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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2992 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1423 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 293)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Advances in Biological Regulation
  [SJR: 2.277]   [H-I: 43]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2212-4926
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Acknowledgements
    • Authors: Lucio Cocco
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 63
      Author(s): Lucio Cocco


      PubDate: 2017-02-05T09:26:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s2212-4926(17)30018-0
      Issue No: Vol. 63 (2017)
       
  • Specific expression and function of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase
           C (ITPKC) in wild type and knock-out mice
    • Authors: Ariane Scoumanne; Patricia Molina-Ortiz; Daniel Monteyne; David Perez-Morga; Christophe Erneux; Stéphane Schurmans
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 62
      Author(s): Ariane Scoumanne, Patricia Molina-Ortiz, Daniel Monteyne, David Perez-Morga, Christophe Erneux, Stéphane Schurmans
      Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase C (ITPKC) is the last identified member of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinases family which phosphorylates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate into inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate. Although expression and function of the two other family members ITPKA and ITPKB are rather well characterized, similar information is lacking for ITPKC. Here, we first defined the expression of Itpkc mRNA and protein in mouse tissues and cells using in situ hybridization and new antibodies. Surprisingly, we found that cells positive for ITPKC in the studied tissues express either a multicilium (tracheal and bronchial epithelia, brain ependymal cells), microvilli forming a brush border (small and large intestine, and kidney proximal tubule cells) or a flagellum (spermatozoa), suggesting a role for ITPKC either in the development or the function of these specialized cellular structures. Given this surprising expression, we then analyzed ITPKC function in multiciliated tracheal epithelial cells and sperm cells using our Itpkc knock-out mouse model. Unfortunately, no significant difference was observed between control and mutant mice for any of the parameters tested, leaving the exact in vivo function of this third Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase still open.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T15:07:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2016.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
       
  • Nonessential amino acid metabolism in breast cancer
    • Authors: Renee C. Geck; Alex Toker
      Pages: 11 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 62
      Author(s): Renee C. Geck, Alex Toker
      Interest in studying cancer metabolism has risen in recent years, as it has become evident that the relationship between cancer and metabolic pathways could reveal novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Metabolic starvation therapy is particularly promising due to its low toxicity. Nonessential amino acids are promising metabolites for such therapy because they become essential in many tumor cells, including breast cancer cells. This review will focus on four nonessential amino acid metabolism pathways: glutamine–glutamate, serine–glycine, cysteine, and arginine–proline metabolism. Recent studies of these amino acids have revealed metabolic enzymes that have the potential to be effective as cancer therapy targets or biomarkers for response to metabolic starvation therapy. The review will also discuss features of nonessential amino acid metabolism that merit further investigation to determine their relevancy to breast cancer treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T15:07:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2016.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
       
  • Investigating the effect of arachidonate supplementation on the
           phosphoinositide content of MCF10a breast epithelial cells
    • Authors: Karen E. Anderson; Veronique Juvin; Jonathan Clark; Len R. Stephens; Phillip T. Hawkins
      Pages: 18 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 62
      Author(s): Karen E. Anderson, Veronique Juvin, Jonathan Clark, Len R. Stephens, Phillip T. Hawkins
      Phosphoinositides in primary mammalian tissue are highly enriched in a stearoyl/arachidonyl (C38:4) diacylgycerol backbone. However, mammalian cells grown in culture typically contain more diverse molecular species of phosphoinositides, characterised by a reduction in arachidonyl content in the sn-2 position. We have analysed the phosphoinositide species in MCF10a cells grown in culture by mass spectrometry. Under either serum or serum starved conditions the most abundant species of PI, PIP, PIP2 and PIP3 had masses which corresponded to C36:2, C38:4, C38:3, C38:2 and C36:1 diacylglycerol backbones and the relative proportions of each molecular species were broadly similar between each phosphoinositide class (approx. 50%, 25%, 10%, 10% and 10% respectively, for the species listed above). Supplementing the culture medium with BSA-loaded arachidonic acid promoted a rapid increase in the proportion of the C38:4 species in all phosphoinositide classes (from approx. 25%–60% of total species within 24 h), but the total amount of all combined species for each class remained remarkably constant. Stimulation of cells, cultured in either normal or arachidonate-enriched conditions, with 2 ng/ml EGF for 90 s caused substantial activation of Class I PI3K and accumulation of PIP3. Despite the increased proportion of C38:4 PIP3 under the arachidonate-supplemented conditions, the total amount of all combined PIP3 species accumulating in response to EGF was the same, with or without arachidonate supplementation; there were however small but significant preferences for the conversion of some PIP2 species to PIP3, with the polyunsaturated C38:4 and C38:3 species being more favoured over other species. These results suggest the enzymes which interconvert phosphoinositides are able to act on several different molecular species and homoeostatic mechanisms are in place to deliver similar phosphoinositide pool sizes under quite different conditions of arachidonate availability. They also suggest enzymes regulating PIP3 levels downstream of growth factor stimulation (i.e. PI3Ks and PIP3-phosphatases) show some acyl selectivity and further work should be directed at assessing whether different acyl species of PIP3 exhibit differing signalling potential.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T15:07:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2015.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
       
  • An amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutation in GLE1 alters the
           cellular pool of human Gle1 functional isoforms
    • Authors: Aditi; Laura Glass; T. Renee Dawson; Susan R. Wente
      Pages: 25 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 62
      Author(s): Aditi, Laura Glass, T. Renee Dawson, Susan R. Wente
      Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a lethal late onset motor neuron disease with underlying cellular defects in RNA metabolism. In prior studies, two deleterious heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding human (h)Gle1 were identified in ALS patients. hGle1 is an mRNA processing modulator that requires inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) binding for function. Interestingly, one hGLE1 mutation (c.1965-2A>C) results in a novel 88 amino acid C-terminal insertion, generating an altered protein. Like hGle1A, at steady state, the altered protein termed hGle1-IVS14-2A>C is absent from the nuclear envelope rim and localizes to the cytoplasm. hGle1A performs essential cytoplasmic functions in translation and stress granule regulation. Therefore, we speculated that the ALS disease pathology results from altered cellular pools of hGle1 and increased cytoplasmic hGle1 activity. GFP-hGle1-IVS14-2A>C localized to stress granules comparably to GFP-hGle1A, and rescued stress granule defects following siRNA-mediated hGle1 depletion. As described for hGle1A, overexpression of the hGle1-IVS14-2A>C protein also induced formation of larger SGs. Interestingly, hGle1A and the disease associated hGle1-IVS14-2A>C overexpression induced the formation of distinct cytoplasmic protein aggregates that appear similar to those found in neurodegenerative diseases. Strikingly, the ALS-linked hGle1-IVS14-2A>C protein also rescued mRNA export defects upon depletion of endogenous hGle1, acting in a potentially novel bi-functional manner. We conclude that the ALS-linked hGle1-c.1965-2A>C mutation generates a protein isoform capable of both hGle1A- and hGle1B-ascribed functions, and thereby uncoupled from normal mechanisms of hGle1 regulation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T15:07:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2015.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
       
  • Gene regulation in the immediate-early response process
    • Authors: Shahram Bahrami; Finn Drabløs
      Pages: 37 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 62
      Author(s): Shahram Bahrami, Finn Drabløs
      Immediate-early genes (IEGs) can be activated and transcribed within minutes after stimulation, without the need for de novo protein synthesis, and they are stimulated in response to both cell-extrinsic and cell-intrinsic signals. Extracellular signals are transduced from the cell surface, through receptors activating a chain of proteins in the cell, in particular extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and members of the RhoA-actin pathway. These communicate through a signaling cascade by adding phosphate groups to neighboring proteins, and this will eventually activate and translocate TFs to the nucleus and thereby induce gene expression. The gene activation also involves proximal and distal enhancers that interact with promoters to simulate gene expression. The immediate-early genes have essential biological roles, in particular in stress response, like the immune system, and in differentiation. Therefore they also have important roles in various diseases, including cancer development. In this paper we summarize some recent advances on key aspects of the activation and regulation of immediate-early genes.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T15:07:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2016.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
       
  • Phospholipid-related signaling in physiology and pathology
    • Authors: Pann-Ghill Suh; Lucio Cocco
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 61
      Author(s): Pann-Ghill Suh, Lucio Cocco


      PubDate: 2017-07-19T15:07:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2016.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2017)
       
  • Phosphoinositide signaling in somatosensory neurons
    • Authors: Tibor Rohacs
      Pages: 2 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 61
      Author(s): Tibor Rohacs
      Somatosensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia (TG) are responsible for detecting thermal and tactile stimuli. They are also the primary neurons mediating pain and itch. A large number of cell surface receptors in these neurons couple to phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes leading to the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and the generation of downstream signaling molecules. These neurons also express many different ion channels, several of which are regulated by phosphoinositides. This review will summarize the knowledge on phosphoinositide signaling in DRG neurons, with special focus on effects on sensory and other ion channels.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T15:07:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2015.11.012
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2017)
       
  • Membrane and inhibitor interactions of intracellular phospholipases A2
    • Authors: Varnavas D. Mouchlis; Edward A. Dennis
      Pages: 17 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 61
      Author(s): Varnavas D. Mouchlis, Edward A. Dennis
      Studying phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) is a challenging task since they act on membrane-like aggregated substrates and not on monomeric phospholipids. Multidisciplinary approaches that include hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS) and computational techniques have been employed with great success in order to address important questions about the mode of interactions of PLA2 enzymes with membranes, phospholipid substrates and inhibitors. Understanding the interactions of PLA2s is crucial since these enzymes are the upstream regulators of the eicosanoid pathway liberating free arachidonic acid (AA) and other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The liberation of AA by PLA2 enzymes sets off a cascade of molecular events that involves downstream regulators such as cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) metabolites leading to inflammation. Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) work by inhibiting COX, while Zileuton inhibits LOX and both rely on PLA2 enzymes to provide them with AA. That means PLA2 enzymes can potentially also be targeted to diminish inflammation at an earlier point in the process. In this review we describe extensive efforts reported in the past to define the interactions of PLA2 enzymes with membranes, substrate phospholipids and inhibitors using DXMS, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T15:07:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2015.11.011
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2017)
       
  • IPMK: A versatile regulator of nuclear signaling events
    • Authors: Eunha Kim; Jiyoon Beon; Seulgi Lee; Jina Park; Seyun Kim
      Pages: 25 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 61
      Author(s): Eunha Kim, Jiyoon Beon, Seulgi Lee, Jina Park, Seyun Kim
      Inositol-derived metabolites (e.g., phosphoinositides and inositol polyphosphates) are key second messengers that are essential for controlling a wide range of cellular events. Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) exhibits complex catalytic activities that eventually yield water-soluble inositol polyphosphates (e.g., IP4 and IP5) and lipid-bound phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. A series of recent studies have suggested that IPMK may be a multifunctional regulator in the nucleus of mammalian cells. In this review, we highlight the novel modes of action of IPMK in transcriptional and epigenetic regulation, and discuss its roles in physiology and disease.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T15:07:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2015.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2017)
       
  • The role of class I, II and III PI 3-kinases in platelet production and
           activation and their implication in thrombosis
    • Authors: Colin Valet; Sonia Severin; Gaëtan Chicanne; Pierre Alexandre Laurent; Frédérique Gaits-Iacovoni; Marie-Pierre Gratacap; Bernard Payrastre
      Pages: 33 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 61
      Author(s): Colin Valet, Sonia Severin, Gaëtan Chicanne, Pierre Alexandre Laurent, Frédérique Gaits-Iacovoni, Marie-Pierre Gratacap, Bernard Payrastre
      Blood platelets play a pivotal role in haemostasis and are strongly involved in arterial thrombosis, a leading cause of death worldwide. Besides their critical role in pathophysiology, platelets represent a valuable model to investigate, both in vitro and in vivo, the biological roles of different branches of the phosphoinositide metabolism, which is highly active in platelets. While the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway has a crucial role in platelet activation, it is now well established that at least one class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is also mandatory for proper platelet functions. Except class II PI3Kγ, all other isoforms of PI3Ks (class I α, β, γ, δ; class II α, β and class III) are expressed in platelets. Class I PI3Ks have been extensively studied in different models over the past few decades and several isoforms are promising drug targets to treat cancer and immune diseases. In platelet activation, it has been shown that while class I PI3Kδ plays a minor role, class I PI3Kβ has an important function particularly in thrombus growth and stability under high shear stress conditions found in stenotic arteries. This class I PI3K is a potentially interesting target for antithrombotic strategies. The role of class I PI3Kα remains ill defined in platelets. Herein, we will discuss our recent data showing the potential impact of inhibitors of this kinase on thrombus formation. The role of class II PI3Kα and β as well as class III PI3K (Vps34) in platelet production and function is just emerging. Based on our data and those very recently published in the literature, we will discuss the impact of these three PI3K isoforms in platelet production and functions and in thrombosis.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T15:07:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2015.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2017)
       
  • Accumulating insights into the role of phospholipase D2 in human diseases
    • Authors: Jaewang Ghim; Chaithanya Chelakkot; Yoe-Sik Bae; Pann-Ghill Suh; Sung Ho Ryu
      Pages: 42 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 61
      Author(s): Jaewang Ghim, Chaithanya Chelakkot, Yoe-Sik Bae, Pann-Ghill Suh, Sung Ho Ryu
      Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is a lipid-signaling enzyme that produces the signaling molecule phosphatidic acid (PA) by catalyzing the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). The molecular characteristics of PLD2, the mechanisms of regulation of its activity, its functions in the signaling pathway involving PA and binding partners, and its role in cellular physiology have been extensively studied over the past decades. Although several potential roles of PLD2 have been proposed based on the results of molecular and cell-based studies, the pathophysiological functions of PLD2 in vivo have not yet been fully investigated at the organismal level. Here, we address accumulated evidences that provide insight into the role of PLD2 in human disease. We summarize recent studies using animal models that provide direct evidence of the function of PLD2 in several pathological conditions such as vascular disease, immunological disease, and neurological disease. In light of the use of recently developed PLD2-specific inhibitors showing potential in alleviating pathological conditions, improving our understanding of the role of PLD2 in human disease would be necessary to target the regulation of PLD2 activity as a therapeutic strategy.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T15:07:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2015.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2017)
       
  • Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase γ (PI5P4Kγ), a lipid
           signalling enigma
    • Authors: Maria-Luisa Giudici; Jonathan H. Clarke; Robin F. Irvine
      Pages: 47 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 61
      Author(s): Maria-Luisa Giudici, Jonathan H. Clarke, Robin F. Irvine
      The phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinases (PI5P4Ks) are an important family of enzymes, whose physiological roles are being teased out by a variety of means. Phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase γ (PI5P4Kγ) is especially intriguing as its in vitro activity is very low. Here we review what is known about this enzyme and discuss some recent advances towards an understanding of its physiology. Additionally, the effects of the ATP-competitive inhibitor I-OMe Tyrphostin AG-538 on all three mammalian PI5P4Ks was explored, including two PI5P4Kγ mutants with altered ATP- or PI5P-binding sites. The results suggest a strategy for targeting non-ATP binding sites on inositol lipid kinases.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T15:07:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2015.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2017)
       
  • Phospholipase Cβ connects G protein signaling with RNA interference
    • Authors: Suzanne Scarlata; Osama Garwain; Leo Williams; Imanol Gonzalez Burguera; Barbara Rosati; Shriya Sahu; Yuanjian Guo; Finly Philip; Urszula Golebiewska
      Pages: 51 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 61
      Author(s): Suzanne Scarlata, Osama Garwain, Leo Williams, Imanol Gonzalez Burguera, Barbara Rosati, Shriya Sahu, Yuanjian Guo, Finly Philip, Urszula Golebiewska
      Phosphoinositide-specific-phospholipase Cβ (PLCβ) is the main effector of Gαq stimulation which is coupled to receptors that bind acetylcholine, bradykinin, dopamine, angiotensin II as well as other hormones and neurotransmitters. Using a yeast two-hybrid and other approaches, we have recently found that the same region of PLCβ that binds Gαq also interacts with Component 3 Promoter of RNA induced silencing complex (C3PO), which is required for efficient activity of the RNA-induced silencing complex. In purified form, C3PO competes with Gαq for PLCβ binding and at high concentrations can quench PLCβ activation. Additionally, we have found that the binding of PLCβ to C3PO inhibits its nuclease activity leading to reversal of RNA-induced silencing of specific genes. In cells, we found that PLCβ distributes between the plasma membrane where it localizes with Gαq, and in the cytosol where it localizes with C3PO. When cells are actively processing small interfering RNAs the interaction between PLCβ and C3PO gets stronger and leads to changes in the cellular distribution of PLCβ. The magnitude of attenuation is specific for different silencing RNAs. Our studies imply a direct link between calcium responses mediated through Gαq and post-transcriptional gene regulation through PLCβ.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T15:07:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2015.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2017)
       
  • Forward—GSK-3 in health
    • Authors: James McCubrey; Lucio Cocco
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2017
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation
      Author(s): James A. McCubrey, Lucio Cocco


      PubDate: 2017-07-10T14:43:06Z
       
  • GSK3 and its interactions with the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling network
    • Authors: Miguel A. Hermida; J. Dinesh Kumar; Nick R. Leslie
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation
      Author(s): Miguel A. Hermida, J. Dinesh Kumar, Nick R. Leslie
      Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK3 or GSK-3) is a promiscuous protein kinase and its phosphorylation of its diverse substrates has major influences on many areas of physiology and pathology, including cellular metabolism, lineage commitment and neuroscience. GSK3 was one of the first identified substrates of the heavily studied oncogenic kinase AKT, phosphorylation by which inhibits GSK3 activity via the formation of an autoinhibitory pseudosubstrate sequence. This has led to investigation of the role of GSK3 inhibition as a key component of the cellular responses to growth factors and insulin, which stimulate the class I PI 3-Kinases and in turn AKT activity and GSK3 phosphorylation. GSK3 has been shown to phosphorylate several upstream and downstream components of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling network, including AKT itself, RICTOR, TSC1 and 2, PTEN and IRS1 and 2, with the potential to apply feedback control within the network. However, it has been clear for some time that functionally distinct, insulated pools of GSK3 exist which are regulated independently, so that for some GSK3 substrates such as β-catenin, phosphorylation by GSK3 is not controlled by input from PI3K and AKT. Instead, as almost all GSK3 substrates require a priming phosphorylated residue to be 4 amino acids C-terminal to the Ser/Thr phosphorylated by GSK3, the predominant form of regulation of the activity of GSK3 often appears to be through control over these priming events, specific to individual substrates. Therefore, a major role of GSK3 can be viewed as an amplifier of the electrostatic effects on protein function which are caused by phosphorylation. Here we discuss these different aspects to GSK3 regulation and function, and the functions of GSK3 as it integrates with signalling through the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signalling axis.

      PubDate: 2017-06-30T14:13:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2017.06.003
       
  • Casein Kinase II (CK2), Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) and Ikaros
           mediated regulation of leukemia
    • Authors: Chandrika Gowda; Mario Soliman; Malika Kapadia; Yali Ding; Kimberly Payne; Sinisa Dovat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation
      Author(s): Chandrika Gowda, Mario Soliman, Malika Kapadia, Yali Ding, Kimberly Payne, Sinisa Dovat
      Signaling networks that regulate cellular proliferation often involve complex interactions between several signaling pathways. In this manuscript we review the crosstalk between the Casein Kinase II (CK2) and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) pathways that plays a critical role in the regulation of cellular proliferation in leukemia. Both CK2 and GSK-3 are potential targets for anti-leukemia treatment. Previously published data suggest that CK2 and GSK-3 act synergistically to promote the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway via phosphorylation of PTEN. More recent data demonstrate another mechanism through which CK2 promotes the PI3K pathway – via transcriptional regulation of PI3K pathway genes by the newly-discovered CK2-Ikaros axis. Together, these data suggest that the CK2 and GSK-3 pathways regulate AKT/PI3K signaling in leukemia via two complementary mechanisms: a) direct phosphorylation of PTEN and b) transcriptional regulation of PI3K-promoting genes. Functional interactions between CK2, Ikaros and GSK3 define a novel signaling network that regulates proliferation of leukemia cells. This regulatory network involves both direct posttranslational modifications (by CK and GSK-3) and transcriptional regulation (via CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Ikaros). This information provides a basis for the development of targeted therapy for leukemia.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T13:32:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2017.06.001
       
  • Pivotal roles of glycogen synthase-3 in hepatocellular carcinoma
    • Authors: Melchiorre Cervello; Giuseppa Augello; Antonella Cusimano; Maria Rita Emma; Daniele Balasus; Antonina Azzolina; James A. McCubrey; Giuseppe Montalto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation
      Author(s): Melchiorre Cervello, Giuseppa Augello, Antonella Cusimano, Maria Rita Emma, Daniele Balasus, Antonina Azzolina, James A. McCubrey, Giuseppe Montalto
      Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world, and represents the second most frequently cancer and third most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. At advanced stage, HCC is a highly aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis and with very limited response to common therapies. Therefore, there is still the need for new effective and well-tolerated therapeutic strategies. Molecular-targeted therapies hold promise for HCC treatment. One promising molecular target is the multifunctional serine/threonine kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). The roles of GSK-3β in HCC remain controversial, several studies suggested a possible role of GSK-3β as a tumor suppressor gene in HCC, whereas, other studies indicate that GSK-3β is a potential therapeutic target for this neoplasia. In this review, we will focus on the different roles that GSK-3 plays in HCC and its interaction with signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of HCC, such as Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF), Notch, Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog (HH), and TGF-β pathways. In addition, the pivotal roles of GSK3 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion and metastasis will be also discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T13:09:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2017.06.002
       
  • Regulation of GSK-3 activity by curcumin, berberine and resveratrol:
           Potential effects on multiple diseases
    • Authors: James McCubrey; Kvin Lertpiriyapong Linda Steelman Steve Abrams Lucio Cocco
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation
      Author(s): James A. McCubrey, Kvin Lertpiriyapong, Linda S. Steelman, Steve L. Abrams, Lucio Cocco, Stefano Ratti, Alberto M. Martelli, Saverio Candido, Massimo Libra, Giuseppe Montalto, Melchiorre Cervello, Agnieszka Gizak, Dariusz Rakus
      Natural products or nutraceuticals promote anti-aging, anti-cancer and other health-enhancing effects. A key target of the effects of natural products may be the regulation of the PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTORC1/GSK-3 pathway. This review will focus on the effects of curcumin (CUR), berberine (BBR) and resveratrol (RES), on the PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTORC1/GSK-3 pathway, with a special focus on GSK-3. These natural products may regulate the pathway by multiple mechanisms including: reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytokine receptors, mirco-RNAs (miRs) and many others. CUR is present the root of turmeric (Curcuma longa). CUR is used in the treatment of many disorders, especially in those involving inflammatory processes which may contribute to abnormal proliferation and promote cancer growth. BBR is also isolated from various plants (Berberis coptis and others) and is used in traditional medicine to treat multiple diseases/conditions including: diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cancer and bacterial infections. RES is present in red grapes, other fruits and berries such as blueberries and raspberries. RES may have some anti-diabetic and anti-cancer effects. Understanding the effects of these natural products on the PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTORC1/GSK-3 pathway may enhance their usage as anti-proliferative agent which may be beneficial for many health problems.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T17:43:11Z
       
  • The regulatory and signaling mechanisms of the ASK family
    • Authors: Takuto Nishida; Kazuki Hattori; Kengo Watanabe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation
      Author(s): Takuto Nishida, Kazuki Hattori, Kengo Watanabe
      Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) was identified as a MAP3K that activates the JNK and p38 pathways, and subsequent studies have reported ASK2 and ASK3 as members of the ASK family. The ASK family is activated by various intrinsic and extrinsic stresses, including oxidative stress, ER stress and osmotic stress. Numerous lines of evidence have revealed that members of the ASK family are critical for signal transduction systems to control a wide range of stress responses such as cell death, differentiation and cytokine induction. In this review, we focus on the precise signaling mechanisms of the ASK family in response to diverse stressors.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T17:21:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2017.05.004
       
  • ASK family and cancer
    • Authors: Hiroki Ryuno; Isao Naguro; Miki Kamiyama
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation
      Author(s): Hiroki Ryuno, Isao Naguro, Miki Kamiyama
      Cancer is a major problem in public health and is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Many types of cancer cells exhibit aberrant cellular signal transduction in response to stress, which often leads to oncogenesis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal cascades are one of the important intracellular stress signaling pathways closely related to cancer. The key molecules in MAPK signal cascades that respond to various types of stressors are apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK) family members; ASK1, ASK2 and ASK3. ASK family members are activated by a wide variety of stressors, and they regulate various cellular responses, such as cell proliferation, inflammation and apoptosis. In this review, we will discuss both the oncogenic and anti-oncogenic roles of the ASK family members in various contexts of cancer development with deeper insights into the involvement of ASK family members in cancer pathology.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T17:21:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2017.05.003
       
  • Targeting the Akt, GSK-3, Bcl-2 axis in acute myeloid leukemia
    • Authors: Maria Rosaria Ricciardi; Simone Mirabilii; Roberto Licchetta; Monica Piedimonte; Agostino Tafuri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation
      Author(s): Maria Rosaria Ricciardi, Simone Mirabilii, Roberto Licchetta, Monica Piedimonte, Agostino Tafuri
      Over the last few decades, there has been significant progress in the understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of the Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). However, despite important advances in elucidating molecular mechanisms, the treatment of AML has not improved significantly, remaining anchored at the standard chemotherapy regimen “3 + 7”, with the prognosis of patients remaining severe, especially for the elderly and for those not eligible for transplant procedures. The biological and clinical heterogeneity of AML represents the major obstacle that hinders the improvement of prognosis and the identification of new effective therapeutic approaches. To date, abundant information has been collected on the genetic and molecular alterations of AML carrying prognostic significance. However, not enough is known on how AML progenitors regulate proliferation and survival by redundant and cross-talking signal transduction pathways (STP). Furthermore, it remains unclear how such complicated network affects prognosis and therapeutic treatment options, although many of these molecular determinants are potentially attractive for their druggable characteristics. In this review, some of the key STP frequently deregulated in AML, such as PI3k/Akt/mTOR pathway, GSK3 and components of Bcl-2 family of proteins, are summarized, highlighting in addition their interplay. Based on this information, we reviewed new targeted therapeutic approaches, focusing on the aberrant networks that sustain the AML blast proliferation, survival and drug resistance, aiming to improve disease treatment. Finally, we reported the approaches aimed at disrupting key signaling cross-talk overcoming resistances based on the combination of different targeting therapeutic strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T17:21:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2017.05.002
       
  • GSK-3 as a novel prognostic indicator in leukemia
    • Authors: Peter P. Ruvolo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation
      Author(s): Peter P. Ruvolo
      While leukemias represent a diverse set of diseases with malignant cells derived from myeloid or lymphoid origin, a common feature is the dysregulation of signal transduction pathways that influence leukemogeneisis, promote drug resistance, and favor leukemia stem cells. Mutations in PI3K, PTEN, RAS, or other upstream regulators can activate the AKT kinase which has central roles in supporting cell proliferation and survival. A major target of AKT is Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3). GSK3 has two isoforms (alpha and beta) that were studied as regulators of metabolism but emerged as central players in cancer in the early 1990s. GSK3 is unique in that the isoforms are constitutively active. Active GSK3 promotes destruction of oncogenic proteins such as beta Catenin, c-MYC, and MCL-1 and thus has tumor suppressor properties. In AML, inactivation of GSK3 is associated with poor overall survival. Interestingly in some leukemias GSK3 targets a tumor suppressor and thus the kinases can act as tumor promoters in those instances. An example is GSK3 targeting p27Kip1 in AML with MLL translocation. This review will cover the role of GSK3 in various leukemias both as tumor suppressor and tumor promoter. We will also briefly cover current state of GSK3 inhibitors for leukemia therapy.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T16:52:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2017.05.001
       
  • Cross-talk between the CK2 and AKT signaling pathways in cancer
    • Authors: Maria Ruzzene; Jessika Bertacchini; Alex Toker; Sandra Marmiroli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation
      Author(s): Maria Ruzzene, Jessika Bertacchini, Alex Toker, Sandra Marmiroli
      CK2 and AKT display a high degree of cross-regulation of their respective functions, both directly, through physical interaction and phosphorylation, and indirectly, through an intense cross-talk of key downstream effectors, ultimately leading to sustained AKT activation. Being CK2 and AKT attractive targets for therapeutic intervention, here we would like to emphasize how AKT and CK2 might influence cell fate through their complex isoform-specific and contextual-dependent cross-talk, to the extent that such functional interplay should be considered when devising therapies that target one or both these key signaling kinases.

      PubDate: 2017-04-03T21:42:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2017.03.002
       
  • Inositol phosphate multikinase dependent transcriptional control
    • Authors: Ace J. Hatch; Audrey R. Odom; John D. York
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation
      Author(s): Ace J. Hatch, Audrey R. Odom, John D. York
      Production of lipid-derived inositol phosphates including IP4 and IP5 is an evolutionarily conserved process essential for cellular adaptive responses that is dependent on both phospholipase C and the inositol phosphate multikinase Ipk2 (also known as Arg82 and IPMK). Studies of Ipk2, along with Arg82 prior to demonstrating its IP kinase activity, have provided an important link between control of gene expression and IP metabolism as both kinase dependent and independent functions are required for proper transcriptional complex function that enables cellular adaptation in response to extracellular queues such as nutrient availability. Here we define a promoter sequence cis-element, 5′-CCCTAAAAGG-3′, that mediates both kinase-dependent and independent functions of Ipk2. Using a synthetic biological strategy, we show that proper gene expression in cells lacking Ipk2 may be restored through add-back of two components: IP4/IP5 production and overproduction of the MADS box DNA binding protein, Mcm1. Our results are consistent with a mechanism by which Ipk2 harbors a dual functionality that stabilizes transcription factor levels and enzymatically produces a small molecule code, which together coordinate control of biological processes and gene expression.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T21:21:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2017.03.001
       
  • Genomic instability and proliferation/survival pathways in Rb-deficient
           malignancies
    • Authors: Lara Pappas; Xiaoliang Leon Xu; David H. Abramson; Suresh C. Jhanwar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation
      Author(s): Lara Pappas, Xiaoliang Leon Xu, David H. Abramson, Suresh C. Jhanwar
      Genomic instability (GIN) is a hallmark of most cancer cells. However, compared to most human cancer cell types, the retinoblastoma tumor cells show a relatively stable genome. The fundamental basis of this genomic stability has yet to be elucidated, and the role of certain proteins involved in cell cycle regulation may be the key to the development of these specific genotypes. We examined whether thyroid hormone receptor beta 1 and 2 (TRβ1 and TRβ2), known to regulate tumorigenesis, and PTTG1, a mitotic checkpoint protein, play a role in maintaining genomic stability in retinoblastoma. In order to elucidate the role of these proteins in development of aneuploidy/polyploidy, an indicator of GIN, we first studied comparative GIN in retinoblastomas and multiple RB mutant cancer cell lines using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. We then utilized pLKO lentiviral vectors to selectively modify expression of the targeted cell cycle proteins and interpret their effect on downstream cell cycle proteins and their relative effects on the development of polyploidy in multiple tumor cell lines. The SNP analysis showed that retinoblastomas displayed relatively fewer genomic copy number changes as compared to other Rb-deficient cancer cell lines. Both TRβ1 and TRβ2 knockdown led to accumulation of E2F1 and PTTG1 and increased GIN as demonstrated by an increase in polyploidy. Downregulation of PTTG1 led to a relative decrease in GIN while upregulation of PTTG1 led to a relative increase in GIN. Knockdown of E2F1 led to a downstream decrease in PTTG1 expression. RB knockdown also upregulated E2F1 and PTTG1 leading to increased GIN. We showed that RB is necessary for PTTG1 inhibition and genomic stability. A relatively stable genome in retinoblastoma tumor cells is maintained by TRβ1 and TRβ2-mediated PTTG1 inhibition, counteracting RB deficiency-related GIN. TRβ1, TRβ2 and RB KD all led to the downstream PTTG1 accumulation, apparently through an activation of E2F1 resulting in extensive genomic instability as seen in other Rb-deficient tumors.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T10:39:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2017.01.002
       
  • The photograph of PHILIP W. MAJERUS
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 63


      PubDate: 2017-02-05T09:26:01Z
       
  • Flimsy Overlay for photograph
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 63


      PubDate: 2017-02-05T09:26:01Z
       
  • Photograph of Participants
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 63


      PubDate: 2017-02-05T09:26:01Z
       
  • Foreword
    • Authors: Lucio Cocco
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation, Volume 63
      Author(s): Lucio Cocco


      PubDate: 2017-02-05T09:26:01Z
       
  • Fhit and Wwox loss-associated genome instability: A genome caretaker
           one-two punch
    • Authors: Morgan S. Schrock; Jenna R. Karras; Matthew J. Guggenbiller; Teresa Druck; Bahadir Batar; Kay Huebner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation
      Author(s): Morgan S. Schrock, Jenna R. Karras, Matthew J. Guggenbiller, Teresa Druck, Bahadir Batar, Kay Huebner
      Expression of Fhit and Wwox protein is frequently lost or reduced in many human cancers. In this report, we provide data that further characterizes the molecular consequences of Fhit loss in the initiation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and of Wwox loss in altered repair of DSBs. We show that loss of Fhit initiates mild genome instability in early passage mouse kidney cells, confirming that DNA damage associated with Fhit-deficiency is not limited to cancer cells. We also demonstrate that the cause of Fhit-deficient DSBs: thymidine deficiency-induced replication stress, can be resolved with thymidine supplementation in early passage mouse kidney cells before extensive genome instability occurs. As for consequences of Wwox loss in cancer, we show in a small panel of breast cancer cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts that Wwox expression predicts response to radiation and mitomycin C, all agents that cause DSBs. In addition, loss of Wwox significantly reduced progression free survival in a cohort of ovarian cancer patients treated with platin-based chemotherapies. Finally, stratification of a cohort of squamous lung cancers by Fhit expression reveals that Wwox expression is significantly reduced in the low Fhit-expressing group, suggesting that loss of Fhit is quickly succeeded by loss of Wwox. We propose that Fhit and Wwox loss work synergistically in cancer progression and that DNA damage caused by Fhit could be targeted early in cancer initiation for prevention, while DNA damage caused by Wwox loss could be targeted later in cancer progression, particularly in cancers that develop resistance to genotoxic therapies.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T08:02:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2016.09.008
       
  • Aberrant proteolytic processing and therapeutic strategies in Alzheimer
           disease
    • Authors: Taisuke Tomita
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation
      Author(s): Taisuke Tomita
      Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and tau are major components of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, respectively, deposited in the brains of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Aβ is derived from amyloid-β precursor protein that is sequentially cleaved by two aspartate proteases, β- and γ-secretases. Secreted Aβ is then catabolized by several proteases. Several lines of evidence suggest that accumulation of Aβ by increased production or decreased degradation induces the tau-mediated neuronal toxicity and symptomatic manifestations of AD. Thus, the dynamics of cerebral Aβ, called as “Aβ economy”, would be the mechanistic basis of AD pathogenesis. Partial loss of γ-secretase activity leads to the increased generation of toxic Aβ isoforms, indicating that activation of γ-secretase would provide a beneficial effect for AD. After extensive discovery and development efforts, BACE1, which is a β-secretase enzyme, has emerged as a prime drug target for lowering brain Aβ levels. Recent studies revealed the decreased clearance of Aβ in sporadic AD patients, suggesting the importance of the catabolic mechanism in the pathogenesis of AD. I will discuss with these proteolytic mechanisms involved in the regulation of Aβ economy, and development of effective treatment and diagnostics for AD.

      PubDate: 2017-01-08T06:38:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2017.01.001
       
  • Discrete signaling mechanisms of mTORC1 and mTORC2: Connected yet apart in
           cellular and molecular aspects
    • Authors: Meena Jhanwar-Uniyal; Anubhav G. Amin; Jared B. Cooper; Kaushik Das; Meic Schmidt; Raj Murali
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Biological Regulation
      Author(s): Meena Jhanwar-Uniyal, Anubhav G. Amin, Jared B. Cooper, Kaushik Das, Meic Schmidt, Raj Murali
      Activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) signaling cascade has been shown in tumorigenesis of numerous malignancies including glioblastoma (GB). This signaling cascade is frequently upregulated due to loss of the tumor suppressor PTEN, a phosphatase that functions antagonistically to PI3K. mTOR regulates cell growth, motility, and metabolism by forming two multiprotein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, which are composed of special binding partners. These complexes are sensitive to distinct stimuli. mTORC1 is sensitive to nutrients and mTORC2 is regulated via PI3K and growth factor signaling. mTORC1 regulates protein synthesis and cell growth through downstream molecules: 4E-BP1 (also called EIF4E-BP1) and S6K. Also, mTORC2 is responsive to growth factor signaling by phosphorylating the C-terminal hydrophobic motif of some AGC kinases like Akt and SGK. mTORC2 plays a crucial role in maintenance of normal and cancer cells through its association with ribosomes, and is involved in cellular metabolic regulation. Both complexes control each other as Akt regulates PRAS40 phosphorylation, which disinhibits mTORC1 activity, while S6K regulates Sin1 to modulate mTORC2 activity. Allosteric inhibitors of mTOR, rapamycin and rapalogs, have essentially been ineffective in clinical trials of patients with GB due to their incomplete inhibition of mTORC1 or unexpected activation of mTOR via the loss of negative feedback loops. Novel ATP binding inhibitors of mTORC1 and mTORC2 suppress mTORC1 activity completely by total dephosphorylation of its downstream substrate pS6KSer235/236, while effectively suppressing mTORC2 activity, as demonstrated by complete dephosphorylation of pAKTSer473. Another significant component of mTORC2 is Sin1, which is crucial for mTORC2 complex formation and function. Furthermore, proliferation and self-renewal of GB cancer stem cells are effectively targetable by these novel mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibitors. Therefore, the effectiveness of inhibitors of mTOR complexes can be estimated by their ability to suppress both mTORC1 and 2 and their ability to impede both cell proliferation and migration.

      PubDate: 2017-01-08T06:38:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jbior.2016.12.001
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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