogs/m2 supplemented with beta-glucan. The parameters evaluated were weight gain, survival, plasma corticosterone (CORT), phagocytic capacity (PC) and phagocytic index (PI), at 24h and 15 and 30days. There is significant interaction between treatments and time for CORT levels. At 30days, these values were very close for the D100 (control) and D236+BG groups. Meanwhile, no statistical differences were observed between treatments for PC and PI. These results indicate that beta-glucan reduced the effects of stress caused by high density in bullfrogs, but the probiotic did not reduce these effects. Both compounds are not efficient at increasing survival rates, weight gain and neither immune response of animals. Thus, the use of commercial food additives may not have the favorable impact desired by the farmer. Their use in aquaculture should be further studied in experiments involving a longer trial period and taking into account the cost of their use.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T14:26:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2017)
       
  • Measurement of gastrointestinal passage rate in Atlantic salmon (Salmo
           salar) fed dry or soaked feed

    • Authors: Turid Synnøve Aas; Hanne Jorun Sixten; Marie Hillestad; Harald Sveier; Trine Ytrestøyl; Bjarne Hatlen; Torbjørn Åsgård
      Pages: 49 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 8
      Author(s): Turid Synnøve Aas, Hanne Jorun Sixten, Marie Hillestad, Harald Sveier, Trine Ytrestøyl, Bjarne Hatlen, Torbjørn Åsgård
      A method for measurement of gastrointestinal passage rate was tried in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar (body weight 1131g, temperature 13.5°C, salinity 32‰). Salmon were force fed one single ration (10g) extruded feed ‘as is’ (92% dry matter) or soaked 2h in sea water (70% dry matter), in triplicate with three individuals per replicate. Content from stomach, small intestine and distal intestine was collected at 2, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48h after feeding. Two hours after feeding, significantly more feed was transferred from the stomach to the small intestine in salmon fed soaked feed than in those fed dry feed. After that, no significant differences in gastrointestinal passage rate were found. Numerically however, soaked feed seemed to pass through the gut faster than dry feed. The content in stomach declined gradually, and all stomachs were empty after 48h. Salmon in both treatment groups used 6–12h on average to empty the stomach 50%. The content in small intestine peaked at the sampling 12h post feeding for salmon fed both feed types. After 48h, the small intestines were empty in all three replicates of salmon fed soaked feed, and in one replicate fed dry feed. The largest amounts of dry matter in the distal intestine were found between 12 and 24h for both feed groups. Some dry matter was still present in the hindgut after 48h. Individual variation in the gastrointestinal passage rate was large and few significant differences were revealed. However, soaked feed gave a significantly higher gastric evacuation rate than dry feed shortly (2h) after feeding. As the fish regurgitated some pellets, the method may be most suitable when feeding small rations. Besides, due to variation a larger number of replicates would increase the power of the test.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T07:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2017)
       
  • Effect of stocking density and source of animal protein on growth and
           survival of rainbow trout fingerlings in flow-through system at Nuwakot,
           Nepal

    • Authors: Prem Timalsina; Choudhary Nagendra Roy Yadav; Gopal Prasad Lamsal; Krishna Prasad Acharya; Narayan Prasad Pandit
      Pages: 58 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 8
      Author(s): Prem Timalsina, Choudhary Nagendra Roy Yadav, Gopal Prasad Lamsal, Krishna Prasad Acharya, Narayan Prasad Pandit
      An experiment was conducted in outdoor nursing raceways with flow-through system (2.7m2) at the Fisheries Research Station, Trishuli, Nuwakot Nepal for 249days to evaluate the effect of stocking density and sources of animal protein on growth and survival of rainbow trout fingerlings production. The experiment was conducted in 2×2 factorial completely randomized design having two stocking densities, (density-1: 10kg/m2 and density-2: 12.5kg/m2) and two diets (diet-1: shrimp meal based diet and diet-2: 5% bovine blood meal mixed diet). All treatments were replicated thrice. Water from the Trishuli river was used and 50cm water depth was maintained in all treatments. Initial feeding rate of 10% of the body weight was gradually reduced to 8, 7, 6, 5, 4 and 3% was maintained for the subsequent months. Feeding was done 5 times a day throughout the study period. Results showed that the mean total harvest weight in diet-1 (30.17±1.34kg) was significantly higher than in diet-2 (22.77±1.34kg); however, no significance difference was observed at stocking density levels. Mean survival of fish in diet-1 (60.30±2.08%) was significantly higher than diet-2 (47.78±2.08%). Similarly, survivability of fish in density-1 (63.45±2.08%) was significantly higher than in density-2 (44.63±2.08%). The mean dissolve oxygen at density-2 (8.89±0.02mg/L) was significantly lower to that of density-1 (8.94±0.02mg/L) and B:C ratio was high with shrimp meal based diet and high stocking density (T3). In the present study, the treatment with shrimp meal based diet and high stocking density (T3) was superior with high mean total harvest weight, gross fish yield, low FCR and high B: C ratio than other treatment combinations. The present study demonstrated that growth, production and survival performances of rainbow trout in the present experimental condition were not satisfactory by substituting a part of shrimp meal by blood meal.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T07:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2017)
       
  • Freshwater fish for nutrition security in India: Evidence from FAO data

    • Authors: Nagesh Kumar Barik
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Nagesh Kumar Barik
      The nutritional dimension is integral to the concept of food security. A wide range of food commodities are required to fulfill nutritional security need of the people. Animal proteins which include milk, fish, meat and egg are essentially required for nutritionally balanced diets which are available from diverse food commodities. The fish in general and freshwater fish in particular are among the fast growing sectors with increasing contributions in the nutrition security of Indian consumers. The present paper analyses relative role of fish in the nutritional security of India based on the food balance sheet data of FAO available for the period 1961–2013. The apparent fish consumption per capita per year in India has increased primarily due to increase in freshwater fish availability from 0.7kg/cap/year in 1961–3.48kg/cap/year in 2013, enabling increase in the overall fish availability from 1.9 to 5.04kg/cap/year during this period. During 1961–2013, contributions of freshwater fish to non-vegetarian protein, animal protein and total protein increased from 9.1 to 27.2, 3.3–8.7 and 0.4–1.7%, respectively

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T07:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Metabolomic analysis of marine and mud crabs based on antibacterial
           activity

    • Authors: A.A. Laith; M. Ambak; A.B. Abol-Munafi; W.W.I. Nurhafizah; M. Najiah
      Pages: 7 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): A.A. Laith, M. Ambak, A.B. Abol-Munafi, W.W.I. Nurhafizah, M. Najiah
      Isolated compounds from marine invertebrates are being increasingly known to possess various pharmacological activities with which many useful drugs have been developed. Crabs contain bioactive compounds including antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral metabolites, isolated from various tissues and organs that have revolutionized treatment of serious diseases. The present study represents the first attempt to investigate and compare the natural antibacterial properties from whole extract of marine blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus, and mud crab, Scylla tranquebarica, against fish pathogenic bacteria. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry utilizing a time-of-flight (TOF) mass analyser (LC/MS-QTOF) based metabolomics approach was used to characterize the variation in secondary metabolite production in P. pelagicus and S. tranquebarica crab habitats in Malaysia. Different metabolites are evaluated in both crab species using LC/MS-QTOF. Initially a total of 75 metabolites were identified and only 19 metabolites satisfied the P-Corr cut-off point of less than 0.01 and at least 2-fold change. These metabolites, which contain anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, were down regulated in S. tranquebarica samples and up regulated in P. pelagicus samples. In vitro bioassay of methanolic P. pelagicus extracts showed the best antimicrobial response against Gram positive bacteria, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Gram negative bacteria, Vibrio alginolyticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli, with a statistically significant difference (P< 0.05) of P. pelagicus extracts as compared to S. tranquebarica. The results indicate that both types of crab extracts are bactericidal at higher concentrations and bacteriostatic at lower concentrations. This manuscript reports the role of marine and mud crabs with specific emphasis on their secondary metabolites, and discusses current and future developments in both the production of desired crab metabolites and their potential uses in pharmaceutical industries.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T12:55:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Effect of fish vitellogenin on the growth of juvenile catfish, Clarias
           gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

    • Authors: Subir Kumar Juin; Shrabanti Sarkar; Sudipta Maitra; Panchanan Nath
      Pages: 16 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Subir Kumar Juin, Shrabanti Sarkar, Sudipta Maitra, Panchanan Nath
      The effect of heterologous fish vitellogenin (Vg)- implantation on growth performance in the juveniles of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus, was evaluated under ambient photoperiod and temperature during February–April (experiment 1) and again at May–August (experiment 2). Compared to either unimplanted (control) or bovine serum albumin (BSA)-implanted group, juveniles (average body weight: 3.5–4g) implanted (im) with Vg pellets (each containing 100μg of Clarias batrachus Vg, three per fish, at one month interval), revealed significantly (P< 0.05) higher specific growth rate (SGR) at 90days during both time frames. Congruent with accelerated somatic growth due to Vg-implantation, a trend of increase in plasma level of growth hormone (GH), estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) was recorded during expt. 1. While plasma E2 and T did not vary significantly, Vg-implantation promoted significant (P< 0.05) increase in plasma GH level in both the sexes during the course of expt. 2. Moreover, Vg-implantation could trigger significant alteration in gonadal growth; while control testis contained primarily spermatogonia (SG) and spermatocytes (SC), appearance of spermatozoa (SZ) was noticed in either Vg-implanted (expt. 1) or both BSA- and Vg-treated juveniles (expt. 2). Conversely, a robust increase in S III yolky oocytes was observed in Vg-implanted ovary during May–Aug; but not during expt. 1 (Feb–Apr). However, oocytes at earlier stages (S I and/or S II) of follicular growth and development were predominant in control ovary. Though the underlying mechanism is not yet clearly understood, present data indicate that implantation of Vg pellets in juvenile C. gariepinus may influence somatic growth indices; e.g., body weight gain and GH synthesis along with precocious gonadal growth in a manner sensitive to gonadal steroidogenesis.

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T14:08:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Long-term maintenance of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in culture

    • Authors: Paola Cirino; Martina Ciaravolo; Angela Paglialonga; Alfonso Toscano
      Pages: 27 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Paola Cirino, Martina Ciaravolo, Angela Paglialonga, Alfonso Toscano
      The common sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) is an important commercial species in the Mediterranean Sea for the consumption of its gonads (roe). This species has also long been used as an animal model in developmental biology and as an indicator in the assessment of environmental quality. In recent decades, the exploitation of this marine resource has become increasingly intensive, causing the depletion of wild stocks. The ripple effect observed in the laboratory use of this species has been the growing difficulty in finding valiant mature animals in the wild. We focused on the long-term maintenance of wild P. lividus and on the essential question of diet to maintain the animals and improve gonad development. The use of practical ration blocks which are nutrient-rich and show stability, easy storage and handling, resulted reduction in labor requirement and time for feeding streamlining the feeding practice. A significantly higher gonad production and a prolonged period of reproduction were obtained compared to wild caught individuals over the same period of time.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T17:07:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Nutritional value of toasted pigeon pea, Cajanus cajan seed and its
           utilization in the diet of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings
           

    • Authors: Solomon Gabriel Solomon; Victor Tosin Okomoda; Samson Omirenya Oda
      Pages: 34 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Solomon Gabriel Solomon, Victor Tosin Okomoda, Samson Omirenya Oda
      The nutritional value of toasted pigeon pea Cajanus cajan seed in the diet of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) was investigated in this study by progressively increasing its inclusion level (100, 200, 300 and 400gkg−1) in isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) and isoenergetic (17.7kJg−1) diets. Toasting of the C. cajan seed significantly reduced the anti-nutrients and increased most essential amino acid, protein, and fibre in the seeds. The growth of C. gariepinus (1.36±0.05g) fingerlings fed in triplicate 1×1×1m3 hapa pond system (n =40 in triplicates) was significantly improved by the different inclusion levels of toasted C. cajan in the diets after 56days. Comparing the performance of the fish fed 400gkg−1 of toasted C. cajan with that fed raw seed (400gkg−1) reveal the efficacy of this processing method in improving the utilization of the feedstuff. Mortality was significantly higher (32%) in fish fed the diet containing raw inclusion compared to that fed the control diet or inclusion of toasted C. cajan (<5%). Cost analysis revealed that it was economically cheaper to raise the African catfish using toasted C. cajan at 400gkg−1. It was therefore concluded that toasting improves the nutritional quality of C. cajan, resulting in better performance at higher inclusion levels, hence, can possibly reduce the cost of catfish production.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T17:07:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Use practices of antimicrobials and other compounds by shrimp and fish
           farmers in Northern Vietnam

    • Authors: Tran Thi Kim Chi; Jesper H. Clausen; Phan Thi Van; Britt Tersbøl; Anders Dalsgaard
      Pages: 40 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Tran Thi Kim Chi, Jesper H. Clausen, Phan Thi Van, Britt Tersbøl, Anders Dalsgaard
      Aquaculture production is increasing in Vietnam, but is hampered by frequent disease outbreaks and widespread use of various compounds used to treat the fish and shrimp. The objective of this study was to analyse factors influencing farmer use practices of antimicrobials and other compounds by a questionnaire and observational survey conducted with 60 whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and 25 fish farmers in three coastal provinces in Northern Vietnam. Personnel in 22 shops distributing feed and chemicals for aquaculture were interviewed about their advice on sale to the farmers. Results showed that 20 different antimicrobial products were used for disease prevention and treatment in shrimp and marine fish culture. Banned products used included chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin and malachite green. Cage fish farmers said they purchased antimicrobial tablets readily available at a local pharmacy and sold for human use. Chinese traders were the main drug suppliers to the shrimp farmers in Quang Ninh and others provinces. Their products were sold with labels and product information written in Chinese only. Farmers appeared to have little awareness and concern about the disease aetiology when applying specific antimicrobials. Up to 50% of the shrimp farmers used up to 20 different disinfectants, e.g. chlorine-based compounds, to disinfect water in storage ponds, often without knowledge of the type of disinfectants and their mode of action. A variety of probiotics, vitamins, minerals and herbal extracts were routinely used by mainly shrimp farmers to enhance shrimp immunity. There is an urgent need to provide aquaculture farmers access to diagnostic and independent disease control advisory services and quality medicated feed, since the current indiscriminate use of antimicrobials and other compounds are inefficient, costly, and hazardous to the aquatic animal and farmer’s health, the environment and food safety.

      PubDate: 2017-06-09T17:28:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Egg quality traits and predictors of embryo and fry viability in red
           snapper Lutjanus campechanus

    • Authors: Agnès Bardon-Albaret; Eric Saillant
      Pages: 48 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Agnès Bardon-Albaret, Eric Saillant
      The quality of red snapper eggs is highly variable and unpredictable in aquaculture, leading to high mortality during early larval rearing. In this work, the viability of red snapper eggs was monitored from fertilization until unfed larvae expired because of exhaustion of vitelline reserves to determine egg quality traits in this species. The spawns were obtained via strip spawning wild-caught females following hormonal induction with chorionic gonadotropin. Females were induced immediately after capture (wild group, n=17) or held captive for the entire maturation period prior to induction (captive group, n=7). Candidate predictors of egg quality measured on the female parent at the time of induction or on the spawn at ovulation were evaluated using correlation and multiple regression analysis. The fertilization rate, the hatching rate, and the duration of survival of unfed larvae post hatch were weakly correlated to each other (-0.23< r< −0.08), revealing occurrence of distinct and independent components of egg quality. Spawns from captive females were characterized by a longer latency interval between hormonal induction and ovulation, lower fecundity, and lower hatching rates, as compared to those from wild females. Among the wild brood fish, a positive correlation was observed between the age of the female and the hatching rate. The best model optimized during stepwise multiple regression analysis of hatching rate data only explained 34% of the variance for this trait and no model could be optimized for the prediction of fertilization rate or the duration of survival post hatch. These results highlight the need to develop alternative egg quality measures to predict the viability of fry with confidence.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T18:45:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • The presence of Vibrionaceae, Betanodavirus and Iridovirus in marine
           cage-cultured fish: Role of fish size, water physicochemical parameters
           and relationships among the pathogens

    • Authors: Azila Abdullah; Rimatulhana Ramli; Mohd Syafiq Mohammad Ridzuan; Munira Murni; Shahidan Hashim; Fahmi Sudirwan; Siti Zahrah Abdullah; Nur Nazifah Mansor; Sofea Amira; Mohd Zamri Saad; Mohammad Noor Azmai Amal
      Pages: 57 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Azila Abdullah, Rimatulhana Ramli, Mohd Syafiq Mohammad Ridzuan, Munira Murni, Shahidan Hashim, Fahmi Sudirwan, Siti Zahrah Abdullah, Nur Nazifah Mansor, Sofea Amira, Mohd Zamri Saad, Mohammad Noor Azmai Amal
      The study determines the presence of Vibrionaceae, Betanodavirus and Iridovirus in marine cage-cultured fish, while identifying the roles of fish size, water physicochemical parameters and relationships among the pathogens itself. Cultured grouper and snapper were randomly sampled from a commercial fish farm between February and December 2014. The total body weight and length of individual fish were measured. The kidney, liver and spleen were sampled for bacteria isolation, while for viral identification, the sample of brain, eye, kidney and spleen were used. Water physicochemical parameters during the sampling activities were also determined. Laboratory results revealed isolations of multiple pathogens including Vibrio alginolyticus, V. vulnificus, Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (PD), Nervous Necrosis Virus (NNV) and Iridovirus (IV) at low to high prevalence throughout the study period. The weight of affected groupers ranged between 98g and 719g, while snappers between 67g and 982g. There was a weak and moderate negative correlation between the grouper’s weight and the presence of NNV (R =−0.3684; P <0.05) and V. vulnificus (R =−0.6451; P <0.05), respectively. No significant (P >0.05) difference was noted in the rate of isolated pathogens between groupers and snappers, and between the pathogens affecting snappers. However, detection of IV in groupers was significantly (P<0.05) higher than V. alginolyticus, V. vulnificus and PD. Isolations of V. vulnificus in groupers showed strong and moderate positive correlations with isolations of PD (R =0.7069; P< 0.05) and IV (R =0.6665; P< 0.05), respectively. In snappers, there was strong positive correlation between isolation of V. alginolyticus and NNV (R =0.7526; P< 0.05). Multivariate analyses showed that water temperature, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, iron and nitrite were the most significant water physicochemical parameters associated with presence of these pathogens.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T07:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Light and scanning electron microscopic studies of Myxobolus indica n. sp.
           and a report of three Myxozoan (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) parasites of
           cultured ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus L. for the first time in
           India

    • Authors: Mandira Saha; P.K. Bandyopadhyay
      Pages: 66 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Mandira Saha, P.K. Bandyopadhyay
      The ornamental fish industry is an economically viable sector in India which suffers from different ectoparasitic infestations, including the myxozoan parasites. An icthyoparasitological survey of myxozoan infections in ornamental fish farms in India revealed the presence of four myxozoan parasites belonging to the family Myxobolidae, in the genera Myxobolus and Thelohanellus. The myxozoan spores were small to large, spherical to ellipsoidal in size. The plasmodia measured 0.5–3.0mm in diameter with disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores. During the survey the authors identified for the first time in India, three previously described species, namely, M. mehlhorni, T. nikolskii and T. batae; and one new species M. indica n. sp., all infecting the ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus. The present study thus reports a new host, and a new locality for T. batae and M. mehlhorni. The description of T. nikolskii is the first record found in India. The spore of M. indica n. sp. measures 5.8±0.2×4.1±0.5μm in size, having two equal shaped pyriform polar capsules measuring 4.1±0.4×2.7±0.6μm. The results from a combination of light and scanning electron microscopic observations along with a comparison with closely related species were incorporated here. Molecular data is needed to complete the description of the new species.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-19T19:38:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Valuation of vegetable crops produced in the UVI Commercial Aquaponic
           System

    • Authors: Donald S. Bailey; Rhuanito S. Ferrarezi
      Pages: 77 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Donald S. Bailey, Rhuanito S. Ferrarezi
      The UVI Commercial Aquaponic System is designed to produce fish and vegetables in a recirculating aquaculture system. The integration of these systems intensifies production in a small land area, conserves water, reduces waste discharged into the environment, and recovers nutrients from fish production into valuable vegetable crops. A standard protocol has been developed for the production of tilapia yielding 5 MT per annum. The production of many vegetable crops has also been studied but, because of specific growth patterns and differences of marketable product, no single protocol can be promoted. Each crop yields different value per unit area and this must be considered when selecting varieties to produce to provide the highest returns to the farmer. Variables influencing the value of a crop are density (plants/m2), yield (unit or kg), production period (weeks) and unit value ($). Combining these variables to one unit, $/m2/week, provides a common point for comparison among crops. Farmers can focus production efforts on the most valuable crops or continue to produce a variety of crops meeting market demand with the knowledge that each does not contribute equally to profitability.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T20:57:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Retraction notice to “Comparison of all morphotype males and various
           types stocking density of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) on growth and
           survival rate” [Aquaculture Reports 3C (2016) 184-188]

    • Authors: Mst. Rubia Banu; Siti Shapor Siraj; Annie Christianus; Natrah Fatin Mohd Ikhsan; Amy Halimah Rajaee
      First page: 83
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 7
      Author(s): Mst. Rubia Banu, Siti Shapor Siraj, Annie Christianus, Natrah Fatin Mohd Ikhsan, Amy Halimah Rajaee
      This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the
      Authors . The article is a duplicate of a paper that has already been published in Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 2016; 15 (2):738-750 here: http://www.jifro.ir/article-1-2213-en.html. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that the paper is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. As such this article represents an abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T07:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.06.007
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
       
  • Effects of dietary lipid levels on growth, body composition and
           antioxidants of clamworm (Perinereis aibuhitensis)

    • Authors: Fu Lv; Fei Liu; Yebing Yu; Aimin Wang; Wenping Yang; Qing Nie; Tian Wang
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Fu Lv, Fei Liu, Yebing Yu, Aimin Wang, Wenping Yang, Qing Nie, Tian Wang
      To determine the effects of dietary lipid levels on growth performance, body composition and antioxidant parameters of clamworm (Perinereis aibuhitensis), 1050 clamworms were fed diets with seven lipid levels (2.37%, 4.35%, 6.29%, 8.41%, 10.31%, 12.29% and 14.33%, named L2.37, L4.35, L6.29, L8.41, L10.31, L12.29 and L14.33, respectively) for 10 weeks. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 50 clamworms. The results showed that the growth performance and protein efficiency ratio were significantly affected by the lipid levels. Clamworms fed L8.41 diet exhibited higher growth performance than others and the maximum specific growth rate can be possibly obtained when the diets were supplemented with 7.54% lipid level. The dietary lipid levels had significant influences on the whole body crude protein, crude lipid, moisture contents and ash profile of P. aibuhitensis. The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were also enhanced with increasing dietary lipid levels in whole body analyses. The contents of malonaldehyde (MDA) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in clamworms increased significantly with increasing dietary lipid levels. Meanwhile, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and total autioxidative capacity (T-AOC) tended to strengthen with dietary lipid levels increasing from 2.37% to 10.31% (except the GPX with 12.29% dietary lipid levels), and weaken with dietary lipid levels increasing from 10.31% to 14.33%. These results demonstrated that a proper dietary lipid level of 7.54%–10.31% could maintain solid growth performance and antioxidant capacity of juvenile P. aibuhitensis.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T17:53:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Effects of canarium fruit (Canarium odontophyllum) oil as a dietary lipid
           source for juvenile mahseer (Tor tambroides) performance

    • Authors: M.L. Bami; M.S. Kamarudin; C.R. Saad; A. Arshad; M. Ebrahimi
      Pages: 8 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): M.L. Bami, M.S. Kamarudin, C.R. Saad, A. Arshad, M. Ebrahimi
      Canarium is among the riverine fruits that are commonly found in the natural diet of Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides. The fruit contains a high percentage of lipids. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of canarium crude oil on the growth performance, body composition and fatty acid profile of juvenile T. tambroides. Five isonitrogenous (40% crude protein) diets containing varying canarium oil levels (0, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5%) were prepared. Crude palm oil (CPO) was used as the control. The juveniles (2.08±0.10g) were given the test diets for 12 weeks in triplicate groups. Diets containing canarium oil were found to be less accepted by the fish which led to a significantly lower (P< 0.05) daily feed intake than diet including 0% canarium oil. Juveniles fed on 1.25–5% canarium oil also showed significantly lower (P<0.05) weight gain, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio than those fed 0% canarium oil. However, the canarium oil level did not have any significant effect (P>0.05) on survival and lean portion of juvenile T. tambroides. The fish fed canarium oil-free diet also had better tissue fatty acid profile (especially n-3 and n-6 PUFA) as well as better protein, lipid and energy retention than those fed diets including canarium oil. From the results, canarium oil extracted from the whole fruit was not recommended as a dietary lipid source for T. tambroides. Moreover, juveniles fed on 0% canarium oil (5% CPO) utilized dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) more efficiently for their energy requirement than fish given canarium oil.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T00:33:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Effects of dietary tannin on growth, feed utilization and digestibility,
           and carcass composition in juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax
           L.)

    • Authors: Marie-Hélène Omnes; Julien Le Goasduff; Hervé Le Delliou; Nicolas Le Bayon; Patrick Quazuguel; Jean H. Robin
      Pages: 21 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Marie-Hélène Omnes, Julien Le Goasduff, Hervé Le Delliou, Nicolas Le Bayon, Patrick Quazuguel, Jean H. Robin
      Plant-based products in fish diets are valuable protein alternatives to fishmeal for the aquafeed industry. Many plant feed ingredients contain polyphenolic compounds, including tannins, which can have beneficial or adverse effects. The tolerable threshold of ingested tannins is unknown for marine carnivorous fishes. We studied the effects of tannic acid (TA) supplementation to the diet of juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) by measuring growth, feed utilization and digestibility, and carcass composition. We randomly allocated groups of fish (initial mean body weight of 10.2±0.7g; n =40 fish per tank) to 12 replicate cylindrical-conical tanks (three per treatment). The fish were assigned to one of four dietary treatments for five weeks: control diet (C) with tannin-free protein sources (mostly fishmeal as the base diet, containing 55.7% dry matter (DM) crude protein, gross energy 22.3kJg−1 DM) and three experimental diets supplemented with 10, 20, or 30gTAkg−1 (called TA1, TA2, and TA3, respectively). Tannin ingestion resulted in significantly decreased cumulative feed intake, growth, feed and protein efficiencies, apparent digestibility coefficients, hepatosomatic index, and carcass lipids. The protein digestibility in fish fed the 10gkg−1 tannin-containing diet was significantly lower than that in fish fed the control diet. This threshold should be taken into account when using novel terrestrial and aquatic plant ingredients for temperate marine fishes.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T04:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Productive performance and digestibility in the initial growth phase of
           tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fed diets with different carbohydrate and
           lipid levels

    • Authors: L.C.G. Sandre; H. Buzollo; T.M.T. Nascimento; L.M. Neira; R.K. Jomori; D.J. Carneiro
      Pages: 28 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): L.C.G. Sandre, H. Buzollo, T.M.T. Nascimento, L.M. Neira, R.K. Jomori, D.J. Carneiro
      The use of dietary protein can be optimized by increasing diet energy, which can be achieved by adding non-protein nutrients such as carbohydrates and lipids. If incorporated in suitable amounts, these items can promote the protein sparing effect, reducing nitrogen excretion and improving the quality of fish farming effluents. The study assessed productive performance, body composition, nutrient and energy retention efficiency and digestibility of the omnivorous fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fed diets with three carbohydrate (410, 460 and 510gkg−1) and two lipid levels (40 and 80gkg−1) in the initial growth phase (juvenile weighing between 10 and 250g). The experiment was completely randomized, with six treatments and four replicas arranged in a 3×2 factorial design. The 1080 tambaqui tested (10.88±0.13g body weight) were randomly distributed into 24 tanks (500L; 45 fish/tank) and fed the test diets for 120days. The highest carbohydrate inclusion (510gkg−1) reduced food intake and fish growth. A protein sparing effect was observed in the growth of tambaqui fed 460gkg−1 carbohydrates since they showed higher weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, protein productive value and crude protein participation in weight gain. The increase in lipid levels from 40gkg−1 to 80gkg−1 increased body fat deposition and decreased the digestibility coefficients of diet nutrients and diet energy. The results demonstrate that the ideal balanced diet to grow juvenile tambaqui is 460gkg−1 carbohydrates and 40gkg−1 lipids.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T04:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Copepod swimming behavior, respiration, and expression of stress-related
           genes in response to high stocking densities

    • Authors: Birgitte Nilsson; Hans H. Jakobsen; Peter Stief; Guillaume Drillet; Benni W. Hansen
      Pages: 35 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Birgitte Nilsson, Hans H. Jakobsen, Peter Stief, Guillaume Drillet, Benni W. Hansen
      Using copepod nauplii as live feed in aquaculture hatcheries could solve high mortality rates of first-feeding fish larvae due to malnutrition. However, implementing the use of copepod nauplii on an intensive production scale requires a stable production at preferably high densities, which is problematic for calanoid copepod species like Acartia tonsa. In the present study, we evaluated the response of copepods experiencing stress under high-density conditions by assessing the acute stress level of A. tonsa. Control density was at 100ind.L−1 while the treatments were increased stepwise up to 10,000ind.L−1. Three biological/physiological end-points were studied: swimming behavior, respiration rate and expression level of stress-related genes. None of the elevated densities caused any significant change in swimming behavior, respiration rate or gene expression level. This study suggests that adults of A. tonsa do not exhibit any measurable acute stress response when exposed to high culture densities for 12h.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T04:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Characterization of tilapia farming in net cages at a tropical reservoir
           in Brazil

    • Authors: Geórgia Dantas Roriz; Marina Karina de Veiga Cabral Delphino; Ian A. Gardner; Vitor Salvador Picão Gonçalves
      Pages: 43 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Geórgia Dantas Roriz, Marina Karina de Veiga Cabral Delphino, Ian A. Gardner, Vitor Salvador Picão Gonçalves
      Fish farming in reservoirs is a growing aquaculture sector in Brazil. This study aimed to characterize Nile tilapia health and production patterns in net cages at a tropical reservoir in Brazil, to provide baseline information for future studies and policies. The study was carried out in 2015, at the Reservoir of Três Marias, Minas Gerais, and involved all (32) fish farmers in the most important fish production area of the reservoir. Tilapia was the only species commercially farmed and was sold to local slaughterhouses. Aquaculture was the sole income-generating activity for 17% of farmers. Only two farms received regular technical assistance. Most farmers cleaned fish cages and tools, did not share equipment with other farms and appropriately discarded dead or dying fish in ditches. Farmers perceived the primary causes of fish mortality in the reservoir to be water temperature and water level (72%), fingerling quality (31%) and improper feed management (24%). Farmers’ main concerns were: difficulty in getting environmental licenses (59%), high cost of animal feed (34%) and low water reservoir level (31%). The fish culture in the studied reservoir is an emerging value-chain of small-scale farmers, with limited production technology. Its sustainable development needs to consider environmental issues and requires better access to health and extension services.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T07:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Comparison growth of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae)
           cultivation in floating cage and longline in Indonesia

    • Authors: Ma’ruf Kasim; Ahmad Mustafa
      Pages: 49 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Ma’ruf Kasim, Ahmad Mustafa
      Currently, cultivation using cages for Kappaphycus alvarezii was limited reported before. This study aims to reveal growth of K. alvarezii cultivated in floating cages and longline. The study was conducted in one of cultivation areas in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Total gross weight, propagule growth rate and specific growth rate were performing in this study. During our field experiment, total gross weight of K. alvarezii after 40 days, from 5kg was growth to 22.5±1.40kg and 38.8±1.6kg on longline and floating cages, respectively. Propagule growth rate after 40 days, from 50g was 107.8±7.0g and 152.5±7.9g during April, and 132.0±8.0g and 218.8±8.6g during August, on longline and floating cage, respectively. Specific growth rate of K. alvarezii was high during August, 2.43%day−1 and 3.69%day−1 cultivated in longline and floating cage, respectively. Propagule morphology was white and damage in 40% cultivated by longline and no damage by using floating cage particular in August and September while high dense of herbivorous fish surrounding the experimental sites.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T11:22:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Comparative efficacy of benzocaine, tricaine methanesulfonate and eugenol
           as anesthetic agents in the guppy Poecilia vivipara

    • Authors: Sergio Néstor Bolasina; Alexandre de Azevedo; Ana Cristina Petry
      Pages: 56 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Sergio Néstor Bolasina, Alexandre de Azevedo, Ana Cristina Petry
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy and determine the lowest effective concentration in the guppy, Poecilia vivipara. Fishes were exposed to benzocaine, tricaine methanesulfonate and eugenol at three different concentrations. After induction, they were transferred to an aquarium free of anesthetic for evaluating their recovery time. At the lowest concentration of the three anesthetics (50mgL−1), fish did not reach complete induction. Time to accomplish a light sedation stage was significantly negative-related with concentration using tricaine (145±13.4s with 50mgL−1 to 4.7±0.7s with 200mgL−1) and benzocaine (152.8±13s with 50mgL−1 to 4.0±0.9s with 200mgL−1). For eugenol, significant differences were found between the lowest concentration, 50mgL−1 (241±57.6s) with 100mgL−1 (13.3±3.9s) and 200mgL−1 (9.5±2.6s). Recovery times were significantly longer (P<0.05) with the increase of eugenol concentration from 100mgL−1 to 200mgL−1, with no differences found between the different concentrations of benzocaine and tricaine. Complete induction times were significantly greater (P<0.05) when using eugenol comparing with the other two anesthetic agents in fish exposed at the highest concentrations (200mgL−1). This parameter showed a great dispersion when using eugenol at this concentration. Three fish exposed to 200mgL−1 of eugenol did not recovered from the anesthetic after 180s and presented ventilatory failure. Significantly shorter recovery times (P<0.05) were found using tricaine comparing with eugenol (120±24.8s and 163.5±57.1s, respectively) at the higher concentration (200mgL−1). The optimum dose rates of benzocaine and tricaine for induction within the efficacy criteria stated in this study was 200mgL−1. It can be concluded these anesthetics are the more effective ones, being benzocaine more economically affordable for large-scale use on handling P. vivipara.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T11:22:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Conspecific vitellogenin induces the expression of vg gene in the Indian
           male walking catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.)

    • Authors: Subir Kumar Juin; Bidhan Chandra Mukhopadhyay; Swadesh Ranjan Biswas; Panchanan Nath
      Pages: 61 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 6
      Author(s): Subir Kumar Juin, Bidhan Chandra Mukhopadhyay, Swadesh Ranjan Biswas, Panchanan Nath
      To understand the regulatory mechanism of Vg induced vitellogenin synthesis the vg gene expression in Indian male walking catfish, Clarias batrachus was investigated. Semipurified conspecific Vg containing Vg1 and Vg2 in a ratio of 2.7:1.0 was administered into male catfish and vg cDNA (1.1kb) was amplified from total RNA in liver by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers designed from published sequence of Clarias macrocephalus. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA shared maximum similarities (98–100%) with the corresponding sequences of known E2-induced Vg of C. batrachus and C. macrocephalus in the database. A 0.178kb cDNA fragment nested within the 1.1kb DNA was then amplified by real time PCR to evaluate the role of Vg on relative expression of vg gene. The result revealed a significant upregulation (1.79 fold) of vg mRNA at 6h reaching maximum level (9.78 fold) at 24h post Vg injection as compared to the saline control. Similarly, E2-treatment also showed maximum mRNA expression (7.73 fold) at 24h post injection. The findings suggest that like E2, Vg itself can induce vg gene expression resulting in a significant increase in plasma Vg levels (9.11±0.73mg/ml for Vg1 and 3.02±0.28mg/ml for Vg 2) in male catfish where E2 is lacking. The work provides further opportunity to study the regulatory mechanism of vg gene expression by Vg.

      PubDate: 2017-04-29T12:01:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Economic feasibility of producing oysters using a small-scale Hawaiian
           fishpond model

    • Authors: Jessie Q. Chen; Maria C. Haws; Quentin S.W. Fong; PingSun Leung
      Pages: 41 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Jessie Q. Chen, Maria C. Haws, Quentin S.W. Fong, PingSun Leung
      Traditional fishpond aquaculture in Hawai‘i has declined since global trade provided access to cheaper, imported food. Farming non-native species like the Pacific oyster may prove more profitable than traditional species, and may help maintain the practice of fishpond aquaculture. Little literature exists on the economics of Hawai‘i’s oyster culture or the unique practices involved in fishpond-based production. Based on information supplied by a currently operating farm, we developed an enterprise budget for a model farm in order to 1) assess profitability, 2) determine sensitive input parameters, and 3) use stochastic modeling to determine the likelihood of different economic outcomes. The budget returned a marginally negative profit, with the bulk of operating costs from labor. Decision reversal analysis showed the model farm can be profitable with an increase in market price from US $1.25 to US $1.35 per oyster or a decrease in mortality rate from 50% to 45.9% – both are within reasonable reach in the near future.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T20:24:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
       
  • Effects of substituting fishmeal with soybean meal on growth performance
           and intestinal morphology in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)
           

    • Authors: Ya-ru Wang; Ling Wang; Chun-xiao Zhang; Kai Song
      Pages: 52 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Ya-ru Wang, Ling Wang, Chun-xiao Zhang, Kai Song
      The aim of this study was to determine the impact of replacing fishmeal (FM) with soybean meal (SBM) in the diet of orange-spotted grouper on growth and intestinal tissue structure. FM was replaced with 0%, 50%, or 100% SBM (FM100, FM50, FM0, respectively) to create three iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic experimental diets. Five orange-spotted grouper (initial mean body weight: 59±3g) were stocked into 150-L tanks on a recirculating system, and each dietary treatment level was assigned to three replicate tanks. Fish were fed twice daily for 30 days. Weight gain rate, feed intake and feed efficiency significantly decreased as the proportion of SBM increased. Villus height decreased while lesioning, damage and mixed leucocytes infiltration significantly increased in the intestines of fish fed the FM0 and FM50 diets (P <0.05). With increasing SBM, the expression levels of IL-1β and IL-16 mRNA significantly increased, while the expression level of IL-10 mRNA significantly decreased (P <0.05). In conclusion, increasing the amount of soybean meal in the diets of orange-spotted grouper leads to decrease growth performance and increase intestinal harm.

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T20:24:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of a reliable non-invasive molecular test for the diagnosis of
           the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease of shrimp

    • Authors: Jee Eun Han; Kathy F.J. Tang; Patharapol Piamsomboon; Carlos R. Pantoja
      Pages: 58 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Jee Eun Han, Kathy F.J. Tang, Patharapol Piamsomboon, Carlos R. Pantoja
      Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND, also known as early mortality syndrome, EMS) has caused substantial mortality, up to 100%, in populations of penaeid shrimp cultured in SE Asia and in Latin America. The disease is caused by the bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which secretes binary toxins (PirA vp and PirB vp ) resulting in the deterioration of the hepatopancreas tissue of infected shrimp. Diagnosis, screening, and monitoring of AHPND in shrimp populations involve sacrificing individuals to obtain tissue samples. This sampling method is undesirable when applied to valuable populations of broodstock. Here, we evaluated a non-invasive diagnostic method based on shrimp fecal samples that are analyzed by PCR. Small groups of Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei were exposed to low levels of AHPND-bacteria and their feces were collected prior to any mortality observed (in the bioassays #1 and #2). Two protocols were evaluated. In one, DNA extracted from the fecal samples was directly analyzed by PCR. In the other, the fecal samples were cultured in TSB+ for 6h to enrich the bacterial populations, then the enriched bacterial broth was used for PCR analyses. Our results showed that the presence of V. parahaemolyticus could be detected both in fecal DNA samples and in the enriched bacterial broth, but the bands from the bacterial broth showed stronger amplification than the DNA; 12 strong positive in the enriched bacterial broth, but only 7 strong positive in the fecal DNA samples. Also, the AHPND bacteria present in the feces is infectious, determined by a bioassay of feeding specific pathogen free indicator shrimp with AHPND-feces (in the bioassay #3), and this proves that the AHPND can be transmitted through a fecal-oral route.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T22:42:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
       
  • Characterization of the nutritional quality of amaranth leaf protein
           concentrates and suitability of fish meal replacement in Nile tilapia
           feeds

    • Authors: Charles C. Ngugi; Elijah Oyoo-Okoth; Julius O. Manyala; Kevin Fitzsimmons; Ann Kimotho
      Pages: 62 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Charles C. Ngugi, Elijah Oyoo-Okoth, Julius O. Manyala, Kevin Fitzsimmons, Ann Kimotho
      A number of leafy vegetables, their protein concentrates and hydrolasates are under evaluation as alternative protein ingredients to fish meal (FM) in aquafeeds. This study evaluated the nutritional characteristics and suitability of replacing FM with the amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus) leaf protein concentrates (ALPC) as a protein ingredient in the diet of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Experimental diets were formulated, where 100%, 75%, 50%, 40%, 20% and 0% FM protein was substituted by protein from ALPC. The six dietary treatments were tested in triplicate in static flow-through tanks. The substitution effects were compared in terms of fish growth performance, nutrient utilization, whole body composition and apparent nutrient digestibility. After 160days of feeding, the growth, nutrient utilization and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) in fish fed diets containing 100%, 75%, 50%, 40% and 20% FM were better (P< 0.05) than those fed diet with 0% FM. The Apparent nutrient digestibility was high for protein, lipid and energy and differed significantly among the dietary treatments (P< 0.05). Protein digestibility in fish was highest in feed formulated with 100%, 75%, 50% and 40% FM, which were significantly (P< 0.05) higher than at 25% and 0% FM. Lipid digestibility was comparable for all the diets except fish fed 0% FM. Digestible carbohydrates and dry matter were similar for all dietary treatments (P< 0.05). We demonstrate that it is possible to replace up to 80% of fish meal with ALPC without compromising the performance O. niloticus. These results demonstrate that although it is possible to replace large part of fish meal with ALPC, it is not possible to eliminate it in Nile tilapia diet as alternative protein ingredient.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T01:50:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
       
  • Synergistic effects of dietary nano selenium and vitamin C on growth,
           feeding, and physiological parameters of mahseer fish (Tor putitora)

    • Authors: Kifayat Ullah Khan; Amina Zuberi; Samina Nazir; Imdad Ullah; Zeenat Jamil; Huda Sarwar
      Pages: 70 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Kifayat Ullah Khan, Amina Zuberi, Samina Nazir, Imdad Ullah, Zeenat Jamil, Huda Sarwar
      The current study was conducted to determine the synergistic effects of dietary nano selenium (Nano Se) and vitamin C on growth, feeding, and physiological parameters of juvenile mahseer, Tor putitora. L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (APP) was used as a source of vitamin C. Four semi-purified experimental diets were prepared. A basal diet kept without the supplementation of any micronutrient and the other three diets were formulated such that three different levels of APP (100, 200, and 300mgkg−1) were used in combination with a pre-determined dose of Nano Se (0.68mgkg−1). The results showed that both the micronutrients positively synergized the effects of each other. APP at the rate of 300mgkg−1 showed strong interaction with Nano Se. The APP300 +Nano Se0.68 mgkg−1 diet supplemented diet significantly decreased (P<0.05) the feed conversion ratio (FCR) while significantly increased (P<0.05) the weight gain percentage (WG%), feed conversion efficiency (FCE%), specific growth rate (SGR), and serum growth hormone (GH) concentration. Similarly, the physiological parameters such as red blood cells count (RBCs), hemoglobin level (Hb), hematocrit value (Hct), and serum lysozyme activity were also significantly increased in group of fish fed diet supplemented with APP100 mgkg−1 in combination with Nano Se0.68 mgkg−1 as compared to the control group. The present results clearly indicated the beneficent synergistic effects of Nano Se and APP in mahseer fish. Moreover, the current finding also supported our hypothesis that Nano Se and APP potentiate positively the effect of each other when both the micronutrients are supplemented together in the same fish feed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T01:50:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
       
  • Replacement of fishmeal with processed meal from knife fish Chitala ornata
           in diets of juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    • Authors: Sherilyn T. Abarra; Stephanie F. Velasquez; Kristina Daniela D.C. Guzman; Jaime Lorenzo F. Felipe; Melchor M. Tayamen; Janice A. Ragaza
      Pages: 76 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 5
      Author(s): Sherilyn T. Abarra, Stephanie F. Velasquez, Kristina Daniela D.C. Guzman, Jaime Lorenzo F. Felipe, Melchor M. Tayamen, Janice A. Ragaza
      A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to assess the effects of processed meal from knife fish Chitala ornata (KFM) as fishmeal replacement in diets of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles. Five iso-nitrogenous (36.4% in dry matter) and isolipidic diets (8.6% in dry matter) with 0 (D1), 25 (D2), 50 (D3), 75 (D4) and 100% (D5) KFM inclusions were prepared. With a stocking density of 15 fish (0.59±0.01g) per tank, tilapia juveniles were distributed randomly in fifteen 30-L tanks. Results indicate a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the percent average weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed intake with increasing KFM inclusion up to the level of 75%. There were no adverse effects observed in both blood profile and carcass composition of the tilapia. Hepatosomatic index of fish significantly increased (P <0.05) when KFM was included into the diet of tilapia, compared to those fed D1. Viscerosomatic indices were not significantly different (P >0.05) among treatments. Results of hepatic histopathology showed absence of tumors, lesions and parenchymal inflammation in all treatments. However, mild cell membrane lysis and mild and mild to moderate apoptosis were evident in liver samples. Based on the results, KFM can partially and completely replace dietary protein from fishmeal. Moreover, D4 (75% KFM) is considered the optimal KFM replacement level for Nile tilapia juveniles.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T01:50:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
       
  • The effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog on yellowtail
           kingfish Seriola lalandi (Valenciennes, 1833) spawning and egg quality

    • Authors: A.N. Setiawan; S. Muncaster; S. Pether; A. King; G.W. Irvine; P.M. Lokman; J.E. Symonds
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): A.N. Setiawan, S. Muncaster, S. Pether, A. King, G.W. Irvine, P.M. Lokman, J.E. Symonds
      Communal spawning behaviour in marine aquaculture species often results in a few individuals contributing disproportionate amounts of gametes. This can lead to a reduction in genetic variability and increases the risk of inbreeding among successive generations. Therefore, long term sustainability of captive breeding programmes for such species partly depends upon maintaining a sufficiently high proportion of parents contributing high quality gametes during spawning. The current study was conducted to evaluate if the use of slow-release gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) implants could increase the number of females spawning high quality gametes, and thus increase genetic variation in a captive population of yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi (Valenciennes, 1833). Broodstock fish received implants with or without 500μg of GnRHa during the spawning season. GnRHa treatment was associated with a higher proportion of females contributing to spawning. However, compared to eggs from non-GnRHa-treated broodstock, GnRHa significantly decreased the floating rate, fertilisation rate, number of viable eggs and egg oil globule diameter. Overall, the use of slow-release GnRHa implants is a useful tool to increase parental contribution to spawning, but this benefit must be carefully balanced against lower egg quality.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T07:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
       
  • Effect of dietary lipid on growth performance, body composition, plasma
           biochemical parameters and liver fatty acids content of juvenile yellow
           drum Nibea albiflora

    • Authors: Ligai Wang; Qiong Lu; Shengyu Luo; Wei Zhan; Ruiyi Chen; Bao Lou; Dongdong Xu
      Pages: 10 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Aquaculture Reports, Volume 4
      Author(s): Ligai Wang, Qiong Lu, Shengyu Luo, Wei Zhan, Ruiyi Chen, Bao Lou, Dongdong Xu
      A feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary lipid requirement and its effects on body composition, plasma biochemical parameters and liver fatty acids content in juvenile yellow drum Nibea albiflora. Six animal groups (initial weights, 17.7±0.20g) were fed isonitrogenous diets formulated with increasing lipid levels (52, 70, 94, 111, 129 and 153gkg−1, labeled as L50, L70, L90, L110, L130, L150, respectively) using menhaden oil, twice daily to apparent satiation, for 8 weeks. The results showed that the weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR) of fish fed L130 and L150 lipid diets were significantly higher than those of the animals on the L50 lipid diet. The feed conversion rate (FCR) of fish fed the L130 lipid diet was significantly lower compared with the values obtained for the other groups. Hepatosomatic index (HSI) of fish fed the L90 lipid diet was significantly higher than that of animals on L150 lipid. Whole body and muscle lipid contents increased with increasing dietary lipid level, and the dietary fatty acid profile was reflected in liver tissue. Liver eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) contents in fish fed with the L150 diet were significantly higher compared with the values recorded in the other groups. Total highly-unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) content in liver showed an increasing trend, whereas total saturated fatty acid (SFA) and mono-unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) contents in liver tended to decrease with increasing dietary lipid levels. The plasma triglyceride and cholesterol contents of juvenile N. albiflora increased with the increasing dietary lipid level. Analysis by the broken-line model of percent weight gain indicated the optimal dietary lipid level in juvenile N. albiflora to be 120gkg−1 of the diet.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T07:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
       
  • Rainbow trout adaptation to a warmer Patagonia and its potential to
           increase temperature tolerance in cultured stocks

    • Authors: Sonia Alejandra Crichigno; Leandro Aníbal Becker; Mabel Orellana; Rodrigo Larraza; Guillermo Mirenna; Miguel Angel Battini; Víctor Enrique Cussac
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017
      Source:Aquaculture Reports
      Author(s): Sonia Alejandra Crichigno, Leandro Aníbal Becker, Mabel Orellana, Rodrigo Larraza, Guillermo Mirenna, Miguel Angel Battini, Víctor Enrique Cussac
      The viability of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) culture is being challenged progressively by global warming. Previous trials with Australian and Japanese rainbow trout lines suggested that improvements in thermal performance may be possible. Here, we hypothesized that strain-related differences in physiological response to temperature exist between a north Patagonian hatchery stock (CENSALBA), a Neotropical one (Criadero Boca de Río), and a thermal stream (Valcheta) population of wild introduced rainbow trout. This was tested by comparing, at 20°C, the thermal preference, specific metabolic rate, thermal tolerance, growth, and condition on juveniles of the three strains, and on a Valcheta stream male x CENSALBA female F1 cross. Preferred temperature (PT) and loss of equilibrium temperature (LET, a measure of thermal tolerance) of Valcheta stream and F1 were significantly higher than those of CENSALBA, and the average PTs of Valcheta stream and F1 were higher than the 95% confidence interval of available reference data for rainbow trout. These results suggest that the F1, reared under standard hatchery conditions and selected by growth and thermal preference, presents higher thermal preference and higher thermal tolerance than the current CENSALBA hatchery stock. Introduction of this naturally adapted strain to hatchery stocks would likely result in the improvement of their temperature resistance to warmer waters. Current studies on adults of this F1 generation are underway.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T07:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2017.11.001
       
 
 
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