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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3003 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1427 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 310)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Avian Conservation and Ecology
  [SJR: 0.903]   [H-I: 10]   [12 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1712-6568
   Published by Society of Canadian Ornithologists Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) survival, recovery, and harvest rates
           derived from 55 years of banding in Prairie Canada, 1960–2014

    • Authors: Bartzen, B. A; Dufour, K. W.
      Abstract: Northern Pintail (Anas acuta; hereafter pintail) experienced a significant population decline in North America in the 1980s but did not rebound to the previous population level the way that other prairie dabbling duck species (Anas spp.) did once habitat conditions improved. Although the population decline occurred throughout the breeding range of pintails, the decline was most pronounced and sustained in Prairie Canada, i.e., southern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Thus, we estimated and examined annual survival, recovery, and harvest rates of pintails banded in Prairie Canada from 1960–2014. Annual survival rates varied by sex but were relatively high compared to those of other dabbling duck species and increased slightly over the study period to end at 0.64 ± 0.13 (SE) and 0.74 ± 0.10 for females and males, respectively. Recovery and harvest rates varied over time but generally declined in the 1980s and increased from the early 1990s until the end of the study period. There was no clear evidence that hunting bag limit restrictions affected annual survival, recovery, or harvest rates. In addition, we could find no compelling evidence that harvest mortality was substantially additive to nonharvest mortality for pintails. However, we could not definitively ascertain the effects of the restrictions, and we suggest that a trial basis of liberalized hunting bag limits would do much to improve the understanding of harvest and population dynamics of pintails and pose little risk to the population. Based on our results, we believe that measures other than harvest restrictions will likely have to be taken to elevate the pintail population to the North American Waterfowl Management Plan objective.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Sep 2017 12:06:35 EDT
       
  • Reproductive parameters of the Turquoise-fronted Parrot (Amazona aestiva)
           in the dry Chaco forest

    • Authors: Berkunsky, I; Segura, L. N, Ruggera, R. A, Faegre, S. I. K, Trofino-Falasco, C, L?pez, F. G, Velasco, M. A, Kacoliris, F. P, Arambur?, R. M, Reboreda, J. C.
      Abstract: The progressive exploitation and destruction of nesting habitat in recent years, combined with the substantial pressure from legal and illegal removal of wild nestlings and adults, justifies the development of a comprehensive study on the reproductive biology of the Turquoise-fronted Parrot (Amazona aestiva). We analyzed breeding parameters in a wild protected population of Turquoise-fronted Parrots in the Chaco forest, Argentina, examining variation among years, over the course of the breeding season, and in relation to the age of the nest. Mean clutch-size per nesting attempt was 3.68 eggs. Hatching success (proportion of eggs laid that hatch) was 0.73. Fledging success (proportion of nestlings that fledge) was 0.88. The overall breeding success (mean number of fledglings per laying female per year) was 0.95. Clutch size did not vary among years but it decreased with the delay of the nest initiation date. Hatching failure was the greatest cause of egg partial losses, and brood reduction was the main cause of nestling partial loses. Brood reduction was positively correlated with clutch size and with egg-laying date. We did not find interannual variation in any of the clutch or brood size variables. Our results showed that the population of Turquoise-fronted Parrots in the dry Chaco forest has high values of clutch size and nestling survival, and low values of hatching success. However, some aspects of the breeding biology need more attention, especially if the species continues to be harvested.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Sep 2017 13:02:43 EDT
       
  • Nest box use by American Kestrels and other cavity-nesting birds during
           the nonbreeding season

    • Authors: Davis, C. M; Heath, J. A, McClure, C. J. W.
      Abstract: Nest boxes are posted to provide breeding sites for cavity-nesting birds but less is known about their function in the nonbreeding season, when nest boxes may become important roost sites. In winter months, we surveyed 79 nest boxes before dawn for roosting American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) and other cavity-nesting birds in southwestern Idaho and we reviewed camera recordings from the entire nonbreeding season at a nest box within the study site to better understand nest box use in the nonbreeding season. During surveys we found seven American Kestrels roosting in six nest boxes, Northern Flickers (Colaptes auratus) in 16 nest boxes and a European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) in one nest box. Video recordings revealed inter- and intra-specific conflicts within the nest box as well as a positive relationship between the length of night and the time spent roosting in the box. These results suggest that cavity-nesting birds in our study area are likely to seek out and compete for nest boxes to use as roost sites in the nonbreeding season and the effects of nest boxes on the nonbreeding season ecology of birds should be considered.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Aug 2017 07:31:07 EDT
       
  • Managing urban and rural rights-of-way as potential habitats for grassland
           birds

    • Authors: Leston, L. F. V; Koper, N.
      Abstract: Urban grassy rights-of-way (ROWs) such as along transmission lines could be managed cumulatively as collections of potential grassland habitats to contribute to the conservation of grassland birds. To optimize conservation opportunities, managing urban ROWs for grassland birds may require reductions in frequent mowing and spraying and may also depend on the suitability of landscape structure within the urban environment. We compared effects of mowing regime relative to effects of the matrix surrounding ROWs on grassland bird abundance and occupancy along 48 ROWs in and surrounding Winnipeg, Manitoba, in 2007–2009. We used both hierarchical distance-sampling and multiseason occupancy modeling methods to account for effects of urbanization (e.g., traffic noise), observer experience, time of season, and survey time in the morning on the probability of detecting birds at study sites. We did not find differences in detection of grassland birds due to urbanization, but we did find effects of time of season, survey time in the morning, and observer experience. After accounting for availability, we found that several species declined along ROWs that were surrounded by more urban or wooded land. Western Meadowlark occupancy increased as the amount of grassland within 100 m of ROWs increased. Savannah Sparrow showed some evidence of increasing with mowing, whereas Clay-colored Sparrow showed some evidence of decreasing with mowing, although these species and Western Meadowlark also increased within hayed ROWs. We conclude that urban ROWs managed as grassland bird habitats will probably attract more individuals and species if there is less nearby urban or wooded land and more grassland, and within which there is a mixture of unmowed and hayed ROW sections.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Aug 2017 14:20:02 EDT
       
  • Comparing pre- versus postoperational movement of nocturnal migrants
           around a wind energy facility in northeast British Columbia, Canada

    • Authors: D'Entremont, M. V; Hartley, I, Otter, K. A.
      Abstract: We used two data-recording, open-array marine surveillance radars to track microscale movements of nocturnal migrants at a wind energy project in northeast British Columbia during the preoperational (2008–2010) and operational periods (2011–2012). Data was collected during the peak periods of spring and fall passerine migration in each year. We measured bearing and altitude of nocturnal migrants, as well as the average number of migrants flying in the airspace closest to the wind turbines. Using weather data on wind direction and strength during the periods of monitored migration, we calculated flow-assistance of wind in aiding migration. Although there was greater flow-assistance to movement in spring over fall migration, we did not find a significant difference between the preoperational and operational periods in flow-assisted flight. The altitude at which migrants flew did differ with development phase of the wind facility; migrants flew at higher altitudes during years when the turbines were operational compared to preoperational years. Although the proportion of migrants detected in the airspace 0–150 m above ground level (agl), coinciding with turbine height, did not differ with season or operational phase of the installation, there was a reduction in the proportion of migrants in the airspace just above turbines (151–300 m agl) when turbines were operational. In general, though, the overall altitudes used by migrants were typically higher than turbine height, so the adjustments we documented would only further reduce what appear to be already low levels of collision risk at this particular facility. We discuss possible reasons why this facility appeared to induce low collision risk to migrants, and how this might inform siting decisions of other wind facilities.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Aug 2017 10:00:56 EDT
       
  • Comparison of semiautomated bird song recognition with manual detection of
           recorded bird song samples

    • Authors: Venier, L. A; Mazerolle, M. J, Rodgers, A, McIlwrick, K. A, Holmes, S, Thompson, D.
      Abstract: Automated recording units are increasingly being used to sample wildlife populations. These devices can produce large amounts of data that are difficult to process manually. However, the information in the recordings can be summarized with semiautomated sound recognition software. Our objective was to assess the utility of the semiautomated bird song recognizers to produce data useful for conservation and sustainable forest management applications. We compared detection data generated from expert-interpreted recordings of bird songs collected with automated recording units and data derived from a semiautomated recognition process. We recorded bird songs at 109 sites in boreal forest in 2013 and 2014 using automated recording units. We developed bird-song recognizers for 10 species using Song Scope software (Wildlife Acoustics) and each recognizer was used to scan a set of recordings that was also interpreted manually by an expert in birdsong identification. We used occupancy models to estimate the detection probability associated with each method. Based on these detection probability estimates we produced cumulative detection probability curves. In a second analysis we estimated detection probability of bird song recognizers using multiple 10-minute recordings for a single station and visit (35–63, 10-minute recordings in each of four one-week periods). Results show that the detection probability of most species from single 10-min recordings is substantially higher using expert-interpreted bird song recordings than using the song recognizer software. However, our results also indicate that detection probabilities for song recognizers can be significantly improved by using more than a single 10-minute recording, which can be easily done with little additional cost with the automate procedure. Based on these results we suggest that automated recording units and song recognizer software can be valuable tools to estimate detection probability and occupancy of boreal forest birds, when sampling for sufficiently long periods.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Aug 2017 14:03:13 EDT
       
  • Interspecific and intraspecific spatial separation by birds breeding in
           nest boxes

    • Authors: Deeming, D. C; Biddle, L. E, Du Feu, C. R.
      Abstract: Nest boxes can be seen as a conservation tool for improving low-grade nesting habitat but it is unclear how sympatric species using boxes establish a spatial distribution relative to conspecifics and heterospecifics. This study determined the distances between nest boxes occupied by Blue Tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and Great Tits (Parus major) in two British woodlands to ascertain whether spatial distribution was affected by species and, if it was, whether there were reproductive consequences of this breeding distribution. Occupancy of nest boxes at two woodland sites were recorded on an annual basis between 2010 and 2014, inclusive. Distances between nest boxes, and reproductive activity, were recorded. Even if nest boxes showed a clumped distribution in the woodlands, the occupancy of the boxes was random. Not all boxes were used and the minimum distance between occupied boxes was at least twice the distance between boxes in general. Blue Tits tended to have greater distances between boxes containing conspecifics but distances between boxes containing heterospecifics were generally of comparable lengths. Reproductive output was only affected in relation to clutch size for Blue Tits nesting at one site. Nest boxes that aim to improve habitats that lack suitable nesting sites should be placed to reflect actual dispersal distances of the focal bird species.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Aug 2017 14:03:12 EDT
       
  • Species traits and local abundance affect bird-window collision frequency

    • Authors: Wittig, T. W; Cagle, N. L, Ocampo-Pe?uela, N, Winton, R. Scott, Zambello, E, Lichtneger, Z.
      Abstract: Studies on bird-window collisions have generally drawn inferences about species’ differential vulnerability from collision tallies. However, this common methodology is potentially biased because the number of collisions may simply reflect prevalence of species at the study site rather than species-specific vulnerability. Building on recent studies of abundance and collision rates, we offered a complementary methodology based on point count data that could be widely applied alongside carcass surveys. Additionally, we broadened our analysis beyond previously applied taxonomic and migratory classifications to include functional classifications of feeding guild, breeding status, and synanthropy. Our null hypothesis was that collision frequencies reflect a species’ or classification group’s prevalence at study sites. To test this possibility, we used collision data collected at three sites in the Research Triangle Area of North Carolina, United States. At one of these sites, Duke University’s Main Campus, we also gathered relative abundances from the local bird community to develop a case study assessment of how background prevalence compared to number of collisions. Using the larger, three-site dataset, we developed an initial picture of collision susceptibility based solely on frequency, the standard practice. Then, by bootstrapping our Duke abundance data, we generated confidence intervals that simulated collision based on chance versus prevalence. We identified several instances where collision tallies produced misleading perception of species-specific vulnerability. In the most extreme case, frequencies from our Triangle Area dataset indicated locally breeding species were highly vulnerable to collisions while our abundance-based case study suggested this same group was actually adept at avoiding collisions. Through our case study, we also found that foliage gleaning was linked to increased risk, and omnivory and ground foraging were associated with decreased risk. Although our results are based on a limited sample, we argue that abundance needs to be incorporated into future studies and recommend point counts as a noninvasive and adaptable alternative to area-searches and mist netting.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Jun 2017 12:23:26 EDT
       
  • Mobbing call experiment suggests the enhancement of forest bird movement
           by tree cover in urban landscapes across seasons

    • Authors: Shimazaki, A; Yamaura, Y, Senzaki, M, Yabuhara, Y, Nakamura, F.
      Abstract: Local scale movement behavior is an important basis to predict large-scale bird movements in heterogeneous landscapes. Here we conducted playback experiments using mobbing calls to estimate the probability that forest birds would cross a 50-m urban area during three seasons (breeding, dispersal, and wintering seasons) with varying amounts of tree cover, building area, and electric wire density. We examined the responses of four forest resident species: Marsh Tit (Poecile palustris), Varied Tit (Sittiparus varius), Japanese Tit (P. minor), and Eurasian Nuthatch (Sitta europaea) in central Hokkaido, northern Japan. We carried out and analyzed 250 playback experiments that attracted 618 individuals. Our results showed that tree cover increased the crossing probability of three species other than Varied Tit. Building area and electric wire density had no detectable effect on crossing probability for four species. Seasonal difference in the crossing probability was found only for Varied Tit, and the probability was the highest in the breeding season. These results suggest that the positive effect of tree cover on the crossing probability would be consistent across seasons. We therefore conclude that planting trees would be an effective way to promote forest bird movement within an urban landscape.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Jun 2017 08:05:04 EDT
       
  • The impact of disturbance from photographers on the Blue-crowned
           Laughingthrush (Garrulax courtoisi)

    • Authors: Zhang, W; Shi, J, Huang, H, Liu, T.
      Abstract: Human disturbance may cause significant declines in animal populations. The Blue-crowned Laughingthrush (Garrulax courtoisi) is critically endangered and restricted to a small area in Wuyuan, Jiangxi Province, China. Disturbance from photographers in the main breeding sites were severe in the past few years. We studied nest-site selection in nine breeding colonies in relation to disturbance by bird photographers. We compared the nest tree species and nest height above ground in Shimen (SM), the largest and most disturbed site, with the other eight sites. Birds in SM were more selective in nest tree species than in the other sites, they also nested much further from the nearest village building. Nest height above ground at SM was greater than at the other sites and itself in 2004 when there were almost no visitors. These results suggest that disturbance from birding visitors may exacerbate the endangered status of this bird. Management of bird visitors in a small breeding area of endangered species should be considered.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2017 13:08:53 EDT
       
  • Autonomous recording units in avian ecological research: current use and
           future applications

    • Authors: Shonfield, J; Bayne, E. M.
      Abstract: Acoustic surveys are a widely used sampling tool in ecological research and monitoring. They are used to monitor populations and ecosystems and to study various aspects of animal behavior. Autonomous recording units (ARUs) can record sound in most environments and are increasingly used by researchers to conduct acoustic surveys for birds. In this review, we summarize the use of ARUs in avian ecological research and synthesize current knowledge of the benefits and drawbacks of this technology. ARUs enable researchers to do more repeat visits with less time spent in the field, with the added benefits of a permanent record of the data collected and reduced observer bias. They are useful in remote locations and for targeting rare species. ARUs are mostly comparable to human observers in terms of species richness, but in some cases, they detect fewer species and at shorter distances. Drawbacks of ARUs include the cost of equipment, storage of recordings, loss of data if units fail, and potential sampling trade-offs in spatial vs. temporal coverage. ARUs generate large data sets of audio recordings, but advances in automated species recognition and acoustic processing techniques are contributing to make the processing time manageable. Future applications of ARUs include biodiversity monitoring and studying habitat use, animal movement, and various behavioral ecology questions based on vocalization activity. ARUs have the potential to make significant advances in avian ecological research and to be used in more innovative ways than simply as a substitute for a human observer in the field.
      PubDate: Fri, 26 May 2017 08:35:19 EDT
       
  • Paired sampling standardizes point count data from humans and acoustic
           recorders

    • Authors: Van Wilgenburg, S. L; S?lymos, P, Kardynal, K. J, Frey, M. D.
      Abstract: Acoustic recordings are increasingly used to quantify occupancy and abundance in avian monitoring and research. The recent development of relatively inexpensive programmable autonomous recording units (ARUs) has further increased the utility of acoustic recording technologies. Despite their potential advantages, persistent questions remain as to how comparable data are between ARUs and traditional (human observer) point counts. We suggest that differences in counts obtained from ARUs versus human observers primarily stem from differences in the effective detection radius of humans (EDRH) versus ARUs (EDRA). We describe how paired sampling can be used in conjunction with generalized linear (GLM) or generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) to estimate correction factors (δ) to remove biases between ARUs and traditional point counts. Furthermore, if human observers conduct distance estimation, we show that density estimates can be derived from single ARUs by estimating EDRA as a function of EDRH and δ, thus providing alternatives to more complicated and expensive approaches. We demonstrate our approach using data from 363 point count stations in 105 unique boreal study sites at which field staff conducted point count surveys that were simultaneously recorded by an ARU and later transcribed in the lab. Finally, we used repeated random subsampling of the data to split the data into model creation (70%) and validation (30%) subsets to iteratively estimate δ and validate density estimates from ARUs against densities calculated from human observers at the same independent validation locations. We modeled density of 35 species of boreal forest birds and show that incorporating δ in statistical offsets successfully removes systematic biases in estimated avian counts and/or density between human and ARU derived surveys. Our method is therefore easily implemented and will facilitate the integration of ARU and human observer point count data, facilitating expanded monitoring efforts and meta-analyses with historic point count data.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 May 2017 13:15:09 EDT
       
  • Habitat associations with counts of declining Western Grebes in Alberta,
           Canada

    • Authors: Erickson, M. E; Found-Jackson, C, Boyce, M. S.
      Abstract: During the past several decades, numbers of Western Grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) have declined throughout their breeding and wintering ranges in North America. We estimated Western Grebe abundance and documented habitat factors between 2007 and 2009 from 43 lakes in Alberta, Canada where Western Grebes historically have occurred, to (1) compare Western Grebe abundance with the relative probability of persistence, and (2) identify habitat correlates of grebe abundance. The relative probability of Western Grebe persistence was correlated with abundance in the study area, although only 19% of the variation in persistence probability was explained by abundance. Western Grebe abundance was positively correlated with the shoreline extent of emergent bulrush (Scirpus lacustris), which is consistent with past studies and underlies the importance of protecting emergent vegetation in efforts to conserve Western Grebes. Grebe abundance also was positively correlated with a longer shoreline perimeter, but was inversely correlated with the amount of forested backshore, which occurred on lakes primarily at the northern margins of Western Grebe range. The amount of backshore development was positively associated with Western Grebe abundance, which might reflect a preference for similar lake characteristics by humans and grebes. These relationships are important to consider in the context of implementing and managing recovery of the Western Grebe in Alberta.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 May 2017 09:23:34 EDT
       
  • Experimentally derived detection distances from audio recordings and human
           observers enable integrated analysis of point count data

    • Authors: Yip, D. A; Leston, L, Bayne, E. M, S?lymos, P, Grover, A.
      Abstract: Point counts are one of the most commonly used methods for assessing bird abundance. Autonomous recording units (ARUs) are increasingly being used as a replacement for human-based point counts. Previous studies have compared the relative benefits of human versus ARU-based point count methods, primarily with the goal of understanding differences in species richness and the abundance of individuals over an unlimited distance. What has not been done is an evaluation of how to standardize these two types of data so that they can be compared in the same analysis, especially when there are differences in the area sampled. We compared detection distances between human observers in the field and four commercially available recording devices (Wildlife Acoustics SM2, SM3, RiverForks, and Zoom H1) by simulating vocalizations of various avian species at different distances and amplitudes. We also investigated the relationship between sound amplitude and detection to simplify ARU calibration. We used these data to calculate correction factors that can be used to standardize detection distances of ARUs relative to each other and human observers. In general, humans in the field could detect sounds at greater distances than an ARU although detectability varied depending on species song characteristics. We provide correction factors for four commonly used ARUs and propose methods for calibrating ARUs relative to each other and human observers.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 May 2017 12:32:39 EDT
       
  • Taxonomy and distribution of the imperilled Newfoundland Gray-cheeked
           Thrush, Catharus minimus minimus

    • Authors: FitzGerald, A. M; Whitaker, D. M, Ralston, J, Kirchman, J. J, Warkentin, I. G.
      Abstract: Gray-cheeked Thrushes breeding on Newfoundland are purported to be a distinct subspecies (Catharus minimus minimus) and have declined precipitously since the 1980s. To assess the validity of Gray-cheeked Thrush subspecies we collected blood samples and morphological measurements from 51 individuals captured at 15 sites in Newfoundland and Labrador (2013–2015). Analysis of mitochondrial (ND2) and nuclear intron (ADAM-TS 6, FIB7) sequences from these and additional samples from Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Labrador, Quebec, Alaska, and Siberia showed low genetic variation at both nuclear loci, and shallow mitochondrial divergence between subspecies; there were no shared haplotypes between thrushes from Newfoundland / Nova Scotia (n = 41) and those from western Labrador and further west (n = 24). Thrushes from Newfoundland also had shorter wing chords, tails, and culmens and less black in the mandible compared to those from western Labrador and Quebec. Samples from the southeast coast of Labrador (n = 13) included ND2 haplotypes both from Newfoundland and western Labrador plus one putative hybrid that was phenotypically a Gray-cheeked Thrush but that had a Bicknell’s Thrush (C. bicknelli) ND2 haplotype and was heterozygous at a segregating site in FIB7. We detected thrushes during point counts at 7 of 24 sites on Newfoundland, but failed to detect them at 10 historically occupied sites on Newfoundland or in the reported distribution gap between subspecies in Labrador. Sites where thrushes have apparently disappeared had less shrub habitat within 1250 m and more large broadleaf trees within territory-scale areas compared to sites where they persist. Additionally, red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) are an introduced species on Newfoundland and thrush occurrence was > 3x higher at sites where red squirrels were not detected. Our results support previous designations of C. m. minimus from Newfoundland and southeastern Labrador as a subspecies distinct from C. m. aliciae found further west.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 May 2017 08:32:19 EDT
       
  • Microphone variability and degradation: implications for monitoring
           programs employing autonomous recording units

    • Authors: Turgeon, P. J; Van Wilgenburg, S. L, Drake, K. L.
      Abstract: Autonomous recording units (ARUs) are emerging as an effective tool for avian population monitoring and research. Although ARU technology is being rapidly adopted, there is a need to establish whether variation in ARU components and their degradation with use might introduce detection biases that would affect long-term monitoring and research projects. We assessed whether microphone sensitivity impacted the probability of detecting bird vocalizations by broadcasting a sequence of 12 calls toward an array of commercially available ARUs equipped with microphones of varying sensitivities under three levels (32 dBA, 42 dBA, and 50 dBA) of experimentally induced noise conditions selected to reflect the range of noise levels commonly encountered during avian surveys. We used binomial regression to examine factors influencing probability of detection for each species and used these to examine the impact of microphone sensitivity on the effective detection area (ha) for each species. Microphone sensitivity loss reduced detection probability for all species examined, but the magnitude of the effect varied between species and often interacted with distance. Microphone sensitivity loss reduced the effective detection area by an average of 25% for microphones just beyond manufacturer specifications (-5 dBV) and by an average of 66% for severely compromised microphones (-20 dBV). Microphone sensitivity loss appeared to be more problematic for low frequency calls where reduction in the effective detection area occurred most rapidly. Microphone degradation poses a source of variation in avian surveys made with ARUs that will require regular measurement of microphone sensitivity and criteria for microphone replacement to ensure scientifically reproducible results. We recommend that research and monitoring projects employing ARUs test their microphones regularly, replace microphones with declining sensitivity, and record sensitivity as a potential covariate in statistical analyses of acoustic data.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Apr 2017 06:44:11 EDT
       
  • The Motus Wildlife Tracking System: a collaborative research network to
           enhance the understanding of wildlife movement

    • Authors: Taylor, P. D; Crewe, T. L, Mackenzie, S. A, Lepage, D, Aubry, Y, Crysler, Z, Finney, G, Francis, C. M, Guglielmo, C. G, Hamilton, D. J, Holberton, R. L, Loring, P. H, Mitchell, G. W, Norris, D, Paquet, J, Ronconi, R. A, Smetzer, J. R, Smith, P. A, Welch, L. J, Woodworth, B. K.
      Abstract: We describe a new collaborative network, the Motus Wildlife Tracking System (Motus; https://motus.org), which is an international network of researchers using coordinated automated radio-telemetry arrays to study movements of small flying organisms including birds, bats, and insects, at local, regional, and hemispheric scales. Radio-telemetry has been a cornerstone of tracking studies for over 50 years, and because of current limitations of geographic positioning systems (GPS) and satellite transmitters, has remained the primary means to track movements of small animals with high temporal and spatial precision. Automated receivers, along with recent miniaturization and digital coding of tags, have further improved the utility of radio-telemetry by allowing many individuals to be tracked continuously and simultaneously across broad landscapes. Motus is novel among automated arrays in that collaborators employ a single radio frequency across receiving stations over a broad geographic scale, allowing individuals to be detected at sites maintained by others. Motus also coordinates, disseminates, and archives detections and associated metadata in a central repository. Combined with the ability to track many individuals simultaneously, Motus has expanded the scope and spatial scale of research questions that can be addressed using radio-telemetry from local to regional and even hemispheric scales. Since its inception in 2012, more than 9000 individuals of over 87 species of birds, bats, and insects have been tracked, resulting in more than 250 million detections. This rich and comprehensive dataset includes detections of individuals during all phases of the annual cycle (breeding, migration, and nonbreeding), and at a variety of spatial scales, resulting in novel insights into the movement behavior of small flying animals. The value of the Motus network will grow as spatial coverage of stations and number of partners and collaborators increases. With continued expansion and support, Motus can provide a framework for global collaboration, and a coordinated approach to solving some of the most complex problems in movement biology and ecology.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Mar 2017 12:29:37 EDT
       
  • Habitats and landscapes associated with bird species in a lowland
           conifer-dominated ecosystem

    • Authors: Zlonis, E. J; Panci, H. G, Bednar, J. D, Hamady, M, Niemi, G. J.
      Abstract: Human-induced effects on lowland conifer forests in hemiboreal regions are increasing because of expanded use of these northern ecosystems for raw materials, energy, and minerals as well as the potential effects of climatic changes. These forests support many breeding bird species across the Holarctic and allow the persistence of several boreal bird species in hemiboreal and even temperate regions. These bird species are of particular conservation concern as shifting patterns northward in forest composition caused by climate change will likely affect their populations. However, effective management and conservation options are limited because the specifics of these species’ breeding habitats are not well understood. We modeled and mapped habitat suitability for 11 species of boreal birds that breed in the lowland conifer forests of the Agassiz Lowlands Ecological Subsection in northern Minnesota and are likely to have reduced breeding habitat in the future: Spruce Grouse (Falcipennis canadensis), Black-backed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus), Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi), Yellow-bellied Flycatcher (Empidonax flaviventris), Boreal Chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus), Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa), Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula), Swainson’s Thrush (Catharus ustulatus), Connecticut Warbler (Oporornis agilis), Palm Warbler (Setophaga palmarum), and Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis). Sets of 7 to 16 potential environmental covariates, including both stand-level and landscape attributes, were used to develop individual species models. Within this lowland conifer-dominated ecosystem, we found significant selection for specific forest and landscape characteristics by all but one of these species, with the best models including between one and nine variables. Habitat suitability maps were developed from these models and predictions tested with an independent dataset. Model performance depended on species, correctly predicting 56–96% of test data. We present a map combining suitability scores for five species of conservation concern that has been used for conservation planning and management opportunities across a broad, lowland forest landscape. We recommend managers utilize the detailed model development and validation framework to address local and regional conservation issues.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Mar 2017 13:32:36 EDT
       
  • Direction-of-arrival estimation of animal vocalizations for monitoring
           animal behavior and improving estimates of abundance

    • Authors: Hedley, R. W; Huang, Y, Yao, K.
      Abstract: Autonomous recording units (ARUs) show promise for improving the spatial and temporal coverage of biodiversity monitoring programs, and for improving the resolution with which the behaviors of animals can be monitored on small spatial scales. Most ARUs, however, provide the user with little to no ability to determine the direction of an incoming sound, a shortcoming that limits the utility of ARU recordings for assessing the abundance of animals. We present a recording system constructed from two Wildlife Acoustics SM3 recording units that can estimate the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of an incoming signal with high accuracy. Field tests of this system revealed that 95% of sounds were estimated within 12° of the true DOA in the azimuth angle and 9° in the elevation angle, and that the system was largely robust to background noise and accurate to at least 30 m. We tested the ability of the system to discriminate up to four simulated birds singing simultaneously and show that the system generally performed well at this task, but, as expected, fainter and longer sounds were more likely to be overlapped and therefore undetected by the system. We propose that a microphone system that can estimate the DOA of sounds, such as the system presented here, may improve the ability of ARUs to assess abundance during biodiversity surveys by facilitating more accurate localization of sounds in three dimensions.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Mar 2017 08:20:11 EDT
       
  • Factors influencing density of the Northern Mealy Amazon in three forest
           types of a modified rainforest landscape in Mesoamerica

    • Authors: De Labra-Hern?ndez; M. ?ngel, Renton, K.
      Abstract: The high rate of conversion of tropical moist forest to secondary forest makes it imperative to evaluate forest metric relationships of species dependent on primary, old-growth forest. The threatened Northern Mealy Amazon (Amazona guatemalae) is the largest mainland parrot, and occurs in tropical moist forests of Mesoamerica that are increasingly being converted to secondary forest. However, the consequences of forest conversion for this recently taxonomically separated parrot species are poorly understood. We measured forest metrics of primary evergreen, riparian, and secondary tropical moist forest in Los Chimalapas, Mexico. We also used point counts to estimate density of Northern Mealy Amazons in each forest type during the nonbreeding (Sept 2013) and breeding (March 2014) seasons. We then examined how parrot density was influenced by forest structure and composition, and how parrots used forest types within tropical moist forest. Overall, parrot density was high in the breeding season, with few parrots present during the nonbreeding season. During the breeding season, primary forest had significantly greater density of 18.9 parrots/km² in evergreen forest and 35.9 parrots/km² in riparian forest, compared with only 3.4 parrots/km² in secondary forest. Secondary forest had significantly lower tree species richness, density, diameter, total height, and major branch ramification height, as well as distinct tree species composition compared with both types of primary forest. The number of parrots recorded at point counts was related to density of large, tall trees, characteristic of primary forest, and parrots used riparian forest more than expected by availability. Hence, the increased conversion of tropical moist forest to secondary forest is likely to lead to reduced densities of forest-dependent species such as the Northern Mealy Amazon. Furthermore, the species’ requirement for primary tropical moist forest highlights the need to reevaluate conservation status of the Northern Mealy Amazon, and implement strategies to reduce forest conversion.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Mar 2017 11:21:15 EDT
       
 
 
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