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Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
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Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 293)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Arthropods
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2224-4255
   Published by International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences Homepage  [5 journals]
  • Development - temperature relationship and temperature dependent
           parameters of German cockroach, Blattella germanica L.

    • Authors: YiTian Xu; SongBin Chen, Yan Yang, WenJun Zhang.Arthropods, 2017, 6(3):78-85
      Abstract: German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is one of the most health pests around the world. Development-temperature relationship and temperature-dependent parameters of B. germanica were determined in present study. The experiment was conducted in the incubators with five constant air temperatures, 23, 28, 31, 36, and 40 degrees Celsius. The photoperiod of 16 h light / 8 h dark and the relative humidity of 74%-76% were fixed for all incubators. Three replicates were set for each temperature. Based on linear regression equations, the estimated starting temperature for development of 1st to 5th instar nymphs of B. germanica is 14.26+-3.157, 13.70+-2.284, 14.59+-3.575, 16.58+-2.398, and 18.47+-1.442 degrees Celsius, respectively. The estimated effective accumulated temperature of 1st to 5th instar nymphs is 99.18+-19.68, 97.01+-13.47, 92.06+-21.17, 80.26+-9.784, and 64.06+-9.784 d degrees Celsius (day degrees), respectively. B. germanica had the highest survivorship and hatching rate, and the least instars for eclosion and hatching time, around 31 degrees Celsius, which is the optimum temperature range for development and survival of B. germanica. B. germanica could not survive at 40 degrees Celsius. Even at 36 degrees Celsius, all eclosed adults had vestigial wings and could not normally mate and reproduce.
       
  • Three new records of lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Iran
           with keys to Iranian species of genera Coccinella L., Pharoscymnus Bedel
           and subgenus Scymnus s.str. Kugelann

    • Authors: R. Abdolahi; O. Nedved, J. Nozari.Arthropods, 2017, 6(3):86-94
      Abstract: Three species of ladybird beetles: Coccinella leonina transversalis Fabricius, 1781, Scymnus femoralis (Gyllenhal, 1827) and Pharoscymnus horni (Weise, 1901) are newly recorded from Iran. Identification keys to Iranian species of the genera Coccinella L., Pharoscymnus Bedel and subgenus Scymnus s.str. Kugelann are given.
       
  • Influence of soil nutrient combination on Flemingia semialata, lac insect
           growth and lac insect pest

    • Authors: Arvind Kumar.Arthropods; 2017, 6(3):95-101
      Abstract: Lac is a natural resin of outstanding properties and exceptional versatility, secreted by tiny coccid insect Kerria lacca, which is reared on some specific plants. Lac insect take their nutrition from the host plant, hence soil nutrient become most important component for sustainable lac cultivation and host plant growth. Therefore, to determine the suitable nutrient combination dose of N, P and K on lac host plant growth, lac yield and their predation and parasitization an experiment was undertaken. The result showed N, P and K soil nutrient combination in treatment 2 (T2=N15:P5:K5) was found to be the most suitable for lac production and least insect pest infestation. The soil nutrient supplied to plants was positively influences the F. semialata plant growth. It shows that soil nutrient must be applied for lac cultivation on F. semialata for their sustainable development, better lac production and less predator infestation.
       
  • Insecticidal, food utilisation and biochemical effect of essential oils
           extracted from seeds of Brassica juncea (Czern.) against Spodoptera litura
           (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (Fabricius)

    • Authors: Shallina Gupta; Nalini Singh Chauhan, Sakshi Bhushan, Rohit Arora, Saroj Arora, Satwinder Kaur Sohal.Arthropods, 2017, 6(3):102-115
      Abstract: The glucosinolate rich hot and cold hexane extracts of Brassica juncea had a negative effect on the development of Spodoptera litura larvae when they were fed on different concentrations of the extracts. Both larval growth index and pupal growth index declined with treatment. However the hot extract with 3-butenyl isothiocyanate as the predominant compound had a more deleterious effect as at 3125ppm the larvae were unable to complete their development. The nutritional indices too were more adversely affected with hot extract as compared to cold extract. The RGR, RCR, ECI and ECD declined significantly with increase in concentration of the hot hexane extract. The activity of antioxidant enzymes, SOD and catalase decreased while that of phosphatases, GSTs, phenol oxidases increased during the initial treatment duration but decreased on prolonged treatment of the larvae with LC50 concentration of hot extract. A similar trend was observed for glutathione and lipid peroxides but a decrease in ascorbate content was observed as compared to control. The findings reveal a toxic effect of 3-butenylisothiocyanate rich hot hexane extract of B. juncea on S. litura larvae.
       
  • Review of the genus Pezodrymadusa (Tettigoniidae: Orthoptera) with
           description of a new species from Pakistan

    • Authors: Waheed Ali Panhwar; Zubair Ahmed, Imran Khatri, Oscar J. Cadena-Castaneda.Arthropods, 2017, 6(2):78-93
      Abstract: The genus is reviewed and a new species Pezodrymadusa sehraensis sp.nov. from Pakistan, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (Lower Dir) is described. A total of 15 species to the genus are redescribed.
       
  • Observations of the sound producing organs in achelate lobster larvae

    • Authors: John A. Fornshell; Alessandra Tesei.Arthropods, 2017, 6(2):36-46
      Abstract: The Achelata, lobsters lacking claws and having a phyllosoma larva, are divided into two families, the Palinuridae or spiny lobsters and the Scyllaridae or slipper lobsters. Within the Palinuridae adults of two groups were identified by Parker (1884), the Stridentesthat are capable of producing sounds, and the Silentesthat are not known to produce sounds. The Stridentes employ a file-like structure on the dorsal surface of the cephalon and a plectrum consisting of a series of ridges on the proximal segment of the second antenna to produce their sounds. All species of Achelata hatch as an unpigmented thin phyllosoma larva. The phyllosoma larva of the Stridentes have a presumptive file-like structure on the dorsal cephalon. A similar file-like structure is found on the cephalon of one species of Silentes, Palinurellus wienckki, and some but not all of the phyllosoma larvae of the Scyllaridae. No presumptive plectrum is found on the second antenna of any of the phyllosoma larvae. Presence of a presumptive file-like structure on phyllosoma larvae of Silentes and Scyllaridae suggests that the ability to produce sounds may have been lost secondarily in the Silentes and Scyllaridae.
       
  • New record of the snapping shrimp Alpheus edwardsii (Audouin,
           1826) (Crustacea: Alpheoidea) in Basrah, Iraq

    • Authors: Tariq H. Y. Al-Maliky; Khaled Kh Al- Khafaji, Talib A. Khalaf.Arthropods, 2017, 6(2):47-53
      Abstract: Specimens of the snapping shrimp Alpheus edwardsii, were collected from the intertidal zone of Faw and Shatt Al-Basrah channel in Basrah city, Iraq during October 2016. Photographs by digital camera and measurements were presented. Guides and keys were used for identification of this species.
       
  • New records of xanthid crabs Atergatis roseus (Ruppell, 1830) (Crustacea:
           Decapoda: Brachyura) from Iraqi coast, south of Basrah city, Iraq

    • Authors: Khaled Khassaf Al-Khafaji; Aqeel Abdulsahib Al-Waeli, Tariq H. Al-Maliky.Arthropods, 2017, 6(2):54-58
      Abstract: Specimens of the The Brachyuran crab Atergatis roseus (Ruppell, 1830), were collected for first times from Iraqi coast, south Al-Faw, Basrah city, Iraq, 1879 in coast of northwest of Arabian Gulf. Morphological features and distribution pattern of this species are highlighted and a figure is provided. The material was mostly collected from the shallow subtidal and intertidal areas using trawl net and hand.
       
  • Epidemiological study of scabies among school going children in district
           Haripur, Pakistan

    • Authors: Samina Yasmin; Hanif Ullah, Muhammad Inayat Ullah Khan, Suleman, Sadia Tabassum, Sardar Azhar Mehmood.Arthropods, 2017, 6(2):59-66
      Abstract: Scabies is a parasitic skin infestation caused by the burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei. An epidemiological study of scabies was conducted at Haripur from Jan to April 2013 to evaluate the prevalence and the important risk factors for the spread of scabies. The study was conducted in School children. Diagnosis was based on the presence of active burrows or excessive rash (rubbing). Out of a sample of 968 school children (1st-5th) 40 were detected as scabetic yielding a prevalence rate of 4.13%. Selecting 70 children as control, a case-control study was performed to assess the relative risk of scabies with respect to a variety of risk factors. Sleeping behavior (bed sharing) and the presence of head lice came out as a significant risk factors with relative risk of 3.0 and 2.44, respectively. On the other hand, factors like family size, house characteristics, general health condition, and bathing frequency did not significantly influence the occurrence of scabies.
       
  • Side effects of thiacloprid+deltamethrin, pirimicarb and pymetrozine on
           the black bean aphid parasitoid, Lysiphlebus fabarum Marshall
           (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae)

    • Authors: Ardavan Mardani; Ali Almasi, Seyed Mehdi Hashemi, Majid Mohammadnejad.Arthropods, 2017, 6(2):67-77
      Abstract: Lysiphlebus fabarum Marshall is the main parasitoid of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli. Lethal and sublethal effects of thiacloprid+deltamethrin, pirimicarb and pymetrozine were evaluated on the parasitoid under laboratory conditions. Newly emerged females were exposed to dry insecticide residues that were applied on glass plates. Thiacloprid+deltamethrin caused 100% mortality. Pirimicarb produced significant mortality and adverse effects on fecundity, while pymetrozin did not. According to the IOBC (International Organization of Biological Control) standards, thiacloprid+deltamethrin (E = 100%), pirimicarb (E = 62.70%) and pymetrozine (E = 11.86%) were classified as harmful, slightly harmful and harmless, respectively. Life table assays revealed that intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) inthiacloprid+deltamethrin (50%) and pirimicarb (12%) were significantly reduced compared to the control group, while pymetrozine had no such effects. Our results showed that pymetrozine was safe for L. fabarum, but pirimicarb and thiacloprid+deltamethrin had deleterious effects on this parasitoid. In sum, the present study suggests a relative compatibility between pymetrozine and L. fabarum.
       
  • Larval stages Nymphon charcoti Bouvier 1911

    • Authors: John A. Fornshell.Arthropods; 2017, 6(1):1-7
      Abstract: The protonymphon larva and next four instars of the pycnogonids Nymphon charcoti are described. The developmental pattern is that of a "Typical Protonymphon" according to Bain's 2003 classification. The description is based on archived specimens from the National Museum of Natural History collections. The walking legs appear initially as underived buds with three pseudo-segments beginning with walking leg one in the second instar. In the subsequent instars the walking legs appear as six segmented appendages and then eight segmented appendages. In the genus Nymphon there are four different post embryonic developmental patterns, "Typical Protonymphon", "Attaching Larva", "Lecithotrophic Larva" and "Elvie's Larva". This diversity of developmental patterns within the same genus which is not restricted to the Nymphonidae indicates that the developmental patterns as currently defined in the literature have little phylogenetic relevance.
       
  • Insect pest infestation on Gmelina arborea Roxb. in different agroclimatic
           zones of Jharkhand, India

    • Authors: Arvind Kumar; Girish Chandra.Arthropods, 2017, 6(1):8-20
      Abstract: The fast growing and multipurpose timber species G. arborea has problem of multiple insect pest attack in India. To understand the diversity of insect pest infestation abundance on Gmelina arborea, the data was collected on insect pest infestation (%) in three agro-climatic zones (Zone IV, V and VI) of Jharkhand province of India over a period of 3 years. Results shows that the plants were infested with total twenty insect pests species, out of these ten insect pest were recorded as new for G. arborea. Various diversity and similarity indices were calculated to explore the relationship of insect pest infestation among zones. It was found that Zone V have the maximum species infestation diversity followed by the zones IV and VI, whereas, zones IV and V were most similar and zone VI was differ from others. Duncan's multiple range test determined that Phyllocnistis amydropa was the most abundant species for G. arborea. Additionally, ten insect pests viz. Maladera sp., Hyperops coromandelensis, Lobotrachelus sp., Apion sp., Ectropis bhurmitra, Belippa lalean, Pagyda sp., Phromnia marginella, and Homeocerus inornatus, Megalurothrips peculiaris were found to be as new insect pest records, infesting to G. arborea first time. The study may helpful to understand the expending range of insect pest fauna of G. arborea in the country and framing insect pest management policy more effectively.
       
  • A report on butterfly diversity of Rawanwadi Reservoir, Bhandara
           (Maharashtra), India

    • Authors: Kishor G. Patil; Asmita Kanekar, Virendra A. Shende, Uke Shrikant Bhimrao.Arthropods, 2017, 6(1):21-28
      Abstract: Investigations have been done to record diversity of butterflies around the area of Rawanwadi reservoir during April 2015 to March 2016. It is surrounded by hilly terrain and forest provides abundance of host and larvalfood plants, and vegetation which are the most dominant features for diversity of butterflies. It has abundant species of butterflies due to suitable surrounding environment. A total of 84 species belonging to 5 families and 54 genera were recorded. Amongst which 52.38% were common, 28.57% were occasional and 19.04% species were rare. Family Nymphalidae consist maximum number of species i.e. 32 from 19 genera. This number is followed by Lycaenidae with 19 genera and 26 species. Pieridae consist of 13 species of 7 genera and Hesperiidae consist 7 species of 6 genera. Minimum number of species were recorded in Papilionidae i.e. 6 species of 3 genera. Most species from Lycaenidae were found near water body.
       
  • Genetic diversity of six isolated populations of the leopard moth, Zeuzera
           pyrina (Lep: Zeuzeridae)

    • Authors: Raheleh Dolati; Jamasb Nozari, Vahid Hosseininaveh.Arthropods, 2017, 6(1):29-35
      Abstract: The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (Lep: Zeuzeridae), is an important pest of a wide range of trees and shrubs including walnut and apple across the world. The natural populations of the leopard moth in different geographical areas of Iran show significant differences in some of their biological characteristics such as time of emergence, generation time and host specificity. So, we hypothesized that these populations may represent different subspecies that move toward a speciation event in their evolutionary route. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity of six different geographically isolated populations of the leopard moth using the sequence alignment of cytochrome oxidase c subunit one (COI). A fragment of 642 base pairs was amplified in all six populations and the phylogenetic tree was created based on sequenced fragments. Our results revealed significant differences in the nucleotide sequence of COI gene in these populations. Differences in climatic conditions of these regions seem to be the most powerful force driving this diversity among the studied populations.
       
  • Transduction of the vitellogenic signal of juvenile hormone by
           Methoprene-tolerant in the cockroach Blattella germanica (L.)
           (Dictyoptera, Blattellidae)

    • Authors: Mahboubeh Naghdi; Jose-Luis Maestro, Xavier Belles, Ali Bandani.Arthropods, 2016, 5(4):130-137
      Abstract: In adult females of the cockroach Blattella germanica, juvenile hormone (JH) promotes vitellogenin production. Depletion of Methoprene-tolerant (Met) mRNA levels with RNAi resulted in a clear reduction of vitellogenin expression in the fat body while basal oocyte growth was impaired. This demonstrates that Met is essential to transduce the vitellogenic signal of JH in this species. Interestingly, the expression of the transcription factor Kruppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) was also reduced in Met-depleted specimens. This indicates that the JH signaling pathway promotes the transcription of Kr-h1 in adult fat body tissues, as occurs in the epidermis during nymphal development. Treatments with JH show that the expression of Met does not depend on JH, which suggests that Met is upstream the JH signaling pathway acting as JH receptor, as reported in other models and processes, especially in metamorphosis. JH treatments increased the transcription levels of vitellogenin and Kr-h1, which again suggests that Kr-h1 is a JH-dependent transcription factor in the fat body of adult females. The important roles of Met in nymphal development, as previously reported, and those reported herein in relation to reproduction, suggests that it can be an interesting target for the control of B. germanica in urban environments, using RNAi approaches.
       
  • Analysis of Sogatella furcifera (Horvath) soluble proteins by SDS PAGE

    • Authors: ZiQiang Liang; TingTing Liu, AnWen Liang, GuangHong Li, FangHai Wang.Arthropods, 2016, 5(4):138-143
      Abstract: The soluble proteins from nymphs and adults of Sogatella furcifera were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The number of protein bands increased gradually as the nymphs developing, such as six and 14 protein bands were found in 3rd-instar nymphs and 5th-instar nymphs respectively. At the same time, we found that three bands expressed in each instar, two bands began to appear from 4th-instar, and six bands were specific in 5th-instar. There were four bands that their content in 5th-instar nymphs with long-winged disc was at least 65.61% higher than in 5th-instar nymphs with short-winged disc. There were 13 protein bands observed in male adults, while female adults had 13 corresponding protein bands and a specific band expressed only in tissue. Comparing between two wing-type adults, four bands were specific to long-winged adults, while the content of other three bands in long-winged adults was at least 72.54 % higher than in short-winged adults. Finally, these specific protein bands associated with wing or sex were discussed what kind role they played in wing or sexual differentiation. The results will be helpful to further explore the mechanism of wing or sexual differentiation about planthoppers.
       
  • A contribution to the rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Paederinae)
           in north of Iran

    • Authors: Masoud Mohammadi Dehcheshmeh; Alireza Jalalizand.Arthropods, 2016, 5(4):144-150
      Abstract: In this paper, 19 species of rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), belonging to the subfamily Paederinae Fleming 1821, were collected from Mazandaran province, north of Iran, during 2015-2016. Two species, Rugilus angustatus Geoffroy 1758 and Astenus lyonessius (joy 1908) are reported for the first time from Iran.
       
  • Epidemiological study of scabies in district Haripur, Pakistan

    • Authors: Samina Yasmin; Suleman, Hanif Ullah, Mian Sayed Khan.Arthropods, 2016, 5(4):151-161
      Abstract: Scabies is a contagious disorder of skin caused by a mite called human itch mite, Sarcoptes scabiei. An epidemiological study of scabies was conducted from district Haripur to evaluate the prevalence and the important risk factors responsible for the spread of scabies. The study was conducted in General population from (February - April 2013).Surveys were carried out in general population comprising 200 families of district Haripur. Out of two hundred families in general population, 81 were scabetic showing a prevalence rate of 40.5%.Considering an individual as a unit, 109cases were detected, out of these total samples of 1193 individuals, exhibiting a prevalence rate of 9.13%.The disease was significantly more common in females (10.4%)than males(7.9%),in lower socio-economic classes (13.8%) than the upper and middle classes (5.22%,7.16%), in those living in uncemented houses (23.6%) than those living in cemented houses (7.5%),and in those having domestic animals at home(13.4%)than those without domestic animals(8.08%). Family size was of no significance but prevalence was positively co-related with the level of crowding (average number of person per room in a house). No clear trend was indicated in the prevalence rate of scabies changing with educational level. The distribution of the number of cases per family followed a Poisson distribution, demonstrating that all the families surveyed were equally exposed to the risk of scabies.
       
  • Effect of Iranian Bt cotton on life table of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera:
           Alyrodidae) and Cry 1Ab detection in the whitefly honeydew

    • Authors: Solmaz Azimi; Shima Rahmani, Masoud Tohidfar, Ahmad Ashouri.Arthropods, 2016, 5(3):87-96
      Abstract: Transgenic cotton expressing the Cry 1Ab protein of Bacillus thuringiensis developing against Helocoverpa armigera may be affect on secondary pest such as Bemisia tabaci. In this study effects of Bt cotton on demographic parameters of B. tabaci were assessed and the data analyzed using the age specific, two-sex life table parameters. Results showed that getting to the adulthood stage, was faster on non-Bt cotton in comparison with Bt cotton. Also the fecundity was higher on non-Bt cotton than that on Bt cotton. Some of the population parameters (r, R0 and T) of B. tabaci were affected by the Bt cotton significantly. The intrinsic rate of increase (r) on Bt and non-Bt cotton was 0.07 day-1 and 0.1 day-1, respectively. The net reproductive rate (R0) was 20.68 and 15.04 offspring/individual on Bt and non-Bt cotton, respectively. Mean generation time (T) in non-Bt cotton was 27.22 and 34.62 days in Bt cotton. The results indicated that the life history of B. tabaci in the laboratory condition was influenced by host plant quality and Bt cotton was not a suitable host for B. tabaci. The western immunoblot method showed that the Cry protein detection in honeydew was positive which indicated that the Cry protein was ingested. Results revealed that the transgenic cotton could adversely affect the secondary pest and the natural enemies which feed on such pests as a host or their honeydew as a food source should be considered.
       
  • A contribution key for identification of butterflies (Lepidoptera) of
           Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Farzana Khan Perveen; Haroon.Arthropods, 2016, 5(3):97-108
      Abstract: The butterflies are the useful bio-indicators of an ecosystem, sensitive to any change in environment, such as temperature, microclimate and solar radiation etc, however, they utilize host plants for their oviposition and larval development. Therefore, the present study was conducted to prepare the contribution key for identification of butterflies of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014-May, 2015. The specimens (ni = 506) were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. However, the collected butterflies were comprised of families Nymphalidae 50%, Pieridae 43%, Papilionidae 7%. The family Nymphalidae were primarily, blue, pale brown or orange and antennae-tips with large conspicuous knobs, while, family Pieridae were mostly creamy, white, yellow or light orange, although, the family Papilionidae were multi-colours, i.e., yellow, blackish-brown, white or orange and antennae-tips with or without knobs. The largest butterfly was great black mormon, Papilio polytes Linnaeus (Family: Papilionidae) with body length 26.0+-0.0 (nP. polytes = 1; M+-SD) mm, while the smallest butterflies Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval (Family: Pieridae) with body length 11.5+-0.6 (nC. etrida = 4; M+-SD) mm. The key of butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan has been established in this paper. It is recommended to evaluate the butterfly fauna of District Charsadda to educate and create awareness in the local community for conservation and protestation of their habitats.
       
  • Pathogenicity of three entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae,
           Beauveria bassiana, and Paecilomyces lilacinus, to Tetranychus kanzawai
           infesting papaya seedlings

    • Authors: Yayan Sanjaya; Virginia R. Ocampo, Barbara L. Caoili.Arthropods, 2016, 5(3):109-113
      Abstract: Tetranychus kanzawai is an economically important polyphagous mite species in East and South Asia. In the Philippines, it commonly infests cassava and papaya plants. The mites attack and severely damage the older leaves of papaya trees as well as seedlings. Its serious damage causes the leaves to dry up, thus, reducing the photosynthetic activity of the plant. Three entomopathogenic fungal isolates were tested on mites under greenhouse conditions using treated papaya seedlings following a completely randomized design. The mites tested were examined under a dissecting scope to determine the causal agent and to confirm mortality. The LT50 of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces lilacinus on T. kanzawai were estimated. Our results indicate that among these entomopathogenic fungi, the Metarhizium anisopliae Ma6 isolate (LT50= 3.00 days) has potentiality for the control of T. kanzawai.
       
  • Toxicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) and boric
           acid against nosocomial cockroaches, Blattella germanica

    • Authors: Mohammad Saaid Dayer; Kayhan Karvandian.Arthropods, 2016, 5(3):114-124
      Abstract: German cockroach is an important urban pest of worldwide distribution which harbors food poisoning and infectious organisms as well as allergens. In spite of the fact that insecticide application provides solution in severe cockroach infestation, it is associated with resistances development, pollution and economic lost. Integrated pest management (IPM) has been reported to be the best strategy for controlling such a nuisance pest. The main components of a successful IPM programme are biological agents and chemicals of reduced toxicity to non-target species. One of the biological agents which showed promising check on cockroaches is Metarhizium anispoliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin. Also, boric acid has been traditionally used as a safe inorganic insecticide against many pest of agricultural and health importance. Boric acid and M. anisopliae showed not only compatibility, but also synergism in killing Blattella germanica, when applied as dust or liquid baits. However, incorporation and efficacy of both agents in semi-solid baits remains to be documented. This study revealed that boric acid incorporated at 8 gr/kg in semi-solid baits has no side effect on M. anisopliae but enhance its virulence causing higher mortality in adult males of German cockroaches. This study, also, showed that boric acid can be used at higher dosages without any harm to the fungal pathogen if allowed to be up-taken by the pest through cutaneous contacts and/or grooming.
       
  • First record of terrestrial snail Eobania vermiculata (O.F. Muller, 1774)
           (Gastropoda: Helicidae) from Basrah areas, Iraq

    • Authors: Khaled K. S. Al-Khafaji; Abtsam M. Abud-Sahab, Najim M. Aziz.Arthropods, 2016, 5(3):125-129
      Abstract: Specimens of the terrestrial gastropod Eobania vermiculata (O.F. Muller, 1774) were collected from two locations (Hareerregion and Al-Khoraregion) in Basrah city, Iraq, during the period from March 2015 to April 2016. Some notes on the morphological features of this species and photographs were provided to confirm the identification of the snail. The results found that it is the first record of this land snail E.vermiculata in Basrah city.
       
  • LC30 effects of thiamethoxam and pirimicarb, on population parameters and
           biological characteristics of Macrolophus pygmaeus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    • Authors: Shima Rahmani; Solmaz Azimi, Mona Moghadasi.Arthropods, 2016, 5(2):44-55
      Abstract: Chemical pesticides have important role in integrated pest management strategies. However, they can adversely affect on natural enemies as non-target organisms, even in sublethal concentrations. In this study, sublethal effects of two insecticides, thiamethoxam and pirimicarb, were examined on demographic parameters of an important predator, Macrolophus pygmaeus. Bioassay results indicated that LC30 of thiamethoxam and pirimicarb, applied on the third instar larvae, were 451.6 and 2013.4 mg (ai) L-1, respectively. The two insecticides extended the pre-adult duration, significantly. Demographic parameters were analyzed by two-sex life table. The results showed that all of the main demographic traits (r, lamda, R0 and T) have been changed significantly and there are also some changes in other parameters such as age-specific survival rate (lx) and life expectancy (ex). Intrinsic rate of increase in control was 0.15 but it reduced to 0.10 and 0.99 day-1 in thiamethoxam and pirimicarb treatments, respectively. Also, finite rate of increase in control, thiamethoxam and pirimicarb treatments was 1.11, 1.08 and 1.03 day-1 respectively. Reproductive rate in control showed 36.75 offspring/individual but this statistic in thiamethoxam and pirimicarb treatments was 19.62 and 18.24, respectively. Mean generation time was 22.69 days in control but it extended in both treatments and illustrated 27.79 and 31.24 days in thiamethoxam and pirimicarb treatments, respectively. Thus, obtained results in this study showed that although pirimicarb and thiamethoxam are selective insecticides, they have potential to affect on the predator, M. pygmaeus severely, and need to take care in IPM programs.
       
  • Comparison of mineral oil spray with current synthetic pesticides to
           control important pests in citrus orchards and their side effects

    • Authors: Mohammad Reza Damavandian.Arthropods; 2016, 5(2):56-64
      Abstract: Over the past years the most important citrus pests poorly controlled despite multiple spraying and growers suffered heavy damage. To this end, a study was done to evaluate and compare the conventional insecticides with mineral oil spray (MOS) for the control of citrus pests and adverse effects in citrus orchards in Mazandaran province. In this study, the diversity and abundance of carabid beetles, as a specific predator of snails, were compared in conventional and free protocol pesticide (or MOS) orchards. The results showed that the frequency and distribution of important citrus pests in free protocol pesticide orchards after three years of treatment was significantly lower than conventional orchards. The comparison showed that continual use of synthetic pesticides in citrus orchards in the province , leading to a sharp reduction in their population and species diversity. The results of this study indicate that the use of mineral oil can be a useful alternative to synthetic pesticides in citrus orchards of the East province.
       
  • Characteristics of family Pieridae (Lepidoptera) in Tehsil Tangi, Khyber
           Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Haroon; Farzana Perveen.Arthropods, 2016, 5(2):65-76
      Abstract: The butterflies are the most beautiful and colorful insects of the world. Which attract most of the animals for their food easily available. The present research were conducted at Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during August 2014 to May 2015. The family Pieridae were collected with the help of insects net and naked hands. A total of 8 species and 6 genera were collected, i.e., Common or lemon emigrant, Catopsilia ponoma Fabricius; Mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus; Clouded yellow, Coliasfieldii Fabricius; Common grass yellow, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus; Eastern pale clouded yellow butterfly, Colias erate Esper; Indian cabbage white, Pieris canidia Sparrman; Indian little orange tip, Colotisetrida Boisduval; Pioneer white or African caper white, Belonias aurota Fabricius. Aims of the present research the characteristics of butterfly fauna from Tehsil Tangi, are helpful in awareness, education and further research. A detail study is required for further exploration of butterflies' fauna of Tehsil Tangi.
       
  • The expression profile of detoxifying enzyme of tomato leaf miner, Tuta
           absoluta Meyrik (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to chlorpyrifos

    • Authors: Idin Zibaee; Ali Reza Bandani, Ghodratollah Sabahi.Arthropods, 2016, 5(2):77-86
      Abstract: The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrich) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is an important pest of tomato crops worldwide. The persistent use of organophosphate insecticide to control this pest has led to resistance. However, there is no report on the susceptibility and resistance mechanism of field population of Tuta absoluta (Meyrik) from Iran. Furthermore, the toxicity and impact of chlorpyrifos on metabolic enzymes in this pest remains unknown. The populations of T. absoluta from Rasht in Iran displayed LC30; 4332, LC50; 5010 and LC90; 7027 ug larva-1 to chlorpyrifos. The toxicity of chlorpyrifos could be synergized more bydiethyl maleate (DEM) and triphenylphosphate (TPP) whereas the synergistic effect of piperonylbutoxide (PBO) was not efficient as well as two other synergists. The synergistic effect ranged from 1.3 to 1.9-fold in 24 h and 1.2 to 1.5-fold in 48 h. The exposure with chlorpyrifos for 24 and 48 h significantly increased the activities of esterase and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases, while there were no significant changes in glutathione-S-transferase. Field populations of T. absoluta from Iran displayed less susceptibility to chlorpyrifos and had a relatively high LC50in compare to other previous studies. Esterases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase might be involved in the metabolism, and hence resistance to, chlorpyrifos in this pest.
       
  • Population activity of peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders)
           (Diptera: Tephiritidae) at fruits orchards in Kafer El-Shikh Governorate,
           Egypt

    • Authors: Khalil A. Draz; Reda M. Tabikha, Mohamed A. El-Aw, Ismail R. El-Gendy, Habashy F. Darwish.Arthropods, 2016, 5(1):28-43
      Abstract: Peach Fruit Fly (PFF) Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is one of most dominant and destructive key pest in fruit orchards in different agro-ecosystem in Egypt, so monitoring adults' population fluctuation in orchards, through capturing adults, has been considered as main way to forecasting or management the pest. So current study aimed to assay the efficiency of Jackson traps baited with methyl eugenol (M.E.) on male capture, that were distributed in different fruit trees orchards, in different positions and hang levels in one of Egyptian agroecosystem (Kafer El-Shikh Governorate), from (May 2014 to April 2015). Moreover, adults capture in McPhail traps in navel orange orchards intercropping with Guava were exploded to detect abundant and rearing season of the pest studying impact of abiotic factors on population, and estimation number, time and duration of annual generation. Obtained results declared that the pest had 7-8 annually generation. Jackson traps that placed in center of orchard and hanged at 2 m height more efficient than others for male catches. Highest numbers of PFF male attack orchards of Navel orange intercropping with Guava, while the lowest were with Navel orange and Guava. Each of season and kind of orchard or intercropping system had combined and significant effect on mass trapping. In McPhail traps, highest mass trapping of adult was observed in autumn (20.353 adult/ trap/ week), while each of spring, summer and winter season were similar in mass trapping. Only Wind direction as climatic factors had negative significant effect on mass trapping of PFF adults in McPhail traps, while each of maximum and mean temperature of winter season had positive significant effect on mass trapping.
       
  • A contribution key for the first recorded spider (Arachnidae: Aranae)
           fauna from Sheringal, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Farzana Khan Perveen; Numan Khan.Arthropods, 2016, 5(1):1-10
      Abstract: The spiders (Arthropoda: Arachnida) have a hard cephalothorax and soft abdomen. They are environmental indicators and play an important role in biological control of pests and vectors. The present study was conducted to prepare the key for the first recorded spider fauna during June 2013-July 2014 in 6 quadrates of Sheringal, i.e., Daramdala, Doki, Guryaal, Samang, Shahoor and Sia-Sheringal, Dir Upper (DU), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. During the present research, 10 species belong to 7 families, and 10 genera were recorded. The family Sparassidae was the largest among collected families (nSparassidae=19), its body was larger than others, abdomen was narrow at posterior, cephalothorax region was broad and brown, chelicearae were forwarded, legs were strong, body have hairs grey to brown and they were harmless and speedy. Gnphosidae family was the smallest among collected families (nGnphosidae=3), their eyes were heterogeneous, their inner margin of chelicerae were with a wide serrated lamina, posterior row of eyes were much longer than anterior, with lateral rounded maxillae. While the family Hersiliidae was the unique in collected families (nHersiliidae=6), as they are known as two-tail spiders, they have enlarged spinnerets, their male grow up to 8 mm and female up to 10 mm, they have 2 tails and are mimic with host plants. It was concluded that the majority of the collected species belong to the family Sparassidae. It is recommended that further research may be conducted on arboreal and aquatic species of spiders in Sheringal, KP, Pakistan.
       
  • Diversity and distribution of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera) of
           district Dir lower, Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Muhammad Inayatullah Khan; Hanif Ullah, Suleman, Muhammad Anwar Saleem Khan, Falak Naz, Muhammad Ather Rafi, Sardar Azhar Mehmood.Arthropods, 2016, 5(1):11-22
      Abstract: Butterflies are the fine-looking creatures and act as ecological indicators and pollinators. The present study is the first record of Butterfly fauna of Dir lower. Collection was carried out during March - August 2013. The specimens were collected and identified with the help of taxonomic keys and preserved specimens in National Insect Museum Islamabad. The collection of 375 specimens were preserved. Identification revealed 24 species belonging to 20 genera and 7 families. The species are Papilio polyctor Boisduval, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, Junonia almanac Linnaeus, Pararge schakra Kollar, Junonia hierta Fabricius, Junonia orythea Linnaeus, Argyrius hyperbius Linnaeus, Hypolimnus bolina Linnaeus, Vanessa cashmiriensis Kollar, Phalantha phalantha Drury, Melitea didyma Esper, Lycaena phalaeas Linnaeus, Lybithea lipita Moore, Danius chrysippus Linnaeus, Hipparchia parasitas Kollar, Lethe rohria Fabricius, Maniola davendra Moore, Pontia daplidice Linnaeus, Belenois aurota Fabricius, Pieris brassicae Linnaeus, Colias erate Esper Eurema hecabe Linnaeus, Colias fieldi Linnaeus and Cynthia cardui Linnaeus. The highest population was shown by Pieris brassicae followed by Danius chrysippus and Cynthia cardui. Twelve species belong to family Nymphalidae (50%), which shows the highest abundance rate. Butterfly density was the highest at Timergara. Butterfly fauna was the highest in May followed by August and lowest in March. It is concluded that pollution free environment of Dir Lower is more suitable for the survival of butterfly fauna. Large scale study is required to fully explore the butterfly fauna of the area.
       
  • New record of the Grapsoid crab Metaplax indica H. Milne-Edwards, 1852
           (Decapoda: Brachyura: Thoracotremata) from the NW of the Arabian Gulf,
           Iraq

    • Authors: Tariq H. Yasein; Al Maliky, Murtada D. Naser, Amaal Gh. Yasser, Abdul-Hussein H. Ghazi.Arthropods, 2016, 5(1):23-27
      Abstract: Specimens of grapsoid crab Metaplax indica were collected from the intertidal zone of the lower reaches of Shatt Al-Arab at Fao region, NW of the Arabian Gulf , Basrah, Iraq 2012. A note on the morphological features of this species and a photograph is provided to confirm the identification of the crab.
       
  • Effect of proline as a nutrient on hypopharyngeal glands during
           development of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    • Authors: Ali Darvishzadeh; Vahid Hosseininaveh, Gholamali Nehzati, Jamasb Nozari.Arthropods, 2015, 4(4):137-143
      Abstract: Proline is known to be an energy source for protein synthesis and appears to have a major role in insect flying metabolism. Insects can detect proline in their food and use it as an energy substrate to start flight and other high energy consuming activities. Honey bee has a feeding preference for nectars with higher concentrations of this amino acid. In this research we present evidence that L-proline can be utilized as a phagostimulant for the honeybee worker (Apis mellifera). We reported the L-proline increase hypopharyngeal glands acini diameter and syrup consumption at the experimental cage. Honeybee workers fed on 1000 ppm treatment prolin consumed 773.9+-31.8 ul/bee after 18-days. It is obvious that the honeybee workers consumed 1000 ppm the more than other treatment. The feeding decreased when concentration of L-proline increased to 10000 ppm. The hypopharyngeal glands development increased gradually from honeybee workers emergence and started to decrease after 9 days old. The maximum acini diameter (0.1439+-0.001 mm) was recorded in the 9th day when newly emerged bees were fed on 1000 ppm proline syrup.
       
  • Checklist of butterfly (Insecta: Lepidoptera) fauna of Tehsil Tangi,
           Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Farzana Khan Perveen; Haroon.Arthropods, 2015, 4(4):98-106
      Abstract: The butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera)are well known insects, play an important role in the ecosystem as bioindicators and pollinators. They have bright colours, remarkable shapes and supple flight. The present study was conducted to prepare the checklist of butterfly fauna of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014 to May, 2015. A total of 506 specimens were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. The collected species are the common or lemon emigrant, Catopsila ponoma Fabricius; mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus; clouded yellow, Colias fieldii Fabricius; common grass yellow, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus; eastern pale clouded yellow butterfly, Colias erate Esper; Indian cabbage white, Pieris canidia Sparrman; Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval; pioneer white or African caper white, Belonias aurota Fabricius; plain tiger, Danaua chrysippus Linnaeus; blue tiger, Tirumala liminniace Cramer; peacock pansy,Junonia almanac Linnaeus; Indian fritillary, Argyreus hyperbius Linnaeus; Indian red admiral, Venesa indica Herbst; yellow pansy, Junonia hierta Fabricius; blue pansy, Junonia orytha Linnaeus; white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis Kollar; banded tree brwon, Lethe confuse Aurivillius; common castor, Ariadne merione Cramer; painted lady, Caynthia cardui Linnaeus; Himalayan sailer, Neptis mahendra Moore; common boran, Euthalia garuda Hewitson; lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and great black mormon butterfly, Papilio polytes Linnaeus. It was concluded that the family Nymphalidae has the highest numbers of individuals in the present checklist. It is recommended that butterfly fauna of the study area should be conserved and their habitat should be protected.
       
  • Synergistic effect of some essential oils on toxicity and knockdown
           effects, against mosquitos, cockroaches and housefly

    • Authors: Idin Zibaee; Pooyabahari Khorram.Arthropods, 2015, 4(4):107-123
      Abstract: The toxicity and knockdown effect of Eucalyptus globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils and their mixed formulation on Periplaneta Americana (L.), Blattella germanica (L.), Supella longipalpa, Culex pipiens, Anopheles stephensi and Musca domestica were evaluated in a series of laboratory experiments. In all bioassay five different doses (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10%) were used by filter paper (cm2) and aerosol (cm3) bioassay methods, all essential oils was toxic to cockroaches, mosquitos and housefly species the lowest and the highest LC50 belong to mixed formulation on B. germanica (LC50 6.1) and E. globulus on P. americana (LC50 27.7) respectively. In continuous exposure experiments, Mortality (LT50) values for cockroaches ranged from 1403.3 min with 0.625% E. globulus (for P. americana) to 2.2 min with 10% mixed formulation for A. stephensi. The KT50 values ranged from 0.1 to 1090.8 min for 10% and 0.625 for mixed formulation and R. officinalis respectively. The mortality after 24 h for mixed formulation was 100% but for single essential oils ranged from 81.5 to 98.3 for P. americana treated with R. officinalis and A. stephensi treated with E. globulus respectively. Studies on persistence of essential oils on impregnated paper revealed that it has more adulticidal activity for longer period at low storage temperature. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of essential oil showed 14 and 16 peaks for E. globules and R. officinalis respectively. alpha-Pinene (39.8%), 1, 8-Cineole (13.2%), Camphene (9.1%) and Borneol (3.7%) were present in major amounts for R. officinalis and 1,8-Cineole (31.4%), alpha-Pinene (15.3%), d-Limonene (9.7%) and alpha-Terpinolen (5.3%) were present in major amounts for E. globulus respectively. Our results showed that two surveyed essential oils has compatible with synergistic effect on various insect species, furthermore it is useful for applying as integrated pest management tool for studied insects management, especially in situations in which conventional insecticides would be inappropriate.
       
  • Characteristics of the first recorded spider (Arthropoda: Arachnida) fauna
           from Sheringal, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Farzana Khan Perveen; Numan Khan.Arthropods, 2015, 4(4):124-136
      Abstract: The spiders (order: Aranae) are an important environmental indicator and play a significant role as predators in biological control of the most of the key insect pests. The present study was conducted to establish the characteristics of the first recorded spider fauna from Sheringal, Dir Upper (DU), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan during June 2013-July 2014. Their 10 species belong to 7 families, and 10 genera (nt=123: total; ni=77: identified; nui=46: unidentified) were recorded in the 6 quadrates, i.e., Daramdala, Doki, Guryaal, Samang, Shahoor and Sia-Sheringal of Sheringal. The largest family was Lycosidae (wolf spiders) with respect to size and numbers of specimens collected (n=20), which contained Arctosa littorali Simon, 1897; Hippasa partita Takidar, 1970; Pardosa distincta Backwall, 1867, while the smallest family was Gnphosidae (ground spiders) (n=3) with Gnaphosa eucalyptus Ghafoor and Beg, 2002; while other families Sparassidae (huntsman spiders) (n=19) Halconia insignis Thorell, 1836, and Isopeda tuhogniga Barrion and Litsinger, 1995, Opilionidae (harvestmen spiders) (n=12) Hadrobunus grandis Sundevall, 1833; Pholcidae (cellar spider) (n=10) have Crossopriza lyoni Blackwall, 1867; Hersiliidae (two-tailed spiders) (n=6) is having Harsilia savignyi Lucas, 1836; (n=5) with Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 were recorded. It was concluded that 50% of the spiders collected from the study area were venomous. A detail study is required for further exploration of spider fauna of Sheringal, KP, Pakistan with special reference to their taxonomical, physiological and ecological characteristics.
       
  • Exploring of first recorded spider (Arachenida: Aranae) species of
           Sheringal, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Farzana Perveen; Numan Khan.Arthropods, 2015, 4(3):69-77
      Abstract: The spiders (Phylum: Arthropoada; Class: Arachenida) are one of the groups of grasping animals. Their carapaces are found on the dorsal side of the cephalothorax, which is an important characteristic of spiders. The present study was conducted to explore the first recorded spider species (N=75) of Sheringal, Dir Upper (DU), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The 10 species belong to 7 families, and 10 genera were recorded from June 2013- July 2014. According to length of legs, the largest spider was the huntsman spider, Halconia insignis having length of the first leg was 1.9+-0.20, however, the same of the last leg was 1.44+-0.25 (n=9). In the same contest, the smallest spider was the ground spider, Gnaphosa eucalyptus having length of the first leg was 0.4+-0.08, while the same of the last leg was 0.4+-0.08 (n=3). According to length of cephalothorax and abdomen, the largest spider was the wolf spider, Hippasa partita having length of the cephalothorax was 1.1+-0.01, however, the same of the abdomen was 0.7+-0.1 (n=6). In the same contest, the smallest spider was the harvestmen, Hadrobunus grandis having length of the cephalothorax was 0.1+-0.04, while the same of the abdomen was 0.3+-0.04 (n=12). The spider species of Sheringal were not explored before. The present research will be useful to educate and create awareness about spiders in the people of Sheringal.
       
  • Effects of temperature on population growth parameters of Cryptolaemus
           montrouzieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) reared on Planococcus citri
           (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)

    • Authors: Negar Saeedi; Mohammad Reza Damavandian, Hemmat Dadpour Moghanloo.Arthropods, 2015, 4(3):78-89
      Abstract: The effect of temperature on the development, survival, fecundity and population growth parameters of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Col.: Coccinellidae) reared on Planococcus citri Risso (Hom.: Pseudococcidae) was determined at five constant temperatures (18, 22, 26, 30 and 32+-1 cel. degree) in the laboratory conditions. Results showed a temperature - dependent development of the coccinellid. The mean total of immature period was estimated 76.6+-0.9, 33.9+-0.1, 25.8+-0.1, 22.6+-0.1 and 26.2+-1.4 days at 18, 22, 26, 30 and 32 cel degree, respectively. The highest and lowest values of R0, rm and Lamda were obtained 369.9+-50.2 and 2.5+-0.8 (female/female/generation), 0.07+-0.01 and 0.02+-0.01 (female/female/day) and 1.08+-0.01 and 1.02+-0.01 (day-1) at 26 and 32 cel. degree, respectively. The lowest values of generation time (T) and doubling time (Dt) were calculated 42.2+-0.9 and 8.9+-0.5 days at 32 and 26 cel. degree, respectively. The lower and higher developmental threshold of total of immature period were obtained 11.5 and 25.5 cel. degree, respectively. The thermal requirement for completion of total of immature period of this predator were estimated 400 DD. These results showed that 26 degree and/or adjacent temperature is most suitable for mass rearing of this predator.
       
  • Infection process of entomopathogenic fungi Beuveria bassiana in the
           Tetrancyhus kanzawai (Kishida) (Tetranychidae: Acarina)

    • Authors: Yayan Sanjaya; Virginia R. Ocampo, Barbara L. Caoili.Arthropods, 2015, 4(3):90-97
      Abstract: Characteristic of entomopathogenic fungus to Tetranychus kanzawai was investigated. Three selected isolates of Beauveria bassiana, from Philippines and Indonesia were evaluated. The following aspect was investigated: (1) Investigate infection process on each fungal against mite. In this experiment, adult mites exposed by spraying to 10^8 per ml concentrations of conidia observing by light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result found T. kanzawai was very susceptible to three isolates B. bassiana which the end of the trials, fungal growth was detectable as early as 2 until 4 day observation. Infection process with microphotograph and SEM showed attachment, germination and penetration, extrusion and conidiogenesis fungal form.
       
  • Redescription of Harpactea korgei Brignoli, 1979 (Araneae: Dysderidae)
           with the first description of the female

    • Authors: Recep Sulhi Ozkutuk; Kadir Bogac Kunt, Gizem Karaka, Tarik Danisman.Arthropods, 2015, 4(2):32-37
      Abstract: The redescription of dysderid spider Harpactea korgei Brignoli, 1979, on the basis of newly collected material is provided. The female of this species, previously unknown, is described here for the first time.
       
  • Chemical composition and insecticidal efficacy of essential oil of
           Echinophora platiloba DC (Apiaceae) from Zagros foothills, Iran

    • Authors: Iman Sharifian; Ali Darvishzadeh.Arthropods, 2015, 4(2):38-45
      Abstract: Essential oil of Echinophora platyloba was screened for its chemical composition and possible fumigant and contact toxicity effects against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.). Aerial parts were subjected to hydrodistillation and obtained oil chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. (Z)-beta-ocimene (33.06 percent), p-cymene (10.98 percent) and Limonene (5.77 percent) were major constituents. Fumigation tests were performed for 24, 48 and 72 h, while contact toxicity of essential oil was evaluated in 24h. Experimental units were located in 25+-2 Celsius degree and darkness condition. In contact toxicity evaluation tests T. castaneum (LC50= 14.712 ul/39cm2) was more tolerant and R. dominica (LC50= 9.712 ul/39cm2) was more susceptible species. After 24 h, T. castaneum (LC50= 39.658 ul/250 ml air) and C. maculatus (LC50= 3.835 ul/250 ml air) were more tolerant and susceptible species in fumigation bioassays, respectively. In general, mortality increased as the doses of essential oil and exposure time increased.
       
  • Diversity and population dynamics of phytophagous scarabaeid beetles
           (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in different landscapes of Himachal Pradesh,
           India

    • Authors: Mandeep Pathania; RS Chandel, KS Verma, PK Mehta.Arthropods, 2015, 4(2):46-68
      Abstract: Scarabaeid beetles constitute a major group of defoliators of cultivated and wild plants. Therefore, it is important to understand their diversity, abundance and distribution for planning effective pest management programmes. We surveyed scarabaeid beetles from 8 landscapes from different zones in Himachal Pradesh (N 32o 29' and E 75o 10'), India. In 2011 and 2012, surveys were conducted during 4 months period (May-August) by using UV light traps. A total of 13,569 scarabaeid adults of 20 genera and 56 species belonging to subfamilies Melolonthinae, Rutelinae, Cetoniinae and Dynastinae were recorded. The five most common species were Brahmina coriacea, Adoretus lasiopygus, Anomala lineatopennis, Maladera insanabilis and Holotrichia longipennis. They comprised 9.88-10.05, 7.18-7.76, 7.13-7.27, 6.80-7.62 and 5.22-5.30 percent during 2011-12, respectively. Anomala (10 species) was the most dominant genus in the present study, whereas Melolonthinae was the most dominant subfamily accounting 53.23 percent of total scarabs collected from the study sites. Among different landscapes, Palampur had maximum diversity and abundance, while Shillaroo had least diversity but more abundance of single species B. coriacea. The value of alpha diversity indices viz. Shannon index was maximum (H'=3.01-3.03) at Palampur. This indicates maximum evenness and abundance of species at Palampur. Shillaroo had lowest Shannon index (H'=1.12-1.17) and Pielou's evenness index (J'=0.46-0.49). This showed least species diversity and higher unevenness of scarabaeid beetles at Shillaroo. The results of beta diversity analysis revealed poor similarity of scarabaeid species between different sites confirming that the scarabaeid community in the north western Himalayan regions is much diverse.
       
  • Perspectives on the use of Verbenone to protect pine seed production from
           attack by Conophthorus spp (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    • Authors: Adolfo Arturo Del Rio Mora.Arthropods; 2015, 4(1):1-12
      Abstract: In three study sites in the Michoacan State, Mexico, we tested five behavioral chemicals: Pityol, 4 Allylanisole, Verbenone (3M MEC), Conophthorin and Hexenol, in several field trials mixed at six combinations or treatments as posible repelents for females of Conophthorus conicolens W and Conophthorus teocotum W. Beetle-host tree combinations included these two cone bores species on cones of Pinus pseudostrobus (Lidl), the first, and on Pinus teocote (Schl and Cham) the second ones, baited previously with five semiochemicals, including the only case of Verbenone (3 M Mec) which was sprayed alone on healthy green cones of second year growing free from the presence of cone borers and previously to fly period of scolitids as at all other treatments. Cones baited with the combination of semiochemicals P+4AA+V besides these sprayed with Verbenone were less attacked and obviously distinctibily. Moreover, cones baited only with Pityol and adding Verbenone as a spray periodically, the effect of treatment was inefficient to protect them from boring by Conophthorus conicolens W, whereas these baited with P+4AA synergized the presence of cone borer females; The combination of all these semiochemicals and added with Conophthorin (P+4AA+C) and Hexenol (P+4AA+H) had inconsistent results, although for this last case, Hexenol apparently was synergist when is mixed with Pityol and 4AA , to prevent from attack by Conophthorus teocotum W. The best results of study subject were obtained with the combined treatment Pityol +4AA+Verbenone, and significately better spraying as alone as Verbenone and repelling C. conicolens W and C. teocotum W.
       
  • Determination of economic injury level for first and second generations of
           Pulvinaria aurantii (Hem: Coccidae) in Thomson navel orange orchards

    • Authors: Nima Maleki; Mohammad Reza Damavandian.Arthropods, 2015, 4(1):13-21
      Abstract: The citrus soft scale, Pulvinaria aurantii (Hem: Coccidae) is among the most important pests of citrus orchards in Asia. Damage occurs not only by direct feeding on plant sap, but also by excretion of abundant honeydew which underlies the growth of sooty molds on fruits, leaves, and young twigs. Although, chemical insecticides and mineral oils have long been used by growers to control P. aurantii, our current knowledge about the damage and economic injury level of this pest is insufficient. In this study, the economic injury level (EIL) of the first and second generations of P. aurantii on Thomson novel orange was investigated during two consecutive years (2011 and 2012). The study unit include a citrus orchard (3000 m2) located at Babolsar city, north Iran. Four branches of each selected tree with a proximate length of 25 cm were artificially infected by different numbers of P. aurantii egg sacs and monitored biweekly to record the number of infected leaves and fruits to both sooty molds P. aurantii instars. Finally, the number of fruits infected with sooty molds (more than 50% of the fruit surface) was used to estimate EIL using Pedigo formula. The EIL was calculated as 135, 102, and 125 egg sacs per branches with an average number of 8, 7, and 7 fruits for the first generation of 2011, and the first and second generations of 2012, respectively. These findings may be easily used by local growers to set their control programs based on the density of pest egg sacs on plant surfaces.
       
  • Biochemical characterization of pectinase activity from the digestive
           midgut fluid of larvae and adult of the Colorado potato beetle,
           Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Col: Chrysomelidae)

    • Authors: Razieh Karimi; Majid Kazzazi, Mohammad Vatanparast.Arthropods, 2015, 4(1):22-31
      Abstract: The study of pectinase enzyme in potato leaf beetle that is the most important pest of potatoes consider as an effective way to develop control methods because this enzyme is important in degrading plant cell wall. Pectinase enzyme was studied in midgut of Colorado potato beetle (CPB). This enzyme was extracted from the midgut of larvae and adult of CPB and then their important features were examined by specific substrate, pectin 1 percent. The optimum enzyme activity in 4th instar larvae and adult occurred at pH 5-6 range. Effect of temperature on enzyme activity were examined, the results suggest that the pectinase in midgut of 4th instar larvae and adult shows maximum activity at temperature 40 Celsius degree and 35 Celsius degree, respectively. Zymogram analysis showed presence of two activity bands for pectinase enzyme. The effect of various chemical compounds on the activity of enzyme showed that SDS, Urea and Tris reduced the enzyme activity. NaCl and CaCl2 increased this enzyme activity in 4th instar larvae and adult of CPB. This is first report of pectinase activity in L. decemlineata.
       
  • Effect of Biolep, Permethrin and Hexaflumuron on mortality of cotton
           bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera)

    • Authors: Ali Darvishzadeh; Siavash Salimian-Rizi, Ali-Akbar Katoulinezhad.Arthropods, 2014, 3(4):161-165
      Abstract: Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera is a major pest in cotton and one of the most polyphagous and cosmopolitan pest species of several crops such as cotton, pulses and vegetables in Asia. Lethal effects of Biolep, Permethrin and Hexaflumuron belong to three different groups of insecticides were compared on larval stages of H. armigera. The trial was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four treatments including a control and replicated thrice. Our results shown three insecticides, Biolep, Permethrin and Hexaflumuron had significant difference in larval population mortality of H. armigera. After 3rd day Biolep caused maximum mortality that was 39 larvae. Permethrin and Hexaflumuron caused 29 and 31 larval mortality after 3rd day, respectively. Generally, the number of mortality decreased and the maximum rate of mortality in 12th day was 7 larvae that obtained by using Hexaflumuron. Our results showed that the Hexaflumuron was persistent in comparison with other insecticides. Biolep registered above 75 percent (average 77) reduction in number of larvae on the basis of post-spray data, followed by 68 percent and 70 percent each by Permethrin and Hexaflumuron, respectively.
       
  • Changes in energy content of Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera:
           Pentatomidae) in response to different diets

    • Authors: Seyed Mohammad Ahsaei; Vahid Hosseininaveh, Reza Talaei-Hassanlouei, Mahdieh Bigham.Arthropods, 2014, 3(4):166-173
      Abstract: Nymphal instars and adults of the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris, preferably feed on lepidopteran and colopteran larvae. Different prey diets can change fitness including energy reservoirs of the predator. In the present study, effects of different artificial and natural diets as well as starvation was studied on energy contents of the third and fourth nymphal instars of P. maculiventris. Total available energy calculated as the sum of the energy contents of lipids, carbohydrates, glycogen, and proteins did not significantly differ in the third and fourth nymphal instars fed on natural and artificial diets. Among the energy reservoirs, only total lipid storage of the starved nymphal instars was significantly different from that in the bugs fed on the natural diet. In conclusion, total energy reserves cannot be changed in response to artificial diet. A better understanding of the impact of artificial diets on the energy reserves of natural enemies can be considered as a biomarker for more appropriate mass rearing approaches of natural enemies.
       
  • Sex ratios, mating frequencies and relative abundance of sympatric
           millipedes in the genus Chersastus (Diplopoda: Pachybolidae)

    • Authors: Mark Ian Cooper.Arthropods; 2014, 3(4):174-176
      Abstract: Three hypotheses exist for explaining climbing behavior in millipedes: 1) waterlogging, 2) detritus limiting, and 3) mate avoidance. Data of sex ratios, mating frequency and relative abundance are provided to suggest an alternative explanation for the pattern in sympatric forest millipedes. Sex ratio differences - from equality - were tested using a G-test comparing millipedes on and above ground. Mating frequencies were calculated based on the percentage of paired individuals. Relative abundance may correlate with male-biases in the sex ratios. All three factors suggest Chersastus inscriptus has a higher reproductive potential than C. anulatus. This is evidence for mating hotspots.
       
  • Sublethal effects of some botanical and chemical insecticides on the
           cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hem: Aleyrodidae)

    • Authors: Fatemeh Jafarbeigi; Mohammad Amin Samih, Mahdi Zarabi, Saeideh Esmaeily.Arthropods, 2014, 3(3):127-137
      Abstract: In addition to direct mortalities caused by acute concentrations of insecticides, some biological traits of target pests may be also affected by sublethal doses. The cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hem: Aleyrodidae) is an important pest of a wide variety of agricultural crops across the world. The control of B. tabaci largely relies on wide application of chemical insecticides. In this study, we analyzed the life table parameters to evaluate the sublethal effect of three plant-derived insecticides (Fumaria parviflora (Fumariaceae), Teucrium polium (Lamiaceae), and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae)) and two chemical insecticides (pymetrozin and neemarin) on B. tabaci. The whiteflies were allowed to oviposit on plants infected with each of the five insecticides using leaf-dip method. The data were analyzed using the age-stage two-sex life table. We found significant differences in the gross reproductive rate (GRR), the net reproductive rat (R0), the intrinsic rate of increase (r) and the finite rate of increase (Lamda) of treated whiteflies compared to control. Our results showed that some biological traits of B. tabaci are affected by sub-lethal doses of the plant-derived extracts and that these effects are comparable to those of chemical insecticides. Given the detrimental effects of chemical insecticides on human, environment and non-target organisms, plant-derived insecticides may provide valuable environmentally friendly tools for pest management programs.
       
  • Enzymatic activity of alpha-amylase in alimentary tract Spodoptera
           littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Characterization and
           Compartmentalization

    • Authors: Ali Darvishzadeh; Vahid Hosseininaveh, Siavash Salimian Rizi.Arthropods, 2014, 3(3):138-146
      Abstract: The Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) damages a wide variety of crops in Middle East. Their hosts include cotton, alfalfa, eggplant, tomato, lettuce, bean and some ornamental crops. The intensive use of broad-spectrum insecticides against S. littoralis has led to the development of resistance to many registered pesticides use for its control. The purpose of the present study is biochemical characterization of digestive enzymes of this pest to gain a better understanding of the digestive physiology. The physiology and biochemistry of the insect digestive enzyme had an important role in the study of novel insecticidal strategies. The Egyptian cotton leafworm alimentary canal consists of a short foregut, a long midgut and a short hindgut. Application of pH indicators showed that alimentary canal was alkaline. Our results showed that activities of gut alpha-amylase were different in three parts of the insect gut. Also shown the greatest activity of alpha-amylase observed in the midgut followed by hindgut and foregut, respectively. However, there were not significant differences in activity of the enzyme in the midgut and hindgut. The optimal pH alpha-amylase in foregut, midgut and hindgut were 10.0. Zymogram analysis of different part of gut showed four bands in midgut, hind gut and two bands in foregut. Therefore, in midgut of S. littoralis, four isoenzymes were present. These results explain why more amylase activity was seen in these regions in the spectrophotometric assay.
       
  • A preliminary comparative study on structure and main characteristics of
           compound eyes in four Mexican cone borers Conophthorus spp (Coleoptera:
           Scolytinae)

    • Authors: Adolfo Arturo Del Rio Mora.Arthropods; 2014, 3(3):147-160
      Abstract: The compound eyes of four Mexican cone borers: Conophthorus ponderosae Hopkins, C. conicolens Wood, C.michoacanae Wood and C.teocotum Wood were studied and compared by main internal and external structures as are: number of facets, eye length, ventral eye width, dorsal eye width, facet diameter, primary and secondary pigments diameter, ommatidium length and cone length, where this last seem be larger in females than males; It is described the main characteristics of dioptric apparatus and photoreceptor layer. For 2 cone borer species studied. In general all the Conophthorus species showed identically kidney-shaped eyes where the number of ommatidia or facets quantified no differed significantly between species (P= 0.0149) and sex, except for the case of C.teocotum W; the other parameters or characteristics compared are too seem for all species group studied. It was described that the general structures of the dioptric apparatus and photoreceptor layer for C.ponderosae H and C.conicolens W, where were identified the presence of 8 rhabdomeres, confirms the fact that this number of receptors is common in scolitids, which give them the possibility of a UV-sensitive navigation system added to a green sensitive motion detecting their hosts.
       
  • Health assessment of pine forest as affected by geothermal activities:
           Presence of Monterey pine aphid, Essigella californica (Essig) (Homoptera:
           Aphidae) associated with higher concentrations of boron on pine needles

    • Authors: Adolfo Arturo Del Rio Mora.Arthropods; 2014, 3(2):96-110
      Abstract: Studies on assessments of the air pollution and deposition caused by geothermal fields on the forest health and presence of pests have been few documented to date. In the geothermal field "Los Humeros", located between the borders of the states of Puebla and Veracruz, Mexico was realized a forest health monitoring to know the assessment could have these emissions of sulphur (S) and other two chemical elements measured by their concentrations on leaf tissues in the surrounding forests. For it were evaluated the forest healthy and pest insects registered at 20 stands of which were chosen completely at random 40 trees in total/site of the species Pinus montezumae and P. teocotein natural stands and plantations and picked up leaf tissue samples representatives per stand to determine the contents of sulphur (S), boron (B) and arsenic (As) representing each forest stand. The results of the study revealed that the presence of forest pests are not related to the proximity of the sites to emissions from stationary sources of emissions and moreover the amount of these 3 chemical substances monitored do not have none influence on the forest healthy sites condition, except for the Monterey pine aphid Essigella californica Essig, which seems to be directly associated with higher Boron content in the needles (mean=167.47+-32.15, and peak 635.46 ppm) and proximity of emission sources geothermal vents or where it is believed all these chemical elements are carried down by air currents to specific points and deposited in the stands. The general model obtained and with significance of R2=56.6 and P value 0.0033 for the presence of Monterey Pine aphid and the three main pollutants released from smoke plumes in geothermal systems is [D: Essigella]= -0.2088 + 1.880E-0.5 (A:SO4)+ 0.002245 (B:B) + 1.248 (C:As). The results suggest the use of aphid species as bioindicators of polluted sites.
       
  • Butterfly diversity of Gorewada International Bio-Park, Nagpur, Central
           India

    • Authors: Kishor G. Patil; Virendra A. Shende.Arthropods, 2014, 3(2):111-119
      Abstract: Gorewada international bio-park is a good habitat for biodiversity of butterflies. Its geographical location is 21o11'N 79o2'E. Butterfly watching and recording was done in such a way that there should be least one visit in each line transect during a week with the aid of binocular and digital cameras. Total 92 species of butterflies were recorded belonging to 59 genera and 5 families. Out of total 92 butterfly species 48.92%, 38.04% and 13.04% are common, occasional and rare species respectively. Nymphalidae family is consisting of maximum number of genera and species. Maximum species richness reported from July to January and its number decline from late March to last week of June. The present study will encourage the conservation of a wide range of indigenous butterfly species in an area.
       
  • Check list of first recorded dragonfly (Odonata: Anisoptera) fauna of
           District Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Farzana Perveen; Anzela Khan, Sayed Abdul Rauf.Arthropods, 2014, 3(2):120-126
      Abstract: The dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera) are large, intermediate to small size, having different colours and variable morphological characters. They also carry ornamental and environmental indicator values. The first recorded, the collection of 318 dragonflies was made during May-July 2011 from district Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Among them 11 species of dragonflies were identified belonging to 3 families. The golden-ringed, Cordulegaster brevistigma brevistigma Selys is belonging to family Cordulegasteridae and Clubtails, Onychogomphus bistrigatus Selys is belonging to family Gomophidaed. The spine-legged redbolt, Rhodothemis rufa (Rambur); black-tailed skimmer, Orthetrum cancellatum Linnaeus; blue or black-percher, Diplacodes lefebvrei (Ramber); ground-skimmer, Diplacodes trivialis Rambur; common red-skimmer, Orthetrum pruinosum neglectum (Rambur); triangle-skimmer, Orthetrum triangulare triangulare (Selys); common-skimmer, Sympetrum decoloratum Selys; slender-skimmer, Orthetrum Sabina (Drury) and wandering-glider or global-skimmer, Pantala flavescens (Fabricius) are belonging to family Libellulidae. It is concluded that there is a diversity to explain dragonfly fauna from district Lower Dir.
       
  • Epigeus macroinvertebrates species assemblages along a successional
           gradient in Hailuotu Island (Bothnia Bay), Finland

    • Authors: Adolfo A. Del Rio Mora.Arthropods; 2014, 3(1):1-19
      Abstract: Epigeus macroinvertebrates were collected during summer time in 2007, by using pitfall traps in different sites representing vegetation patches situated on land uplift area on successional gradients in the dune shore of Bothnian on the island of Hailuoto, Northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia, Finland. The sites were divided into six vegetation patches types or open sands, all of them localized on early, deflation zone and late successional stages or ecological subgroups: 1) Empetrum patches or microsites (small-scale element distribution in soil plant-systems in patches of Empetrum nigrum, in early succession; 2) Empetrum nigrum patches in deflation zone; 3) open sand in early succession; 4) open sand in deflation zone; 5) Empetrum nigrum patches in late succession, and 6) open sand in late succession. A total of 19034 specimens belonging to 14 species of Insecta and only one group to Aranea species were caught and identified. Afterwards they were grouped by trophic groups as follows: herbivores, predators and detritivores and calculated their richness, abundance, diversity and evenness for each vegetation type. The data obtained were analyzed by different analytical methods and relevant between them as MRPP for the purpose of identifying the possible differences between groups and habitats, which denoted no statistically significant between the 6 environmental types, but if for the case of composition or populations general diversity as abundance, richness, evenness, diversity. It is enclosed too Correspondence Analysis (CA) and cluster analysis for epigeus invertebrates species assemblages. As a support to analysis of results we added on ended the species-accumulation curve and estimation curves Chao1 and Jacknife2 for all ecological types.
       
  • Mineral composition of edible crab Podophthalmus vigil Fabricius
           (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    • Authors: P. Soundarapandian; D. Varadharajan, S. Ravichandran.Arthropods, 2014, 3(1):20-26
      Abstract: Totally 7 minerals were reported in the present study. For the individual contribution 5(Sodium>Calcium>Potassium>Iron>Magnesium),7(Sodium>Calcium>Iron>Potassium>Phosphorus>Magnesium>Zinc) and 4(Calcium>Sodium>Iron>Magnesium) minerals were reported in males, females and berried females respectively. In all sexes sodium and calcium were maximum and magnesium was minimum. Comparatively females contain maximum amount of minerals than males and berried females. Phosphorous and zinc were absent in males whereas potassium was absent in addition to phosphorous and zinc in berried females. Among different sexes females contain maximum amount of minerals (61.56 mg) followed by males (39.92 mg) and berried females (35.11 mg). From the study females contain maximum amount of minerals than berried females and males. So it is recommended to consume females to get maximum minerals.
       
  • The effects of some domestic pollutants on the cumacean (Crustacea)
           community structure at the coastal waters of the Dardanelles, Turkey

    • Authors: A. Suat Ates; Tuncer Katagan, Murat Sezgin, Hasan G. Ozdilek, Selcuk Berber, Musa Bulut.Arthropods, 2014, 3(1):27-42
      Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the effects of sewage pollution on the cumacean assemblages found in the coastal waters of the Dardanelles. The samples were collected by a SCUBA diver between July 2008 and April 2009 and a total of 102 specimens belong to 5 cumacea species, Bodotria arenosa mediterranea, Cumopsis goodsir, Cumella limicola, Iphinoe maeotica and Pseudocuma longicorne was recorded. The dominant species, Iphinoe maeotica has the highest dominance value (36.66%). Multiregression approach resulted in statistically insignificant relationship between physical, chemical and biochemical variables of water and sediment and Bodotria arenosa mediterranea, Cumopsis goodsir, Cumella limicola, and Iphinoe maeotica. Based on multiple regression test, a significant relationship with R2 = 92.2%, F= 7.876 and p= 0.000 was found between six water and sediment quality constituents and numbers of Pseudocuma longicornis at the stations studied of the Dardanelles. On the other hand, water temperature (Beta= -0.114; t= -2.811, p= 0.016); sediment organic matter (Beta= -0.011; t= -2.406; p= 0.033) and water phosphorus (PO4) (Beta= 0.323; t= 3.444; p=0.005) were found to be the most important water and sediment parameters that affect Pseudocuma longicornis.
       
  • Redescription and new distributional records of Matuta planipes
           (Fabricius, 1798) (Crustacea; Decapoda; Matutidae) from Chennai Coast,
           Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: K. Silambarasan; K. Velmurugan, E. Rajalakshmi, A. Anithajoice.Arthropods, 2014, 3(1):43-47
      Abstract: Matuta planipes is reported for the first occurrence from Chennai coast, Tamil Nadu. Four female and two male specimens was caught in trawl net near Kasimedu fish landing center, on September 2013. The morphological characters of Matuta planipes, is having on surface regions of male chela a single spine, frontal lobes and carapace covered with reticulated loops as compared with bispinose chela, rounded lobes and minutely spotted carapace of the latter, these characters mostly differs from Matuta victor. The specimen has been compared with the earlier reports and other similar species.
       
  • Checklist of the subfamilies Mirinae and Orthotylinae (Hemiptera:
           Heteroptera: Miridae) in western parts of Kerman Province, Iran

    • Authors: Mohsen Shamsi; Reza Hosseini, Asghar Shirvani.Arthropods, 2014, 3(1):48-56
      Abstract: A faunal study was carried out on the subfamilies Mirinae and Orthotylinae (Heteroptera: Miridae) from different parts of western Kerman Province on various host plants. In total 16 species belonging to 14 genera were collected and identified from different host plants and localities.
       
  • A study on the genus Orthops FIEBER (Hemiptera: Miridae: Mirinae) in Iran

    • Authors: Reza Hosseini.Arthropods; 2014, 3(1):57-69
      Abstract: This paper is the extension of a series of synoptic taxonomic treatments on the Miridae known from Guilan and other provinces in Iran. In the genus Orthops FIEBER five species are known from Iran, including Orthops (Montanorthops) pilosulus (Jakovlev, 1877), Orthops (Orthops) frenatus (Horvath, 1894), Orthops (Orthops) basalis (Costa, 1853), Orthops (Orthops) campestris (Linnaeus, 1758) and Orthops (Orthops) kalmii (Linnaeus, 1758). Pinalitus cervinus (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1841) as a similar species to Orthops group is included in this study. In this paper diagnoses, host-plant information, distribution data, and illustrated keys to the genera and species are provided. For all species, illustrations of the adults and selected morphological characters are provided to facilitate identification.
       
  • Predatory habits of Lutzia (Metalutzia) fuscana (Wiedmann) (Diptera:
           Culicidae) in the arid environments of Jodhpur, western Rajasthan, India

    • Authors: Himmat Singh; Robin Marwal, Anusha Mishra, Karam Vir Singh.Arthropods, 2014, 3(1):70-79
      Abstract: The stable breeding of Lutzia (Metalutzia) fuscana was recorded form different locations of Indian Desert the "Thar" for the first time. The species being predatory in its larval form was investigated for evaluation of its biological control aspect in the desert setup where breeding sites and prey species are limited. Though its predatory habit is established yet using it as biological controlling agent was not found promising due to untargeted approach due to unlimited outdoor breeding places in sub-humid climatic conditions in rest of India. Whereas in desert due to limited water sources, mosquito vectors share the available breeding niche this increases possibility of targeted biological control using predatory species. Laboratory experiments on predatory habit of Lutzia (Metalutzia) fuscana showed that it preferred Aedes aegypti larvae most (88.5%), Anopheles stephensi (47.5%) and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae (39.0%). Average consumption of daily larvae is 18.89 larvae/day. If colonized properly and released in controlled conditions they can be useful in controlling of socially protected and unattended breeding containers resulting reduction in mosquito population.
       
  • Diversity of damselflies (Zygoptera) in Gorewada International Bio- Park,
           Nagpur, Central India

    • Authors: Patil Kishor Gopal; Shende Virendra Abaji, Uke Shrikant Bhimrao.Arthropods, 2014, 3(1):80-87
      Abstract: Gorewada International Bio-Park consists of a lake as a major water source, marshy shore and heterogeneity in vegetation. Its geographical location is 21o11'N 79o2'E. Observations are made through walking line transects along the lake border to determine the diversity of damselfly. Total 21 species of damselflies belonging to nine genera (Aciagrion, Agriocnemis, Ceriagrion, Enallagma, Ischnura, Pseudagrion, Rhodischnura, Copera and Lestes) and three families (Coenagrionidae, Lestidae and Platycnemididae) have been recorded. Out of total damselflies examined, 52.38% are common, 19.05% are occasional and 28.57% are rare species. The present study encourages the conservation of a wide range of indigenous damselfly species in this area.
       
  • New indices for measuring some quality control parameters of the
           Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    • Authors: M. F. Mahmoud.Arthropods; 2014, 3(1):88-95
      Abstract: Even though the existence of interspecific competition and competitive displacement between the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) in the last two decades in Egypt, Mediterranean fruit fly still occurs and threats many kinds of fruits and vegetables in Egypt. The objective of this study was to estimate the sexual compatibility, mating performance and relative sterility between laboratory and wild flies of the Mediterranean fruit fly, C. capitata by new indices (relative mating index, RMI; relative isolation index, RII; isolation index, ISI; male relative performance index, MRPI; female relative performance index, FRPI and relative sterility index, RSI). The results revealed that different doses of gamma radiation 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 Gy had no effect on the various parameters of mating compatibility, performance and competitiveness of lab strain males of medflies when mated with wild males. Moreover, no significant assortative or disassortative mating was observed. Therefore, we suggest that the lab strain males of medfly are compatible of mating with the wild males, at least under the laboratory conditions employed here.
       
  • What is RSS

    • Abstract: RSS is a means of receiving content across the internet without having to visit websites directly. When you see the RSS tag on a web page, then you know that site offers an RSS feed. You may download a RSS reader (e.g., at http://www.iaees.org/tools/RSSOwl-java.zip). Install it on your computer and create a new folder, and then create a new feed with a RSS feed address, e.g., http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/piaees/rss.xml, then set something. Any update of RSS feed site will automatically reach your RSS reader. If you have subscribed an online journal by RSS, journal contents or articles will reach you once the latest issue is available or the latest article is published.
       
  • Arthropods

    • Authors: International Academy of Ecology; Environmental Sciences
      Abstract: Arthropods (
      ISSN 2224-4255) is an international journal devoted to the publication of articles on macro-aspects of arthropods, e.g., ecology, biogeography, systematics, conservation, control, etc. The journal provides a forum for examining the importance of arthropods in biosphere (both terrestrial and marine ecosystems) and human life in such fields as agriculture, forestry, fishery, environmental management and human health. The scope of Arthropods is wide and embraces all arthropods-insects, arachnids, crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes, and other arthropods. Research papers as well as short communications on arthropods are welcome.
      Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, arthropods@iaees.org. All manuscripts submitted to Arthropods must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal. In addition to free submissions from authors around the world, special issues are also accepted. The organizer of a special issue can collect submissions (yielded from a research project, a research group, etc.) on a specific research topic, or submissions of a scientific conference for publication of special issue.
       
  • Key to marine arthropod larvae

    • Authors: John A. Fornshell.Arthropods; 2012, 1(1):1-12
      Abstract: The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort hasbeen made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this keybe useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitatinformation as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records.Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because thisnomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities areincluded in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae:Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapodlarvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii;Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; luciferzoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopislarvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.
       
  • Diversity and habitat preference of brachyuran crabs in Gulf of Kutch,
           Gujarat, India

    • Authors: J. N. Trivedi; M. K. Gadhavi, K. D. Vachhrajani.Arthropods, 2012, 1(1):13-23
      Abstract: The biodiversity of Gulf of Kutch is studied well with special reference to scleretinia and mollusca but the brachyuran crab taxa are rather neglected. Gulf of Kutch is very rich in floral and faunal diversity and comprises different types of communities and habitats like very unique coral reefs, mangroves, sandy shores, rocky shores and mudflats. Brachyuran crabs are the most diverse group among marine fauna having 5000 species world wide. Some studies on the intertidal fauna, including brachyuran crabs, have been carried out in Gulf of Kutch but the findings were not sufficient to draw out taxonomic diversity. Present work on Gulf of Kutch is an initiative to scan the entire coastal Gujarat and establish directory of brachyuran crab diversity. Since the Gulf habitat is diverse and distinct, eight different stations (16 sample sites) were sampled. The selection of the sample site was done on the basis of habitat type which included mangrove mudflats, open mudflats and rocky shores. A total of 19 species belonging to 8 families and 15 genera were recorded. Open mud flats were most preferred by the crabs followed by the mangrove mud flats and rocky shore.
       
  • Effects of irradiation on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculates F.)
           

    • Authors: B. Darfour; F.C.K. Ocloo, D.D. Wilson.Arthropods, 2012, 1(1):24-34
      Abstract: Cowpeas during storage may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects) which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. One of the means of reducing these losses is through the application of radiation processing. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on a major storage insect pest, Callosobruchus maculatus F. and on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpea seeds in storage. The cowpeas were infested with adults C. maculatus and then irradiated at doses of 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 (kGy) at a dose rate of 1.074 kGyhr-1. Samples were stored for 1 month under controlled temperature (27.3-30 oC) and humidity (70-85 %) during which counting of the insects was done every 48 hours and those alive or dead noted. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were equally determined by establishing equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) of 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95 % using a formulation of glycerol-water mixture at temperature of 30 +-1 and the weight (loss or gain) of the samples was determined every 2 days. Irradiation at a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the C. maculatus within eight days and therefore 0.25 kGy would be economically beneficial as a control dose. There was significant difference (p is less than 0.05) in the percent mortality between the irradiated and the non-irradiated weevils, and the percent mortality increased with increase in the radiation dose. At moisture content of 14 % the irradiated cowpea samples were safely stored for one month at an equilibrium relative humidity of 60-75 % at a temperature of 29+-2 oC.
       
  • Checklist of spider fauna of FR Peshawar, FATA, Pakistan

    • Authors: F. Perveen; A. Jamal.Arthropods, 2012, 1(1):35-39
      Abstract: The spiders are known as poisonous arthropods, but they also act as the predator or biological pests control agent. Their 23 species belonging to 15 genera and 09 families were reported during 2009-2010 from FR Peshawar, FATA, Pakistan. The reported families Clubionidae, Scytodidae and Sprassidae covered each 4%, Araneidae, Gnaphosidae, Pholicidae and Salticidae each 9%, Thomisidae 13% and Lycosidae 43% biodiversity of spiders of FATA. However, the largest spider collected was huntsman, Isopoda tuhodnigra (Barrion) with total body length 15.80+-0.83 mm. Moreover, the smallest spider was wolf spider, Pardosa birmanica (Simon) with total body length 4.20+-1.30 mm. Further, the crab spiders, Thomisus pugilis (Stoliczka), T. spectabilis (Doleschall) and Diaea evanida (Thorell) were the most colorful species belonging to family Thomisidae. A detail study is required for further exploration of spider fauna of FATA.
       
  • Changes in population structure and body dimensions of two xanthid crabs:
           A long-term study in a single boulder-shore

    • Authors: M.R. Warburg; Dana Davidson, Hadas Yifrach, Liraz Sayag, Yelena Tichomirova.Arthropods, 2012, 1(2):40-54
      Abstract: Two xanthid crab species were studied during 29 months over a period of 14 years between 1986 and 1999 allin exactly the same boulder shore. One of the crab species studied was the xanthid, Eriphia verrucosa(Forskall, 1775) with 60 specimens, the other species, Xantho poressa (Olivi, 1792), with 155 specimens. Asignificant change in numbers of both males and females of E. verrucosa was noticeable between 1986 and1996 with a marked drop in numbers between these years. In 1997 male numbers increased again to almosttheir previous numbers in the population during 1986. The population of X. poressa declined significantly towards the end of the study period. Numbers of both genders peaked in spring and again, in summer. There was generally a decline in numbers of both crab species during autumn and winter. Thus, the average capture during the seasons was highest in spring for males of both E. verrucosa, and X. poressa. The body dimensions: mass, carapace length (CL) and width (CW) were measured in both xanthids. The aim of thislong-term study was to determine whether temporal changes in the population structure and allometric changesin the dimensions of these crabs took place. Only such long-term observations could reveal these changes in population.
       
  • Population structure and dynamics of the cassava green mite Mononychellus
           tanajoa (Bondar) and the predator Euseius ho (DeLeon) (Acari:
           Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae)

    • Authors: Evila C. Costa; Adenir V. Teodoro, Adriano S. Rego, Anilde G.S. Maciel, Renato A. Sarmento.Arthropods, 2012, 1(2):55-62
      Abstract: Population structure and dynamics of the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa and the predator Euseiusho (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae). Cassava is attacked by several pests, among which the cassava greenmite Mononychellus tanajoa. Predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae are major natural enemies of pestmites and are naturally found inhabiting cassava plants in the field. We evaluated the temporal variation of thedevelopmental stages of M. tanajoa and the most abundant predatory mite in cassava fields in the study region,the phytoseiid Euseius ho. Densities of all developmental stages of M. tanajoa were low during the rainyseason, increasing over the cultivation cycle of cassava and peaking in the dry season. Overall, the larval stageof M. tanajoa presented the lowest densities throughout time. Densities of all developmental stages of E. ho were low and remained constant throughout the cultivation cycle of cassava. The number of eggs, nymphs andadults of M. tanajoa was higher in comparison to the larval stage whereas there were no differences indensities of the stages of E. ho. Densities of all developmental stages of M. tanajoa were negatively correlated with precipitation. Densities of the stages of egg, nymph and adult of M. tanajoa were positively related while the stage of larva was negatively related to temperature. We conclude that it is important to consider the population structure in studies of population dynamics of arthropods as each developmental stage experiences and responds uniquely to the local environment over time.
       
  • Effects of the host and parasitoid densities on the quality production of
           Trichogramma chilonis on lepidopterous (Sitotroga cereallela and Corcyra
           cephalonica) eggs

    • Authors: Farzana Perveen; Rizwana Sultan.Arthropods, 2012, 1(2):63-72
      Abstract: The present study was conducted for efficient and quality production of the stingless wasp, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii with respect to rearing host and parasitoid densities of the angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cereallela (Olivier) and the rice meal moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) on its biology. For host density,percentage parasitism and adult longevity was the highest at 20 eggs whereas emergence was the highest from10 eggs of S. cereallela while of C. cephalonica percentage parasitism and emergence was the highest at 10eggs. For parasitoid density, parasitism was the highest at 5 pairs of T. chilonis. Percentage of emergence and longevity remained similar among all the 5 treatments. It is concluded that S. cereallela eggs more suitable ascompare to C. cephalonica eggs for mass and quality rearing of parasitoid, T. chilonis.
       
  • Occurrence of sea spider Endeis mollis Carpenter (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida)
           on the test panels submerged in Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India

    • Authors: S. Satheesh; S. G. Wesley.Arthropods, 2012, 1(2):73-78
      Abstract: Sea spiders (Pycnogonids) are exclusively marine arthropods with worldwide distribution. Pycnogonida remains one of the poorly investigated groups encountered in fouling communities. In the present study, distribution pycnogonid species Endeis mollis associated with the fouling community developed on test panels submerged at Kudankulam coast, Gulf of Mannar was studied for a period of two years. Throughout the period of investigation, Endeis mollis was observed on the test panels. A maximum of 55 individuals per square dm was observed during pre-monsoon season and a minimum of 9 individuals per square dm during monsoon season. Results of this study on seasonal distribution are of considerable interest because so little has been documented on the ecology of Pycnogonids in India.
       
  • Reviewing the structure and function of the scorpion's hepatopancreas

    • Authors: M.R. Warburg.Arthropods; 2012, 1(3):79-93
      Abstract: During a long-terms study of scorpions, it was possible to follow changes taking place in the mass, water and lipid content of the hepatopancreas in freshly caught Scorpio maurus fuscus. Cyclic events in the female's reproductive state were shown to be affected by the hepatopancreas. There was a high variability among scorpions in the concentrations of metals in the hepatopancreas. The significance of the hepatopancreas in the scorpion, as a multifunctional organ for both storage and filtering constituents, is reviewed and discussed, andvarious future avenues of research are outlined.
       
  • Effect of male densities on sex ratio variations of the predatory gall
           midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    • Authors: Seyed Mohammad Tabadkani; Hossein Allahyari, Farhad Farhoudi, Vahid Rahimi-Alangi, Seyed Ramin Mirkhalilzadeh.Arthropods, 2012, 1(3):94-100
      Abstract: Monogeny, the production of unisexual broods by individual females, is a well-known characteristic in several species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Theoretical models have proposed that monogeny may provide a system by which the arrhenogenic/thelygenic females can optionally raise or lower the number of their male/female eggs in response to changes in environmental conditions. In polygynous species, where themales mate with several females, a sex ratio bias toward females is expected to occur when environmental conditions such as food and temperature are suitable. In this paper, first, we evaluated the occurrence andintensity of monogeny in native populations of the polygynous predatory gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza.Then, we examined the sex ratio variations in relation to different densities of males in the populations. Two proportions of male gall midges (5 and 12 unmated males vs. 10 virgin females) were obtained in plastic cagesand the sex ratio of progenies was determined in each density. There was no difference between sex ratio ofprogenies when the females were exposed to high or low densities of males. Apparently, females cannot regulate the number of female-producing and/or male-producing progenies in response to male densities. Our results incline us to think about other benefits that may have been achieved through transition to monogeny.
       
  • Pictorial keys for predominant Bactrocera and Dacus fruit flies (Diptera:
           Tephritidae) of north western Himalaya

    • Authors: C. S. Prabhakar; Pankaj Sood, P. K. Mehta.Arthropods, 2012, 1(3):101-111
      Abstract: A pictorial key for 13 species of fruit flies under 2 genera namely Bactrocera and Dacus of subfamily Dacinae(Diptera: Tephritidae) is presented in this paper based on actual photographs of fruit flies collected from northwestern Himalaya of India during 2009-2010. Among these, Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett), Bactrocera scutellaris (Bezzi), Bactrocera tau (Walker), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) and Dacus ciliatus Loew are the pests of agricultural and horticultural ecosystems. Bactrocera latifrons, Bactrocera nigrofemoralis White and Tsuruta, Dacus longicornis Wiedemann and Dacus sphaeroidalis (Bezzi)are the new records from the region of which host range has yet to be investigated. The pictorial keys developed for these species will help the researchers for their easy and accurate identification.
       
  • Checklist of butterfly fauna of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Farzana Perveen; Ayaz Ahmad.Arthropods, 2012, 1(3):112-117
      Abstract: The butterflies play dual role, firstly as the pollinator, carries pollen from one flower to another and secondly their larvae act as the pest, injurious to various crops. Their 21 species were identified belonging to 3 different families from Kohat, Pakistan during September-December 2008. The reported families Namphalidae covered 33%, Papilionidae 10%, and Pieridae 57% biodiversity of butterflies of Kohat. In Namphalidae included:species belonging to subfamily Nymphalinae, Indian fritillary, Argynnis hyperbius Linnaeus; common castor,Ariadne merione (Cramer); painted lady, Cynthia cardui (Linnaeus); peacock pansy, Junonia almanacLinnaeus; blue pansy, J. orithya Linnaeus; common leopard, Phalantha phalantha (Drury); species belonging to subfamily Satyrinae, white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis (Kollar). In Papilionidae included:subfamily Papilioninae, lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and common mormon, Pa. polytes Linnaeus.In Pieridae included: subfamily Coliaclinae, dark clouded yellow, Colias croceus (Geoffroy); subfamily Coliadinae, lemon emigrant, Catopsilia pomona Fabricius; little orange tip, C. etrida Boisduval; blue spot arab,Colotis protractus Butler; common grass yellow, Eumera hecab (Linnaeus); common brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus); yellow orange tip, Ixias pyrene Linnaeus; subfamily Pierinae, pioneer white butterfly,Belenoi aurota Bingham; Murree green-veined white, Pieris ajaka Moore; large cabbage white, P. brassicaeLinnaeus; green-veined white, P. napi (Linnaeus); small cabbage white, P. rapae Linnaeus. The wingspan of collected butterflies, minimum was 25 mm of C. etrida which was the smallest butterfly, however, maximum was 100 mm of P. demoleus and P. polytes which were the largest butterflies. A detail study is required forfurther exploration of butterflies' fauna of Kohat.
       
  • Checklist of the freshwater decapod crustaceans from the Orontes River

    • Authors: Tahir Ozcan; Gulnaz Ozcan, Halil Erdogan.Arthropods, 2012, 1(3):118-120
      Abstract: The present paper provided an annoted list of decapod crustacean fauna of Orontes River, mainly based onprevious study works. It included 6 species (3 Natantia, 3 Brachyura) belonging 3 families.
       
  • Larvae of the pycnogonids Ammothea gigantea Gordon, 1932 and Achelia
           cuneatis Child, 1999 described from archived specimens

    • Authors: John A. Fornshell; Frank D. Ferrari.Arthropods, 2012, 1(4):121-128
      Abstract: The larvae of two species of Pycnogonida are described from archived collections. Achelia cuneatis Child, 1999 is an example of a typical protonymphon larva in having three pairs of three segmented appendages, cheliphores, palps and ovigerous appendages. Ammothea gigantea Gordon, 1932 is an example of a lecithotrophic protonymphon larva, having the three pair of appendages plus buds of the first walking legs. Ammothea gigantea is the third species known to have this larval type. The Achelia cuneatis protonymphon larvae is oval, 150 um long and characterized by a relatively long spinneret spine arising at the distal end of the first segment of each cheliphore. Spines also arise from the distal end of the first segment of the second and third limbs. This typical protonymphon larva of Achelia cuneatis has few yolk granules. The lecithotrophic protonymphon of Ammothea gigantea lacks a spinneret spine on the cheliphore; the larva is oval in shape, but much larger than Achelia cuneatis with a length of 700 um. Its second limb is much larger than the third limb on the first post-embryonic stage, and the third limb is further reduced to a spine-like structure on the second post-embryonic stage. This lecithotrophic protonymphon larva has a large number of yolk granules.
       
  • New record of color morphs of brachyuran crab Charybdis annulata
           Fabricius, 1798 (Decapoda: Portunidae)

    • Authors: J. N. Trivedi; K. D. Vachhrajani.Arthropods, 2012, 1(4):129-135
      Abstract: Charybdis annulata (Fabricius, 1798) is a common portunid crab species found on rocky shore habitat. It mostly prefers coral reef and algal assemblage area as living and foraging habitats. During the study on brachyuran crab diversity of Saurashtra coast, Gujarat, India, we came across the presence of color polymorphism in the species. Total 62 specimens were collected from the field and two color morphs- orange morph and brown morph were identified. The differences in the morphological characteristic were recorded properly on the basis of detail observation of both the morphs. The orange morph shows specific micro habitat preference while the brown morph utilizes wide range of micro habitats.
       
  • Brachyuran crabs diversity in Mudasal Odai and Nagapattinam coast of south
           east India

    • Authors: Kollimalai Sakthivel; Antony Fernando.Arthropods, 2012, 1(4):136-143
      Abstract: The brachyuran crabs diversity studied from Mudasal Odai (Lat.11*29'N; Long.79*46'E) and Nagapattinam (Lat.10*46'N; Long.79*59'E) coast of Tamil Nadu, south east India. We recorded 34 species, 15 genera and 7 families in Mudasal Odai and 31 species, 15 genera and 7 families in Nagapattinam coast. The most diverse families are Portunidae (17 species in Mudasal Odai, 15 species in Nagapattinam), and Leucosiidae (5 species in Mudasal Odai, 4 species in Nagapattinam). Out of 15 genera, Charybdis has more number of species (12 species in Mudasal Odai, 9 species in Nagapattinam). Both species (Philyra globosa, Charybdis hoplites) in two coasts, four species (Philyra scabriuscula, Charybdis edwardsi, Charybdis natator, Charybdis variegata) in Mudasal Odai coast and one species (Portunus spinipes) in Nagapattinam coast are dominant. Four species (Charybdis granulata, Charybdis lucifera, Podophthalmus vigil, Portunus spinipes) in Mudasal Odai and two species (Philyra scabriuscula, Portunus gracilimanus) in Nagapattinam are abundant. Three species in two coast, ten species in Mudasal Odai and nine species in Nagapattinam coast are co-abundant. There are nine species in both coasts, fourteen species in Mudasal Odai and seventeen species in Nagapattinam coast are present status. Among the 38 species, four was absent in Mudasal Odai and seven in Nagapattinam coast.
       
  • Role of temperature and hosts (Sitotroga cereallela and Corcyra
           cephalonica) egg age on the quality production of Trichogramma chilonis

    • Authors: Farzana Perveen; Rizwana Sultan, Ehsan Ul-Haque.Arthropods, 2012, 1(4):144-150
      Abstract: The present study was conducted for efficient and quality production of the stingless wasp, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii with respect to rearing temperature and host egg age of the angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cereallela (Olivier) and the rice meal moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) on its biology. Maximum parasitism was observed 95.7 and 84.3% at 28 C degree, while minimum parasitism was 61.3 and 39.6% at 32 C degree on S. cereallela and C. cephalonica eggs, respectively. The most favorable temperature was 28 oC on which maximum parasitism and adult emergence were obtained from S. cereallela eggs. Maximum parasitism was observed 97.4 and 79.4% in 2 h old, while minimum parasitism was 24.6 and 17.3% in 72 h old eggs of S. cereallela and C. cephalonica eggs, respectively. Parasitism by T. chilonis decreased with increasing host eggs age. Maximum adult T. chilonis emergence was 98.2% in 2 h old eggs, while minimum emergence was 21.5% on 72 h old eggs of S. cereallela. Adult T. chilonis longevity on the host eggs of different ages of female wasp was non-significantly different to each other except the 2 and 12 h old eggs which were significantly different from rest of the treatments in both hosts' eggs of different ages. Maximum female longevity was 4.0 d on 2 h fresh eggs C. cephalonica, while minimum was 3.0 d on 24-48 h old S. cereallela eggs. The female ratio for different host eggs age was almost non-significant to each other except 2 h old eggs with maximum number of female (64). The results showed that T. chilonis preferred young eggs when offered older eggs, simultaneously.
       
  • First record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) infesting
           laboratory stocks of mantids (Parastagmatoptera tessellata, Saussure)

    • Authors: N. Mongiardino Koch; P. Fontanarrosa, J. Padr? I. M. Soto.Arthropods, 2013, 2(1):1-6
      Abstract: We report the first record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) infesting laboratory stocks of the praying mantis (Parastagmatoptera tessellata, Saussure). M. scalaris, the scuttle fly, is a cosmopolitan species with a broad niche as it performs as detritivore, facultative parasite, and parasitoid. M. scalaris larvae were found feeding inside adult mantids and, when development was completed, pupae were found inside the abdominal cavity and around the body. We discuss the presence of colonies of crickets bred as prey for the mantids as a facilitator of M. scalaris infestation.
       
  • Scaling distribution in scorpions

    • Authors: Michael R. Warburg.Arthropods; 2013, 2(1):7-19
      Abstract: Scorpions being solitary animals are interesting in their distribution patterns. Nevertheless, the subject of scorpion distribution has received relatively less attention than other ecological aspects of that group. It is a matter that changes continuously and moreover it is hard to define. Three different scales in distribution are introduced here: (1) Mini-distribution which describes the presence of scorpions under a single shelter or in a burrow, within a single habitat, (2) micro-distribution describing the distribution within a single habitat, and (3) macro-distribution within different habitats. Most research in scorpion distribution concentrated on the first aspect the mini-distribution. The subject is reviewed in scorpions and discussed.
       
  • Exotic crustaceans of the Turkish coast

    • Authors: A. Suat Ates; Tuncer Katagan, Murat Sezgin, Tahir Ozcan.Arthropods, 2013, 2(1):20-25
      Abstract: A total of 50 exotic species (19 Brachyura, 19 Natantia, 2 Stomatopoda ,6 Amphipoda, 1 Cumacea, 2 Isopoda, and 1 Cirripedia) of crustaceans are reported from the Turkish coast. Exotic crustaceans of the Turkish Seas comprises of approximately 48% of the fauna constituted by invasive species, introduced from the Levantine basin of the Mediterranean. About 34% of invasive crustaceans found on the Turkish coast are Indo-west Pacific origin. Decapods constitute majority of the species with a dominance of 38%. Lowest dominace (2%) was related to orders, Cumacea and Cirripedia a being that were represented by single species. When Levantine basin was compared to the Turkey coast, the shrimp species reported on the Turkish coast were 70% of the shrimp species of all Levantine basin. The exotic migrant crab of Indo-West Pacific, Charybdis helleri was found abundant on the entire Turkish coast of the Mediterranean. Brachyuran crab, Eurycarcinus integrifrons and the oisk shrimp, Palaemonella rotumana are the latest records of exotics for the Turkish Seas.
       
  • The global science of crab biodiversity from Puducherry coast, south east
           coast of India

    • Authors: D. Varadharajan; P. Soundarapandian, N. Pushparajan.Arthropods, 2013, 2(1):26-35
      Abstract: The marine organisms play an important role in biodiversity research. It is one of the basis of aquaculture and also the foundation of ecosystem services. Marine biodiversity data is urgently required, since the global warming is changing the distribution and diversity of many species. Marine environment provide habitats for a wide variety of organisms, it is also supplies many kinds of habitats that support marine life. Habitat loss, overharvesting has had the greatest effect on biodiversity. Suppose to starting hatchery and culture them in ponds knowledge about diversity is essential. Hence, the present study is aimed to know the biodiversity of crabs from Puducherry coastal environment. Totally 47 individual crab species were recorded belonging to 15 families. Maximum crab species were recorded belonging to the family Portunidae than others families.
       
  • Transmission effect of entomopathogenic fungi on population of Tetanychus
           kanzawai (Kishida) (Tetranychidae: Acarina)

    • Authors: Yayan Sanjaya; Virginia R. Ocampo, Barbara L. Caoili.Arthropods, 2013, 2(1):36-41
      Abstract: Transmission Effect of Beuaveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae on population of Tetranychus kanzawai was conducted .There were two activities, first by leaf contamination and secondly transmission from infected mite to a group population and were analyzed by probit wi resul LT50. The results showed that Fungal transmission occurs when there is contact with an infected cadaver or any residue left behind on the substrate. All healthy mites placed in contact with infected mites were infected at the end of the trial and covered with the fungus. The LT50 values for T. kanzawai mites, ranged from 2.865 to 4.150 days. All healthy mites placed onto leaf surface contaminated with entomopathogenic fungi through spraying also exhibited fungal infection at the end of the trial. LT50 values of the fungus isolates are summarized in Table 8. Three fungal species were found to have potentials within the value range of 2.223 - 4.206 days. The lowest LT50 value was found in M. anisopliae 6 (2.223 days) while others were not significantly different.
       
  • A contribution to a knowledge of the freshwater decapods of Hatay region,
           Turkey

    • Authors: Tahir Ozcan; Halil Erdogan, Gulnaz Ozcan.Arthropods, 2013, 2(1):42-44
      Abstract: This study provides occurrence data of freshwater decapod species collected from 2011 to 2012. The species were collected 143 samples from 11 sampling locations in the Hatay region, Turkey (Orontes river and catchment; main channel, side branches, streams, and adjacent wetlands). The collected species belong to 3 families and 4 species were identified.
       
  • Gastropod shell species utilized by hermit crabs (Decapoda: Anomura) along
           the Turkish coast of the Levantine Sea

    • Authors: Tahir Ozcan; Bilal Ozturk, Tuncer Katagan, Banu Bitlis.Arthropods, 2013, 2(2):45-52
      Abstract: The present study aimed to describe the gastropod shell species utilized by hermit crabs (Decapoda: Anomura) collected during investigations of the decapod fauna of the Levantine Sea coast of Turkey. Specimens were collected from July 2005 to October 2005. A total of 715 individuals belonging to 9 hermit crab species occupying 47 gastropod shell species were collected. The hermit crabs, Diogenes pugilator (Roux, 1829) and Cestopagurus timidus (Roux, 1830) had the highest inhabitation frequency (IF), inhabiting 23.92% and 23.78% of all the samples collected respectively. The nine hermit crab species captured utilizing shells fromforty-seven gastropods species. Cerithium scabridum Philippi, 1849 (100%) was the most commonly utilized shell by all hermit crabs.
       
  • Biodiversity of cultivable molluscan resources from Pulicat Lake,
           southeast coast of India

    • Authors: D. Mohan; V. Elumalai, G. Subbulakshmi, S. Jayalakshmi, M. Srinivasan.Arthropods, 2013, 2(2):53-65
      Abstract: The molluscs constitute a natural resource of sizable magnitude in parts of the world. The range of their distribution is extensive in space as in time for it covers terrestrial, marine and freshwater habitats In Bar mouth, the Shannon-Wiener diversity index ranged from 2.15 to 2.45 showing minimum during October and maximum during May. The Shannon-Wiener index in Karimanal ranged from 2.26 to 2.40 showing minimum during October and maximum during May. The Shannon-Wiener index in Pulicat town ranged from 2.25 to 2.39 showing minimum during October and maximum during September. Among the study areas, Bar mouth showed maximum diversity in Pulicat lake. Now there was no active culture practiced in lake as far as the Molluscan culture is concern, apart from commercial liming. More studies are needed for conservation and management of this valuable resource. If this ancient heritage of the Pulicat wetland has to be preserved for posterity and its rich biodiversity conserved, this Pulicat Lake must be recognized as a 'Ramsar Site', for international protection, as early as possible. Early detection and rapid response of habitat loss and alteration could prevent the loss of biodiversity.
       
  • The most common insect pollinator species on sesame crop (Sesamum indicum
           L.) in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt

    • Authors: S.M. Kamel; A.H. Blal, H.M. Mahfouz, M. Said.Arthropods, 2013, 2(2):66-74
      Abstract: A survey of insect pollinators associated with sesame, Sesamun indicum L. (Pedaliaceae) was conducted at the Agriculture Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Suez Canal during the growing seasons of 2011 and 2012. All different insect pollinators which found on the experimental site were collected for identification. Sampling was done once a week and three times a day. Three methods were used to collect and identify insects from the sesame plants (a sweep net, pitfall traps, digital camera and eye observation). A total of 29 insect species were collected and properly identified during the survey. Insect pollinators which recorded on the plants were divided into four groups, 18 belonged to Hymenoptera, 7 to Diptera, 3 to Lepidoptera and one to Coleoptera. Results revealed that Honybee, Apis mellifera was the most dominant species in the 2011 season and the second one in the 2012 season. Whereas small carpenter bee, Ceratina tarsata was the most dominant species in the 2012 season and the second one in the 2011 season. The percentage of Hymenoptera was higher in the two studied seasons by 90.94% and 89.59%, followed by Diptera by 3.93% and 5.38%, then Lepidoptera by 3.58% and 3.62, and in the last Coleoptera by 1.53% and 1.39%, respectively.
       
  • Recurrence of a marine brachyuran crab, Parapanope euagora (Crustacea:
           Decapoda: Brachyura: Galenidae) from East Coast of India

    • Authors: C. Viswanathan; T.V. Suresh, V. Elumalai, M. Pravinkumar, S. M. Raffi.Arthropods, 2013, 2(2):75-79
      Abstract: Study on the occurrence and distribution of unusual crab species is a matter of fascination for carcinalogists. The present study reports the recurrence of a marine brachyuran crab species Parapanope euagora, of the family Galenidae, after a long period along the East coast of India. During a routine survey, three female ovigerous specimens are caught from Parangipettai coastal waters, southeast coast of India. From the results, after more than ten decades, the species, Parapanope euagora has reappeared in Indian coast revealing its possible, continued existence in Indian waters.
       
  • Morphometric study of newly emerged unmated queens of honey bee Apis
           mellifera L. in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt

    • Authors: S.M. Kamel; M.A.M. Osman, M.F. Mahmoud, K.M. Mohamed, S.M. Abd Allah.Arthropods, 2013, 2(2):80-88
      Abstract: Recently, morphometric analysis is being a very good tool for identification of honey bee races and characterization of genetic materials. This fact has motivated the present work to investigate the effects of two grafting methods, three types of artificial queen wax cups and four periods of queen rearing on some morphological characters of newly emerged queens. The developed technique used in the present study depends on the integration between Scanner unit and Photoshop program, called Scan Photo Method (SPM). The measurements of 23 morphological characteristics of reared queens were estimated by using SPM. Results indicated significant differences between periods in the measurements of the studied characteristics on forewing such as cubital index, distance C, distance D, radial field, inner wing length, inner wing width, dumb bell index, distance I, II, III and IV, except cubital A and cubital B. Regarding the effects of cup types and grafting methods, data also revealed significant differences in all measurements of studied characteristics, except tibial length, hind wing length, cubital B, radial field and distance IV. Further works in this area were recommended to find out a relation between some morphometric characters and important of some quantitative characters.
       
  • Crustacean fauna of a mussel cultivated raft system in the Black Sea

    • Authors: Murat Sezgin; Eylem Aydemir Cil.Arthropods, 2013, 2(2):89-94
      Abstract: The aim of the current study was to make a faunistic analysis of the crustaceans associated with cultivated mussels grown on ropes. Mussel samples from 30 cm ropes were collected from rope-grown mussel beds by hand. The crustacean fauna associated with mussel population were quantified. The density of crustacean fauna associated with mussels was significantly greater within rope-grown mussel assemblages than on other biotopes around.
       
  • The locomotory rhythmic activity in scorpions: with a review

    • Authors: Michael R. Warburg.Arthropods; 2013, 2(3):95-104
      Abstract: Locomotory rhythmic behavior is entrained by the change between photophase and skotophase and to some extent by thermal conditions. In many species studied most activity takes place during early night hours. Some species show completely a nocturnal activity pattern, whereas a few species are entirely diurnal. There does not appear to be a pattern related to the timing and extent of the photophase. Except perhaps for Leiurus quinquestriatus (Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1829) which appears to be less active at the highest temperature. This subject was studied in 30 species of scorpions most of them buthids (53.3%), that were studied so far in 42 different studies.
       
  • Two records of Macrophthalmus Desmarest, 1823 (Decapoda: Brachyura:
           Thoracotremata) from the NW of the Arabian Gulf

    • Authors: Amaal Gh. Yasser; Ibtisam M. AbdulSahib, Murtada D. Naser, Khalid Kh. S. Al-Khafaji, Haider Sh. Darweesh.Arthropods, 2013, 2(3):105-110
      Abstract: Specimens of two crabs Macrophthalmus dentipes Lucas, 1836 and Macrophthalmus laevis A. Milne-Edwards, 1867 were collected from the intertidal zone of the lower reaches of Shatt Al-Arab at Fao region, Basrah, Iraq, 2012. A note on the morphological features of these two species and a photograph is provided to confirm the identification of the crabs.
       
  • Reproductive characteristics of a brachyuran crab, Grapsus tenuicrustatus
           (Herbst, 1783) (Decapoda: Grapsidae) found in Talim Bay, Batangas,
           Philippines

    • Authors: Michael A. Clores; Gliceria B. Ramos.Arthropods, 2013, 2(3):111-125
      Abstract: The study determined some reproductive characteristics of a brachyuran crab, Grapsus tenuicrustatus (Herbst, 1783), one among the most widespread and diverse groups of invertebrates. Results revealed that there were more males (52.94%) than females (47.06%) collected at the study sites with a sex ratio of 1:1.13. Thirty percent (30%) of the samples were ovigerous females. Ovigerous females have the largest caraface length, CL, (31.25 +- 1.43) compared with the males (22.14 +- 0.726) and non-ovigerous females (26.63 +- 1.12). Based on one-way ANOVA, the differences were significant. Difference between non-ovigerous and ovigerous females was also found significant based on t-test for independent samples. There was a non-conspicuous bi-modal size distribution for all the crabs, with non-normal distributions for all crabs and for males, but not when all females or ovigerous females only were grouped together. The size-frequency distributions of males and females are significantly different from each other similar with that observed between the size-frequency of ovigerous and non-ovigerous females. There were more ovigerous crabs belonging to the first year age class (CL = 16 - 33) (53.13 %) than those that belong to the older class (CL = 34 - 43) (46.88 %). Fecundity ranged from 4400 (CL = 16 mm) to 26400 (CL = 43 mm) eggs. Egg volume ranged from 0.40 ml to 2.40 ml, egg diameter from 1.1 um to 5.0 um with an average diameter of 3.170 um and egg count from 4400 to 26400 with a mean of 12684 eggs. Egg number was positively correlated with female size.
       
  • Biochemical properties of digestive carbohydrases from the sugar beet
           weevil, Lixus incanescens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    • Authors: Seyed Mohammad Ahsaei; Vahid Hosseininaveh, Mahdieh Bigham.Arthropods, 2013, 2(3):126-136
      Abstract: The sugar beet weevil, Lixus incanescens B., is one of the most important pests of sugar beet plant in Iran. The petioles and leaves of sugar beet are attacked by larvae and adults of the sugar beet weevil. Chemical application is currently used for controlling the pest. Digestion in the alimentary canal of the sugar beet weevil is facilitated by some carbohydrases. Results of the in vitro studies indicated the presence of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase in the digestive tract of the pest. Highest activities of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase were at pH 5, pH 5 and pH 4, respectively. No significant alpha-glucosidase and alpha-galactosidase activity was detected in the pest's digestive system. Optimum temperatures for alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase activity were determined at 45, 50 and 40 oC, respectively. alpha-amylase was more stable under acidic condition (pH 4 to pH 6) than under highly acidic and alkaline condition. Na+ and K+ increased alpha-amylase activity, but sodium dodecyl sulfate significantly decreased amylase activity. Also, the activity of alpha-amylase was inhibited by the other compounds such as MgCl2, CaCl2 and EDTA. Zymogram analysis using native-PAGE revealed one band of alpha-amylase activity in Lixus incanescens. High activity of carbohydrases in the digestive system of adults was determined and further researches are needed to be applied to design new strategies for controlling the sugar beet weevil based on natural carbohydrase inhibitors.
       
  • Induced plant resistance as a pest management tactic on piercing sucking
           insects of sesame crop

    • Authors: M. F. Mahmoud.Arthropods; 2013, 2(3):137-149
      Abstract: Sesame, Sesamum indicum L. is the most oil seed crop of the world and also a major oil seed crop of Egypt. One of the major constraints in its production the damage caused by insect pests, particularly sucking insects which suck the cell sap from leaves, flowers and capsules. Impact of three levels of potassin-F, salicylic acid and combination between them on reduction infestation of Stink bug Nezara viridula L., Mirid bug Creontiades sp., Green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Leafhopper Empoasca lybica de Berg and Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) of sesame crop cultivar Shandawil 3 was carried out during 2010-2011 crop season at Experimental farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. Also, the impacts of potassin-F and salicylic acid on yield production of sesame were studied. Results indicated that percent of reduction of infestation by N. viridula, M. persicae, Creontiades sp., E. lybicae, B. tabaci and phyllody disease were significantly higher at Level 2 (Potassin-F= 2.5 cm/l, Salicylic acid= 0.001 M and Potassin + Salicylic= 2.5 cm/l + 0.001 M) and consequently higher seed yield per plant were obtained.
       
  • Data mining using multivariate The circadian rhythm and visual elements in
           scorpions: A review

    • Authors: M. R. Warburg.Arthropods; 2013, 2(4):150-158
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to review the state of research in this field and to outline future ways how to proceed. The term: "Zeitgeber", implies 'time giver' meaning: synchronizer when an external entrainment factor synchronizes the endogenous rhythm. Is this 'time giver', the chronological date in the sense that it is related to the time of day as reflected in the natural light-dark cycles' Or does it mean cyclic phases of activity as demonstrated in the laboratory' Moreover, is it totally independent of the animal's physiological condition' This subject was studied largely in buthid species (15) of a total of only 30 scorpion species. Moreover, many (over 25%) of the studies (19) were done on a single buthid species: Androctonus australis. Species diversity was observed only by one author's work who studied eye structure in seven species. Since he found variability in eye structure it would not be advisable to generalize. The fact that experimenting was carried out irrespective of species diversity, gender, ecological or physiological conditions, and was usually done on animals kept in captivity for some time before the experimenting had started, is a major drawback to this kind of study. The diurnal rhythms is triggered either directly through spontaneous arrhythmic activity in the central nervous system, or by neurosecretory material. It is possible that these differences arise from either different technical treatments or due to basic problems, and these need to be clarified.
       
  • Taxonomic account of genus Scylla (de Haan, 1833) from Gujarat State,
           India with two new records of species

    • Authors: J. N. Trivedi; K. D. Vachhrajani.Arthropods, 2013, 2(4):159-171
      Abstract: The present study describes the taxonomic account of genus Scylla from Gujarat state, India. Specimens of crab were collected from 11 different marine sites/ habitats along the coastal region of the state. Of the several specimens examined on site, 30 morphologically distinct samples were selected for the study, and total 47 different morphological characters were measured. Three different species of genus Scylla were identified viz. Scylla serrata, Scylla tranquebarica and Scylla Olivacea. We report Scylla tranquebarica and Scylla Olivacea for the first time from the state. In general, S. serrata is reported as a dominant species with wide spread distribution while rest of the species show patchy distribution.
       
  • Habitat ecology and food and feeding of the herring bow crab Varuna
           litterata (Fabricius, 1798) of Cochin backwaters, Kerala, India

    • Authors: P. Lakshmi Devi; Deepthi Gopi Nair, Aneykutty Joseph.Arthropods, 2013, 2(4):172-188
      Abstract: Habitat ecology and food and feeding of the herring bow crab, Varuna litterata of Cochin Backwaters, Kerala, India were investigated for a period of one year (April 2011-March 2012). Among the 15 stations surveyed, the crabs were found to occur only in 4 stations, which had a close proximity to the sea. Sediment analysis of the stations revealed that the substratum of these stations is sandy in nature and is rich in organic carbon content (0.79% to 1.07%). These estuarine crabs is euryhaline and are found to be distributed in areas with a sandy substratum, higher organic carbon content and more tidal influx. The stomach contents analysis of crabs examined showed that their diet included crustacean remains, plants, sand and debris, fishes, miscellaneous group and unidentified matter. In adults and sub-adults, crustaceans formed the dominant food group, while in juveniles, sand and debris formed the dominant group. From the present study, V. litterata was found to be a predatory omnivore capable of ingesting both animal and plant tissues.
       
  • A morphometry map and a new method for honey bee morphometric analysis by
           using the ArcGIS

    • Authors: Hossam F. Abou-Shaara.Arthropods; 2013, 2(4):189-199
      Abstract: The morphometric analysis of honey bees has a substantial importance for honey bee subspecies characterization and discrimination while the ArcGIS is a geographical program for data analysis. In the present research, the combination between the morphometric data and the spatial analysis options of the ArcGIS was done and subsequently tested in creating a morphometry map for honey bees from some regions in Egypt as well as for the discrimination between two honey bee subspecies. Therefore, I present a model for creating the morphometry maps and a new method for the morphometric analysis by the transformation of the morphometric data to raster data layers. The obtained results showed that the created morphometry map classified the regions successfully according to the morphological character means. The morphometric analysis was successfully performed by using trend analysis and raster difference range. The analysis of the morphometric data as raster layers showed high sensitivity for the differences between subspecies and regions. The presented model and the method are effective and can be applied for the discrimination between subspecies, regions and colonies as well as can be used with other insects.
       
  • Diversity of dragonflies (Anisoptera) in Gorewada International Bio- Park,
           Nagpur, Central India

    • Authors: V. A. Shende; K. G. Patil.Arthropods, 2013, 2(4):200-207
      Abstract: Gorewada International Bio-Park provides a good habitat for biodiversity of Odonates. Its geographical location is 21'11'N 79'2'E. Dragonfly watching and recording has been done in each line transect during a week. Total 34 species of dragonflies are recorded belonging to 24 genera and 4 families. Out of total dragonfly species examined, 26 (76.47%) are common and 8 (23.53%) are occasional. Libellulidae family is consisting of maximum number of genera and species followed by Aeshnidae, Gomphidae and Macromiidae. The present study encourages the conservation of a wide range of dragonfly species in this area.
       
  • Selection of entomopathogenic fungi against the red spider mite
           Tetranychus kanzawai (Kishida) (Tetranychidae: Acarina)

    • Authors: Yayan Sanjaya; Virginia R. Ocampo, Barbara L. Caoili.Arthropods, 2013, 2(4):208-215
      Abstract: The pathogenicity of three entomopathogenic fungal species to Tetranychus kanzawai was investigated. Seven isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae, six isolates of Beauveria bassiana, and an isolate of Paecilomyces lilacinus from the Philippines and Indonesia were evaluated. The following studies were undertaken: (1) screening of M. anisoplae, B. bassiana and P. lilicanus pathogenic to T. kanzawai, and (2) bioefficacy studies of the selected entomopathogenic fungi under greenhouse conditions. Conidia of each isolate were mass-produced on potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 26+-1 oC and a 12-hour photophase for a maximum of 21 days. Preliminary screening for the most pathogenic isolate within the same species was determined using suspension with 104 to 108 conidia ml-1. At 4 days after treatment (DAT), the pathogenicity within M. anisopliae isolates in decreasing order was Ma5>Ma6>Ma4>Ma2>Ma1>Ma3>Ma7 while for B. bassiana, was Bb6>Bb5>Bb4>Bb3>Bb1>Bb2. The top three most pathogenic isolates within the two species were subjected to further studies to determine the most virulent isolate against T. kanzawai. At 5 DAT, the LC50 values of M. anisopliae isolates ranged from 5.0 x102 to 1.4x103 while for B. bassiana ranged from 1.2 x 103 to 2.4x 103 conidia ml-1. Based on LC50, the virulence of the fungal isolates within the species in decreasing order was Ma6>Ma5>Ma4 and Bb6>Bb5>Bb4. However, the LC50 values are not significantly different from each other. Green house trials showed that the epizootic of entomopathogenic fungus can regulate the population of mites. The fungal isolates used in the study, although not originally isolated from mites were virulent to T. kanzawai, indicating their wide host range.
       
  • Ecological investigation, density, infestation rate and control strategy
           of German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) in two hospitals in
           Ismailia, Egypt

    • Authors: M.F. Mahmoud; A.F. El-Bahrawy, H.M. El-Sharabasy, Y.S. El-Badry, G.A. El-Kady.Arthropods, 2013, 2(4):216-224
      Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate the ecological situation, density, infestation rate and control strategy of German cockroach, Blattella germanica indoors in two hospitals in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. The sticky traps method was used for 12 months in 2012. The cockroach index, sanitation and ventilation rate tables were tools to investigate the effectiveness of sanitation and related factors on B. germanica in Ismailia. Results showed that the population density of B. germanica increased gradually from January to July, and then decreased gradually till December of 2012 in both hospitals. The population density of B. germanica captured from hospital 1 (urban) was higher than hospital 2 (rural) in all months. Moreover, the number of German cockroach caught from different apartments in both hospitals was very significant different. Among these apartments, kitchen had the highest number of German cockroach, density, infestation rate and percent of nymphs. The highest population density was in kitchen (298.44), followed by dry food store (69.99), furniture room (25.91) and patient room (8.94), for hospital 1. However, the population was low in all apartments in hospital 2. Although several stages of B. germanica were caught from two hospitals, nymphs showed the higher infestation rate in all apartments surveyed in both hospitals. The infestation rate of nymphs was 92.5% in hospital 1 and 63.06% in hospital 2. In addition, temperature and humidity were measured in hospitals to study the relationship between population density of B. germanica and these parameters. There was a positive correlation between temperature and the population density for hospital 1 and for hospital 2. The correlation was negative between humidity and population density in both hospitals. In conclusion, integrated control measures should be taken according to the seasonal fluctuation, population density in hospitals in Ismailia. It should put the emphasis on environmental management plus physical control, chemical control and biological control. Sanitation, good ventilation has positive impact in reduction of German cockroach infestation.
       
  • Response of adult male Zeuzera pyrina (Lep: Zeuzeridae) to different
           pheromone traps in walnut orchards of four isolated regions of Iran

    • Authors: Raheleh Dolati; Jamasb Nozari, Vahid Hosseininaveh.Arthropods, 2013, 2(4):225-230
      Abstract: The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina L. (Lep: Zeuzeridae) is an important polyphagous pest of a wide range of trees and shrubs across Europe and Asia. The efficient control of the leopard moth by direct spraying of infested branches and trees is usually impractical because the larvae feed internally and escape from exposure to the used insecticides. Sexual pheromones emitted by females may provide an efficient alternative method to explore the pest, disrupt its mating or capture and kill it. In the present study, we evaluated the efficiency of one Iranian-formulated (in three doses: 1, 1.5, and 2 mg per trap) and three non-Iranian-formulated sexual pheromones in attraction and capturing of adult males of the leopard moth in Walnut orchards of Alborz province and three different regions of Kerman province (Rabor, Baft, Darremorid). We found a wide diversity in response of adult males to different pheromones in the four studied regions. This diversity seems to be resulted from isolation of the populations and may present a preliminary stage of divergence and speciation in this species.
       
  • Efficiency of probiotics (Ecoforce) in the growth and survival of Peneaus
           monodon

    • Authors: V. Elumalai; G. Ramesh, D. Mohan, S. Jayalakshmi, G. Subbulakshmi, S. M. Raffi.Arthropods, 2013, 2(4):231-236
      Abstract: Probiotic supplementation of live microorganisms in aquaculture aids in preventing disease, thereby increasing production and decreasing economic loss. Application of probiotics bacteria in aquaculture systems plays significant role that determines the fate and success rate of culture. The present study was carried out to evaluate the performance of commercially available probiotics (The major active ingredients include Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus faecium, Bacillus mesentericus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus natto, Clostridium butyricum, Saccharomyces cerevivisiae, Alkaline Protease and Lipase) in the growth and survival of Peneaus monodon in grow-out conditions. At the end of the culture, the survival rate of Pond I (treatment pond) was 76%, whereas for Pond II (control pond) it was only 59%. Pond I (29.2g) where as shrimps in the Pond II showed the least average body weight of 22.6g. It is evident that application of probiotics has improved the growth and survival of P. monodon and which in turn paved way to reap better profit for the farmers. This investigation showed that administration of mixed Bacillus probiotics significantly improved growth and survival of shrimp, increased beneficial bacteria in shrimp culture and enhanced water quality for parameter., it seems likely that the use of probiotics will gradually increase in the days to come that will open new vistas in the arena of aquaculture.
       
  • Checklist of moth fauna of Peshawar, Pakistan

    • Authors: Muhammad Aslam.Arthropods; 2013, 2(4):237-241
      Abstract: A taxonomic survey of moth fauna was carried out in Peshawar from June to August in 2010 to know about moth species present in this area. A total number of 1375 moth specimens were collected by using simple light traps operated from dusk to dawn daily for sixty nights. A total of 18 moth species belonging to six families were recorded in Peshawar during this study.
       
  • Brachyuran crab diversity of lower estuarine mud flats of Mahi River with
           new record of two species from Gujarat, India

    • Authors: P. J. Pandya; K. D. Vachhrajani.Arthropods, 2013, 2(4):242-250
      Abstract: A systematic study of brachyuran crab diversity and distribution was carried out for two years on the lower estuarine mud flats of the Mahi River, the upper Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat. A total of 10 brachyuran crab species belonging to eight genera and eight families were identified. Study documented the distribution and habitat preference of the reported species on the intertidal area. The study records the occurance of two species Dotilla intermedia and Macrophthalmus brevis, for the first time from Gujarat. Moreover the study briefed on the habitat preference, general ethology and morphometry of new recorded species.
       
 
 
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