Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3447 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (267 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (143 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1643 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (50 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (269 journals)
    - BOTANY (250 journals)
    - CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (32 journals)
    - ENTOMOLOGY (75 journals)
    - GENETICS (171 journals)
    - MICROBIOLOGY (286 journals)
    - MICROSCOPY (12 journals)
    - ORNITHOLOGY (29 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (73 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (147 journals)

BIOLOGY (1643 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biologica Venezuelica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Scientiae Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biosystems     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de Biología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Research & Review in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bacterial Empire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
BIO-SITE : Biologi dan Sains Terapan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BIODIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Biological Regulation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.61
Citation Impact (citeScore): 7
Number of Followers: 4  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2212-4926 - ISSN (Online) 2212-4926
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3203 journals]
  • Effects of the MDM-2 inhibitor Nutlin-3a on PDAC cells containing and
           lacking WT-TP53 on sensitivity to chemotherapy, signal transduction
           inhibitors and nutraceuticals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2019Source: Advances in Biological RegulationAuthor(s): Saverio Candido, Stephen L. Abrams, Linda S. Steelman, Kvin Lertpiriyapong, Alberto M. Martelli, Lucio Cocco, Stefano Ratti, Matilde Y. Follo, Ramiro M. Murata, Pedro L. Rosalen, Bruno Bueno-Silva, Severino Matias de Alencar, Paolo Lombardi, Weifeng Mao, Giuseppe Montalto, Melchiorre Cervello, Dariusz Rakus, Agnieska Gizak, Heng-Liang Lin, Massimo Libra Mutations at the TP53 gene are readily detected (approximately 50–75%) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. TP53 was previously thought to be a difficult target as it is often mutated, deleted or inactivated on both chromosomes in certain cancers. In the following study, the effects of restoration of wild-type (WT) TP53 activity on the sensitivities of MIA-PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells to the MDM2 inhibitor nutlin-3a in combination with chemotherapy, targeted therapy, as well as, nutraceuticals were examined. Upon introduction of the WT-TP53 gene into MIA-PaCa-2 cells, which contain a TP53 gain of function (GOF) mutation, the sensitivity to the MDM2 inhibitor increased. However, effects of nutlin-3a were also observed in MIA-PaCa-2 cells lacking WT-TP53, as upon co-treatment with nutlin-3a, the sensitivity to certain inhibitors, chemotherapeutic drugs and nutraceuticals increased. Interestingly, co-treatment with nutlin-3a and certain chemotherapeutic drug such as irinotecan and oxaliplatin resulted in antagonistic effects in cells both lacking and containing WT-TP53 activity. These studies indicate the sensitizing abilities that WT-TP53 activity can have in PDAC cells which normally lack WT-TP53, as well as, the effects that the MDM2 inhibitor nutlin-3a can have in both cells containing and lacking WT-TP53 to various therapeutic agents.
  • Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase: From a glucose metabolism enzyme to
           multifaceted regulator of a cell fate
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2019Source: Advances in Biological RegulationAuthor(s): Agnieszka Gizak, Przemyslaw Duda, Janusz Wisniewski, Dariusz Rakus Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is one of the ancient, evolutionarily conserved enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism. It has been described for a first time in 1943, however, for the next half a century mostly kinetic and structural parameters of animal FBPases have been studied. Discovery of ubiquitous expression of the muscle isozyme of FBPase, thus far considered to merely regulate glycogen synthesis from carbohydrate precursors, and its nuclear localisation in several cell types has risen new interest in the protein, resulting in numerous publications revealing complex functions/properties of FBPase. This review summarises the current knowledge of FBPase in animal cells providing evidence that the enzyme merits the name of moonlighting protein.
  • Pancreatic cancer tumorspheres are cancer stem-like cells with increased
           chemoresistance and reduced metabolic potential
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2019Source: Advances in Biological RegulationAuthor(s): Alice Domenichini, Jeanne S. Edmands, Aleksandra Adamska, Romana-Rea Begicevic, Silvano Paternoster, Marco Falasca Cancer stem cells are a population of slow-cycling cells within the tumour bulk, with self-renewal capacity that attracts interest as a therapeutic target. In highly heterogeneous tumours, like pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) however, the characterisation of cancer stem cells has led to controversial results due to the lack of consensus on specific markers. Here we investigated the characteristics of a population of pancreatic cancer tumorspheres derived from different human pancreatic cancer cell lines and a primary line from a genetically engineered KPC mouse model, using flow cytometry and western blotting to analyse surface and stemness markers. We analysed tumorspheres tumorigenic potential using anchorage-independent soft agar assay as well as their metabolic plasticity and chemoresistance. Pancreatic cancer tumorspheres display a heterogeneous pattern of surface and stemness markers, nevertheless they are characterised by an increased tumorigenic potential and higher chemoresistance. In addition, we have shown that pancreatic cancer tumorspheres have a unique metabolic profile with reduced metabolic potential. Together our results indicate that, despite the heterogeneity characterising pancreatic cancer tumorspheres, we can identify a functional vulnerability that represents a window for pharmacological intervention and development of novel therapeutic strategies.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Crosstalk between Ras and inositol phosphate signaling revealed by lithium
           action on inositol monophosphatase in Schizophyllum commune
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2019Source: Advances in Biological RegulationAuthor(s): Reyna Murry, Olaf Kniemeyer, Katrin Krause, Adolfo Saiardi, Erika Kothe Mushroom forming basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune has been used as a tractable model organism to study fungal sexual development. Ras signaling activation via G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has been postulated to play a significant role in the mating and development of S. commune. In this study, a crosstalk between Ras signaling and inositol phosphate signaling by inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) is revealed. Constitutively active Ras1 leads to the repression of IMPase transcription and lithium action on IMPase activity is compensated by the induction of IMPase at transcriptome level. Astonishingly, in S. commune lithium induces a considerable shift to inositol phosphate metabolism leading to a massive increase in the level of higher phosphorylated inositol species up to the inositol pyrophosphates. The lithium induced metabolic changes are not observable in a constitutively active Ras1 mutant. In addition to that, proteome profile helps us to elucidate an overview of lithium action to the broad aspect of fungal metabolism and cellular signaling. Taken together, these findings imply a crosstalk between Ras and inositol phosphate signaling.
  • Carlo M. Croce Special Symp Lect ABR Vol.71
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s):
  • Gle1 mediates stress granule-dependent survival during chemotoxic stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s): Laura Glass, Susan R. Wente Stress granules (SGs) are non-membrane bound organelles that form in response to multiple different stress stimuli, including exposure to sodium arsenite. SGs are postulated to support cells during periods of stress and provide a protective effect, allowing survival. Gle1 is a highly conserved, essential modulator of RNA-dependent DEAD-box proteins that exists as at least two distinct isoforms in human cells. Gle1A is required for proper SG formation, whereas Gle1B functions in mRNA export at the nuclear pore complex. Since Gle1A is required for SG function, we hypothesized that SG-dependent survival responses would also be Gle1-dependent. We describe here an experimental system for quantifying and testing the SG-associated survival response to sodium arsenite stress in HeLa cells. Gle1A was required for the sodium arsenite survival response, and overexpression of Gle1A supported the survival response. Overexpression of the SG-component G3BP also enabled the response. Next, we analyzed whether cells undergoing multiple rounds of stress yield a subpopulation with a higher propensity for SG formation and an increased resistance to undergoing apoptosis. After ten doses of sodium arsenite treatment, cells became resistant to sodium arsenite and to diclofenac sodium (another SG-inducing drug). The sodium arsenite-resistant cells exhibited changes in SG biology and had an increased survival response that was conferred in a paracrine manner. Changes in secreted factors occurred including a significantly lower level of MCP-1, a known regulator of stress granules and stress-induced apoptosis. This study supports models wherein SGs play a role in cell evasion of apoptosis and further reveal Gle1A and SG functions as targets for clinical approaches directed at chemoresistant/refractory cells.
  • Mitogen and stress- activated protein kinase regulated gene expression in
           cancer cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s): Ifeoluwa Adewumi, Camila López, James R. Davie The mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinases activated by the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and/or stress-activated protein kinase 2/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways are recruited to the regulatory region of a subset of genes termed immediate-early genes, often leading to their induction. These genes, many of which code for transcription factors, have been directly linked to the phenotypic events in carcinogenesis. In this paper, we focus on the mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinases; their discovery, activation, H3 phosphorylation and recent discoveries in their roles in cancer.
  • Neutral ceramidase: Advances in mechanisms, cell regulation, and roles in
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s): Nicolas Coant, Yusuf A. Hannun Extensive research conducted in the last three decades has identified the roles for the main bioactive sphingolipids, namely ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) as key regulators of cellular homeostasis, growth and death. One of the major groups of enzymes in the ceramide pathway, ceramidases, converts ceramide into sphingosine and fatty acids, with sphingosine being further metabolized to S1P. Thus, these enzymes play important roles in the network controlling the functions associated with these bioactive sphingolipids.Among the family of ceramidases, neutral ceramidase (nCDase), which is named according to its optimal pH for catalytic activity, has received increased attention in the last decade. The goal of this review is to provide a brief background on bioactive sphingolipids and the ceramidases. We then describe more recent advances on nCDase, specifically the resolution of its crystal structure and understanding its roles in cell biology and physiology.
  • Inositol phosphate kinases: Expanding the biological significance of the
           universal core of the protein kinase fold
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s): Stephen B. Shears, Huanchen Wang The protein kinase family is characterized by substantial conservation of architectural elements that are required for both ATP binding and phosphotransferase activity. Many of these structural features have also been identified in homologous enzymes that phosphorylate a variety of alternative, non-protein substrates. A comparative structural analysis of these different kinase sub-classes is a portal to a greater understanding of reaction mechanisms, enzyme regulation, inhibitor-development strategies, and superfamily-level evolutionary relationships. To serve such advances, we review structural elements of the protein kinase fold that are conserved in the subfamily of inositol phosphate kinases (InsPKs) that share a PxxxDxKxG catalytic signature: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate kinase (IP3K), inositol hexakisphosphate kinase (IP6K), and inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK). We describe conservation of the fundamental two-lobe kinase architecture: an N-lobe constructed upon an anti-parallel β-strand scaffold, which is coupled to a largely helical C-lobe by a single, adenine-binding hinge. This equivalency also includes a G-loop that embraces the β/γ-phosphates of ATP, a transition-state stabilizing residue (Lys/His), and a Mg-positioning aspartate residue within a catalytic triad. Furthermore, we expand this list of conserved structural features to include some not previously identified in InsPKs: a ‘gatekeeper’ residue in the N-lobe, and an ‘αF’-like helix in the C-lobe that anchors two structurally-stabilizing, hydrophobic spines, formed from non-consecutive residues that span the two lobes. We describe how this wide-ranging structural homology can be exploited to develop lead inhibitors of IP6K and IPMK, by using strategies similar to those that have generated ATP-competing inhibitors of protein-kinases. We provide several examples to illustrate how such an approach could benefit human health.
  • Nuclear phosphoinositides and phase separation: Important players in
           nuclear compartmentalization
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s): Martin Sztacho, Margarita Sobol, Can Balaban, Sara Eliana Escudeiro Lopes, Pavel Hozák Nuclear phosphoinositides are recognized as regulators of many nuclear processes including chromatin remodeling, splicing, transcription, DNA repair and epigenetics. These processes are spatially organized in different nuclear compartments. Phase separation is involved in the formation of various nuclear compartments and molecular condensates separated from surrounding environment. The surface of such structures spatiotemporally coordinates formation of protein complexes. PI(4,5)P2 (PIP2) integration into phase-separated structures might provide an additional step in their spatial diversification by attracting certain proteins with affinity to PIP2. Our laboratory has recently identified novel membrane-free PIP2-containing structures, so called Nuclear Lipid Islets (NLIs). We provide an evidence that these structures are evolutionary conserved in different organisms. We hypothesize that NLIs serve as a scaffolding platform which facilitates the formation of transcription factories, thus participating in the formation of nuclear architecture competent for transcription. In this review we speculate on a possible role of NLIs in the integration of various processes linked to RNAPII transcription, chromatin remodeling, actin-myosin interaction, alternative splicing and lamin structures.
  • Diacylglycerol kinases: Relationship to other lipid kinases
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s): Qianqian Ma, Sandra B. Gabelli, Daniel M. Raben Lipid kinases regulate a wide variety of cellular functions and have emerged as one the most promising targets for drug design. Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) to phosphatidic acid (PtdOH). Despite the critical role in lipid biosynthesis, both DAG and PtdOH have been shown as bioactive lipids mediating a number of signaling pathways. Although there is increasing recognition of their role in signaling systems, our understanding of the key enzyme which regulate the balance of these two lipid messages remain limited. Solved structures provide a wealth of information for understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes. Solving the structures of mammalian DGKs by traditional NMR and X-ray crystallography approaches have been challenging and so far, there are still no three-dimensional structures of these DGKs. Despite this, some insights may be gained by examining the similarities and differences between prokaryotic DGKs and other mammalian lipid kinases. This review focuses on summarizing and comparing the structure of prokaryotic and mammalian DGKs as well as two other lipid kinases: sphingosine kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase. How these known lipid kinases structures relate to mammalian DGKs will also be discussed.
  • Intra- and intercellular trafficking in sphingolipid metabolism in
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s): Binks W. Wattenberg The myelin sheath, produced by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system, provides essential electrical insulation to neurons, but also is critical for viability of neurons. Both the protein and lipid composition of this fascinating membrane is unique. Here the focus is on the sphingolipids that are highly abundant in myelin and, in particular, how they are produced. This review discusses how sphingolipid metabolism is regulated. In particular the subcellular localization of lipid metabolic enzymes is discussed and how inter-organelle transport can affect the metabolic routes that sphingolipid precursors take. Understanding the regulation of sphingolipid metabolism in formation of the myelin membrane will have a significant impact on strategies to treat demyelinating diseases.
  • IL-7R-mediated signaling in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: An update
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s): Mariana L. Oliveira, Padma Akkapeddi, Daniel Ribeiro, Alice Melão, João T. Barata Interleukin 7 (IL-7) and its receptor (IL-7R, a heterodimer of IL-7Rα and γc) are essential for normal lymphoid development. In their absence, severe combined immunodeficiency occurs. By contrast, excessive IL-7/IL-7R-mediated signaling can drive lymphoid leukemia development, disease acceleration and resistance to chemotherapy. IL-7 and IL-7R activate three main pathways: STAT5, PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MEK/Erk, ultimately leading to the promotion of leukemia cell viability, cell cycle progression and growth. However, the contribution of each of these pathways towards particular functional outcomes is still not completely known and appears to differ between normal and malignant states. For example, IL-7 upregulates Bcl-2 in a PI3K/Akt/mTOR-dependent and STAT5-independent manner in T-ALL cells. This is a ‘symmetric image’ of what apparently happens in normal lymphoid cells, where PI3K/Akt/mTOR does not impact on Bcl-2 and regulates proliferation rather than survival. In this review, we provide an updated summary of the knowledge on IL-7/IL-7R-mediated signaling in the context of cancer, focusing mainly on T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, where this axis has been more extensively studied.
  • Sulforaphane as anticancer agent: A double-edged sword' Tricky balance
           between effects on tumor cells and immune cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s): Jie Liang, Gertrud Maria Hänsch, Katrin Hübner, Yvonne Samstag Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli. It has been reported to inhibit the growth of a variety of cancers, such as breast, prostate, colon, skin, lung, gastric or bladder cancer. SFN is supposed to act primarily as an antioxidant due to the activation of the Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway. This enhances the activity of phase II detoxifying enzymes and the trapping of free radicals. Finally, SFN induces cell cycle arrest or apoptosis of tumor cells. Here, we discuss effects of SFN on the immune defense system. In contrast to the situation in tumor cells, SFN acts pro-oxidatively in primary human T cells. It increases intracellular ROS levels and decreases GSH, resulting in inhibition of T cell activation and T cell effector functions. Regarding the use of SFN as an "anticancer agent" we conclude that SFN could act as a double-edged sword. On the one hand it reduces carcinogenesis, on the other hand it blocks the T cell-mediated immune response, the latter being important for immune surveillance of tumors. Thus, SFN could also interfere with the successful application of immunotherapy by immune checkpoint inhibitors (e.g. CTLA-4 antibodies and PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies) or CAR T cells. Therefore, a combination of SFN with T cell-mediated cancer immunotherapies does not seem advisable.
  • Effective angiogenesis requires regulation of phosphoinositide signaling
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s): Elizabeth Michele Davies, Rajendra Gurung, Kai Qin Le, Christina Anne Mitchell Phosphoinositide signaling regulates numerous downstream effectors that mediate cellular processes which influence cell cycle progression, migration, proliferation, growth, survival, metabolism and vesicular trafficking. A prominent role for phosphoinositide 3-kinase, which generates phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, a phospholipid that activates a plethora of effectors including AKT and FOXO during embryonic and postnatal angiogenesis, has been described. In addition, phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate signaling is required for endosomal trafficking, which contributes to vascular remodeling. This review will examine the role phosphoinositide signaling plays in the endothelium and its contribution to sprouting angiogenesis.
  • Heterogeneity in myeloproliferative neoplasms: Causes and consequences
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s): Jennifer O'Sullivan, Adam J. Mead Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are haematopoietic stem cell-derived clonal disorders characterised by proliferation of some or all myeloid lineages, depending on the subtype. MPNs are classically categorized into three disease subgroups; essential thrombocythaemia (ET), polycythaemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The majority (>85%) of patients carry a disease-initiating or driver mutation, the most prevalent occurring in the janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2 V617F), followed by calreticulin (CALR) and myeloproliferative leukaemia virus (MPL) genes. Although these diseases are characterised by shared clinical, pathological and molecular features, one of the most challenging aspects of these disorders is the diverse clinical features which occur in each disease type, with marked variability in risks of disease complications and progression to leukaemia. A remarkable aspect of MPN biology is that the JAK2 V617F mutation, often occurring in the absence of additional mutations, generates a spectrum of phenotypes from asymptomatic ET through to aggressive MF, associated with a poor outcome. The mechanisms promoting MPN heterogeneity remain incompletely understood, but contributing factors are broad and include patient characteristics (gender, age, comorbidities and environmental exposures), additional somatic mutations, target disease-initiating cell, bone marrow microenvironment and germline genetic associations. In this review, we will address these in detail and discuss their role in heterogeneity of MPN disease phenotypes. Tailoring patient management according to the multiple different factors that influence disease phenotype may prove to be the most effective approach to modify the natural history of the disease and ultimately improve outcomes for patients.
  • Galectins as regulators of cell survival in the leukemia niche
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s): Peter P. Ruvolo The microenvironment within the bone marrow (BM) contains support cells that promote leukemia cell survival and suppress host anti-tumor defenses. Galectins are a family of beta-galactoside binding proteins that are critical components in the tumor microenvironment. Galectin 1 (LGALS1) and Galectin 3 (LGALS3) as regulators of RAS signaling intracellularly and as inhibitors of immune cells extracellularly are perhaps the best studied members for their role in leukemia biology. Interest in Galectin 9 (LGALS9) is growing as this galectin has been identified as an immune checkpoint molecule. LGALS9 also supports leukemia stem cells (LSCs) though a mechanism of action is not clear. LGALS1 and LGALS3 each participate in a diverse number of survival pathways that promote drug resistance by supporting pro-tumor molecules such BCL2, MCL-1, and MYC and blocking tumor suppressors like p53. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) BM mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have protein signatures that differ from healthy donor MSC. Elevated LGALS3 protein in AML MSC is associated with refractory disease/relapse demonstrating that MSC derived galectin impacts patient survival. LGALS3 is a critical determining factor whether MSC differentiate into adipocytes or osteoblasts so the galectin influences the cellular composition of the leukemia niche. Both LGALS3 and LGALS1 when secreted can suppress immune function. Both galectins can induce apoptosis of T cells. LGALS3 also modulates T cell receptor endocytosis and impairs interferon mediated chemokine production by binding glycosylated interferon. LGALS3 as a TIM3 binding partner acts to suppress T cell function. Galectins also impact leukemia cell mobilization and may participate in homing mechanisms. LGALS3 participates in transport mechanism of integrins, receptors, and other molecules that control cell adhesion and cell:cell interactions. The diversity of these various functions demonstrate the importance of these galectins in the leukemia niche. This review will cover the role of LGALS1, LGALS3, and LGALS9 in the various processes that are critical for maintaining leukemia cells in the tumor microenvironment.
  • Role of the malonyl-CoA synthetase ACSF3 in mitochondrial metabolism
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s): Caitlyn E. Bowman, Michael J. Wolfgang Malonyl-CoA is a central metabolite in fatty acid biochemistry. It is the rate-determining intermediate in fatty acid synthesis but is also an allosteric inhibitor of the rate-setting step in mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation. While these canonical cytoplasmic roles of malonyl-CoA have been well described, malonyl-CoA can also be generated within the mitochondrial matrix by an alternative pathway: the ATP-dependent ligation of malonate to Coenzyme A by the malonyl-CoA synthetase ACSF3. Malonate, a competitive inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase of the TCA cycle, is a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration. A major role for ACSF3 is to provide a metabolic pathway for the clearance of malonate by the generation of malonyl-CoA, which can then be decarboxylated to acetyl-CoA by malonyl-CoA decarboxylase. Additionally, ACSF3-derived malonyl-CoA can be used to malonylate lysine residues on proteins within the matrix of mitochondria, possibly adding another regulatory layer to post-translational control of mitochondrial metabolism. The discovery of ACSF3-mediated generation of malonyl-CoA defines a new mitochondrial metabolic pathway and raises new questions about how the metabolic fates of this multifunctional metabolite intersect with mitochondrial metabolism.
  • Application of induced pluripotent stem cell technology for the
           investigation of hematological disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s): Hamid Dolatshad, Dharamveer Tatwavedi, Doaa Ahmed, Jana F. Tegethoff, Jacqueline Boultwood, Andrea Pellagatti Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were first described over a decade ago and are currently used in various basic biology and clinical research fields. Recent advances in the field of human iPSCs have opened the way to a better understanding of the biology of human diseases.Disease-specific iPSCs provide an unparalleled opportunity to establish novel human cell-based disease models, with the potential to enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying human malignancies, and to accelerate the identification of effective new drugs. When combined with genome editing technologies, iPSCs represent a new approach to study single or multiple disease-causing mutations and model specific diseases in vitro. In addition, genetically corrected patient-specific iPSCs could potentially be used for stem cell based therapy. Furthermore, the reprogrammed cells share patient-specific genetic background, offering a new platform to develop personalized therapy/medicine for patients.In this review we discuss the recent advances in iPSC research technology and their potential applications in hematological diseases. Somatic cell reprogramming has presented new routes for generating patient-derived iPSCs, which can be differentiated to hematopoietic stem cells and the various downstream hematopoietic lineages. iPSC technology shows promise in the modeling of both inherited and acquired hematological disorders. A direct reprogramming and differentiation strategy is able to recapitulate hematological disorder progression and capture the earliest molecular alterations that underlie the initiation of hematological malignancies.
  • The regulation of insulin secretion via phosphoinositide-specific
           phospholipase Cβ signaling
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s): Hyeon-Jeong Hwang, Hyun-Jun Jang, Lucio Cocco, Pann-Ghill Suh Phospholipase Cβ (PLCβ) is a membrane-associated enzyme activated by membrane receptors, especially G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). It propagates intracellular signaling by mediating phospholipid metabolism and generating key second messengers, such as inositol triphosphate and diacylglycerol, leading to intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and activation of kinases, such as protein kinases C. In pancreatic β-cells, PLCβ-mediated signaling activated by various factors, such as free fatty acids and neuronal and hormonal ligands, has been confirmed as being involved in the regulation of insulin secretion, and PLCβs have been regarded as essential mediators for augmenting insulin secretion. In this review, we describe the physiological function of PLCβs in the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and discuss emerging data on GPCR/PLCβ signaling that is being developed as a target for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
  • Phospholipase C-β1 interacts with cyclin E in adipose- derived stem cells
           osteogenic differentiation
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s): Giulia Ramazzotti, Roberta Fiume, Francesca Chiarini, Gabriele Campana, Stefano Ratti, Anna Maria Billi, Lucia Manzoli, Matilde Y. Follo, Pann-Gill Suh, James McCubrey, Lucio Cocco, Irene Faenza Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells that have the ability to differentiate into several cell types, including chondrocytes, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and neural cells. Given their easy accessibility and abundance, they became an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells, as well as candidates for developing new treatments for reconstructive medicine and tissue engineering. Our study identifies a new signaling pathway that promotes ADSCs osteogenic differentiation and links the lipid signaling enzyme phospholipase C (PLC)-β1 to the expression of the cell cycle protein cyclin E. During osteogenic differentiation, PLC-β1 expression varies concomitantly with cyclin E expression and the two proteins interact. These findings contribute to clarify the pathways involved in osteogenic differentiation and provide evidence to develop therapeutic strategies for bone regeneration.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Role of FABP7 in tumor cell signaling
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s): Yoshiteru Kagawa, Banlanjo A. Umaru, Islam Ariful, Subrata Kumar Shil, Hirofumi Miyazaki, Yui Yamamoto, Masaki Ogata, Yuji Owada Lipids are major molecules for the function of organisms and are involved in the pathophysiology of various diseases. Fatty acids (FAs) signaling and their metabolism are some of the most important pathways in tumor development, as lipids serve as energetic sources during carcinogenesis. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) facilitate FAs transport to different cell organelles, modulating their metabolism along with mediating other physiological activities. FABP7, brain-typed FABP, is thought to be an important molecule for cell proliferation in healthy as well as diseased organisms. Several studies on human tumors and tumor-derived cell lines put FABP7 in the center of tumorigenesis, and its high expression level has been reported to correlate with poor prognosis in different tumor types. Several types of FABP7-expressing tumors have shown an up-regulation of cell signaling activity, but molecular mechanisms of FABP7 involvement in tumorigenesis still remain elusive. In this review, we focus on the expression and function of FABP7 in different tumors, and possible mechanisms of FABP7 in tumor proliferation and migration.
  • Flimsy overlay to Group photo
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s):
  • Key to Photograph of Participants
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s):
  • Group Photo
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s):
  • List of Participants
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s):
  • Acknowledgments
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s):
  • Foreword
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s):
  • Noncoding RNA genes in cancer pathogenesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s): Yuri Pekarsky, Carlo M. Croce By using chronic lymphocytic leukemia as target for discovery in cancer pathogenesis we discovered that the great majority of CLLs (75–85%) carry a deletion of miR-15a and miR-16-1 at 13q14. We also discovered that miR-15/16 are negative regulators of the BCL2 oncogene. Thus the loss of the two negative regulators causes BCL2 overexpression and leukemia. A corollary of this is that CLL is very sensitive to the anti BCL2 drug venetoclax that can induce complete remission in CLL patients. Since leukemia patients may carry billions of leukemia cells, it is quite likely that some (few) of the leukemic cells are resistant to venetoclax. Thus, since microRNAs have multiple targets, we looked for other proteins that may be overexpressed in CLL because of the low of miR-15/16. We discovered that ROR1 an embryonal antigen expressed on most (∼ 90%) CLL, but not on normal B cell, is also regulated by miR-15/16. Thus CLL cells are also sensitive to monoclonal antibodies against ROR1. Venetoclax and monoclonal antibodies against ROR1 act synergistically in killing CLL cells.
  • Of local translation control and lipid signaling in neurons
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s): Hervé Moine, Nicolas Vitale Fine-tuned regulation of new proteins synthesis is key to the fast adaptation of cells to their changing environment and their response to external cues. Protein synthesis regulation is particularly refined and important in the case of highly polarized cells like neurons where translation occurs in the subcellular dendritic compartment to produce long-lasting changes that enable the formation, strengthening and weakening of inter-neuronal connection, constituting synaptic plasticity. The changes in local synaptic proteome of neurons underlie several aspects of synaptic plasticity and new protein synthesis is necessary for long-term memory formation. Details of how neuronal translation is locally controlled only start to be unraveled. A generally accepted view is that mRNAs are transported in a repressed state and are translated locally upon externally cued triggering signaling cascades that derepress or activate translation machinery at specific sites. Some important yet poorly considered intermediates in these cascades of events are signaling lipids such as diacylglycerol and its balancing partner phosphatidic acid. A link between these signaling lipids and the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability, Fragile X syndrome, is emphasizing the important role of these secondary messages in synaptically controlled translation.
  • Regulation of tumor cell – Microenvironment interaction by the
           autotaxin-lysophosphatidic acid receptor axis
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s): Gabor J. Tigyi, Junming Yue, Derek D. Norman, Erzsebet Szabo, Andrea Balogh, Louisa Balazs, Guannan Zhao, Sue Chin Lee The lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in biological fluids is primarily produced by cleavage of lysophospholipids by the lysophospholipase D enzyme Autotaxin (ATX). LPA has been identified and abundantly detected in the culture medium of various cancer cell types, tumor effusates, and ascites fluid of cancer patients. Our current understanding of the physiological role of LPA established its role in fundamental biological responses that include cell proliferation, metabolism, neuronal differentiation, angiogenesis, cell migration, hematopoiesis, inflammation, immunity, wound healing, regulation of cell excitability, and the promotion of cell survival by protecting against apoptotic death. These essential biological responses elicited by LPA are seemingly hijacked by cancer cells in many ways; transcriptional upregulation of ATX leading to increased LPA levels, enhanced expression of multiple LPA GPCR subtypes, and the downregulation of its metabolic breakdown. Recent studies have shown that overexpression of ATX and LPA GPCR can lead to malignant transformation, enhanced proliferation of cancer stem cells, increased invasion and metastasis, reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment and the metastatic niche, and development of resistance to chemo-, immuno-, and radiation-therapy of cancer. The fundamental role of LPA in cancer progression and the therapeutic inhibition of the ATX-LPA axis, although highly appealing, remains unexploited as drug development to these targets has not reached into the clinic yet. The purpose of this brief review is to highlight some unique signaling mechanisms engaged by the ATX-LPA axis and emphasize the therapeutic potential that lies in blocking the molecular targets of the LPA system.
  • Abilities of berberine and chemically modified berberines to inhibit
           proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 71Author(s): Stephen L. Abrams, Matilde Y. Follo, Linda S. Steelman, Kvin Lertpiriyapong, Lucio Cocco, Stefano Ratti, Alberto M. Martelli, Saverio Candido, Massimo Libra, Ramiro M. Murata, Pedro L. Rosalen, Giuseppe Montalto, Melchiorre Cervello, Agnieszka Gizak, Dariusz Rakus, Weifeng Mao, Paolo Lombardi, James A. McCubrey Berberine (BBR) is a common nutraceutical consumed by millions worldwide. BBR has many different effects on human health, e.g., diabetes, diarrhea, inflammation and now more recently it has been proposed to have potent anti-cancer effects. BBR has been shown to suppress the growth of cancer cells more than normal cells. BBR has been proposed to exert its growth-inhibitory effects by many different biochemical mechanisms including: suppression of cell cycle progression, induction of reactive oxygen species, induction of apoptosis and autophagy and interactions with DNA potentially leading to DNA damage, and altered gene expression. Pancreatic cancer is a leading cancer worldwide associated with a poor prognosis. As our population ages, pancreatic cancer has an increasing incidence and will likely become the second leading cause of death from cancer. There are few truly-effective therapeutic options for pancreatic cancer. Surgery and certain chemotherapeutic drugs are used to treat pancreatic cancer patients. Novel approaches to treat pancreatic cancer patients are direly needed as they usually survive for less than a year after being diagnosed. In the following manuscript, we discuss the abilities of BBR and certain chemically-modified BBRs (NAX compounds) to suppress growth of pancreatic cancer cells.
  • A novel role for DGATs in cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2018Source: Advances in Biological RegulationAuthor(s): María José Hernández-Corbacho, Lina M. Obeid
  • Alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Focus on ceramide
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 70Author(s): Mariana Nikolova-Karakashian Sphingolipids are class of metabolically distinct lipids that play structural and signaling functions in all organisms. Sphingolipid metabolism is deregulated during various diseases such as cancer, neurological and immune disorders, and metabolic syndrome. With the advancement of sphingo-lipidomics and sphingo-genomics, an understanding of the specific roles of ceramide, the quintessential bioactive sphingolipid, in fatty liver disease has taken shape. Two major pathways for ceramide generation, the de novo pathway and the sphingomyelinase pathway are activated in the course of both, the non-alcoholic and the alcoholic, forms of fatty liver disease. The mechanisms of activation of these two pathways are distinct and reflect the different disease etiology in each case; at the same time, common processes impacted by the resulting ceramide overproduction involve lipotoxocity, ER/mitochondrial stress, inflammation, and de-regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Studies in human patients and animal models have delineated specific enzymes and ceramide species that are involved at the different stages of the disease, and represent novel pharmaceutical targets for successful management of fatty liver disease.
  • Sphingolipids in adipose tissue: What's tipping the scale'
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 70Author(s): Johana M. Lambert, Andrea K. Anderson, L. Ashley Cowart Adipose tissue lies at the heart of obesity, mediating its many effects upon the rest of the body, with its unique capacity to expand and regenerate, throughout the lifespan of the organism. Adipose is appreciated as an endocrine organ, with its myriad adipokines that elicit both physiological and pathological outcomes. Sphingolipids, bioactive signaling molecules, affect many aspects of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. While sphingolipids are appreciated in the context of these diseases in other tissues, there are many discoveries yet to be uncovered in the adipose tissue. This review focuses on the effects of sphingolipids on various aspects of adipose function and dysfunction. The processes of adipogenesis, metabolism and thermogenesis, in addition to inflammation and insulin resistance are intimately linked to sphingolipids as discussed below.
  • Orm/ORMDL proteins: Gate guardians and master regulators
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 70Author(s): Deanna Davis, Muthukumar Kannan, Binks Wattenberg Sphingolipids comprise a diverse family of lipids that perform multiple functions in both structure of cellular membranes and intra- and inter-cellular signaling. The diversity of this family is generated by an array of enzymes that produce individual classes and molecular species of family members and enzymes which catabolize those lipids for recycling pathways. However, all of these lipids begin their lives with a single step, the condensation of an amino acid, almost always serine, and a fatty acyl-CoA, almost always the 16-carbon, saturated fatty acid, palmitate. The enzyme complex that accomplishes this condensation is serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), a membrane-bound component of the endoplasmic reticulum. This places SPT in the unique position of regulating the production of the entire sphingolipid pool. Understanding how SPT activity is regulated is currently a central focus in the field of sphingolipid biology. In this review we examine the regulation of SPT activity by a set of small, membrane-bound proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum, the Orms (in yeast) and ORMDLs (in vertebrates). We discuss what is known about how these proteins act as homeostatic regulators by monitoring cellular levels of sphingolipid, but also how the Orms/ORMDLs regulate SPT in response to other stimuli. Finally, we discuss the intriguing connection between one of the mammalian ORMDL isoforms, ORMDL3, and the pervasive pulmonary disease, asthma, in humans.
  • Introduction to the special issue on sphingolipid signaling in chronic
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 70Author(s): Binks W. Wattenberg, Sarah Spiegel
  • The role of sphingolipids in acute kidney injury
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 70Author(s): Tess V. Dupre, Leah J. Siskind Acute kidney injury (AKI) is most simply defined as the rapid loss of kidney function in a matter of hours to days. AKI can manifest in a number of ways including pre-renal, post-renal, or intrinsic AKI. During acute kidney injury, multiple pathogenic processes are activated including inflammation, cell death, and the generation of reactive oxygen species, just to name a few. Sphingolipids are known to play a role in a number of the pathogenic pathways involved in the pathogenesis of many types of AKI, which suggests a role for sphingolipids in AKI. This short review will discuss the evidence for a role for sphingolipids in AKI.
  • Sphingolipids in neurodegeneration (with focus on ceramide and S1P)
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 70Author(s): Guanghu Wang, Erhard Bieberich For many decades, research on sphingolipids associated with neurodegenerative disease focused on alterations in glycosphingolipids, particularly glycosylceramides (cerebrosides), sulfatides, and gangliosides. This seemed quite natural since many of these glycolipids are constituents of myelin and accumulated in lipid storage diseases (sphingolipidoses) resulting from enzyme deficiencies in glycolipid metabolism. With the advent of recognizing ceramide and its derivative, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), as key players in lipid cell signaling and regulation of cell death and survival, research focus shifted toward these two sphingolipids. Ceramide and S1P are invoked in a plethora of cell biological processes participating in neurodegeneration such as ER stress, autophagy, dysregulation of protein and lipid transport, exosome secretion and neurotoxic protein spreading, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Hence, it is timely to discuss various functions of ceramide and S1P in neurodegenerative disease and to define sphingolipid metabolism and cell signaling pathways as potential targets for therapy.
  • Sphingoid bases and their involvement in neurodegenerative diseases
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 70Author(s): Laura Goins, Stefka Spassieva Sphingoid bases (also known as long-chain bases) form the backbone of sphingolipids. Sphingolipids comprise a large group of lipid molecules, which function as the building blocks of biological membranes and play important signaling and regulatory roles within cells. The roles of sphingoid bases in neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration have yet to be fully elucidated, as they are complex and multi-faceted. This comprises a new frontier of research that may provide us with important clues regarding their involvement in neurological health and disease. This paper explores various neurological diseases and conditions which result when the metabolism of sphingoid bases and some of their derivatives, such as sphingosine-1-phosphate and psychosine, becomes compromised due to the inhibition or mutation of key enzymes. Dysregulation of sphingoid base metabolism very often manifests with neurological symptoms, as sphingolipids are highly enriched in the nervous system, where they play important signaling and regulatory roles.
  • Sphingolipids and their enigmatic role in asthma
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 70Author(s): Jamie L. Sturgill Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory condition in the lung and is characterized by episodic shortness of breath with expiratory wheezing and cough. Asthma is a serious public health concern globally with an estimated incidence over 300 million. Asthma is a complex disease in that it manifests as disease of gene and environmental interactions. Sphingolipids are a unique class of lipids involved in a host of biological functions ranging from serving as key cellular membrane lipids to acting as critical signaling molecules. To date sphingolipids have been studied across various human conditions ranging from neurological disorders to cancer to infection to autoimmunity. This review will focus on the role of sphingolipids in asthma development and pathology with particular focus on the role of mast cell sphingolipid biology.
  • Niemann-Pick type C disease: The atypical sphingolipidosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 70Author(s): Jason Newton, Sheldon Milstien, Sarah Spiegel Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a lysosomal storage disorder resulting from mutations in either the NPC1 (95%) or NPC2 (5%) genes. NPC typically presents in childhood with visceral lipid accumulation and complex progressive neurodegeneration characterized by cerebellar ataxia, dysphagia, and dementia, resulting in a shortened lifespan. While cholesterol is widely acknowledged as the principal storage lipid in NPC, multiple species of sphingolipids accumulate as well. This accumulation of sphingolipids led to the initial assumption that NPC disease was caused by a deficiency in a sphingolipid catabolism enzyme, similar to sphingomyelinase deficiencies with which it shares a family name. It took about half a century to determine that NPC was in fact caused by a cholesterol trafficking defect, and still as we approach a century after the initial identification of the disease, the mechanisms by which sphingolipids accumulate remain poorly understood. Here we focus on the defects of sphingolipid catabolism in the endolysosomal compartment and how they contribute to the biology and pathology observed in NPC disease. This review highlights the need for further work on understanding and possibly developing treatments to correct the accumulation of sphingolipids in addition to cholesterol in this currently untreatable disease.
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