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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2992 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1423 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 293)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Arquivos do Instituto Biológico
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0020-3653 - ISSN (Online) 1808-1657
   Published by SciELO Homepage  [718 journals]
  • Herbicides selectivity in pre-budded seedlings of sugarcane

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT: Herbicides are expected to show selectivity towards cultivated plants, i.e., they ought to control weeds without jeopardizing the development and productivity of crops. The objective of this project was to evaluate the selectivity of herbicides applied in pre-planting of three sugar cane cultivars which were planted according to the system of pre-budded seedlings (PBS) under climatic natural conditions, between September and November of 2013. The experiment was set according to a completely random design with four replications. The treatments were distributed according to a factorial scheme of 3 × 8, in which factor A was the cultivar (CTC14, CTC7, and RB966928), and factor B was the herbicide (in g.ha-1): S-metolachlor (2,640), clomazone (1,000), sulfentrazone (800), diclosulam (200), metribuzin (1,920), diuron + hexazione (1,170 + 330), S-metolachlor + sulfentrazone (2,640 + 800), and a no treatment. The visual symptoms of intoxication were evaluated 14, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, and 63 days after application (DAA), the height and number of tillers 14, 35, 49, 56, and 63 DAA, the dry weight of shoot (DWS), and the dry weight of root (DWR) 63 DAA. Under the conditions of the experiment, the herbicides S-metolachlor, clomazone, metribuzin, diuron + hexazinone, and S-metolachlor + sulfentrazone were selective towards the presprouted sugar-cane plantlets. Diclosulam was the less selective herbicide, followed by sulfentrazone. Cultivar CTC14 was visually the less tolerant to the herbicides diclosulam and sulfentrazone.RESUMO: Os herbicidas devem apresentar seletividade às culturas agrícolas, ou seja, controlar as plantas daninhas sem comprometer o desenvolvimento nem a produtividade da cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a seletividade de herbicidas aplicados em pré-plantio de três cultivares de cana-de-açúcar plantados pelo sistema de mudas pré-brotadas (MPB). O experimento foi desenvolvido na Usina São Martinho, próximo ao município de Pradópolis (SP), sob condições naturais de clima, no período de setembro a novembro de 2013. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em esquema fatorial (3 × 8), sendo o fator A composto de três cultivares: CTC14, CTC7 e RB966928; e o fator B por sete herbicidas (em g.ha-1): S-metolachlor (2,640); clomazone (1,000); sulfentrazone (800); diclosulam (200); metribuzin (1,920); diuron + hexazinone (1,170 + 330); S-metolachlor + sulfentrazone (2,640 + 800); mais uma testemunha sem aplicação de herbicidas. Foram avaliados os sintomas visuais de fitointoxicação aos 14, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56 e 63 dias após aplicação (DAA), a altura e o número de perfilhos dos cultivares aos 14, 35, 49 e 63 DAA, a massa seca da parte aérea (DWS) e a massa seca do sistema radicular (MSSR) aos 63 DAA. Nas condições em que o experimento foi conduzido, os herbicidas S-metolachlor, clomazone, metribuzin, diuron + hexazinone e S-metolachlor + sulfentrazone foram seletivos às mudas pré-brotadas de cana-de-açúcar. O herbicida diclosulam foi o menos seletivo, seguido do sulfentrazone. O cultivar CTC14 apresentou-se visualmente menos tolerante aos herbicidas diclosulam e sulfentrazone.
       
  • Identification of Staphylococcus epidermidis on ants (Hymenoptera:
           Formicidae) collected in a food court in the city of Guarulhos, São Paulo
           

    • Abstract: RESUMO: Com o processo de urbanização, ocorreu aumento da disseminação de doenças veiculadas por artrópodes, sendo os mais comuns as formigas. A presença delas é mais frequente pelo seu tamanho, por sua facilidade de locomoção e por sua forma de vida social. Assim, podem atuar como vetores mecânicos de bactérias endossimbiontes e patogênicas, ocasionando contaminação em alimentos e no ambiente hospitalar. Os objetivos deste artigo foram isolar e identificar bactérias contaminantes dos gêneros Escherichia sp., Staphylococcus sp. e Salmonella sp. em formigas operárias circulantes no entorno de uma lanchonete de intenso fluxo de pessoas. Foram coletados rastros de formigas no período vespertino, amostradas em quatro pontos do pátio no entorno da lanchonete. Após a coleta, as bactérias foram identificadas por cultivo em meio de cultura Caldo Triptona de Soja para enriquecimento e meios específicos. Dos quatro pontos coletados no entorno da lanchonete, dois apresentaram crescimento de Staphylococcus epidermidis. Este estudo identificou a presença de S. epidermidis em formigas operárias em uma lanchonete localizada em uma área de grande circulação de pessoas, indicando que elas podem ser vetores de contaminação em estabelecimentos de comércio de alimentos.ABSTRACT: Out of the urbanization process, there was an increase in the spread of diseases carried by arthropods, and the most common are the ants. Their presence is related to its size, ease of locomotion and form of social life. Therefore, they can act as mechanical vectors of obligatory endosymbiont bacteria and pathogen ones as food contamination, and contamination of hospital environment. The purposes of this article was to isolate and identify contaminating bacteria of the genera Escherichia sp., Staphylococcus sp. and Salmonella sp. on ants workers circulating around a diner of high movement of people. Ant tracks were collected in the afternoon, sampled at four points to around the patio of the cafe. After the collection, the bacteria were identified, by growing in culture medium for enrichment and Tryptic Soy Broth - specific means. Of the four collected points around the diner, two of them showed growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis. This study identified the presence S. epidermidis on ants workers vectors in a cafeteria located in an area of great movement of persons indicating that the ants can be vectors of contamination in food trade.
       
  • In vitro evaluation of aflatoxin B1 adsorption by commercial products used
           in animal feed

    • Abstract: RESUMO: Objetivou-se avaliar a capacidade de adsorção in vitro de aflatoxina B1 (AFB1) por produtos comerciais utilizados na alimentação animal. Muitas pesquisas estão sendo realizadas para a descontaminação de AFB1 em alimentos. Os produtos comerciais utilizados frequentemente na alimentação de peixes, disponíveis na forma de probióticos, são formados por cepas de bactérias e leveduras utilizadas na maioria dos ensaios de adsorção de micotoxinas. Foram utilizados três produtos comerciais: A, composto por Bacillus subtilis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Enterococcus faecium e Lactobacillus acidophilus; B, por leveduras secas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae provenientes de cervejaria; e C, por Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis e Bacillus pumilus. Cinco suspensões da dose máxima recomendada pelo fabricante de cada produto (0; 25; 50; 75 e 100%) foram testadas contra AFB1 (1000 ng.mL-1) em microtubos para determinação da capacidade de adsorção. Para simular o pH do estômago e do intestino de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) foram formuladas soluções tampão fosfato salino (PBS), com pH 1,5 e 7,5; respectivamente. Os microtubos foram introduzidos em uma centrífuga com agitação mecânica, a 37ºC por 1 h e depois centrifugados por 10 min a 14.000 rpm; os sobrenadantes foram quantificados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Os produtos comerciais, nas concentrações máximas, foram capazes de adsorver AFB1 em quantidades de 45,01 a 129,59; 123,90 a 215,59 e 209,98 a 370,73 ng.mL-1, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que todos os produtos comerciais analisados adsorvem AFB1 em condições simuladas de pH gastrointestinal e são candidatos potenciais para adsorção de AFB1 para futuros ensaios in vivo.ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) adsorption capacity, in vitro, by commercial products used in animal feed. Many studies are being conducted for the decontamination of aflatoxins in feed. The commercial products destined to fish feed that are available as probiotics and are formed by strains of bacteria and yeasts used in most mycotoxins adsorption assays. Three commercial products were studied: A, consisting of Bacillus subtilis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus; B, consisting of dry yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from brewery; and C, consisting of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus. Five suspensions of the maximum dose recommended by the manufacturer of each product (0; 25; 50; 75 and 100%) were tested against AFB1 (1000 ng.mL-1) in microtubes to determine the adsorption capacity. To simulate the pH of the stomach and intestine of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), phosphate buffered saline solutions (PBS) at pH 1.5 and 7.5, respectively, were formulated. Microtubes were introduced into a centrifuge with mechanical agitation at 37ºC for 1 h and then centrifuged for 10 min at 14.000 rpm; the supernatants were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The commercial products in the maximum concentration were capable of adsorbing AFB1 in amounts from 45.01 to 129.59; from 123.90 to 215.59; and from 209.98 to 370.73 (ng.mL-1), respectively. It was concluded that all commercial products, which are added to animal feed, adsorbed AFB1 under simulated gastrointestinal pH conditions and are potential candidates for AFB1 adsorption for future in vivo studies.
       
  • Population fluctuation and estimate of generations number of Anastrepha
           fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) in apple orchard in Caçador, Santa
           Catarina, Brazil

    • Abstract: RESUMO: Este estudo teve como objetivos avaliar a flutuação populacional e estimar o número de gerações por ano de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae), com base nas variáveis meteorológicas de Caçador, Santa Catarina, Brasil. O estudo foi conduzido em pomar orgânico de macieira, de outubro de 2009 a abril de 2012. O número de moscas-das-frutas foi aferido semanalmente, com quatro armadilhas do tipo McPhail iscadas com Torula®. A associação entre o número de adultos capturados e as variáveis meteorológicas (temperaturas máxima, mínima e média, precipitação pluviométrica e umidade relativa do ar) foi feita pelo coeficiente de correlação de Pearson (p < 0,05). Para o período de entressafra (maio a setembro), os valores médios diários das variáveis meteorológicas foram calculados pelos testes F ou de Kruskal-Wallis (p < 0,05). O número de gerações/ano foi estimado utilizando-se os dados de temperatura mínima de 2009 até 2012, constante térmica e temperatura basal estabelecidos para A. fraterculus. Verificou-se que a mosca-das-frutas sul-americana ocorreu de novembro a abril, com picos populacionais em janeiro ou fevereiro. Apenas na safra 2010/2011 houve correlação entre o número médio de adultos capturados e as temperaturas máxima, média e mínima. Estimou-se que podem ocorrer em torno de oito gerações de A. fraterculus por ano em Caçador, Santa Catarina.ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluated the population fluctuation and estimate the number of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) generations per year, based on meteorological variables in Caçador, SC, Brazil. The work was carried out in an organic apple orchard from October/2009 to April/2012. The fruit flies numbers were weekly recorded with four McPhail traps baited with Torula®. The association between the number of adults captured and meteorological variables (maximum, average and minimum temperatures, rainfall and relative humidity) was calculated using Pearson’s correlation coefficient (p < 0.05). In off-season crop (May to September), the daily average of the meteorological variables were evaluated calculated by F or Kruskal-Wallis tests (p < 0.05). The number of generations per year was estimated based on minimum temperature from 2009 to 2012, thermal constant and basal temperature, established for A. fraterculus. The South American fruit fly occurred from November to April, with population peaks in January or February. We observed, only in 2010/2011 crop season, correlation between average number of adults captured and maximum, average and minimum temperatures. It was estimated that may occur about eight A. fraterculus generations per year in Caçador, Santa Catarina.
       
  • Passive immunity transfer in calves fed with colostrum from dams with
           subclinical mastitis

    • Abstract: RESUMO: Este trabalho avaliou a influência da infecção bacteriana da glândula mamária (GM) sobre a transferência de imunidade passiva (TIP) em bezerros recém-nascidos. Vacas holandesas (n=13) foram observadas no momento da parição e ordenhadas para a obtenção de forma asséptica das amostras de colostro (n=52) para os testes microbiológicos. Os recém-nascidos receberam 6 litros de colostro de uma ordenha nas primeiras 12 horas de vida, proveniente de suas respectivas mães. Amostras de sangue foram colhidas antes (D0) e após (D2) o manejo do colostro. A TIP foi avaliada por meio de testes bioquímicos, eletroforese e leucograma. Os bezerros foram distribuídos conforme a ausência (IB-) ou presença (IB+) de infecção mamária em pelo menos uma GM de suas respectivas mães. Todas as amostras de colostro (n=52) foram negativas ao cultivo fúngico. Das 13 fêmeas, 8 (61%) apresentaram crescimento bacteriano em ≥1 quartos mamários. Considerando-se os quartos mamários, foi obtido isolamento bacteriano em 21,15% (11/52), observando-se predomínio de espécies bacterianas do grupo Staphylococcus coagulase negativa. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os parâmetros de acordo com os grupos experimentais. Em relação aos momentos, foi possível verificar aumento nos valores de proteína total, globulinas, atividade sérica da gama glutamiltransferase e frações eletroforéticas beta e gamaglobulina após a ingestão do colostro materno. A mastite subclínica não influencia a transferência de imunidade passiva em bezerros recém-nascidos da raça holandesa, avaliados por teste bioquímicos, eletroforese e leucograma.ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the influence of intramammary infection under the passive immunity transfer in newborn calves. Holstein cows (n=13) were monitored at delivery, and milked to obtain sterile colostrum samples (n=52) for microbiological examination. The newborn calves received 6 liters of colostrum from their dams up to 12 hours after birth. Blood samples were harvested before (D0) and after (D2) colostrum feeding. The passive immune transfer was evaluated by biochemical tests, electrophoresis and leukogram. Calves were distributed according to absence ­(IB-) or presence (IB+) of mammary gland infection in one or more quarters. All colostrum samples (n=52) were negative for fungal culture. Eight dams (8; 61%) had bacterial growth in one or more mammary quarter. In relation to mammary gland unit, bacterial growth was observed in 21.15% (11/52) of the colostrum samples, with predominance of coagulase negative staphylococcal infections. Statistical differences were not found among variables according to the groups. According to the experimental moments, the evaluated parameters (total protein, albumin, globulins, GGT and beta and alpha electrophoretic) increased after colostrum intake. Subclinical mastitis did not influence the passive immune transfer in Holstein calves evaluated by biochemical tests, electrophoresis or leukogram.
       
  • Serological investigation of lentiviruses of small ruminants in the
           microregions of Alto Médio Canindé, Picos and Floriano, Piauí state,
           Brazil

    • Abstract: RESUMO: Lentivírus de pequenos ruminantes (LV) é o termo genérico utilizado para designar os vírus da artrite encefalite caprina e Maedi-Visna, os quais pertencem à família Retroviridae, subfamília Orthoretrovirinae, gênero Lentivirus. Tais vírus infectam caprinos e ovinos, causando enfermidades de curso lento com lesões inflamatórias, crônicas e degenerativas que podem atingir vários órgãos, provocando caquexia e morte. Os animais infectados eliminam o vírus sobretudo por meio de secreções e excreções e transmitem-no especialmente em situações de estreito contato. Não há tratamento até o momento. O controle é baseado na criação segregada, no manejo e no sacrifício dos positivos. Esse agente infeccioso já foi relatado em várias partes do mundo, sendo responsável por perdas econômicas significativas. Por o agente ter sido verificado em vários estados do Brasil e por não existirem dados soroepidemiológicos nas mesorregiões sudeste e sudoeste piauiense, esta pesquisa teve por objetivo realizar inquérito sorológico para investigar a ocorrência de anticorpos para o LV em ovinos e caprinos nas microrregiões do Alto Médio Canindé, Picos e Floriano, no Piauí. Para tanto, foram coletadas 1.280 e 1.360 amostras de soro caprino e ovino, respectivamente, oriundos de 20 municípios, distribuídos nas três microrregiões, sendo o número de amostras proporcional ao rebanho efetivo de cada município. As amostras de soro foram analisadas utilizando o teste de imunodifusão em gel de agarose (IDGA). Nenhum dos soros pesquisados reagiu positivamente, constatando-se soroprevalência nula. Ressalta-se a importância da implantação de um rigoroso programa de controle para que se possa evitar a introdução e/ou a disseminação desse agente infeccioso nessas microrregiões.ABSTRACT: Small ruminant lentiviruses (LV) is the generic term for the caprine arthritis-encephalitis and ­­Maedi-Visna viruses, which belong to the Retroviridae family, Orthoretrovirinae subfamily, Lentivirus genus. The virus infects goats and sheep, causing slow course of disease with inflammatory, chronic and degenerative lesions, which can reach several organs, provoking cachexia and death. Infected animals eliminate the virus mainly through secretions and excretions and transmit it especially in close contact situations. There is no treatment to date. The control is based on segregated creation, management and sacrifice of the positive. This infectious agent has been reported in various parts of the world and is responsible for significant economic losses. It was verified in several states of Brazil and there are seroepidemiological data in southeast and southwest mesoregions of Piauí, Brazil. This research aimed to perform serological survey to investigate the occurrence of antibodies to LV in sheep and goats, in the regions of Alto Médio Canindé, Picos and Floriano. So, 1,280 and 1,360 serum goats and sheep samples, respectively, were collected, coming from 20 municipalities, distributed in the 3 microregions. The number of samples was proportional to the actual herd of each municipality. The samples were analyzed using the agar gel immunodiffusion test. None of the surveyed sera reacted positively, though there is a null seroprevalence. It was emphasized the importance of implementing a rigorous control program in order to prevent the introduction and spread of this infectious agent in these microregions.
       
  • State of tuberculosis in sheep bred with dairy cattle in the southwest
           region of Maranhão

    • Abstract: RESUMO: Objetivando conhecer a situação da tuberculose ovina no Maranhão, avaliaram-se 343 ovinos da região sudoeste do estado, 247 fêmeas e 96 machos, com idade acima de 6 meses, por meio do teste cervical comparativo (TCC), com inoculação de tuberculinas na região cervical direita. Cranialmente, injetou-se derivado proteico purificado (PPD) aviário; e caudalmente, PPD bovino, em doses individuais de 0,1 mL. Todos os animais apresentaram resultado negativo para tuberculose, entretanto, 65 ovinos apresentaram reação à tuberculina bovina superior à aviária. Para investigar a possibilidade de baixa sensibilização ou anergia em animais com tuberculose avançada, foi necropsiado um ovino caquético, idade acima de quatro anos, com resultado negativo ao TCC, porém, com reação à tuberculina aviária e linfonodos aumentados com consistência endurecida. Os resultados indicaram infecções por C. pseudotuberculosis, Actinomyces pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus e Mycobacterium sp. A cultura e o isolamento resultaram em Pseudomonas aeruginosas e Bacillus sp. Não foram visualizadas estruturas bacterianas compatíveis com bacilo álcool ácido resistente (BAAR). Os resultados confirmam ausência de animais reagentes ao M. bovis, pressupondo inexistência da tuberculose em ovinos na região estudada.ABSTRACT: In order to know the situation of ovine tuberculosis in Maranhão, Brazil, we evaluated 343 sheep in the southwest region of the state, of both sexes (247 females and 96 males), aged over six months, through the comparative cervical test (TCC), with tuberculin inoculation in the right cervical region. Cranially, avian purified protein derivate (PPD) was injected; and caudally, beef PPD was injected, in individual doses of 0.1 mL. All animals were negative for tuberculosis; however, 65 sheep had higher reactions to bovine tuberculin than to the avian one. To investigate the possibility of low awareness or anergy in animals with advanced tuberculosis, one cachectic sheep was necropsied, aged four years, with negative results for TCC, but with reaction to avian tuberculin and enlarged hardened lymph nodes. The results indicated C. pseudotuberculosis, Actinomyces pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium sp infections. Culture and isolation resulted in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus sp. No bacterial structures compatible with acid-fast bacteria were found. The results confirmed the absence of animals reactive to M. bovis, assuming no tuberculosis in sheep in the study area.
       
  • Functional assessment of phagocytes from blood and mammary secretion of
           cows in the immediate postpartum period

    • Abstract: RESUMO: O periparto caracteriza-se por mudanças imunes e fisiológicas na glândula mamária das fêmeas bovinas, ­tornando-as mais susceptiveis às mastites. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a fagocitose da bactéria Escherichia coli pelos fagócitos do sangue e do colostro de vacas hígidas da raça Holandesa. Amostras provenientes de 22 fêmeas, entre novilhas e vacas, foram obtidas durante a primeira ordenha pós-parto, para avaliação da fagocitose, em lamínula de vidro, após estímulo com E. coli. A proporção de fagócitos espraiados do sangue foi maior quando as células foram estimuladas com bactérias (p=0,003), no entanto a taxa de fagocitose foi baixa e semelhante à observada quando as células não foram estimuladas (p=0,299). No colostro, foram constatados maiores índices de fagocitose (p=0,001) e espraiamento (p=0,000) quando os fagócitos foram estimulados com E. coli. Comparando-se os resultados obtidos para o sangue e o colostro, verificou-se, no sangue, maior proporção de fagócitos não espraiados e que não apresentavam bactérias no seu interior, estimulados (p=0,000) ou não (p=0,002) com bactéria. Houve maior taxa de espraiamento nos fagócitos do colostro quando estimulados com E. coli (p=0,002). Não se viu diferença nos percentuais de fagocitose entre as amostras de sangue e colostro incubadas (p=0,478) ou não (p=0,071) com bactérias. Os resultados permitiram concluir que E. coli influenciou no espraiamento dos fagócitos do sangue e do colostro de fêmeas bovinas da raça Holandesa no período do pós-parto imediato e auxiliarão na compreensão dos mecanismos imunológicos ocorridos nesse período, considerado o de maior susceptibilidade das fêmeas bovinas às infecções.ABSTRACT: The peripartum is characterized by immune and physiological changes in the mammary glands of cows, making them more susceptive to mastitis. This work aimed to evaluate the phagocytosis of Escherichia coli by phagocytes from blood and colostrum from healthy Holstein cows. Samples from 22 female, heifers and cows, were obtained during the first postpartum milking for evaluation of phagocytosis in glass cover slip, after stimulation with E. coli. The proportion of spreading blood phagocytes was higher when cells were stimulated with bacteria (p=0.003). However, the phagocytosis rate was low and similar to that observed when blood cells were unstimulated (p=0.299). Colostrum showed higher rates of spreading (p=0.000) and phagocytosis (p=0.001) when phagocytes were stimulated with E. coli. Comparing the results obtained for blood and colostrum, a higher proportion of not spreading phagocytes without bacteria inside, when stimulated (p=0.000) or not (p=0.002) with bacteria, was observed in blood. There was a higher spreading rate in colostrum when phagocytes were stimulated with E. coli (p=0.002). There was no difference in the percentage of phagocytosis in blood or colostrum samples incubated (p=0.478) or not (p=0.071) with bacteria. The results showed that E. coli influenced the activity of blood and colostrum phagocytes from Holstein cows in the immediate postpartum period, and will assist in the understanding of the immunological mechanisms that occurs in this period, considered as the most susceptible to infections in cows.
       
  • Atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy: a review

    • Abstract: RESUMO: A encefalopatia espongiforme bovina (EEB), causada por um príon infectante, surgiu na década de 1980 na Europa como uma nova doença nos rebanhos bovinos e, desde então, estão sendo tomadas várias ações para sua prevenção e controle. A restrição da alimentação de ruminantes com subprodutos de origem animal e a remoção e destruição dos materiais de risco específico para a doença das carcaças em frigoríficos se mostraram efetivas medidas para o controle da doença, além de reduzirem a exposição humana ao agente, pois se trata de uma importante zoonose. No entanto, em 2004 os primeiros casos atípicos de EEB foram diagnosticados, nos quais os agentes causais apresentavam alterações de peso molecular na prova de Western blot, em relação ao agente da forma clássica. Além das diferenças moleculares dos agentes, as apresentações clínicas mostraram-se diferenciadas nas formas atípicas, acometendo principalmente bovinos com idade superior a oito anos. Por se tratar de uma nova forma da doença, muitos estudos estão sendo conduzidos buscando elucidar a patogenia, epidemiologia e seu potencial zoonótico. Objetivou-se neste estudo revisar os principais aspectos relacionados às EEB atípicas enfatizando sua etiologia, epidemiologia, sinais clínicos, diagnóstico e medidas de controle.ABSTRACT: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), caused by an infectious prion, emerged in the 1980s in Europe as a new disease in cattle and, since then, several actions are being taken for its prevention and control. Restricting the feeding of ruminants with animal by-products and the removal and destruction of specific risk materials (SRM) for the condition of carcasses in slaughterhouses have been proven effective to control the disease, in addition to the reduction of human exposure to the agent, as this is an important zoonosis. However, in 2004 the first atypical cases of BSE were diagnosed, in which the causative agents showed different molecular weights in Western blot (WB), compared to the classical form of the agent. In addition to the molecular differences, clinical presentations proved to be differentiated in atypical forms, affecting mainly cattle older than eight years. Because it is a new form of the disease, many studies are being conducted to elucidate the pathogenesis, epidemiology and zoonotic potential of atypical BSE. The aim of this study was to review the main aspects of atypical BSE emphasizing its etiology, epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnosis and control and prevention measures.
       
  • Corn hybrids responses to pyraclostrobin use in disease absences

    • Abstract: RESUMO: Objetivando-se avaliar o efeito da aplicação de piraclostrobina em diferentes épocas e combinações de aplicação em dois híbridos simples de milho cultivados na safra de verão, realizou-se um experimento no município de Jataí, Goiás. Adotou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso no esquema fatorial 2 x 9 (híbridos x aplicações de piraclostrobina), com 4 repetições. As aplicações foram realizadas em diferentes combinações de fungicidas: presença ou ausência de piraclostrobina + tiofanato metílico + fipronil (100 g i.a.100 kg semente-1) no tratamento de sementes (V0) combinado com a aplicação de piraclostrobina (150 g i.a.ha-1) antes ou após a adubação de cobertura (V4 ou V6) combinado ou não com a aplicação de piraclostrobina + ciproconazole (137,25 g i.a.ha-1) em pré-pendoamento (VT) e uma testemunha (sem uso de piraclostrobina). Foram avaliados: atividade da enzima redutase do nitrato, índice de clorofila, altura de plantas, altura de inserção de espiga, diâmetro de colmo, porcentagem de folhas senescentes, severidade de Puccinia polysora Underw, massa de mil grãos, densidade e produtividade de grãos. Submeteram-se os dados ao teste F para verificação de significância; e para comparação de médias utilizou-se o teste de Tukey, ambos a 5% de probabilidade. Para a maioria dos caracteres avaliados observou-se diferença entre híbridos. Não foi observado efeito das aplicações de piraclostrobina e interação entre os fatores em questão. Conclui-se que não há efeito benéfico ou deletério da aplicação de piraclostrobina em diferentes épocas e combinações de aplicação sobre os dois híbridos simples de milho cultivados na safra de verão.ABSTRACT: An experiment was conducted in Jataí, Goiás, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the effects of the application of pyraclostrobin at different times and with different application combinations in two simple hybrids of corn grown in the summer season. A randomized block design was adopted in a factorial 2 x 9 (hybrid x pyraclostrobinapplications) design, with 4 replications. The applications were performed in different combinations: presence or absence of pyraclostrobin + thiophanate methyl + fipronil (100 g a.i.100 kg seed-1) in seed treatment (V0) combined with pyraclostrobin (150 g a.i.ha-1) application before or after topdressing (V4 or V6) combined or not with pyraclostrobin + cyproconazole (137.25 g a.i.ha-1) application in pre-bolting (VT) and a control (without use of pyraclostrobin). The following evaluations were performed: activity of the nitrate reductase enzyme, chlorophyll index, plant height, corn cob insertion height, stem diameter, percentage of senescent leaves, severity of Puccinia polysora Underw, thousand grain weight, grains density, and grains yield. An F test was performed to analyze the significance, and for a means comparison, a Tukey test was used, both at 5% probability. Differences among hybrids were observed for most of the evaluated traits. There were no effects of the applications of pyraclostrobin and no interaction between the factors in question. It can, therefore, be concluded that there are not beneficial or deleterious effects of the application of pyraclostrobin at different times and with different application combinations in two simple hybrids of corn grown in the summer season.
       
  • Fungal chitosan on gastrointestinal nematodes larvae of goats

    • Abstract: RESUMO: A caprinocultura é representada por um efetivo bastante considerável no Nordeste brasileiro, porém, infecções causadas por nematoides e o sério problema da resistência parasitária se tornaram barreiras para a criação desses animais. Como alternativa, o controle com bioprodutos entra como uma solução sustentável e viável para auxiliar na criação da região. Nesse contexto, o presente trabalho avaliou a atuação da quitosana fúngica sobre o desenvolvimento larval de nematoides gastrintestinais em amostras de caprinos naturalmente infectados. Para tanto, foi realizada a seleção de 5 propriedades e confirmada a positividade do rebanho, além de coproculturas com solução de quitosana a 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5%, com cada tratamento realizado em 5 repetições. As larvas de terceiro estágio (L3) foram recuperadas e cem larvas por tratamento foram contabilizadas e identificadas. Os gêneros identificados foram Haemonchus, Strongyloides, Oesophagostomum e Trichostrongylus. Na análise da inibição do desenvolvimento larval, a concentração de 1,0% impediu o desenvolvimento larval do Haemonchus em 35%, porém, os resultados não tiveram diferença estatística significante. Assim, sugere-se buscar novas concentrações de quitosana fúngica como anti-helmíntico, visto que se apresenta como uma alternativa promissora no controle sustentável desses endoparasitos.ABSTRACT: The goat is represented by a very considerable effective in the Northeastern Brazil, but infections caused by nematodes and the serious problem of parasitic resistance have become barriers to breed these animals. Alternatively, the control with bioproducts comes as a sustainable and viable solution to help breeding in this region. In this context, the present study evaluated the performance of fungal chitosan on the larval development of gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected goat samples. Therefore, the selection was performed at five properties. The positive herd was confirmed, and coprocultures were performed with chitosan solution 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%, with each treatment performed in 5 replicates. The third-stage larvae (L3) were recovered and one hundred larvae/treatment were counted and identified. The identified genera were Haemonchus, Strongyloides, Oesophagostomum and Trichostrongylus. In the analysis of inhibition of larval development, the concentration of 1.0% prevented the development of larval Haemonchus by 35%, but the results were not statistically significant. Thus, it is suggested to seek new concentrations of fungal chitosan as anthelmintic, since it appears as a promising alternative to sustainable control of these endoparasites.
       
 
 
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