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Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
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ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
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Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
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Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
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African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
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Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
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American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
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American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
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American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
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American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 73)
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Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
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Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
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Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
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BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 299)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)

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Journal Cover
Arthropods
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2224-4255
Published by International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences Homepage  [5 journals]
  • A review of imidacloprid toxicity in coccinellids

    • Authors: Afifa Amjad; Iqra Azam, Muhammad Kaleem Sarwar, Muhammad Faheem Malik, Aqsa Sattar.Arthropods, 2018, 7(1):1-10
      Abstract: Insecticides are the pesticides that are used to deter pests as they affect their nervous system, respiration, growth and by harming their exoskeletons. Meanwhile, they are affecting the non-target natural enemies such as ladybirds that are frequently used in IPM as biological control agents. Insecticides were presumed to be ineffective for Coccinellids earlier, but research studies have shown that these insecticides severely effect physiological and behavioural patterns of natural predators leading them to death. A best-selling insecticide, Imidacloprid: a neurotoxin belonging to neonicotinoid affects the behaviour and performance of natural enemies by effecting their fecundity, egg hatching, developmental time, growth rate, locomotion, survival rate and causing mortality of various Coccinellids including: Hippodamia undecimnotata, Coccinella septempunctata, Harmonia axyridis, Coleomegilla maculata, Hippodamia convergens, Serangium japonicum, Hippodamia variegata, Coccinella novemnotata.
       
  • Effect of salinity gradients on species composition of Odonata naiads

    • Authors: Ahmed Zia; Amad-Ud-Din, Iqra Azam, Asia Munir, Sumera Afsheen.Arthropods, 2018, 7(1):11-25
      Abstract: In present study the relationship between salinity gradients of various water bodies and inhabiting Odonata naiads was studied. Naiads, being a popular group of water pollution indicators, were studied. Totally 35 sites were surveyed for collection of naiads and water samples were taken from each positive site. Eight factors viz. Electrical Conductivity (Ec), Calcium +Magnesium (Ca+Mg), Sodium (Na+), Carbonates (Carb), Bicarbonates (Bc), Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) were studied for each water sample. Interesting results were obtained both for Anisoptera and Zygoptera species. Among dragonflies, genus Crocothemis of family Libellulidae appeared to be resistant while Genus Gomphidia and Sympetrum of families Gomphidae and Libellulidae were observed to be affected by variations in salinity gradients of waters of different sites. However in case of damselflies Genus Ischnura of family Ceonagrionidae and genus Pseudagrion of family Ceonagrionidae were observed to be adaptive followed by genus Ceriagrion of same family. As an overall conclusion, Anisopterous naiads were found more susceptible to salinity gradients than Zygoptera and thus can be better used in water salinity diagnoses studies.
       
  • A quantitative study on development, fecundity and mortality of beet
           armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), infected by
           SeMNPV

    • Authors: HongQing Dai; WenJun Zhang.Arthropods, 2018, 7(1):26-30
      Abstract: Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hubner), is an important pest for many crops. SeMNPV infected development, survival process, and population parameters of S. exigua were studied in present study. The results demonstated that relationship beween probit value of mortality (y) and the logarimic of SeMNPV concentration (x) followed the linear equation: y=0.455+0.9300x. At 27 cels. degree, the LC50 of the third-instar larvae of S. exigua was tested to be 77082 PIBs/ml. Pupa weight (y; mg) of S. exigua decreased significantly with the SeMNPV concentration (x; SeMNPV concentration (PIBs/ml)): y=106.038-1.1962 log(x) (r2=0.915, p=0.044). Fecundity (y; eggs/female) of S. exigua decreased significantly with the SeMNPV concentration: y=690.523-28.5209 log(x) (r2=0.997, p=0.001). Both net reproduction rate (R0) and population trend index (I) decreased with the SeMNPV concentration (x): R0=744.121-54.6707 log(x) (r2=0.983, p=0.009); I=354.259-24.4705log(x) (r2=0.987, p=0.006).
       
  • Sexual dimorphism and inter-individual variation in the rove beetle,
           Creophilus maxillosus L. (Col: Staphylinidae)

    • Authors: Mohammad Shahbaz; Gadir Nouri-Ganbalani.Arthropods, 2017, 6(4):107-116
      Abstract: Sexual selection is expected to drive phenotypic differences between conspecific male and females, a widespread phenomenon known as sexual dimorphism. At the same time, individuals may exhibit some degree of intra-sexual variation. We examined the sexual dimorphism and inter-individual variation in different body parts of Creophilus maxillosus L. (Col: Staphylinidae), a cosmopolitan rove beetle commonly found on carrion. Male C. maxillosus had significantly wider head and pronotum, longer mandibles, and more distant eyes than females. The head width was positively correlated to mandible length, which may reflect stronger adductor muscles and higher bite force in larger individuals. The allometry of traits can be examined by plotting the logarithms of that specific trait against the logarithm of body size and determining the slope (b) of the regression line. Isometry occurs when b=1, i.e. the ratio of given traits to body size remains constant across individuals. Negative allometry occurs when b less than 1, i.e. larger individuals have relatively smaller traits in relation to body size. Positive allometry occurs when b greater than 1, so that larger individuals have disproportionately larger traits. A positive allometry was found in head width (b=1.32), mandible length (b=2.28), and ocular distance (b=1.49) of males. Our results show that, particularly head size, mandible length and ocular distance are probably under sexual selection in males, while traits such as eye size are isometric to body size. The potential role of these traits in male-male combat as well as female attractiveness has been frequently documented in different insect taxa. The striking similarities in patterns of sexual dimorphism among independently evolved insects indicate that common evolutionary force(s) are probably at work.
       
  • Temperature dependent development parameters and population life table of
           beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    • Authors: HonQing Dai; GuiLu Zhang, WenJun Zhang.Arthropods, 2017, 6(4):117-125
      Abstract: Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hubner), is an important insect pest fed on many crops. Temperature and host plant dependent development, survival, and population parameters of S. exigua were studied in present article. The results showed that the generation duration of S. exigua at temperatures 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35 celsius degree were 37.61, 30.78, 22.40, 18.57, and 13.74 days, respectively. S. exigua could not survive at 38 celsius degree. The generation duration of S. exigua, feeding on Lactuca sativa, Lactuca Sativa L., Raphanus sativus L., and Allium fistulosum at 27 celsius degree, were 18.86, 20.10, 22.67, and 22.50 days respectively. And the generation survivorship was 30.91, 29.00, 22.00, and 27.50% respectively, far less than observed 81.91% feeding on artificial diet. S. exigua feeding on L. sativa showed the highest net reproduction rate (216.29), intrinsic rate for increase (0.34), population trend index (76.59), finite rate for increase (1.33), and fecundity (606.5 eggs), while these values were the lowest when it fed on A. fistulosum. Relationship between development rate and temperature was fitted with three models, the linear model, Logistic model and Wang model, and Wang model produced the best fitting goodness. Wang model showed that for the egg, the 1st-5th instar larvae, pupa and adult of S. exigua, the upper limit temperatures for development are 45, 44.5, 44.4, 40.3, 43.6, 38.9, 38, and 38 celsius degree, resepctively; the lower limit temperatures for development are 7.5, 7.2, 13.4, 7.3, 6.6, 5.3, 5.6, and 5.6 celsius degree, respectively, and the optimum temperatures for development are 21.9, 28.9, 25.5, 24.5, 26, 31.6, 30.6, and 29.1 celsius degree, respectively. The upper limit, lower limit and optimum temperatures for development of the entire generation are 38, 5.7 and 30 celsius degree, resepctively.
       
  • Comparative management of Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera:
           Crambidae) by convenient pesticides and non-chemical practices in a double
           rice cropping system

    • Authors: Morteza Noormohammad Poor Amiri; Faramarz Alinia, Sohrab Imani, Maesomeh Shayanmehr, Ali Ahadiyat.Arthropods, 2017, 6(4):126-136
      Abstract: The inclination of rice growers towards double cropping system in north of Iran has raised new concerns about the excessive release of broad-spectrum pesticides, particularly organophosphates, in the environment. In this study, the efficiency of three insecticides and an integrated pest management (IPM) program for management of the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lep: Crambidae), in double cropping system was investigated under field condition. According to the results, one accurate application of hexaflumuron EC 10% (1.5 L/ha) or diazinon EC 60% (1.5 L/ha) for each generation of the pest resulted in significant reduction in dead heart and white head damage and increase in yield performance when compared with one application of fipronil G 0.2%, diazinon G 10% and diazinon EC 60% + diazinon G 10% as well as two application of diazinon EC 60% + diazinon G 10%. Additionally, considerable effect of IPM programs (mechanical, physical, and biological practices) on suppression of pest damage and improvement of yield performance was also observed. Given the environmental problems associated with excessive application of diazinon and fipronil, hexaflumuron, as an insect growth regulator with specific mode of action, can be efficiently integrated with other non-chemical methods for successful management of Ch. suppressalis in double cropping systems.
       
  • Development - temperature relationship and temperature dependent
           parameters of German cockroach, Blattella germanica L.

    • Authors: YiTian Xu; SongBin Chen, Yan Yang, WenJun Zhang.Arthropods, 2017, 6(3):78-85
      Abstract: German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is one of the most health pests around the world. Development-temperature relationship and temperature-dependent parameters of B. germanica were determined in present study. The experiment was conducted in the incubators with five constant air temperatures, 23, 28, 31, 36, and 40 degrees Celsius. The photoperiod of 16 h light / 8 h dark and the relative humidity of 74%-76% were fixed for all incubators. Three replicates were set for each temperature. Based on linear regression equations, the estimated starting temperature for development of 1st to 5th instar nymphs of B. germanica is 14.26+-3.157, 13.70+-2.284, 14.59+-3.575, 16.58+-2.398, and 18.47+-1.442 degrees Celsius, respectively. The estimated effective accumulated temperature of 1st to 5th instar nymphs is 99.18+-19.68, 97.01+-13.47, 92.06+-21.17, 80.26+-9.784, and 64.06+-9.784 d degrees Celsius (day degrees), respectively. B. germanica had the highest survivorship and hatching rate, and the least instars for eclosion and hatching time, around 31 degrees Celsius, which is the optimum temperature range for development and survival of B. germanica. B. germanica could not survive at 40 degrees Celsius. Even at 36 degrees Celsius, all eclosed adults had vestigial wings and could not normally mate and reproduce.
       
  • Influence of soil nutrient combination on Flemingia semialata, lac insect
           growth and lac insect pest

    • Authors: Arvind Kumar.Arthropods; 2017, 6(3):95-101
      Abstract: Lac is a natural resin of outstanding properties and exceptional versatility, secreted by tiny coccid insect Kerria lacca, which is reared on some specific plants. Lac insect take their nutrition from the host plant, hence soil nutrient become most important component for sustainable lac cultivation and host plant growth. Therefore, to determine the suitable nutrient combination dose of N, P and K on lac host plant growth, lac yield and their predation and parasitization an experiment was undertaken. The result showed N, P and K soil nutrient combination in treatment 2 (T2=N15:P5:K5) was found to be the most suitable for lac production and least insect pest infestation. The soil nutrient supplied to plants was positively influences the F. semialata plant growth. It shows that soil nutrient must be applied for lac cultivation on F. semialata for their sustainable development, better lac production and less predator infestation.
       
  • Insecticidal, food utilisation and biochemical effect of essential oils
           extracted from seeds of Brassica juncea (Czern.) against Spodoptera litura
           (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (Fabricius)

    • Authors: Shallina Gupta; Nalini Singh Chauhan, Sakshi Bhushan, Rohit Arora, Saroj Arora, Satwinder Kaur Sohal.Arthropods, 2017, 6(3):102-115
      Abstract: The glucosinolate rich hot and cold hexane extracts of Brassica juncea had a negative effect on the development of Spodoptera litura larvae when they were fed on different concentrations of the extracts. Both larval growth index and pupal growth index declined with treatment. However the hot extract with 3-butenyl isothiocyanate as the predominant compound had a more deleterious effect as at 3125ppm the larvae were unable to complete their development. The nutritional indices too were more adversely affected with hot extract as compared to cold extract. The RGR, RCR, ECI and ECD declined significantly with increase in concentration of the hot hexane extract. The activity of antioxidant enzymes, SOD and catalase decreased while that of phosphatases, GSTs, phenol oxidases increased during the initial treatment duration but decreased on prolonged treatment of the larvae with LC50 concentration of hot extract. A similar trend was observed for glutathione and lipid peroxides but a decrease in ascorbate content was observed as compared to control. The findings reveal a toxic effect of 3-butenylisothiocyanate rich hot hexane extract of B. juncea on S. litura larvae.
       
  • Review of the genus Pezodrymadusa (Tettigoniidae: Orthoptera) with
           description of a new species from Pakistan

    • Authors: Waheed Ali Panhwar; Zubair Ahmed, Imran Khatri, Oscar J. Cadena-Castaneda.Arthropods, 2017, 6(2):78-93
      Abstract: The genus is reviewed and a new species Pezodrymadusa sehraensis sp.nov. from Pakistan, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (Lower Dir) is described. A total of 15 species to the genus are redescribed.
       
  • Observations of the sound producing organs in achelate lobster larvae

    • Authors: John A. Fornshell; Alessandra Tesei.Arthropods, 2017, 6(2):36-46
      Abstract: The Achelata, lobsters lacking claws and having a phyllosoma larva, are divided into two families, the Palinuridae or spiny lobsters and the Scyllaridae or slipper lobsters. Within the Palinuridae adults of two groups were identified by Parker (1884), the Stridentesthat are capable of producing sounds, and the Silentesthat are not known to produce sounds. The Stridentes employ a file-like structure on the dorsal surface of the cephalon and a plectrum consisting of a series of ridges on the proximal segment of the second antenna to produce their sounds. All species of Achelata hatch as an unpigmented thin phyllosoma larva. The phyllosoma larva of the Stridentes have a presumptive file-like structure on the dorsal cephalon. A similar file-like structure is found on the cephalon of one species of Silentes, Palinurellus wienckki, and some but not all of the phyllosoma larvae of the Scyllaridae. No presumptive plectrum is found on the second antenna of any of the phyllosoma larvae. Presence of a presumptive file-like structure on phyllosoma larvae of Silentes and Scyllaridae suggests that the ability to produce sounds may have been lost secondarily in the Silentes and Scyllaridae.
       
  • New record of the snapping shrimp Alpheus edwardsii (Audouin,
           1826) (Crustacea: Alpheoidea) in Basrah, Iraq

    • Authors: Tariq H. Y. Al-Maliky; Khaled Kh Al- Khafaji, Talib A. Khalaf.Arthropods, 2017, 6(2):47-53
      Abstract: Specimens of the snapping shrimp Alpheus edwardsii, were collected from the intertidal zone of Faw and Shatt Al-Basrah channel in Basrah city, Iraq during October 2016. Photographs by digital camera and measurements were presented. Guides and keys were used for identification of this species.
       
  • New records of xanthid crabs Atergatis roseus (Ruppell, 1830) (Crustacea:
           Decapoda: Brachyura) from Iraqi coast, south of Basrah city, Iraq

    • Authors: Khaled Khassaf Al-Khafaji; Aqeel Abdulsahib Al-Waeli, Tariq H. Al-Maliky.Arthropods, 2017, 6(2):54-58
      Abstract: Specimens of the The Brachyuran crab Atergatis roseus (Ruppell, 1830), were collected for first times from Iraqi coast, south Al-Faw, Basrah city, Iraq, 1879 in coast of northwest of Arabian Gulf. Morphological features and distribution pattern of this species are highlighted and a figure is provided. The material was mostly collected from the shallow subtidal and intertidal areas using trawl net and hand.
       
  • Epidemiological study of scabies among school going children in district
           Haripur, Pakistan

    • Authors: Samina Yasmin; Hanif Ullah, Muhammad Inayat Ullah Khan, Suleman, Sadia Tabassum, Sardar Azhar Mehmood.Arthropods, 2017, 6(2):59-66
      Abstract: Scabies is a parasitic skin infestation caused by the burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei. An epidemiological study of scabies was conducted at Haripur from Jan to April 2013 to evaluate the prevalence and the important risk factors for the spread of scabies. The study was conducted in School children. Diagnosis was based on the presence of active burrows or excessive rash (rubbing). Out of a sample of 968 school children (1st-5th) 40 were detected as scabetic yielding a prevalence rate of 4.13%. Selecting 70 children as control, a case-control study was performed to assess the relative risk of scabies with respect to a variety of risk factors. Sleeping behavior (bed sharing) and the presence of head lice came out as a significant risk factors with relative risk of 3.0 and 2.44, respectively. On the other hand, factors like family size, house characteristics, general health condition, and bathing frequency did not significantly influence the occurrence of scabies.
       
  • Side effects of thiacloprid+deltamethrin, pirimicarb and pymetrozine on
           the black bean aphid parasitoid, Lysiphlebus fabarum Marshall
           (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae)

    • Authors: Ardavan Mardani; Ali Almasi, Seyed Mehdi Hashemi, Majid Mohammadnejad.Arthropods, 2017, 6(2):67-77
      Abstract: Lysiphlebus fabarum Marshall is the main parasitoid of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli. Lethal and sublethal effects of thiacloprid+deltamethrin, pirimicarb and pymetrozine were evaluated on the parasitoid under laboratory conditions. Newly emerged females were exposed to dry insecticide residues that were applied on glass plates. Thiacloprid+deltamethrin caused 100% mortality. Pirimicarb produced significant mortality and adverse effects on fecundity, while pymetrozin did not. According to the IOBC (International Organization of Biological Control) standards, thiacloprid+deltamethrin (E = 100%), pirimicarb (E = 62.70%) and pymetrozine (E = 11.86%) were classified as harmful, slightly harmful and harmless, respectively. Life table assays revealed that intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) inthiacloprid+deltamethrin (50%) and pirimicarb (12%) were significantly reduced compared to the control group, while pymetrozine had no such effects. Our results showed that pymetrozine was safe for L. fabarum, but pirimicarb and thiacloprid+deltamethrin had deleterious effects on this parasitoid. In sum, the present study suggests a relative compatibility between pymetrozine and L. fabarum.
       
  • Larval stages Nymphon charcoti Bouvier 1911

    • Authors: John A. Fornshell.Arthropods; 2017, 6(1):1-7
      Abstract: The protonymphon larva and next four instars of the pycnogonids Nymphon charcoti are described. The developmental pattern is that of a "Typical Protonymphon" according to Bain's 2003 classification. The description is based on archived specimens from the National Museum of Natural History collections. The walking legs appear initially as underived buds with three pseudo-segments beginning with walking leg one in the second instar. In the subsequent instars the walking legs appear as six segmented appendages and then eight segmented appendages. In the genus Nymphon there are four different post embryonic developmental patterns, "Typical Protonymphon", "Attaching Larva", "Lecithotrophic Larva" and "Elvie's Larva". This diversity of developmental patterns within the same genus which is not restricted to the Nymphonidae indicates that the developmental patterns as currently defined in the literature have little phylogenetic relevance.
       
  • Insect pest infestation on Gmelina arborea Roxb. in different agroclimatic
           zones of Jharkhand, India

    • Authors: Arvind Kumar; Girish Chandra.Arthropods, 2017, 6(1):8-20
      Abstract: The fast growing and multipurpose timber species G. arborea has problem of multiple insect pest attack in India. To understand the diversity of insect pest infestation abundance on Gmelina arborea, the data was collected on insect pest infestation (%) in three agro-climatic zones (Zone IV, V and VI) of Jharkhand province of India over a period of 3 years. Results shows that the plants were infested with total twenty insect pests species, out of these ten insect pest were recorded as new for G. arborea. Various diversity and similarity indices were calculated to explore the relationship of insect pest infestation among zones. It was found that Zone V have the maximum species infestation diversity followed by the zones IV and VI, whereas, zones IV and V were most similar and zone VI was differ from others. Duncan's multiple range test determined that Phyllocnistis amydropa was the most abundant species for G. arborea. Additionally, ten insect pests viz. Maladera sp., Hyperops coromandelensis, Lobotrachelus sp., Apion sp., Ectropis bhurmitra, Belippa lalean, Pagyda sp., Phromnia marginella, and Homeocerus inornatus, Megalurothrips peculiaris were found to be as new insect pest records, infesting to G. arborea first time. The study may helpful to understand the expending range of insect pest fauna of G. arborea in the country and framing insect pest management policy more effectively.
       
  • A report on butterfly diversity of Rawanwadi Reservoir, Bhandara
           (Maharashtra), India

    • Authors: Kishor G. Patil; Asmita Kanekar, Virendra A. Shende, Uke Shrikant Bhimrao.Arthropods, 2017, 6(1):21-28
      Abstract: Investigations have been done to record diversity of butterflies around the area of Rawanwadi reservoir during April 2015 to March 2016. It is surrounded by hilly terrain and forest provides abundance of host and larvalfood plants, and vegetation which are the most dominant features for diversity of butterflies. It has abundant species of butterflies due to suitable surrounding environment. A total of 84 species belonging to 5 families and 54 genera were recorded. Amongst which 52.38% were common, 28.57% were occasional and 19.04% species were rare. Family Nymphalidae consist maximum number of species i.e. 32 from 19 genera. This number is followed by Lycaenidae with 19 genera and 26 species. Pieridae consist of 13 species of 7 genera and Hesperiidae consist 7 species of 6 genera. Minimum number of species were recorded in Papilionidae i.e. 6 species of 3 genera. Most species from Lycaenidae were found near water body.
       
  • Genetic diversity of six isolated populations of the leopard moth, Zeuzera
           pyrina (Lep: Zeuzeridae)

    • Authors: Raheleh Dolati; Jamasb Nozari, Vahid Hosseininaveh.Arthropods, 2017, 6(1):29-35
      Abstract: The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (Lep: Zeuzeridae), is an important pest of a wide range of trees and shrubs including walnut and apple across the world. The natural populations of the leopard moth in different geographical areas of Iran show significant differences in some of their biological characteristics such as time of emergence, generation time and host specificity. So, we hypothesized that these populations may represent different subspecies that move toward a speciation event in their evolutionary route. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity of six different geographically isolated populations of the leopard moth using the sequence alignment of cytochrome oxidase c subunit one (COI). A fragment of 642 base pairs was amplified in all six populations and the phylogenetic tree was created based on sequenced fragments. Our results revealed significant differences in the nucleotide sequence of COI gene in these populations. Differences in climatic conditions of these regions seem to be the most powerful force driving this diversity among the studied populations.
       
  • Transduction of the vitellogenic signal of juvenile hormone by
           Methoprene-tolerant in the cockroach Blattella germanica (L.)
           (Dictyoptera, Blattellidae)

    • Authors: Mahboubeh Naghdi; Jose-Luis Maestro, Xavier Belles, Ali Bandani.Arthropods, 2016, 5(4):130-137
      Abstract: In adult females of the cockroach Blattella germanica, juvenile hormone (JH) promotes vitellogenin production. Depletion of Methoprene-tolerant (Met) mRNA levels with RNAi resulted in a clear reduction of vitellogenin expression in the fat body while basal oocyte growth was impaired. This demonstrates that Met is essential to transduce the vitellogenic signal of JH in this species. Interestingly, the expression of the transcription factor Kruppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) was also reduced in Met-depleted specimens. This indicates that the JH signaling pathway promotes the transcription of Kr-h1 in adult fat body tissues, as occurs in the epidermis during nymphal development. Treatments with JH show that the expression of Met does not depend on JH, which suggests that Met is upstream the JH signaling pathway acting as JH receptor, as reported in other models and processes, especially in metamorphosis. JH treatments increased the transcription levels of vitellogenin and Kr-h1, which again suggests that Kr-h1 is a JH-dependent transcription factor in the fat body of adult females. The important roles of Met in nymphal development, as previously reported, and those reported herein in relation to reproduction, suggests that it can be an interesting target for the control of B. germanica in urban environments, using RNAi approaches.
       
  • Analysis of Sogatella furcifera (Horvath) soluble proteins by SDS PAGE

    • Authors: ZiQiang Liang; TingTing Liu, AnWen Liang, GuangHong Li, FangHai Wang.Arthropods, 2016, 5(4):138-143
      Abstract: The soluble proteins from nymphs and adults of Sogatella furcifera were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The number of protein bands increased gradually as the nymphs developing, such as six and 14 protein bands were found in 3rd-instar nymphs and 5th-instar nymphs respectively. At the same time, we found that three bands expressed in each instar, two bands began to appear from 4th-instar, and six bands were specific in 5th-instar. There were four bands that their content in 5th-instar nymphs with long-winged disc was at least 65.61% higher than in 5th-instar nymphs with short-winged disc. There were 13 protein bands observed in male adults, while female adults had 13 corresponding protein bands and a specific band expressed only in tissue. Comparing between two wing-type adults, four bands were specific to long-winged adults, while the content of other three bands in long-winged adults was at least 72.54 % higher than in short-winged adults. Finally, these specific protein bands associated with wing or sex were discussed what kind role they played in wing or sexual differentiation. The results will be helpful to further explore the mechanism of wing or sexual differentiation about planthoppers.
       
  • A contribution to the rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Paederinae)
           in north of Iran

    • Authors: Masoud Mohammadi Dehcheshmeh; Alireza Jalalizand.Arthropods, 2016, 5(4):144-150
      Abstract: In this paper, 19 species of rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), belonging to the subfamily Paederinae Fleming 1821, were collected from Mazandaran province, north of Iran, during 2015-2016. Two species, Rugilus angustatus Geoffroy 1758 and Astenus lyonessius (joy 1908) are reported for the first time from Iran.
       
  • Epidemiological study of scabies in district Haripur, Pakistan

    • Authors: Samina Yasmin; Suleman, Hanif Ullah, Mian Sayed Khan.Arthropods, 2016, 5(4):151-161
      Abstract: Scabies is a contagious disorder of skin caused by a mite called human itch mite, Sarcoptes scabiei. An epidemiological study of scabies was conducted from district Haripur to evaluate the prevalence and the important risk factors responsible for the spread of scabies. The study was conducted in General population from (February - April 2013).Surveys were carried out in general population comprising 200 families of district Haripur. Out of two hundred families in general population, 81 were scabetic showing a prevalence rate of 40.5%.Considering an individual as a unit, 109cases were detected, out of these total samples of 1193 individuals, exhibiting a prevalence rate of 9.13%.The disease was significantly more common in females (10.4%)than males(7.9%),in lower socio-economic classes (13.8%) than the upper and middle classes (5.22%,7.16%), in those living in uncemented houses (23.6%) than those living in cemented houses (7.5%),and in those having domestic animals at home(13.4%)than those without domestic animals(8.08%). Family size was of no significance but prevalence was positively co-related with the level of crowding (average number of person per room in a house). No clear trend was indicated in the prevalence rate of scabies changing with educational level. The distribution of the number of cases per family followed a Poisson distribution, demonstrating that all the families surveyed were equally exposed to the risk of scabies.
       
  • Effect of Iranian Bt cotton on life table of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera:
           Alyrodidae) and Cry 1Ab detection in the whitefly honeydew

    • Authors: Solmaz Azimi; Shima Rahmani, Masoud Tohidfar, Ahmad Ashouri.Arthropods, 2016, 5(3):87-96
      Abstract: Transgenic cotton expressing the Cry 1Ab protein of Bacillus thuringiensis developing against Helocoverpa armigera may be affect on secondary pest such as Bemisia tabaci. In this study effects of Bt cotton on demographic parameters of B. tabaci were assessed and the data analyzed using the age specific, two-sex life table parameters. Results showed that getting to the adulthood stage, was faster on non-Bt cotton in comparison with Bt cotton. Also the fecundity was higher on non-Bt cotton than that on Bt cotton. Some of the population parameters (r, R0 and T) of B. tabaci were affected by the Bt cotton significantly. The intrinsic rate of increase (r) on Bt and non-Bt cotton was 0.07 day-1 and 0.1 day-1, respectively. The net reproductive rate (R0) was 20.68 and 15.04 offspring/individual on Bt and non-Bt cotton, respectively. Mean generation time (T) in non-Bt cotton was 27.22 and 34.62 days in Bt cotton. The results indicated that the life history of B. tabaci in the laboratory condition was influenced by host plant quality and Bt cotton was not a suitable host for B. tabaci. The western immunoblot method showed that the Cry protein detection in honeydew was positive which indicated that the Cry protein was ingested. Results revealed that the transgenic cotton could adversely affect the secondary pest and the natural enemies which feed on such pests as a host or their honeydew as a food source should be considered.
       
  • A contribution key for identification of butterflies (Lepidoptera) of
           Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Farzana Khan Perveen; Haroon.Arthropods, 2016, 5(3):97-108
      Abstract: The butterflies are the useful bio-indicators of an ecosystem, sensitive to any change in environment, such as temperature, microclimate and solar radiation etc, however, they utilize host plants for their oviposition and larval development. Therefore, the present study was conducted to prepare the contribution key for identification of butterflies of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014-May, 2015. The specimens (ni = 506) were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. However, the collected butterflies were comprised of families Nymphalidae 50%, Pieridae 43%, Papilionidae 7%. The family Nymphalidae were primarily, blue, pale brown or orange and antennae-tips with large conspicuous knobs, while, family Pieridae were mostly creamy, white, yellow or light orange, although, the family Papilionidae were multi-colours, i.e., yellow, blackish-brown, white or orange and antennae-tips with or without knobs. The largest butterfly was great black mormon, Papilio polytes Linnaeus (Family: Papilionidae) with body length 26.0+-0.0 (nP. polytes = 1; M+-SD) mm, while the smallest butterflies Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval (Family: Pieridae) with body length 11.5+-0.6 (nC. etrida = 4; M+-SD) mm. The key of butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan has been established in this paper. It is recommended to evaluate the butterfly fauna of District Charsadda to educate and create awareness in the local community for conservation and protestation of their habitats.
       
  • Pathogenicity of three entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae,
           Beauveria bassiana, and Paecilomyces lilacinus, to Tetranychus kanzawai
           infesting papaya seedlings

    • Authors: Yayan Sanjaya; Virginia R. Ocampo, Barbara L. Caoili.Arthropods, 2016, 5(3):109-113
      Abstract: Tetranychus kanzawai is an economically important polyphagous mite species in East and South Asia. In the Philippines, it commonly infests cassava and papaya plants. The mites attack and severely damage the older leaves of papaya trees as well as seedlings. Its serious damage causes the leaves to dry up, thus, reducing the photosynthetic activity of the plant. Three entomopathogenic fungal isolates were tested on mites under greenhouse conditions using treated papaya seedlings following a completely randomized design. The mites tested were examined under a dissecting scope to determine the causal agent and to confirm mortality. The LT50 of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces lilacinus on T. kanzawai were estimated. Our results indicate that among these entomopathogenic fungi, the Metarhizium anisopliae Ma6 isolate (LT50= 3.00 days) has potentiality for the control of T. kanzawai.
       
  • Toxicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) and boric
           acid against nosocomial cockroaches, Blattella germanica

    • Authors: Mohammad Saaid Dayer; Kayhan Karvandian.Arthropods, 2016, 5(3):114-124
      Abstract: German cockroach is an important urban pest of worldwide distribution which harbors food poisoning and infectious organisms as well as allergens. In spite of the fact that insecticide application provides solution in severe cockroach infestation, it is associated with resistances development, pollution and economic lost. Integrated pest management (IPM) has been reported to be the best strategy for controlling such a nuisance pest. The main components of a successful IPM programme are biological agents and chemicals of reduced toxicity to non-target species. One of the biological agents which showed promising check on cockroaches is Metarhizium anispoliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin. Also, boric acid has been traditionally used as a safe inorganic insecticide against many pest of agricultural and health importance. Boric acid and M. anisopliae showed not only compatibility, but also synergism in killing Blattella germanica, when applied as dust or liquid baits. However, incorporation and efficacy of both agents in semi-solid baits remains to be documented. This study revealed that boric acid incorporated at 8 gr/kg in semi-solid baits has no side effect on M. anisopliae but enhance its virulence causing higher mortality in adult males of German cockroaches. This study, also, showed that boric acid can be used at higher dosages without any harm to the fungal pathogen if allowed to be up-taken by the pest through cutaneous contacts and/or grooming.
       
  • First record of terrestrial snail Eobania vermiculata (O.F. Muller, 1774)
           (Gastropoda: Helicidae) from Basrah areas, Iraq

    • Authors: Khaled K. S. Al-Khafaji; Abtsam M. Abud-Sahab, Najim M. Aziz.Arthropods, 2016, 5(3):125-129
      Abstract: Specimens of the terrestrial gastropod Eobania vermiculata (O.F. Muller, 1774) were collected from two locations (Hareerregion and Al-Khoraregion) in Basrah city, Iraq, during the period from March 2015 to April 2016. Some notes on the morphological features of this species and photographs were provided to confirm the identification of the snail. The results found that it is the first record of this land snail E.vermiculata in Basrah city.
       
  • LC30 effects of thiamethoxam and pirimicarb, on population parameters and
           biological characteristics of Macrolophus pygmaeus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    • Authors: Shima Rahmani; Solmaz Azimi, Mona Moghadasi.Arthropods, 2016, 5(2):44-55
      Abstract: Chemical pesticides have important role in integrated pest management strategies. However, they can adversely affect on natural enemies as non-target organisms, even in sublethal concentrations. In this study, sublethal effects of two insecticides, thiamethoxam and pirimicarb, were examined on demographic parameters of an important predator, Macrolophus pygmaeus. Bioassay results indicated that LC30 of thiamethoxam and pirimicarb, applied on the third instar larvae, were 451.6 and 2013.4 mg (ai) L-1, respectively. The two insecticides extended the pre-adult duration, significantly. Demographic parameters were analyzed by two-sex life table. The results showed that all of the main demographic traits (r, lamda, R0 and T) have been changed significantly and there are also some changes in other parameters such as age-specific survival rate (lx) and life expectancy (ex). Intrinsic rate of increase in control was 0.15 but it reduced to 0.10 and 0.99 day-1 in thiamethoxam and pirimicarb treatments, respectively. Also, finite rate of increase in control, thiamethoxam and pirimicarb treatments was 1.11, 1.08 and 1.03 day-1 respectively. Reproductive rate in control showed 36.75 offspring/individual but this statistic in thiamethoxam and pirimicarb treatments was 19.62 and 18.24, respectively. Mean generation time was 22.69 days in control but it extended in both treatments and illustrated 27.79 and 31.24 days in thiamethoxam and pirimicarb treatments, respectively. Thus, obtained results in this study showed that although pirimicarb and thiamethoxam are selective insecticides, they have potential to affect on the predator, M. pygmaeus severely, and need to take care in IPM programs.
       
  • Comparison of mineral oil spray with current synthetic pesticides to
           control important pests in citrus orchards and their side effects

    • Authors: Mohammad Reza Damavandian.Arthropods; 2016, 5(2):56-64
      Abstract: Over the past years the most important citrus pests poorly controlled despite multiple spraying and growers suffered heavy damage. To this end, a study was done to evaluate and compare the conventional insecticides with mineral oil spray (MOS) for the control of citrus pests and adverse effects in citrus orchards in Mazandaran province. In this study, the diversity and abundance of carabid beetles, as a specific predator of snails, were compared in conventional and free protocol pesticide (or MOS) orchards. The results showed that the frequency and distribution of important citrus pests in free protocol pesticide orchards after three years of treatment was significantly lower than conventional orchards. The comparison showed that continual use of synthetic pesticides in citrus orchards in the province , leading to a sharp reduction in their population and species diversity. The results of this study indicate that the use of mineral oil can be a useful alternative to synthetic pesticides in citrus orchards of the East province.
       
  • Characteristics of family Pieridae (Lepidoptera) in Tehsil Tangi, Khyber
           Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Haroon; Farzana Perveen.Arthropods, 2016, 5(2):65-76
      Abstract: The butterflies are the most beautiful and colorful insects of the world. Which attract most of the animals for their food easily available. The present research were conducted at Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during August 2014 to May 2015. The family Pieridae were collected with the help of insects net and naked hands. A total of 8 species and 6 genera were collected, i.e., Common or lemon emigrant, Catopsilia ponoma Fabricius; Mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus; Clouded yellow, Coliasfieldii Fabricius; Common grass yellow, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus; Eastern pale clouded yellow butterfly, Colias erate Esper; Indian cabbage white, Pieris canidia Sparrman; Indian little orange tip, Colotisetrida Boisduval; Pioneer white or African caper white, Belonias aurota Fabricius. Aims of the present research the characteristics of butterfly fauna from Tehsil Tangi, are helpful in awareness, education and further research. A detail study is required for further exploration of butterflies' fauna of Tehsil Tangi.
       
  • The expression profile of detoxifying enzyme of tomato leaf miner, Tuta
           absoluta Meyrik (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to chlorpyrifos

    • Authors: Idin Zibaee; Ali Reza Bandani, Ghodratollah Sabahi.Arthropods, 2016, 5(2):77-86
      Abstract: The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrich) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is an important pest of tomato crops worldwide. The persistent use of organophosphate insecticide to control this pest has led to resistance. However, there is no report on the susceptibility and resistance mechanism of field population of Tuta absoluta (Meyrik) from Iran. Furthermore, the toxicity and impact of chlorpyrifos on metabolic enzymes in this pest remains unknown. The populations of T. absoluta from Rasht in Iran displayed LC30; 4332, LC50; 5010 and LC90; 7027 ug larva-1 to chlorpyrifos. The toxicity of chlorpyrifos could be synergized more bydiethyl maleate (DEM) and triphenylphosphate (TPP) whereas the synergistic effect of piperonylbutoxide (PBO) was not efficient as well as two other synergists. The synergistic effect ranged from 1.3 to 1.9-fold in 24 h and 1.2 to 1.5-fold in 48 h. The exposure with chlorpyrifos for 24 and 48 h significantly increased the activities of esterase and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases, while there were no significant changes in glutathione-S-transferase. Field populations of T. absoluta from Iran displayed less susceptibility to chlorpyrifos and had a relatively high LC50in compare to other previous studies. Esterases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase might be involved in the metabolism, and hence resistance to, chlorpyrifos in this pest.
       
  • Population activity of peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders)
           (Diptera: Tephiritidae) at fruits orchards in Kafer El-Shikh Governorate,
           Egypt

    • Authors: Khalil A. Draz; Reda M. Tabikha, Mohamed A. El-Aw, Ismail R. El-Gendy, Habashy F. Darwish.Arthropods, 2016, 5(1):28-43
      Abstract: Peach Fruit Fly (PFF) Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is one of most dominant and destructive key pest in fruit orchards in different agro-ecosystem in Egypt, so monitoring adults' population fluctuation in orchards, through capturing adults, has been considered as main way to forecasting or management the pest. So current study aimed to assay the efficiency of Jackson traps baited with methyl eugenol (M.E.) on male capture, that were distributed in different fruit trees orchards, in different positions and hang levels in one of Egyptian agroecosystem (Kafer El-Shikh Governorate), from (May 2014 to April 2015). Moreover, adults capture in McPhail traps in navel orange orchards intercropping with Guava were exploded to detect abundant and rearing season of the pest studying impact of abiotic factors on population, and estimation number, time and duration of annual generation. Obtained results declared that the pest had 7-8 annually generation. Jackson traps that placed in center of orchard and hanged at 2 m height more efficient than others for male catches. Highest numbers of PFF male attack orchards of Navel orange intercropping with Guava, while the lowest were with Navel orange and Guava. Each of season and kind of orchard or intercropping system had combined and significant effect on mass trapping. In McPhail traps, highest mass trapping of adult was observed in autumn (20.353 adult/ trap/ week), while each of spring, summer and winter season were similar in mass trapping. Only Wind direction as climatic factors had negative significant effect on mass trapping of PFF adults in McPhail traps, while each of maximum and mean temperature of winter season had positive significant effect on mass trapping.
       
  • A contribution key for the first recorded spider (Arachnidae: Aranae)
           fauna from Sheringal, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Farzana Khan Perveen; Numan Khan.Arthropods, 2016, 5(1):1-10
      Abstract: The spiders (Arthropoda: Arachnida) have a hard cephalothorax and soft abdomen. They are environmental indicators and play an important role in biological control of pests and vectors. The present study was conducted to prepare the key for the first recorded spider fauna during June 2013-July 2014 in 6 quadrates of Sheringal, i.e., Daramdala, Doki, Guryaal, Samang, Shahoor and Sia-Sheringal, Dir Upper (DU), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. During the present research, 10 species belong to 7 families, and 10 genera were recorded. The family Sparassidae was the largest among collected families (nSparassidae=19), its body was larger than others, abdomen was narrow at posterior, cephalothorax region was broad and brown, chelicearae were forwarded, legs were strong, body have hairs grey to brown and they were harmless and speedy. Gnphosidae family was the smallest among collected families (nGnphosidae=3), their eyes were heterogeneous, their inner margin of chelicerae were with a wide serrated lamina, posterior row of eyes were much longer than anterior, with lateral rounded maxillae. While the family Hersiliidae was the unique in collected families (nHersiliidae=6), as they are known as two-tail spiders, they have enlarged spinnerets, their male grow up to 8 mm and female up to 10 mm, they have 2 tails and are mimic with host plants. It was concluded that the majority of the collected species belong to the family Sparassidae. It is recommended that further research may be conducted on arboreal and aquatic species of spiders in Sheringal, KP, Pakistan.
       
  • Diversity and distribution of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera) of
           district Dir lower, Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Muhammad Inayatullah Khan; Hanif Ullah, Suleman, Muhammad Anwar Saleem Khan, Falak Naz, Muhammad Ather Rafi, Sardar Azhar Mehmood.Arthropods, 2016, 5(1):11-22
      Abstract: Butterflies are the fine-looking creatures and act as ecological indicators and pollinators. The present study is the first record of Butterfly fauna of Dir lower. Collection was carried out during March - August 2013. The specimens were collected and identified with the help of taxonomic keys and preserved specimens in National Insect Museum Islamabad. The collection of 375 specimens were preserved. Identification revealed 24 species belonging to 20 genera and 7 families. The species are Papilio polyctor Boisduval, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, Junonia almanac Linnaeus, Pararge schakra Kollar, Junonia hierta Fabricius, Junonia orythea Linnaeus, Argyrius hyperbius Linnaeus, Hypolimnus bolina Linnaeus, Vanessa cashmiriensis Kollar, Phalantha phalantha Drury, Melitea didyma Esper, Lycaena phalaeas Linnaeus, Lybithea lipita Moore, Danius chrysippus Linnaeus, Hipparchia parasitas Kollar, Lethe rohria Fabricius, Maniola davendra Moore, Pontia daplidice Linnaeus, Belenois aurota Fabricius, Pieris brassicae Linnaeus, Colias erate Esper Eurema hecabe Linnaeus, Colias fieldi Linnaeus and Cynthia cardui Linnaeus. The highest population was shown by Pieris brassicae followed by Danius chrysippus and Cynthia cardui. Twelve species belong to family Nymphalidae (50%), which shows the highest abundance rate. Butterfly density was the highest at Timergara. Butterfly fauna was the highest in May followed by August and lowest in March. It is concluded that pollution free environment of Dir Lower is more suitable for the survival of butterfly fauna. Large scale study is required to fully explore the butterfly fauna of the area.
       
  • New record of the Grapsoid crab Metaplax indica H. Milne-Edwards, 1852
           (Decapoda: Brachyura: Thoracotremata) from the NW of the Arabian Gulf,
           Iraq

    • Authors: Tariq H. Yasein; Al Maliky, Murtada D. Naser, Amaal Gh. Yasser, Abdul-Hussein H. Ghazi.Arthropods, 2016, 5(1):23-27
      Abstract: Specimens of grapsoid crab Metaplax indica were collected from the intertidal zone of the lower reaches of Shatt Al-Arab at Fao region, NW of the Arabian Gulf , Basrah, Iraq 2012. A note on the morphological features of this species and a photograph is provided to confirm the identification of the crab.
       
  • Effect of proline as a nutrient on hypopharyngeal glands during
           development of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    • Authors: Ali Darvishzadeh; Vahid Hosseininaveh, Gholamali Nehzati, Jamasb Nozari.Arthropods, 2015, 4(4):137-143
      Abstract: Proline is known to be an energy source for protein synthesis and appears to have a major role in insect flying metabolism. Insects can detect proline in their food and use it as an energy substrate to start flight and other high energy consuming activities. Honey bee has a feeding preference for nectars with higher concentrations of this amino acid. In this research we present evidence that L-proline can be utilized as a phagostimulant for the honeybee worker (Apis mellifera). We reported the L-proline increase hypopharyngeal glands acini diameter and syrup consumption at the experimental cage. Honeybee workers fed on 1000 ppm treatment prolin consumed 773.9+-31.8 ul/bee after 18-days. It is obvious that the honeybee workers consumed 1000 ppm the more than other treatment. The feeding decreased when concentration of L-proline increased to 10000 ppm. The hypopharyngeal glands development increased gradually from honeybee workers emergence and started to decrease after 9 days old. The maximum acini diameter (0.1439+-0.001 mm) was recorded in the 9th day when newly emerged bees were fed on 1000 ppm proline syrup.
       
  • Checklist of butterfly (Insecta: Lepidoptera) fauna of Tehsil Tangi,
           Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Farzana Khan Perveen; Haroon.Arthropods, 2015, 4(4):98-106
      Abstract: The butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera)are well known insects, play an important role in the ecosystem as bioindicators and pollinators. They have bright colours, remarkable shapes and supple flight. The present study was conducted to prepare the checklist of butterfly fauna of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014 to May, 2015. A total of 506 specimens were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. The collected species are the common or lemon emigrant, Catopsila ponoma Fabricius; mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus; clouded yellow, Colias fieldii Fabricius; common grass yellow, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus; eastern pale clouded yellow butterfly, Colias erate Esper; Indian cabbage white, Pieris canidia Sparrman; Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval; pioneer white or African caper white, Belonias aurota Fabricius; plain tiger, Danaua chrysippus Linnaeus; blue tiger, Tirumala liminniace Cramer; peacock pansy,Junonia almanac Linnaeus; Indian fritillary, Argyreus hyperbius Linnaeus; Indian red admiral, Venesa indica Herbst; yellow pansy, Junonia hierta Fabricius; blue pansy, Junonia orytha Linnaeus; white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis Kollar; banded tree brwon, Lethe confuse Aurivillius; common castor, Ariadne merione Cramer; painted lady, Caynthia cardui Linnaeus; Himalayan sailer, Neptis mahendra Moore; common boran, Euthalia garuda Hewitson; lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and great black mormon butterfly, Papilio polytes Linnaeus. It was concluded that the family Nymphalidae has the highest numbers of individuals in the present checklist. It is recommended that butterfly fauna of the study area should be conserved and their habitat should be protected.
       
  • Synergistic effect of some essential oils on toxicity and knockdown
           effects, against mosquitos, cockroaches and housefly

    • Authors: Idin Zibaee; Pooyabahari Khorram.Arthropods, 2015, 4(4):107-123
      Abstract: The toxicity and knockdown effect of Eucalyptus globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils and their mixed formulation on Periplaneta Americana (L.), Blattella germanica (L.), Supella longipalpa, Culex pipiens, Anopheles stephensi and Musca domestica were evaluated in a series of laboratory experiments. In all bioassay five different doses (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10%) were used by filter paper (cm2) and aerosol (cm3) bioassay methods, all essential oils was toxic to cockroaches, mosquitos and housefly species the lowest and the highest LC50 belong to mixed formulation on B. germanica (LC50 6.1) and E. globulus on P. americana (LC50 27.7) respectively. In continuous exposure experiments, Mortality (LT50) values for cockroaches ranged from 1403.3 min with 0.625% E. globulus (for P. americana) to 2.2 min with 10% mixed formulation for A. stephensi. The KT50 values ranged from 0.1 to 1090.8 min for 10% and 0.625 for mixed formulation and R. officinalis respectively. The mortality after 24 h for mixed formulation was 100% but for single essential oils ranged from 81.5 to 98.3 for P. americana treated with R. officinalis and A. stephensi treated with E. globulus respectively. Studies on persistence of essential oils on impregnated paper revealed that it has more adulticidal activity for longer period at low storage temperature. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of essential oil showed 14 and 16 peaks for E. globules and R. officinalis respectively. alpha-Pinene (39.8%), 1, 8-Cineole (13.2%), Camphene (9.1%) and Borneol (3.7%) were present in major amounts for R. officinalis and 1,8-Cineole (31.4%), alpha-Pinene (15.3%), d-Limonene (9.7%) and alpha-Terpinolen (5.3%) were present in major amounts for E. globulus respectively. Our results showed that two surveyed essential oils has compatible with synergistic effect on various insect species, furthermore it is useful for applying as integrated pest management tool for studied insects management, especially in situations in which conventional insecticides would be inappropriate.
       
  • Characteristics of the first recorded spider (Arthropoda: Arachnida) fauna
           from Sheringal, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Farzana Khan Perveen; Numan Khan.Arthropods, 2015, 4(4):124-136
      Abstract: The spiders (order: Aranae) are an important environmental indicator and play a significant role as predators in biological control of the most of the key insect pests. The present study was conducted to establish the characteristics of the first recorded spider fauna from Sheringal, Dir Upper (DU), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan during June 2013-July 2014. Their 10 species belong to 7 families, and 10 genera (nt=123: total; ni=77: identified; nui=46: unidentified) were recorded in the 6 quadrates, i.e., Daramdala, Doki, Guryaal, Samang, Shahoor and Sia-Sheringal of Sheringal. The largest family was Lycosidae (wolf spiders) with respect to size and numbers of specimens collected (n=20), which contained Arctosa littorali Simon, 1897; Hippasa partita Takidar, 1970; Pardosa distincta Backwall, 1867, while the smallest family was Gnphosidae (ground spiders) (n=3) with Gnaphosa eucalyptus Ghafoor and Beg, 2002; while other families Sparassidae (huntsman spiders) (n=19) Halconia insignis Thorell, 1836, and Isopeda tuhogniga Barrion and Litsinger, 1995, Opilionidae (harvestmen spiders) (n=12) Hadrobunus grandis Sundevall, 1833; Pholcidae (cellar spider) (n=10) have Crossopriza lyoni Blackwall, 1867; Hersiliidae (two-tailed spiders) (n=6) is having Harsilia savignyi Lucas, 1836; (n=5) with Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 were recorded. It was concluded that 50% of the spiders collected from the study area were venomous. A detail study is required for further exploration of spider fauna of Sheringal, KP, Pakistan with special reference to their taxonomical, physiological and ecological characteristics.
       
  • Exploring of first recorded spider (Arachenida: Aranae) species of
           Sheringal, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Farzana Perveen; Numan Khan.Arthropods, 2015, 4(3):69-77
      Abstract: The spiders (Phylum: Arthropoada; Class: Arachenida) are one of the groups of grasping animals. Their carapaces are found on the dorsal side of the cephalothorax, which is an important characteristic of spiders. The present study was conducted to explore the first recorded spider species (N=75) of Sheringal, Dir Upper (DU), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The 10 species belong to 7 families, and 10 genera were recorded from June 2013- July 2014. According to length of legs, the largest spider was the huntsman spider, Halconia insignis having length of the first leg was 1.9+-0.20, however, the same of the last leg was 1.44+-0.25 (n=9). In the same contest, the smallest spider was the ground spider, Gnaphosa eucalyptus having length of the first leg was 0.4+-0.08, while the same of the last leg was 0.4+-0.08 (n=3). According to length of cephalothorax and abdomen, the largest spider was the wolf spider, Hippasa partita having length of the cephalothorax was 1.1+-0.01, however, the same of the abdomen was 0.7+-0.1 (n=6). In the same contest, the smallest spider was the harvestmen, Hadrobunus grandis having length of the cephalothorax was 0.1+-0.04, while the same of the abdomen was 0.3+-0.04 (n=12). The spider species of Sheringal were not explored before. The present research will be useful to educate and create awareness about spiders in the people of Sheringal.
       
  • Effects of temperature on population growth parameters of Cryptolaemus
           montrouzieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) reared on Planococcus citri
           (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)

    • Authors: Negar Saeedi; Mohammad Reza Damavandian, Hemmat Dadpour Moghanloo.Arthropods, 2015, 4(3):78-89
      Abstract: The effect of temperature on the development, survival, fecundity and population growth parameters of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Col.: Coccinellidae) reared on Planococcus citri Risso (Hom.: Pseudococcidae) was determined at five constant temperatures (18, 22, 26, 30 and 32+-1 cel. degree) in the laboratory conditions. Results showed a temperature - dependent development of the coccinellid. The mean total of immature period was estimated 76.6+-0.9, 33.9+-0.1, 25.8+-0.1, 22.6+-0.1 and 26.2+-1.4 days at 18, 22, 26, 30 and 32 cel degree, respectively. The highest and lowest values of R0, rm and Lamda were obtained 369.9+-50.2 and 2.5+-0.8 (female/female/generation), 0.07+-0.01 and 0.02+-0.01 (female/female/day) and 1.08+-0.01 and 1.02+-0.01 (day-1) at 26 and 32 cel. degree, respectively. The lowest values of generation time (T) and doubling time (Dt) were calculated 42.2+-0.9 and 8.9+-0.5 days at 32 and 26 cel. degree, respectively. The lower and higher developmental threshold of total of immature period were obtained 11.5 and 25.5 cel. degree, respectively. The thermal requirement for completion of total of immature period of this predator were estimated 400 DD. These results showed that 26 degree and/or adjacent temperature is most suitable for mass rearing of this predator.
       
  • Infection process of entomopathogenic fungi Beuveria bassiana in the
           Tetrancyhus kanzawai (Kishida) (Tetranychidae: Acarina)

    • Authors: Yayan Sanjaya; Virginia R. Ocampo, Barbara L. Caoili.Arthropods, 2015, 4(3):90-97
      Abstract: Characteristic of entomopathogenic fungus to Tetranychus kanzawai was investigated. Three selected isolates of Beauveria bassiana, from Philippines and Indonesia were evaluated. The following aspect was investigated: (1) Investigate infection process on each fungal against mite. In this experiment, adult mites exposed by spraying to 10^8 per ml concentrations of conidia observing by light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result found T. kanzawai was very susceptible to three isolates B. bassiana which the end of the trials, fungal growth was detectable as early as 2 until 4 day observation. Infection process with microphotograph and SEM showed attachment, germination and penetration, extrusion and conidiogenesis fungal form.
       
  • Redescription of Harpactea korgei Brignoli, 1979 (Araneae: Dysderidae)
           with the first description of the female

    • Authors: Recep Sulhi Ozkutuk; Kadir Bogac Kunt, Gizem Karaka, Tarik Danisman.Arthropods, 2015, 4(2):32-37
      Abstract: The redescription of dysderid spider Harpactea korgei Brignoli, 1979, on the basis of newly collected material is provided. The female of this species, previously unknown, is described here for the first time.
       
  • Chemical composition and insecticidal efficacy of essential oil of
           Echinophora platiloba DC (Apiaceae) from Zagros foothills, Iran

    • Authors: Iman Sharifian; Ali Darvishzadeh.Arthropods, 2015, 4(2):38-45
      Abstract: Essential oil of Echinophora platyloba was screened for its chemical composition and possible fumigant and contact toxicity effects against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.). Aerial parts were subjected to hydrodistillation and obtained oil chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. (Z)-beta-ocimene (33.06 percent), p-cymene (10.98 percent) and Limonene (5.77 percent) were major constituents. Fumigation tests were performed for 24, 48 and 72 h, while contact toxicity of essential oil was evaluated in 24h. Experimental units were located in 25+-2 Celsius degree and darkness condition. In contact toxicity evaluation tests T. castaneum (LC50= 14.712 ul/39cm2) was more tolerant and R. dominica (LC50= 9.712 ul/39cm2) was more susceptible species. After 24 h, T. castaneum (LC50= 39.658 ul/250 ml air) and C. maculatus (LC50= 3.835 ul/250 ml air) were more tolerant and susceptible species in fumigation bioassays, respectively. In general, mortality increased as the doses of essential oil and exposure time increased.
       
  • Diversity and population dynamics of phytophagous scarabaeid beetles
           (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in different landscapes of Himachal Pradesh,
           India

    • Authors: Mandeep Pathania; RS Chandel, KS Verma, PK Mehta.Arthropods, 2015, 4(2):46-68
      Abstract: Scarabaeid beetles constitute a major group of defoliators of cultivated and wild plants. Therefore, it is important to understand their diversity, abundance and distribution for planning effective pest management programmes. We surveyed scarabaeid beetles from 8 landscapes from different zones in Himachal Pradesh (N 32o 29' and E 75o 10'), India. In 2011 and 2012, surveys were conducted during 4 months period (May-August) by using UV light traps. A total of 13,569 scarabaeid adults of 20 genera and 56 species belonging to subfamilies Melolonthinae, Rutelinae, Cetoniinae and Dynastinae were recorded. The five most common species were Brahmina coriacea, Adoretus lasiopygus, Anomala lineatopennis, Maladera insanabilis and Holotrichia longipennis. They comprised 9.88-10.05, 7.18-7.76, 7.13-7.27, 6.80-7.62 and 5.22-5.30 percent during 2011-12, respectively. Anomala (10 species) was the most dominant genus in the present study, whereas Melolonthinae was the most dominant subfamily accounting 53.23 percent of total scarabs collected from the study sites. Among different landscapes, Palampur had maximum diversity and abundance, while Shillaroo had least diversity but more abundance of single species B. coriacea. The value of alpha diversity indices viz. Shannon index was maximum (H'=3.01-3.03) at Palampur. This indicates maximum evenness and abundance of species at Palampur. Shillaroo had lowest Shannon index (H'=1.12-1.17) and Pielou's evenness index (J'=0.46-0.49). This showed least species diversity and higher unevenness of scarabaeid beetles at Shillaroo. The results of beta diversity analysis revealed poor similarity of scarabaeid species between different sites confirming that the scarabaeid community in the north western Himalayan regions is much diverse.
       
  • Perspectives on the use of Verbenone to protect pine seed production from
           attack by Conophthorus spp (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    • Authors: Adolfo Arturo Del Rio Mora.Arthropods; 2015, 4(1):1-12
      Abstract: In three study sites in the Michoacan State, Mexico, we tested five behavioral chemicals: Pityol, 4 Allylanisole, Verbenone (3M MEC), Conophthorin and Hexenol, in several field trials mixed at six combinations or treatments as posible repelents for females of Conophthorus conicolens W and Conophthorus teocotum W. Beetle-host tree combinations included these two cone bores species on cones of Pinus pseudostrobus (Lidl), the first, and on Pinus teocote (Schl and Cham) the second ones, baited previously with five semiochemicals, including the only case of Verbenone (3 M Mec) which was sprayed alone on healthy green cones of second year growing free from the presence of cone borers and previously to fly period of scolitids as at all other treatments. Cones baited with the combination of semiochemicals P+4AA+V besides these sprayed with Verbenone were less attacked and obviously distinctibily. Moreover, cones baited only with Pityol and adding Verbenone as a spray periodically, the effect of treatment was inefficient to protect them from boring by Conophthorus conicolens W, whereas these baited with P+4AA synergized the presence of cone borer females; The combination of all these semiochemicals and added with Conophthorin (P+4AA+C) and Hexenol (P+4AA+H) had inconsistent results, although for this last case, Hexenol apparently was synergist when is mixed with Pityol and 4AA , to prevent from attack by Conophthorus teocotum W. The best results of study subject were obtained with the combined treatment Pityol +4AA+Verbenone, and significately better spraying as alone as Verbenone and repelling C. conicolens W and C. teocotum W.
       
  • Determination of economic injury level for first and second generations of
           Pulvinaria aurantii (Hem: Coccidae) in Thomson navel orange orchards

    • Authors: Nima Maleki; Mohammad Reza Damavandian.Arthropods, 2015, 4(1):13-21
      Abstract: The citrus soft scale, Pulvinaria aurantii (Hem: Coccidae) is among the most important pests of citrus orchards in Asia. Damage occurs not only by direct feeding on plant sap, but also by excretion of abundant honeydew which underlies the growth of sooty molds on fruits, leaves, and young twigs. Although, chemical insecticides and mineral oils have long been used by growers to control P. aurantii, our current knowledge about the damage and economic injury level of this pest is insufficient. In this study, the economic injury level (EIL) of the first and second generations of P. aurantii on Thomson novel orange was investigated during two consecutive years (2011 and 2012). The study unit include a citrus orchard (3000 m2) located at Babolsar city, north Iran. Four branches of each selected tree with a proximate length of 25 cm were artificially infected by different numbers of P. aurantii egg sacs and monitored biweekly to record the number of infected leaves and fruits to both sooty molds P. aurantii instars. Finally, the number of fruits infected with sooty molds (more than 50% of the fruit surface) was used to estimate EIL using Pedigo formula. The EIL was calculated as 135, 102, and 125 egg sacs per branches with an average number of 8, 7, and 7 fruits for the first generation of 2011, and the first and second generations of 2012, respectively. These findings may be easily used by local growers to set their control programs based on the density of pest egg sacs on plant surfaces.
       
  • Biochemical characterization of pectinase activity from the digestive
           midgut fluid of larvae and adult of the Colorado potato beetle,
           Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Col: Chrysomelidae)

    • Authors: Razieh Karimi; Majid Kazzazi, Mohammad Vatanparast.Arthropods, 2015, 4(1):22-31
      Abstract: The study of pectinase enzyme in potato leaf beetle that is the most important pest of potatoes consider as an effective way to develop control methods because this enzyme is important in degrading plant cell wall. Pectinase enzyme was studied in midgut of Colorado potato beetle (CPB). This enzyme was extracted from the midgut of larvae and adult of CPB and then their important features were examined by specific substrate, pectin 1 percent. The optimum enzyme activity in 4th instar larvae and adult occurred at pH 5-6 range. Effect of temperature on enzyme activity were examined, the results suggest that the pectinase in midgut of 4th instar larvae and adult shows maximum activity at temperature 40 Celsius degree and 35 Celsius degree, respectively. Zymogram analysis showed presence of two activity bands for pectinase enzyme. The effect of various chemical compounds on the activity of enzyme showed that SDS, Urea and Tris reduced the enzyme activity. NaCl and CaCl2 increased this enzyme activity in 4th instar larvae and adult of CPB. This is first report of pectinase activity in L. decemlineata.
       
  • Effect of Biolep, Permethrin and Hexaflumuron on mortality of cotton
           bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera)

    • Authors: Ali Darvishzadeh; Siavash Salimian-Rizi, Ali-Akbar Katoulinezhad.Arthropods, 2014, 3(4):161-165
      Abstract: Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera is a major pest in cotton and one of the most polyphagous and cosmopolitan pest species of several crops such as cotton, pulses and vegetables in Asia. Lethal effects of Biolep, Permethrin and Hexaflumuron belong to three different groups of insecticides were compared on larval stages of H. armigera. The trial was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four treatments including a control and replicated thrice. Our results shown three insecticides, Biolep, Permethrin and Hexaflumuron had significant difference in larval population mortality of H. armigera. After 3rd day Biolep caused maximum mortality that was 39 larvae. Permethrin and Hexaflumuron caused 29 and 31 larval mortality after 3rd day, respectively. Generally, the number of mortality decreased and the maximum rate of mortality in 12th day was 7 larvae that obtained by using Hexaflumuron. Our results showed that the Hexaflumuron was persistent in comparison with other insecticides. Biolep registered above 75 percent (average 77) reduction in number of larvae on the basis of post-spray data, followed by 68 percent and 70 percent each by Permethrin and Hexaflumuron, respectively.
       
  • Changes in energy content of Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera:
           Pentatomidae) in response to different diets

    • Authors: Seyed Mohammad Ahsaei; Vahid Hosseininaveh, Reza Talaei-Hassanlouei, Mahdieh Bigham.Arthropods, 2014, 3(4):166-173
      Abstract: Nymphal instars and adults of the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris, preferably feed on lepidopteran and colopteran larvae. Different prey diets can change fitness including energy reservoirs of the predator. In the present study, effects of different artificial and natural diets as well as starvation was studied on energy contents of the third and fourth nymphal instars of P. maculiventris. Total available energy calculated as the sum of the energy contents of lipids, carbohydrates, glycogen, and proteins did not significantly differ in the third and fourth nymphal instars fed on natural and artificial diets. Among the energy reservoirs, only total lipid storage of the starved nymphal instars was significantly different from that in the bugs fed on the natural diet. In conclusion, total energy reserves cannot be changed in response to artificial diet. A better understanding of the impact of artificial diets on the energy reserves of natural enemies can be considered as a biomarker for more appropriate mass rearing approaches of natural enemies.
       
  • Sex ratios, mating frequencies and relative abundance of sympatric
           millipedes in the genus Chersastus (Diplopoda: Pachybolidae)

    • Authors: Mark Ian Cooper.Arthropods; 2014, 3(4):174-176
      Abstract: Three hypotheses exist for explaining climbing behavior in millipedes: 1) waterlogging, 2) detritus limiting, and 3) mate avoidance. Data of sex ratios, mating frequency and relative abundance are provided to suggest an alternative explanation for the pattern in sympatric forest millipedes. Sex ratio differences - from equality - were tested using a G-test comparing millipedes on and above ground. Mating frequencies were calculated based on the percentage of paired individuals. Relative abundance may correlate with male-biases in the sex ratios. All three factors suggest Chersastus inscriptus has a higher reproductive potential than C. anulatus. This is evidence for mating hotspots.
       
  • Sublethal effects of some botanical and chemical insecticides on the
           cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hem: Aleyrodidae)

    • Authors: Fatemeh Jafarbeigi; Mohammad Amin Samih, Mahdi Zarabi, Saeideh Esmaeily.Arthropods, 2014, 3(3):127-137
      Abstract: In addition to direct mortalities caused by acute concentrations of insecticides, some biological traits of target pests may be also affected by sublethal doses. The cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hem: Aleyrodidae) is an important pest of a wide variety of agricultural crops across the world. The control of B. tabaci largely relies on wide application of chemical insecticides. In this study, we analyzed the life table parameters to evaluate the sublethal effect of three plant-derived insecticides (Fumaria parviflora (Fumariaceae), Teucrium polium (Lamiaceae), and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae)) and two chemical insecticides (pymetrozin and neemarin) on B. tabaci. The whiteflies were allowed to oviposit on plants infected with each of the five insecticides using leaf-dip method. The data were analyzed using the age-stage two-sex life table. We found significant differences in the gross reproductive rate (GRR), the net reproductive rat (R0), the intrinsic rate of increase (r) and the finite rate of increase (Lamda) of treated whiteflies compared to control. Our results showed that some biological traits of B. tabaci are affected by sub-lethal doses of the plant-derived extracts and that these effects are comparable to those of chemical insecticides. Given the detrimental effects of chemical insecticides on human, environment and non-target organisms, plant-derived insecticides may provide valuable environmentally friendly tools for pest management programs.
       
  • Enzymatic activity of alpha-amylase in alimentary tract Spodoptera
           littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Characterization and
           Compartmentalization

    • Authors: Ali Darvishzadeh; Vahid Hosseininaveh, Siavash Salimian Rizi.Arthropods, 2014, 3(3):138-146
      Abstract: The Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) damages a wide variety of crops in Middle East. Their hosts include cotton, alfalfa, eggplant, tomato, lettuce, bean and some ornamental crops. The intensive use of broad-spectrum insecticides against S. littoralis has led to the development of resistance to many registered pesticides use for its control. The purpose of the present study is biochemical characterization of digestive enzymes of this pest to gain a better understanding of the digestive physiology. The physiology and biochemistry of the insect digestive enzyme had an important role in the study of novel insecticidal strategies. The Egyptian cotton leafworm alimentary canal consists of a short foregut, a long midgut and a short hindgut. Application of pH indicators showed that alimentary canal was alkaline. Our results showed that activities of gut alpha-amylase were different in three parts of the insect gut. Also shown the greatest activity of alpha-amylase observed in the midgut followed by hindgut and foregut, respectively. However, there were not significant differences in activity of the enzyme in the midgut and hindgut. The optimal pH alpha-amylase in foregut, midgut and hindgut were 10.0. Zymogram analysis of different part of gut showed four bands in midgut, hind gut and two bands in foregut. Therefore, in midgut of S. littoralis, four isoenzymes were present. These results explain why more amylase activity was seen in these regions in the spectrophotometric assay.
       
  • A preliminary comparative study on structure and main characteristics of
           compound eyes in four Mexican cone borers Conophthorus spp (Coleoptera:
           Scolytinae)

    • Authors: Adolfo Arturo Del Rio Mora.Arthropods; 2014, 3(3):147-160
      Abstract: The compound eyes of four Mexican cone borers: Conophthorus ponderosae Hopkins, C. conicolens Wood, C.michoacanae Wood and C.teocotum Wood were studied and compared by main internal and external structures as are: number of facets, eye length, ventral eye width, dorsal eye width, facet diameter, primary and secondary pigments diameter, ommatidium length and cone length, where this last seem be larger in females than males; It is described the main characteristics of dioptric apparatus and photoreceptor layer. For 2 cone borer species studied. In general all the Conophthorus species showed identically kidney-shaped eyes where the number of ommatidia or facets quantified no differed significantly between species (P= 0.0149) and sex, except for the case of C.teocotum W; the other parameters or characteristics compared are too seem for all species group studied. It was described that the general structures of the dioptric apparatus and photoreceptor layer for C.ponderosae H and C.conicolens W, where were identified the presence of 8 rhabdomeres, confirms the fact that this number of receptors is common in scolitids, which give them the possibility of a UV-sensitive navigation system added to a green sensitive motion detecting their hosts.
       
  • Health assessment of pine forest as affected by geothermal activities:
           Presence of Monterey pine aphid, Essigella californica (Essig) (Homoptera:
           Aphidae) associated with higher concentrations of boron on pine needles

    • Authors: Adolfo Arturo Del Rio Mora.Arthropods; 2014, 3(2):96-110
      Abstract: Studies on assessments of the air pollution and deposition caused by geothermal fields on the forest health and presence of pests have been few documented to date. In the geothermal field "Los Humeros", located between the borders of the states of Puebla and Veracruz, Mexico was realized a forest health monitoring to know the assessment could have these emissions of sulphur (S) and other two chemical elements measured by their concentrations on leaf tissues in the surrounding forests. For it were evaluated the forest healthy and pest insects registered at 20 stands of which were chosen completely at random 40 trees in total/site of the species Pinus montezumae and P. teocotein natural stands and plantations and picked up leaf tissue samples representatives per stand to determine the contents of sulphur (S), boron (B) and arsenic (As) representing each forest stand. The results of the study revealed that the presence of forest pests are not related to the proximity of the sites to emissions from stationary sources of emissions and moreover the amount of these 3 chemical substances monitored do not have none influence on the forest healthy sites condition, except for the Monterey pine aphid Essigella californica Essig, which seems to be directly associated with higher Boron content in the needles (mean=167.47+-32.15, and peak 635.46 ppm) and proximity of emission sources geothermal vents or where it is believed all these chemical elements are carried down by air currents to specific points and deposited in the stands. The general model obtained and with significance of R2=56.6 and P value 0.0033 for the presence of Monterey Pine aphid and the three main pollutants released from smoke plumes in geothermal systems is [D: Essigella]= -0.2088 + 1.880E-0.5 (A:SO4)+ 0.002245 (B:B) + 1.248 (C:As). The results suggest the use of aphid species as bioindicators of polluted sites.
       
  • Butterfly diversity of Gorewada International Bio-Park, Nagpur, Central
           India

    • Authors: Kishor G. Patil; Virendra A. Shende.Arthropods, 2014, 3(2):111-119
      Abstract: Gorewada international bio-park is a good habitat for biodiversity of butterflies. Its geographical location is 21o11'N 79o2'E. Butterfly watching and recording was done in such a way that there should be least one visit in each line transect during a week with the aid of binocular and digital cameras. Total 92 species of butterflies were recorded belonging to 59 genera and 5 families. Out of total 92 butterfly species 48.92%, 38.04% and 13.04% are common, occasional and rare species respectively. Nymphalidae family is consisting of maximum number of genera and species. Maximum species richness reported from July to January and its number decline from late March to last week of June. The present study will encourage the conservation of a wide range of indigenous butterfly species in an area.
       
  • Check list of first recorded dragonfly (Odonata: Anisoptera) fauna of
           District Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Farzana Perveen; Anzela Khan, Sayed Abdul Rauf.Arthropods, 2014, 3(2):120-126
      Abstract: The dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera) are large, intermediate to small size, having different colours and variable morphological characters. They also carry ornamental and environmental indicator values. The first recorded, the collection of 318 dragonflies was made during May-July 2011 from district Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Among them 11 species of dragonflies were identified belonging to 3 families. The golden-ringed, Cordulegaster brevistigma brevistigma Selys is belonging to family Cordulegasteridae and Clubtails, Onychogomphus bistrigatus Selys is belonging to family Gomophidaed. The spine-legged redbolt, Rhodothemis rufa (Rambur); black-tailed skimmer, Orthetrum cancellatum Linnaeus; blue or black-percher, Diplacodes lefebvrei (Ramber); ground-skimmer, Diplacodes trivialis Rambur; common red-skimmer, Orthetrum pruinosum neglectum (Rambur); triangle-skimmer, Orthetrum triangulare triangulare (Selys); common-skimmer, Sympetrum decoloratum Selys; slender-skimmer, Orthetrum Sabina (Drury) and wandering-glider or global-skimmer, Pantala flavescens (Fabricius) are belonging to family Libellulidae. It is concluded that there is a diversity to explain dragonfly fauna from district Lower Dir.
       
  • Epigeus macroinvertebrates species assemblages along a successional
           gradient in Hailuotu Island (Bothnia Bay), Finland

    • Authors: Adolfo A. Del Rio Mora.Arthropods; 2014, 3(1):1-19
      Abstract: Epigeus macroinvertebrates were collected during summer time in 2007, by using pitfall traps in different sites representing vegetation patches situated on land uplift area on successional gradients in the dune shore of Bothnian on the island of Hailuoto, Northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia, Finland. The sites were divided into six vegetation patches types or open sands, all of them localized on early, deflation zone and late successional stages or ecological subgroups: 1) Empetrum patches or microsites (small-scale element distribution in soil plant-systems in patches of Empetrum nigrum, in early succession; 2) Empetrum nigrum patches in deflation zone; 3) open sand in early succession; 4) open sand in deflation zone; 5) Empetrum nigrum patches in late succession, and 6) open sand in late succession. A total of 19034 specimens belonging to 14 species of Insecta and only one group to Aranea species were caught and identified. Afterwards they were grouped by trophic groups as follows: herbivores, predators and detritivores and calculated their richness, abundance, diversity and evenness for each vegetation type. The data obtained were analyzed by different analytical methods and relevant between them as MRPP for the purpose of identifying the possible differences between groups and habitats, which denoted no statistically significant between the 6 environmental types, but if for the case of composition or populations general diversity as abundance, richness, evenness, diversity. It is enclosed too Correspondence Analysis (CA) and cluster analysis for epigeus invertebrates species assemblages. As a support to analysis of results we added on ended the species-accumulation curve and estimation curves Chao1 and Jacknife2 for all ecological types.
       
  • Mineral composition of edible crab Podophthalmus vigil Fabricius
           (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    • Authors: P. Soundarapandian; D. Varadharajan, S. Ravichandran.Arthropods, 2014, 3(1):20-26
      Abstract: Totally 7 minerals were reported in the present study. For the individual contribution 5(Sodium>Calcium>Potassium>Iron>Magnesium),7(Sodium>Calcium>Iron>Potassium>Phosphorus>Magnesium>Zinc) and 4(Calcium>Sodium>Iron>Magnesium) minerals were reported in males, females and berried females respectively. In all sexes sodium and calcium were maximum and magnesium was minimum. Comparatively females contain maximum amount of minerals than males and berried females. Phosphorous and zinc were absent in males whereas potassium was absent in addition to phosphorous and zinc in berried females. Among different sexes females contain maximum amount of minerals (61.56 mg) followed by males (39.92 mg) and berried females (35.11 mg). From the study females contain maximum amount of minerals than berried females and males. So it is recommended to consume females to get maximum minerals.
       
  • The effects of some domestic pollutants on the cumacean (Crustacea)
           community structure at the coastal waters of the Dardanelles, Turkey

    • Authors: A. Suat Ates; Tuncer Katagan, Murat Sezgin, Hasan G. Ozdilek, Selcuk Berber, Musa Bulut.Arthropods, 2014, 3(1):27-42
      Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the effects of sewage pollution on the cumacean assemblages found in the coastal waters of the Dardanelles. The samples were collected by a SCUBA diver between July 2008 and April 2009 and a total of 102 specimens belong to 5 cumacea species, Bodotria arenosa mediterranea, Cumopsis goodsir, Cumella limicola, Iphinoe maeotica and Pseudocuma longicorne was recorded. The dominant species, Iphinoe maeotica has the highest dominance value (36.66%). Multiregression approach resulted in statistically insignificant relationship between physical, chemical and biochemical variables of water and sediment and Bodotria arenosa mediterranea, Cumopsis goodsir, Cumella limicola, and Iphinoe maeotica. Based on multiple regression test, a significant relationship with R2 = 92.2%, F= 7.876 and p= 0.000 was found between six water and sediment quality constituents and numbers of Pseudocuma longicornis at the stations studied of the Dardanelles. On the other hand, water temperature (Beta= -0.114; t= -2.811, p= 0.016); sediment organic matter (Beta= -0.011; t= -2.406; p= 0.033) and water phosphorus (PO4) (Beta= 0.323; t= 3.444; p=0.005) were found to be the most important water and sediment parameters that affect Pseudocuma longicornis.
       
  • Redescription and new distributional records of Matuta planipes
           (Fabricius, 1798) (Crustacea; Decapoda; Matutidae) from Chennai Coast,
           Tamil Nadu

    • Authors: K. Silambarasan; K. Velmurugan, E. Rajalakshmi, A. Anithajoice.Arthropods, 2014, 3(1):43-47
      Abstract: Matuta planipes is reported for the first occurrence from Chennai coast, Tamil Nadu. Four female and two male specimens was caught in trawl net near Kasimedu fish landing center, on September 2013. The morphological characters of Matuta planipes, is having on surface regions of male chela a single spine, frontal lobes and carapace covered with reticulated loops as compared with bispinose chela, rounded lobes and minutely spotted carapace of the latter, these characters mostly differs from Matuta victor. The specimen has been compared with the earlier reports and other similar species.
       
  • Checklist of the subfamilies Mirinae and Orthotylinae (Hemiptera:
           Heteroptera: Miridae) in western parts of Kerman Province, Iran

    • Authors: Mohsen Shamsi; Reza Hosseini, Asghar Shirvani.Arthropods, 2014, 3(1):48-56
      Abstract: A faunal study was carried out on the subfamilies Mirinae and Orthotylinae (Heteroptera: Miridae) from different parts of western Kerman Province on various host plants. In total 16 species belonging to 14 genera were collected and identified from different host plants and localities.
       
  • A study on the genus Orthops FIEBER (Hemiptera: Miridae: Mirinae) in Iran

    • Authors: Reza Hosseini.Arthropods; 2014, 3(1):57-69
      Abstract: This paper is the extension of a series of synoptic taxonomic treatments on the Miridae known from Guilan and other provinces in Iran. In the genus Orthops FIEBER five species are known from Iran, including Orthops (Montanorthops) pilosulus (Jakovlev, 1877), Orthops (Orthops) frenatus (Horvath, 1894), Orthops (Orthops) basalis (Costa, 1853), Orthops (Orthops) campestris (Linnaeus, 1758) and Orthops (Orthops) kalmii (Linnaeus, 1758). Pinalitus cervinus (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1841) as a similar species to Orthops group is included in this study. In this paper diagnoses, host-plant information, distribution data, and illustrated keys to the genera and species are provided. For all species, illustrations of the adults and selected morphological characters are provided to facilitate identification.
       
  • Predatory habits of Lutzia (Metalutzia) fuscana (Wiedmann) (Diptera:
           Culicidae) in the arid environments of Jodhpur, western Rajasthan, India

    • Authors: Himmat Singh; Robin Marwal, Anusha Mishra, Karam Vir Singh.Arthropods, 2014, 3(1):70-79
      Abstract: The stable breeding of Lutzia (Metalutzia) fuscana was recorded form different locations of Indian Desert the "Thar" for the first time. The species being predatory in its larval form was investigated for evaluation of its biological control aspect in the desert setup where breeding sites and prey species are limited. Though its predatory habit is established yet using it as biological controlling agent was not found promising due to untargeted approach due to unlimited outdoor breeding places in sub-humid climatic conditions in rest of India. Whereas in desert due to limited water sources, mosquito vectors share the available breeding niche this increases possibility of targeted biological control using predatory species. Laboratory experiments on predatory habit of Lutzia (Metalutzia) fuscana showed that it preferred Aedes aegypti larvae most (88.5%), Anopheles stephensi (47.5%) and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae (39.0%). Average consumption of daily larvae is 18.89 larvae/day. If colonized properly and released in controlled conditions they can be useful in controlling of socially protected and unattended breeding containers resulting reduction in mosquito population.
       
  • Diversity of damselflies (Zygoptera) in Gorewada International Bio- Park,
           Nagpur, Central India

    • Authors: Patil Kishor Gopal; Shende Virendra Abaji, Uke Shrikant Bhimrao.Arthropods, 2014, 3(1):80-87
      Abstract: Gorewada International Bio-Park consists of a lake as a major water source, marshy shore and heterogeneity in vegetation. Its geographical location is 21o11'N 79o2'E. Observations are made through walking line transects along the lake border to determine the diversity of damselfly. Total 21 species of damselflies belonging to nine genera (Aciagrion, Agriocnemis, Ceriagrion, Enallagma, Ischnura, Pseudagrion, Rhodischnura, Copera and Lestes) and three families (Coenagrionidae, Lestidae and Platycnemididae) have been recorded. Out of total damselflies examined, 52.38% are common, 19.05% are occasional and 28.57% are rare species. The present study encourages the conservation of a wide range of indigenous damselfly species in this area.
       
  • New indices for measuring some quality control parameters of the
           Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    • Authors: M. F. Mahmoud.Arthropods; 2014, 3(1):88-95
      Abstract: Even though the existence of interspecific competition and competitive displacement between the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) in the last two decades in Egypt, Mediterranean fruit fly still occurs and threats many kinds of fruits and vegetables in Egypt. The objective of this study was to estimate the sexual compatibility, mating performance and relative sterility between laboratory and wild flies of the Mediterranean fruit fly, C. capitata by new indices (relative mating index, RMI; relative isolation index, RII; isolation index, ISI; male relative performance index, MRPI; female relative performance index, FRPI and relative sterility index, RSI). The results revealed that different doses of gamma radiation 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 Gy had no effect on the various parameters of mating compatibility, performance and competitiveness of lab strain males of medflies when mated with wild males. Moreover, no significant assortative or disassortative mating was observed. Therefore, we suggest that the lab strain males of medfly are compatible of mating with the wild males, at least under the laboratory conditions employed here.
       
 
 
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