Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3483 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (267 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (143 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1667 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (50 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (271 journals)
    - BOTANY (252 journals)
    - CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (32 journals)
    - ENTOMOLOGY (76 journals)
    - GENETICS (172 journals)
    - MICROBIOLOGY (292 journals)
    - MICROSCOPY (12 journals)
    - ORNITHOLOGY (29 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (73 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (147 journals)

BIOLOGY (1667 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 201 - 400 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biogeographia : The Journal of Integrative Biogeography     Open Access  
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 391)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia Futura     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biology of the Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biology Open     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bioma : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi     Open Access  
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Biomarker Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomarkers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biomass and Bioenergy     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Biomaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Biomath     Open Access  
Biomatter     Open Access  
Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical & Life Sciences Collection     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
BioMedical Engineering OnLine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biomedical Signal Processing and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomembranes: A Multi-Volume Treatise     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMetals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biometrical Letters     Open Access  
Biometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Biometrika     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Biomolecular Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomonitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Bionature     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biopreservation and Biobanking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BioResearch Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioresource Technology     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
BioRisk     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BIOS     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biosaintifika : Journal of Biology & Biology Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
BioScience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bioscience Hypotheses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioscience Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biosemiotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Biosensors and Bioelectronics : X     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioseparation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biosfer : Jurnal Biologi dan Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access  
Biosfer : Jurnal Tadris Biologi     Open Access  
BioSocieties     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biospecies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BIOspektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biostatistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biosystems Diversity     Open Access  
Biota Amazônia     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biota Colombiana     Open Access  
Biota Neotropica     Open Access  
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotemas     Open Access  
Biotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BIOTIKA : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi     Open Access  
Biotropia : The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology     Open Access  
Biotropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Birth Defects Research     Hybrid Journal  
Bitlis Eren University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 194)
BMC Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
BMC Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
BMC Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
BMC Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 72)
BMC Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 91)
BMC Molecular and Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
BMC Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 198)
BMC Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BMC Research Notes     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BMC Structural Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Boletim do Laboratório de Hidrobiologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín Científico : Centro de Museos. Museo de Historia Natural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín del Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Boletín Micológico     Open Access  
Bone Reports     Open Access  
Bonorowo Wetlands     Open Access  
Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology     Open Access  
Bothalia : African Biodiversity & Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brain Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Brazilian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Brazilian Journal of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Breastfeeding Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Breviora     Full-text available via subscription  
Briefings in Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Briefings in Functional Genomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Brill Open Biology     Open Access  
British Poultry Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Brittonia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BT Technology Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège     Open Access  
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of Mathematical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the British Mycological Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences     Open Access  
Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural     Open Access  
CABI Agriculture and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cactus and Succulent Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Caldasia     Open Access  
Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology     Open Access  
Canadian Journal of Bioethics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Journal of Marine Sciences and Fisheries     Open Access  
Cancer Biology & Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Cancer Cell International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Carbon Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caryologia : International Journal of Cytology, Cytosystematics and Cytogenetics     Partially Free  
Casopis Slezskeho Zemskeho Muzea - serie A - vedy prirodni     Open Access  
Castanea     Full-text available via subscription  
Caucasiana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1307)
Cell Adhesion & Migration     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cell and Tissue Banking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell and Tissue Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cell and Tissue Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cell Biochemistry and Function     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cell Biology and Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cell Biology International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cell Biology International Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Calcium     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cell Communication & Adhesion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Cycle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Cell Death and Differentiation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cell Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cell Division     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Cell Proliferation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cell Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cell Stress and Chaperones     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Surface     Open Access  
Cell Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cells Tissues Organs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cellular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Cellular Logistics     Full-text available via subscription  
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cellular Oncology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cellular Reprogramming     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular Signalling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cerevisia     Full-text available via subscription  
Ceylon Journal of Science     Open Access  
Channels     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Check List : The Journal of Biodiversity Data     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Biomedical Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.674
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2319-4170 - ISSN (Online) 2320-2890
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3206 journals]
  • Effects of oral zinc supplementation on patients with noise-induced
           hearing loss associated tinnitus: A clinical trial

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Biomedical JournalAuthor(s): Chun-Wei Yeh, Leng-Hsuan Tseng, Chao-Hui Yang, Chung-Feng Hwang BackgroundZinc plays a vital antioxidant role in human metabolism. Recent studies have demonstrated a correlation between noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and oxidative injury; however, no investigation has focused specifically on the subgroup of NIHL associated tinnitus patients. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc supplementation in treating NIHL associated tinnitus.MethodsTwenty patients with tinnitus and a typical NIHL audiogram (38 ears) were included in this study. Another 20 healthy subjects were used as the control group. A full medical history assessment was performed, and each subject underwent an otoscopic examination, basic audiologic evaluation, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), tinnitus-match testing, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and serum zinc level analyses. After 2 months of treatment with zinc, all tests were repeated.ResultsThere was a significant difference between pretreatment and post-treatment within the tinnitus group (73.6 vs. 84.6 μg/dl). The pre- and post-treatment difference in serum zinc was significantly higher in the young group (≦50 years) compared to the old group (19.4 ± 11.4 vs. 2.6 ± 9.2 μg/dl, respectively; p = 0.002). There were no statistically significant differences in hearing thresholds, speech reception thresholds, or tinnitus frequency and loudness results before and after treatment. In addition, 17 patients (85%) showed statistically significant improvement of THI-total scores post-treatment, from 38.3 to 30 (p = 0.024).ConclusionsZinc oral supplementation elevated serum zinc levels, especially in younger patients. THI scores improved significantly following zinc treatment in patients with NIHL associated tinnitus. However, no improvements in objective hearing parameters were observed.
       
  • IFITM3: How genetics influence influenza infection demographically

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Biomedical JournalAuthor(s): Dannielle Wellington, Henry Laurenson-Schafer, Adi Abdel-Haq, Tao Dong The role of host genetics in influenza infection is unclear despite decades of interest. Confounding factors such as age, sex, ethnicity and environmental factors have made it difficult to assess the role of genetics without influence. In recent years a single nucleotide polymorphism, interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) rs12252, has been shown to alter the severity of influenza infection in Asian populations. In this review we investigate this polymorphism as well as several others suggested to alter the host's defence against influenza infection. In addition, we highlight the open questions surrounding the viral restriction protein IFITM3 with the hope that by answering some of these questions we can elucidate the mechanism of IFITM3 viral restriction and therefore how this restriction is altered due to the rs12252 polymorphism.
       
  • The dual role of innate immunity during influenza

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Biomedical JournalAuthor(s): Carmelo Biondo, Germana Lentini, Concetta Beninati, Giuseppe Teti One of the distinguishing features of the 1918 pandemic is the occurrence of massive, potentially detrimental, activation of the innate immune system in critically ill patients. Whether this reflects an intrinsic capacity of the virus to induce an exaggerated inflammatory responses or its remarkable ability to reproduce in vivo is still open to debate. Tremendous progress has recently been made in our understanding of innate immune responses to influenza infection and it is now time to translate this knowledge into therapeutic strategies, particularly in view of the possible occurrence of future outbreaks caused by virulent strains.
       
  • Evaluation of the fracture resistance of root filled thin walled teeth
           restored with different post systems

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Biomedical JournalAuthor(s): Caner Öztürk, Serdar Polat, Makbule Tunçdemir, Fehmi Gönüldaş, Emre Şeker BackgroundRestoration of the teeth with extensive root canals with different post systems is a challenge for clinicians. Evaluation of these systems is important for clinical success. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture resistance and fracture mode of endodontically treated thin-walled teeth which restored with different post systems.MethodsEighty extracted and endodontically treated maxillary canines were divided into 4 groups (n = 20) and the thickness of the radicular dentin walls was reduced by using diamond burs. Each root was embedded in an autopolymerizing resin with a 0.25 mm layer of vinyl polysiloxane material to simulate the periodontal ligament. The subgroups were restored with one of the following post systems: only composite resin (Group 1), cast post (Group 2), glass-fiber post (Group 3), and I-TFC post (Group 4). The samples were subjected to a gradually increasing force (0,5 mm/min). The force required to fracture was recorded, and the data were analyzed with ANOVA, Tukey test's and Chi–Square test (p 
       
  • Association between periodontal pathogens and systemic disease

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2019Source: Biomedical JournalAuthor(s): Fiona Q. Bui, Cassio Luiz Coutinho Almeida-da-Silva, Brandon Huynh, Alston Trinh, Jessica Liu, Jacob Woodward, Homer Asadi, David M. Ojcius A growing body of literature suggests that there is a link between periodontitis and systemic diseases. These diseases include cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal and colorectal cancer, diabetes and insulin resistance, and Alzheimer's disease, as well as respiratory tract infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The presence of periodontal pathogens and their metabolic by-products in the mouth may in fact modulate the immune response beyond the oral cavity, thus promoting the development of systemic conditions. A cause-and-effect relationship has not been established yet for most of the diseases, and the mediators of the association are still being identified. A better understanding of the systemic effects of oral microorganisms will contribute to the goal of using the oral cavity to diagnose and possibly treat non-oral systemic disease.
       
  • Legacy of the influenza pandemic 1918: Introduction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2019Source: Biomedical JournalAuthor(s): Siamon Gordon
       
  • Effects of standardized Zataria multiflora extract and its major
           ingredient, Carvacrol, on Adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity in rat

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Biomedical Journal, Volume 41, Issue 6Author(s): Reza Mohebbati, Maryam Paseban, Mohammad Soukhtanloo, Mohammad Jalili-Nik, Mohammad Naser Shafei, Amirali Jahani Yazdi, Abolfazl Khajavi Rad BackgroundAt a glance commentaryScientific background on the subjectSince Adriamycin is used as an anticancer drug among various communities and is one of its side-effects, it is important to find a way to prevent this complication. Of these, medicinal plants such as Zataria multiflora can be important in preventing the complications.What this study adds to the fieldThis study shows that carvacrol has a stronger effect on the liver antioxidant system as well as hepatic enzymes activity than the whole plant extract, and then carvacrol can be more helpful than whole plant in the treatment of hepatic damage caused by Adriamycin.Due to antioxidant effects of Zataria multiflora (ZM) and Carvacrol (CAR) in many cases and the prominent role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hepatotoxicity induced by Adriamycin (ADR), the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of ZM and CAR on ADR-induced hepatotoxicity.MethodsTwenty four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups including: 1)Control, 2)Adriamycin (ADR), 3,4) ZM + ADR and CAR + ADR that received ZM and CAR for 28 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected on the days 0, 14 and 28 to determine the alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Also, the hepatic redox markers were evaluated.ResultsADR significantly increased ALP, ALT and AST in comparison with the control (p 
       
  • Basal-bolus or premixed' Shedding light on optimal insulin regime for
           type 1 diabetes

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Biomedical Journal, Volume 41, Issue 6Author(s): Emma Louise Walton In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we highlight original research that will help to guide the choice of insulin administration regimes for children with type 1 diabetes. We also investigate whether a common medication for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder worsens sleep problems among these children, and discover a new approach to maximize the lifetime of a fragile piece of surgical equipment.
       
  • Commentary: Lico A causes ER stress and apoptosis via up-regulating
           miR-144-3p in human lung cancer cell line H292

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Biomedical Journal, Volume 41, Issue 6Author(s): Yuanliang Yan, Zhicheng Gong, Zhijie Xu Natural compound licochalcone A (lico A), a main constituent of flavonoids, has been proved to induce ER stress and apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the underlying anti-tumor mechanism of lico A remains to be clarified in detail. A recently-published report from the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology evaluated the miRNA-based mechanism for lico A on its anti-cancer effect. They found that lico A significantly promoted the tumor-suppressor miR-144-3p expression, so as to up-regulate ER stress-response protein CHOP (CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein) by down-regulating nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), finally inducing apoptotic cell death in lung cancer. Their findings pave the path toward a more understanding of miRNA-based drugs for cancer treatment in the future.
       
  • Relationship between sonography of sternocleidomastoid muscle and cervical
           passive range of motion in infants with congenital muscular torticollis

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Biomedical Journal, Volume 41, Issue 6Author(s): Chu-Hsu Lin, Hung-Chih Hsu, Yu-Jen Hou, Kai-Hua Chen, Shang-Hong Lai, Wen-Ming Chang BackgroundAn abnormal sternocleidomastoid muscle in congenital muscular torticollis can be classified into one of the four types via sonography. However, this categorization lacks quantitative measurements. The purpose of the study was to determine quantitative measurements of the sonograms via image analysis.MethodsInfants younger than 12 months of age suspected of having congenital muscular torticollis were included. Intraclass correlation coefficient estimates for interobserver reliability and a simple regression analysis for criterion validity were calculated. Spearman correlation analysis was then performed. The analyzed parameters included cervical passive range of motion for lateral flexion and rotation, area, brightness, max/min Feret's diameters, and muscular width/thickness.ResultsOf the 29 (4.0 ± 2.6 months) screened infants, 13 (1.9 ± 1.7 months) were included. Nine were male, and 4 were female. Seven infants with mass were ultrasonographically classified into type I, and the other six infants were classified into type II. The affected/unaffected side ratios of cervical passive range of motion for lateral flexion and rotation were 0.92 ± 0.13 and 0.88 ± 0.16, respectively. The parameters measured on the sonograms were reliable, and the max/min Feret's diameters were valid measurements. The affected/unaffected side ratio of cervical passive range of motion for rotation significantly correlated with the affected/unaffected side ratios of the sternocleidomastoid muscle sonogram on area (r = −0.62, p = 0.03) and min Feret's diameter (r = −0.69, p = 0.01).ConclusionsThe area and min Feret's diameter were efficacious parameters for image analysis on sternocleidomastoid sonograms, and the min Feret's diameter would be more suitable than thickness for measuring the thickening SCM in transverse view. A healthy control group, more data and follow-up would be needed to confirm the changes on the SCM sonograms for clinical decision.
       
  • Surgical technique to achieve high durability of flexible ureteroscopes: A
           single hospital experience

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Biomedical Journal, Volume 41, Issue 6Author(s): Cheng-Chia Lin, Lawrence Shih-Hsin Wu, Shian-Shiang Huang, Cheng-Feng Lin, Wen-Hsiang Chen, Chun-Te Wu BackgroundTo describe a novel operative technique resulting in extended durability and improved ease of use of current flexible ureteroscopes (FURS). A surgical method employing a modified technique of using an Olympus digital flexible URF-V ureteroscope was developed.MethodsWe retrospectively studied 546 patients who underwent retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) using this modified approach performed by a single surgeon at our hospital, and investigated the outcome and durability of the ureteroscope.ResultsThrough the study period, the URF-V ureteroscope required repair five times in total. During factory maintenance, distal working channel damage was noted twice, and outer bending rubber damage was noted once. The most recent two repairs were required due to laser penetration. Despite the damage and repairs, the deflection system was almost entirely intact after high-frequency use. The durability of FURS determines the efficacy of RIRS for renal stones.ConclusionIn this report, we described our modified upside-down technique for manipulation of FURS under unequal dual deflection in order to preserve the deflection apparatus, which yielded a greatly prolonged durability. Additionally, the use of mimic drive turning decreased the time needed to train urologists.
       
  • Effects of bilateral or unilateral lower body resistance exercises on
           markers of skeletal muscle damage

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Biomedical Journal, Volume 41, Issue 6Author(s): Ozkan Isik, Ilkay Dogan BackgroundIt is known that different intensity exercises create skeletal muscle damage at different levels. The purpose of the study was to compare effects of bilateral or unilateral lower body resistance exercise on markers of skeletal muscle damage.MethodsThe Brzycki Formula was used to calculate participants' one repetition maximum strength for each movement and limb, separately. Blood samples were obtained before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 30 min after exercise for both types of exercise. Creatine Kinase (CK), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) levels were analyzed. Data was analyzed using two-way repeated measures ANOVA.ResultsWhen CK, AST, and ALT levels were compared according to time points, a statistical difference was found (p 
       
  • Subjective and objective assessments of sleep problems in children with
           attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the effects of
           methylphenidate treatment

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Biomedical Journal, Volume 41, Issue 6Author(s): Wei-Chih Chin, Yu-Shu Huang, Ya-Hsin Chou, Chih-Huan Wang, Kuang-Tai Chen, Jen Fu Hsu, Shih-Chieh Hsu Backgroundto investigate the sleep problems in children with different ADHD presentations and effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the sleep problems of children with ADHD by both subjective and objective measurements.Methods71 children with ADHD and 30 controls were included. 35 had ADHD with predominantly inattentive presentation (ADHD-I) and 36 with predominantly hyperactive/impulsive or combined presentation (ADHD-C). We used the pediatric sleep questionnaire (PSQ) and a nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) to assess the sleep problems in children with ADHD before and 6 months after being treated with methylphenidate (0.3–0.7 mg/kg/dose).ResultsPSG showed significantly higher apnea-hypopnea index and hypopnea counts, and lower slow-wave sleep percentage in children with ADHD. The results of PSQ reported by parents showed significantly higher rates of delay initiation of sleep, sleep onset latency, sleep fragment, daytime sleepiness, enuresis, bruxism, nightmares, periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), and snoring in children with ADHD compared to normal controls. Comparisons of ADHD presentations revealed no significant difference between ADHD-I and ADHD-C by either PSG or PSQ measurements. After 6-month MPH treatment, the PSG showed significantly increased total sleep time and reduced periodic limb movement index (PLMI). The PSQ indicated significant reduction in bruxism and snoring in ADHD-I, as well as nightmares in ADHD-C, and both subgroups showed significant reduction in PLMD.Conclusionsubjective and objective approaches produced inconsistent findings regarding the sleep problems in children with ADHD. Besides, MPH didn't worsen the sleep problems in children with ADHD.
       
  • Dengue outbreaks and the geographic distribution of dengue vectors in
           Taiwan: A 20-year epidemiological analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Biomedical Journal, Volume 41, Issue 5Author(s): Wei-June Chen Dengue fever is an important mosquito-borne viral infectious disease that mostly occurs in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. According to epidemiological data from the Center for Disease Control of Taiwan, more than 98.62% of outbreaks of indigenous total dengue cases were reported in the southern part of Taiwan. Southern Taiwan is an aggregate area encompassing Tainan, Kaohsiung, and Pingtung, all of which are located below the Tropic of Cancer (23º35′N). With a few exceptions, dengue outbreaks mainly occur in southern Taiwan which is highly associated or overlaps with the prevalence of Aedes aegypti. A.aegypti is presumed to be absent from the northern part of Taiwan, while Aedes albopictus breeds in areas throughout the island. According a collection of 20 years of epidemiological data from Taiwan, the inability of A. aegypti to survive the winter weather in northern Taiwan may account for its restricted geographical distribution and that of dengue outbreaks it transmits. A.aegypti, unlike temperate strains of A. albopictus, lacks embryonic diapause signaled by a short photoperiod which thus reduces its cold-hardiness. Therefore it is intolerant of low temperatures that frequently accompany rains and unable to survive during winter in the northern part of Taiwan.
       
  • Dengue in Taiwan: Pointing the finger at Aedes aegypti

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Biomedical Journal, Volume 41, Issue 5Author(s): Emma Louise Walton In this issue of the Biomedical Journal we explore the history of dengue infection in Taiwan and what current trends have to say about the vector responsible for transmitting the disease on the island. We focus on original research reporting the development of a new perfusion bioreactor to engineer bone from human cord blood stem cells. Finally, we look at trends in osteoporosis in Taiwan and how they highlight the success of public health campaigns.
       
  • Improved osteogenic differentiation of umbilical cord blood MSCs using
           custom made perfusion bioreactor

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Biomedical Journal, Volume 41, Issue 5Author(s): Bhaskar Birru, Naveen Kumar Mekala, Sreenivasa Rao Parcha Background3D cell culture is an appropriate method to develop engineered bone tissue, where different bioreactors have been designed to mitigate the challenges in 3D culture. Currently, we tailored a perfusion reactor to witness human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) proliferation and differentiation over polylactic acid-polyethylene glycol (PLA/PEG) composite scaffolds.MethodsThe composite scaffolds with different weight ratios of PLA and PEG were prepared using solvent casting-particulate leaching technique. Human umbilcal card blood MSCs were cultured under dynamic and static conditions to elucidate the role of dynamic fluid flow in osteogenesis of MSCs.ResultsThe human MSCs distribution over the scaffolds was confirmed with fluorescent microscopy. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium mineralization, and collagen formation were found to be higher in PLA90 scaffolds than PLA100 and PLA75. PLA90 scaffolds with better cell adhesion/proliferartion were considered for bioreactor studies and they exhibited enhanced ALP, Ca+2 mineralization and collagen formation under dynamic perfusion than static culture. We further confirmed our observation by looking at expression levels of osteogenic marker (Runx2 and osteonectin) in differentiated MSCs subjected to perfusion culture compared to static culture.ConclusionThe results of the current investigation once again proves that dynamic perfusion cultures improve the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs over hybrid polymer scaffolds (PLA90) for effective bone regeneration.
       
  • Depressant effect of geraniol on the central nervous system of rats:
           Behavior and ECoG power spectra

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Biomedical Journal, Volume 41, Issue 5Author(s): Katty Anne A.L. Medeiros, José R. dos Santos, Thaís Cristina de S. Melo, Marina F. de Souza, Luciano de G. Santos, Auderlan M. de Gois, Rachel R. Cintra, Lívia Cristina R.F. Lins, Alessandra M. Ribeiro, Murilo Marchioro Geraniol is a monoterpene alcohol that is derived from the essential oils of aromatic plants, with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. This study characterized the effect of geraniol on behavior and brainwave patterns in rats. Male rats were submitted to administration of geraniol (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg). The hole board (HB) and open field (OF) tests were performed to evaluate anxiety and motor behavior, respectively. In addition, barbiturate-induced sleeping time (BIST) was used to analyze sedative effect. Finally, electrocorticogram (ECoG) recordings were used to characterize brain-wave patterns. The results showed that geraniol treatment in rats decreased the distance traveled, rearing numbers and lead to increase in immobility time in HB and OF tests. In BIST test, geraniol treatment increased sleep duration but not sleep latency in the animals. Furthermore, geraniol-treated animals demonstrated an increase in the percentage of delta waves in the total spectrum power. Taken together, our results suggested that geraniol exerted a depressant effect on the central nervous system of rats.
       
  • The streptozotocin-high fat diet induced diabetic mouse model exhibits
           severe skin damage and alterations in local lipid mediators

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Biomedical Journal, Volume 41, Issue 5Author(s): Alberto Leguina-Ruzzi, Rina Ortiz, Victoria Velarde BackgroundType 2 diabetes (T2D) can go undiagnosed for years, leading to a stage where produces complications such as delayed skin wound healing. Animal models have been developed in the last decades to study the pathological progression in this disease. Streptozotocin (STZ), that has a selective pharmacological toxicity toward pancreatic β cells, in addition to high fat diet has been widely used to induce diabetes however no evidence has shown its effects on the skin integrity.MethodsEighteen C57BL/6J male mice, were divided in 3 groups; the first was fed with chow diet and the second was kept on a high fat diet and the third injected with STZ intraperitoneal for 5 days consecutively before starting the diet protocol with high fat. Mice were maintained 5 weeks in total.ResultsWe show that animals treated with STZ-high fat diet exhibit skin injuries without significant alterations on basal insulin and triglycerides, compared to the control. The skin from these animals presents higher levels of oxidative stress, lower levels of adhesion proteins and alterations in lipid mediators, effects that are not produced by the high fat diet itself.ConclusionOur results suggest that this in vivo model represents a relevant approach for studying skin damage induced by diabetes.
       
  • Size scaling of nucleolus in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Biomedical Journal, Volume 41, Issue 5Author(s): Tian-Hsiang Ma, Po-Hsiang Chen, Bertrand Chin-Ming Tan, Szecheng J. Lo Nucleolus is viewed as a plurifunctional center in the cell, tightly linked to ribosome biosynthesis. As a non-membranous structure, how the size of nucleolus is determined is a long outstanding question, and the possibility of “direct size scaling to the nucleus” was raised by genetic studies in fission yeast. Here, we used the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to test this hypothesis in multi-cellular organisms. We depleted ani-2, ima-3, or C27D9.1 by RNAi feeding, which altered embryo sizes to different extents in ncl-1 mutant worms. DIC imaging provided evidence that in size-altering embryo nucleolar size decreases in small cells and increases in large cells. Furthermore, analyses of nucleolar size in four blastomeres (ABa, ABp, EMS, and P2) within the same embryo of ncl-1 mutants consistently demonstrated the correspondence between cell and nucleolar sizes – the small cells (EMS and P2) have smaller nucleoli in comparison to the large cells (ABa).
       
  • Secular trends in incidence of osteoporosis in Taiwan: A nationwide
           population-based study

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Biomedical Journal, Volume 41, Issue 5Author(s): Fang-Ping Chen, Ting-Shuo Huang, Tsai-Sheng Fu, Chi-Chin Sun, An-Shine Chao, Tien-Ling Tsai BackgroundThe present study aimed to assess the changes in trend of osteoporosis among the Taiwanese population from 2001 to 2011.MethodsThe National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan, containing records from approximately 23 million insures from 2001 to 2011, was analyzed. Insurees aged≧50 years with osteoporosis were identified either from previously documented osteoporotic diagnosis or osteoporosis-related fractures according to Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnostic code.ResultsThe prevalence of osteoporosis increased from 17.4% in 2001 to 25.0% in 2011. The prevalence trend increased from 2001 to 2005 and plateaued thereafter. During 2001–2005, the incidence rate of hip fracture held steady from 277 to 281 per 100,000 person-years, and decreased thereafter from 262 to 247 per 100,000 person-years. The overall incidence of osteoporosis declined among patients younger than 84 years from 2001 to 2011, especially after 2005. As compared with 2005 and before, the incidence rate of osteoporosis was significantly decreased since 2006.ConclusionsThe secular changes of osteoporosis in Taiwan are quite similar to the trend in western countries. It reveals how osteoporosis awareness and policy interventions can affect the prevalence trend of osteoporosis.
       
 
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