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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3149 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (247 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (116 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1495 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (47 journals)
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    - ORNITHOLOGY (26 journals)
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    - ZOOLOGY (137 journals)

BIOLOGY (1495 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 293)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
Actualidades Biológicas
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0304-3584 - ISSN (Online) 2145-7166
Published by SciELO Homepage  [715 journals]
  • Genetic and epigenetic factors of gastric cancer

    • Abstract: Resumen El cáncer gástrico (CG) es la primera causa de muerte por cáncer en Colombia, la tumorogénesis gástrica es un proceso gradual y de larga evolución que incluye cambios genéticos y epigenéticos que activan protooncogenes e inactivan genes supresores de tumor (GST). Los cambios genéticos incluyen pérdida de heterocigocidad (LOH), inestabilidad microsatelital (MSI), translocaciones, aneuploidía, y mutaciones en GST; y amplificaciones o mutaciones en protooncogenes. Por otro lado, la alteración epigenética más frecuente es la metilación de los promotores. En la actualidad, el CG es un problema de salud pública en Colombia por tres factores: las altas tasas de incidencia/mortalidad, los sobrecostos de los tratamientos de la enfermedad en estadios avanzado y la falta de acceso de la población a los servicios de salud. Esta revisión expondrá las alteraciones genéticas y epigenéticas que se encuentran con mayor frecuencia en CG, y su asociación con los diferentes tipos de CG. Gastric cancer (GC) is the leading cause of cancer death in Colombia, gastric tumorigenesis is a gradual and long evolution process involving genetic and epigenetic changes that activate protooncogenes and inactivate tumor suppressor genes (GST). The genetic changes include loss of heterozygosity (LOH), microsatellite instability (MSI), translocations, aneuploidy, and mutations in GST; and mutations in protooncogenes or amplifications. Meanwhile, methylation of promoters is the commonest epigenetic alteration. Actually, CG is a public health problem in the country for three factors: high rates of incidence/mortality, overruns treatments for advanced disease stages and lack of public access to services health. This review the genetic and epigenetic alterations that are found more often in CG, and its association with different types of CG.
       
  • Growth promoter effect on the Botryococcus braunii Kutzing 1849 culture by
           several different bacterial strains

    • Abstract: There are several strategies to improve the growth of microalgae in industrial processes. In recent years, one of them has gained strength to achieve this goal: the co-culture with bacteria. Using growth-promoting substances, producer bacteria enhance microalgae biology activity, similar to how they have been used to promote the successful production of crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate the promoter capacity of strains Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium aquatile and Flavobacterium aquatile, evaluate their ability to improve the growth rate of microalgae Botryococcus braunii and to optimize the process derived from its cultivation. This study showed that the tested bacteria were able to increase up to 1.7 times the B. braunii growth rate and this promoting ability remained present in cell lysate preparations from the same bacterial strains.Resumen El empleo de bacterias productoras de sustancias promotoras de crecimiento, para mejorar la eficiencia en el crecimiento de las microalgas y así potenciar su actividad en procesos industriales es una práctica que ha tomado fuerza durante los últimos años, de manera análoga a como han sido utilizadas las bacterias para favorecer la producción exitosa de cultivos vegetales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad de las cepas Flavobacterium aquatile, Corynobacterium aquatile y Bacillus subtilis de actuar como promotoras en el crecimiento de la microalga Botryococcus braunii con el fin de mejorar su velocidad de crecimiento y optimizar los procesos derivados de su cultivo. Este estudio muestra que las bacterias evaluadas tienen la capacidad de aumentar hasta 1,7 veces el crecimiento de B. braunii y esta capacidad promotora continúa presente en preparaciones de lisados celulares procedentes de estas mismas cepas bacterianas.
       
  • Relationship between litter production and soil conditions in tropical
           rainforests of biogeographic Chocó, Colombia

    • Abstract: Resumen La producción de hojarasca (PNNhojarasca) es uno de los principales componentes de la productividad primaria neta (PPN) en ecosistemas boscosos. Dicha PPNhojarasca está determinada considerablemente por las condiciones edáficas en bosques lluviosos tropicales. Para evaluar esta hipótesis se establecieron cinco parcelas permanentes de una hectárea en dos bosques de Opogodó y Pacurita (Chocó), Colombia, donde se determinó la PPNhojarasca mediante 125 recolectores que se evaluaron mensualmente durante un año. Además, se midieron los parámetros básicos de fertilidad edáfica, y se relacionaron con la PPNhojarasca. Se observó que ambos bosques presentaron suelos pobres en nutrientes, pero con mayor contenido de arena, N total y materia orgánica (MO) en Opogodó. La PPNhojarasca fue similar en ambos bosques (7,82 t ha-1 año-1 en Opogodó, y 7,35 t ha-1 año-1 en Pacurita). Asimismo, los componentes con mayor aporte fueron las hojas (>60%), tallos (19%) y miscelánea (14%). La PPNhojarasca total presentó correlación negativa débil con el porcentaje de limo edáfico. Mientras la producción de hojas se asoció positivamente con el contenido de arena, pH, MO y N total, la relación fue negativa con el aluminio (Al), la capacidad de intercambio catiónico efectiva (CICE) y limo. En general, las correlaciones entre la PPNhojarasca y los parámetros edáficos fueron débiles; al parecer, por la poca variación en la fertilidad y la baja disponibilidad de algunos nutrientes (Fósforo y Calcio) del suelo. Por lo tanto, se confirmó débilmente la hipótesis de la limitación por fertilidad del suelo de la PPN en los bosques del Chocó. Litter production (NPPlitterfall) is one of the main components of net primary productivity (NPP) in forest ecosystems. Such NPPlitterfall is determined considerably by the soil conditions in tropical rainforests. To evaluate this hypothesis five 1-ha permanent plots were established in two forests of Chocó (Opogodó and Pacurita) where NPPlitterfall was measured in 125 collectors, monthly-monitored for a year. In addition, basic soil-fertility parameters were measured and related to the NPPlitterfall. It was observed that both forests exhibited nutrient-poor soils, but with higher sand content, total N and organic matter (OM) in Opogodó. The NPPlitterfall was similar in both forests (7.82 t ha-1 yr-1 in Opogodó, and 7.35 t ha-1 yr-1 in Pacurita). Also, the litter-fall components with greatest contribution were leaves (> 60%), stems (19%) and miscellaneous (14%). Total NPPlitterfall showed a weak negative correlation with the percentage of silt. Leaf litter production was positively associated with sand content, pH, O.M. and total nitrogen; whereas, it was negatively correlated with aluminum (Al), effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) and silt. In general, correlations between NPPlitterfall and soil parameters were weak, apparently due to the small variation in soil fertility and low availability of some nutrients (phosphorus and calcium). Therefore, these results partially confirmed the hypothesis of soil-fertility limitation upon NPP in the forests of Chocó.
       
  • Relation between infection by galls and the structural variables of
           Rhizophora mangle L., in Gulf of Urabá (Colombia)

    • Abstract: Resumen En los últimos años se han identificado diversos problemas fitosanitarios, que causan el deterioro de los manglares del golfo de Urabá y en consecuencia han afectado a las comunidades que aprovechan sus productos. Especialmente se detectó la presencia de tumores en árboles de Rhizophora mangle. Con el fin de evaluar su relación con la estructura y anatomía de los árboles, se establecieron 24 parcelas circulares de 500 m², en la desembocadura del río Atrato, sitio con alta incidencia, y tres parcelas en la ensenada de Ríonegro, donde no se han registrado tumores hasta ahora. Se midieron diámetros y alturas de árboles con DAP mayor que 2,5 cm, y se evaluó su vigor. Las parcelas localizadas en la desembocadura del río Atrato, presentaron en general infección alta (sólo cuatro tuvieron infección baja). En el modelo logístico, para cualquier combinación de DAP y vigor, la presencia de agallas en los árboles fue más probable que la ausencia, y la probabilidad de encontrar un árbol infectado aumentó, a medida que el DAP aumentó, y su vigor era más desfavorable. El efecto general del vigor fue estadísticamente significativo, sin embargo, los contrastes entre las categorías superiores (2-4) no mostraron diferencias significativas. La proporción de árboles infectados fue alta (> 75%) en categorías mayores a 10 cm de DAP, evidenciando el grado de expansión de la infección en el delta del río Atrato. Las distribuciones diamétricas conservan la relación positiva encontrada con el modelo logístico entre el diámetro de los árboles y la presencia de agallas. In recent years, several phytosanitary problems have been identified, causing deterioration of the mangrove forests of the gulf of Urabá and, consequently affecting the communities that use their products. Especially the presence of tumors in Rhizophora mangle trees was detected several years ago. In order to evaluate its relationship with the structure and anatomy of R. mangle trees, 24 circular plots of 500 m² were established, at the mouth of the Atrato river, a site with a high incidence of these tumors in mangroves, and three plots in the cove of Rionegro, where have not been registered tumors so far. Diameters and heights of trees with DBH greater than 2.5 cm were measured, and their vigor was evaluated. Most plots located at the mouth of the Atrato River, showed a higher percentage of infection (only 4 of them showed low infection percentage). In the logistic model, for any combination of DAP and vigor, the presence of galls in trees was more likely than absence, and the probability of finding an infected tree increased, as DAP increased, and its vigor was more unfavorable. The overall vigor effect was statistically significant, however, the contrasts between upper categories (2-4) did no show significant differences. The proportion of infected trees was high (> 75%) in categories greater than 10 cm of DBH, showing the high level of spread of the infection in the Atrato river delta. The diameter distributions retain the positive relationship found with the logistic model between the diameter of the trees and the presence of galls.
       
  • Antimicrobial activity of peels and seeds of Citrus limonia and
           Citrus sinensis

    • Abstract: Resumen Se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana de extractos etanólicos y fracciones en n-hexano, acetato de etilo, diclorometano y agua-etanol obtenidos a partir de semillas y cáscaras de Citrus sinensis y Citrus limonia, sobre los fitopatógenos Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora cinnamoni y Rhizopus oryzae. El efecto inhibitorio de los diferentes extractos se midió sobre el crecimiento micelial, la esporulación y sobre los daños en la micromorfología de los microorganismos por los métodos densidad óptica y difusión en agar; los extractos fueron caracterizados por cromatografía de capa delgada, verificándose la presencia de metabolitos secundarios de tipo flavonoide, alcaloide y limonoide. Se presentó un comportamiento diferencial en cuanto a la actividad antimicrobiana de los diferentes tratamientos siendo los más activos los diclorometánicos de las cáscaras, y en este orden con mayor actividad en la fracción diclorometánica de C. limonia. Se observó efecto inhibitorio sobre los microorganismos, el cual fue dependiente de la concentración, apreciándose daños micromorfológicos sobre hifas y estructuras reproductivas, como esporangios y conidios a concentraciones cercanas a los 7 mg/ml. Los resultados sugieren que residuos de la agroindustria de cítricos como las cáscaras son fuente de metabolitos, con potencial antimicrobiano en el control de fitopatógenos de importancia agrícola. The antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts and fractions in n-hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and water-ethanol obtained from seeds and peels of Citrus limonia and Citrus sinensis, against Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora cinnamoni, and Rhizopus oryzae was evaluated. The inhibitory effect of various extracts was measured on mycelial growth, sporulation, and damage on microscopic morphology of microorganisms by the following methods: optical density and agar diffusion, determining the inhibitory effect on mycelial growth, sporulation, and microscopic morphology of plant pathogens; the extracts were characterized by thin layer chromatography, verifying the presence of secondary metabolites of flavonoid type, alkaloid, and limonoids. A differential behavior arises in the antimicrobial activity of different treatments, being the most active dichloromethane shells extracts, and in this order with increased activity in the dichloromethane fraction of C. limonia. The inhibitory effect on the microorganisms tested was observed at concentrations close to 7 mg/ml, the result of micromorphological damage on hyphae and reproductive structures such as sporangia and conidia, which were dependent on the extracts concentration. The results suggest that residues as agribusiness citrus peels are a source of metabolites with antimicrobial potential in controlling agriculturally important plant pathogens.
       
  • Variation in the electrical activity of the prefrontal, frontal and
           temporal cortex in Cannabis users

    • Abstract: Resumen El presente estudio evaluó la variación en la actividad eléctrica de la corteza cerebral prefrontal, frontal y temporal en registros electroencefalográficos de estudiantes universitarios consumidores y residentes en la ciudad de Bogotá, durante y en ausencia de consumo de Cannabis, contrastado con una población control de no consumidores. Se evidenció que los efectos de Cannabis en la actividad eléctrica cerebral durante el consumo, ocasionan la presencia de una mayor actividad alfa, indicando estados de relajación y poca concentración; a su vez, un incremento en la actividad beta, vinculada a la captación de diversos estímulos y la disminución de la actividad delta tras la recompensa generada con el consumo. En ausencia de consumo, se manifiesta el aumento de las ondas delta con respecto a la población control, ondas asociadas con estados de ansiedad. Adicionalmente, se evidenció que el uso prolongado y frecuente de esta sustancia genera una tolerancia, al no variar la actividad cerebral durante y en ausencia del consumo de Cannabis, del mismo modo, la presencia en mayor proporción de ondas theta en ausencia de consumo frente a no consumidores, sugiere que tras el uso prologado de la sustancia los consumidores tienden a manifestar estados de somnolencia y adormecimiento constantes. This research assessed the variation in the electrical activity of the prefrontal, frontal and temporal on the cerebral cortex in EEG records from college Cannabis-user residents in Bogota, during and in the absence of Cannabis use, contrasted with a control population of non-users. It was evident that the effects of Cannabis in brain electrical activity during the consume cause the increase of alpha activity, indicating states of relax and low concentration; also, an increase in beta activity, related to the reception of different stimulus and decrease of delta activity generated by the rewarding after the use. In the absence of consumption, delta waves increasing in comparison with the control group, waves associated with anxiety states. Furthermore, it was noticed that the prolonged and frequent use of this substance generates tolerance, without variation in brain activity during and in the absence of Cannabis use. In the same way, the presence in a greater proportion of theta waves in the absence of consumption compared to nonusers, suggesting that after the prolonged use of the substance consumers tend to manifest constant sleepiness and drowsiness.
       
  • Detection of extracellular enzymes in Cuban strains of Metarhizium
           anisopliae complex with entomopathogenic action against Cylas formicarius
           Fabricius (Coleoptera: Brentidae)

    • Abstract: Resumen El presente trabajo informa la detección, por métodos bioquímicos, de enzimas extracelulares relacionadas con la actividad biológica de nueve cepas del complejo Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin. Se determinó, a diferentes concentraciones, la capacidad patogénica contra el insecto Cylas formicarius Fabricius, y se calculó el tiempo y la concentración letal. Se analizó tanto la presencia de enzimas extracelulares en las cepas fúngicas como su relación con el efecto entomopatogénico y virulencia contra C. formicarius. Todas las cepas del complejo M. anisopliae estudiadas resultaron patogénicas exhibiendo un índice de actividad enzimática superior a 1. La cepa LBM-30 fue la más eficiente al detectarse la presencia de enzimas proteasa, quitinasa, caseínasa, amilasa y lipasa. Esto corrobora la relación de la actividad enzimática con la virulencia observada. This study reports the detection, by biochemical methods, of extracellular enzymes related to the biological activity of nine strains of the complex Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin. We determined the pathogenic capacity against the insect Cylas formicarius Fabricius at different concentrations, calculated the lethal time and concentration, and analyzed both the presence of extracellular enzymes in the fungal strains as well as their relation to the entomopathogenic effect and virulence against C. formicarius. All strains of the M. anisopliae complex studied were pathogenic with an enzymatic activity index greater than 1. The LBM-30 strain was the most effective with presence of protease, chitinase, caseinase, amylase and lipase enzymes. This result corroborates the relationship between of the enzymatic activity with the observed virulence.
       
  • Variation of the genetic profiles obtained by PCR with and without DNA
           extraction from blood stain

    • Abstract: Resumen La PCR sin extracción es una herramienta clave en investigaciones forenses, tratándose de una de las opciones a elegir cuando se tienen muestras con baja cantidad o calidad del ADN. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si hay diferencias entre los perfiles genéticos obtenidos por PCR i) en muestras de ADN extraídas con Chelex® 100, ii) en muestras de ADN obtenidas con el reactivo de purificación de muestras en tarjetas FTA, y iii) por la PCR muestras sin extracción, empleando el kit comercial AmpFLSTR® Identifiler®, utilizado de rutina en el laboratorio IdentiGEN de la Universidad de Antioquia. Manchas de sangre almacenadas en tarjetas FTATM Genecard WhatmanTM, papel de Cromatografía y papel filtro, se amplificaron por PCR sin extracción utilizando los buffers EzwayTM, PCRboostTM, STRboostTM y Buffer 5X Colorless Go Taq® Flexi. Los perfiles obtenidos se analizaron por medio de electroforesis capilar. Los resultados muestran que con los buffers utilizados se obtiene la amplificación de todos los marcadores STRs de las muestras almacenadas en los tres diferentes soportes. Esto permite concluir, que utilizando la PCR sin extracción, además de reducirse los costos y el tiempo de procesamiento de las muestras, se logra obtener perfiles genéticos que cumplan los criterios de calidad establecidos por el laboratorio, generando resultados de manera más eficiente al no ser necesario realizar la extracción y purificación del ADN. The PCR without extraction is a key tool in forensic investigation, being a good option when samples with small amounts or degraded DNA are available. The objective of this study was to compare genetic profiles obtained by PCR using: i) DNA samples extracted using Chelex® 100, ii) DNA samples extracted using an FTA purification reagent, and iii) samples without extraction using the commercial kits AmpFLSTR® Identifiler®, routinely employed in the laboratory IdentiGEN of the University of Antioquia. Blood stains were collected in FTA cards Genecard WhatmanTM, chromatography paper, and in filter papers. PCR without extraction was performed using the buffers EzwayTM, PCRboostTM, STRboostTM, and Buffer 5X Colorless Go Taq® Flexi. The profiles were obtained by capillary electrophoresis. The results show that, using the above-mentioned buffers, all STR markers were amplified, for samples collected in the three different types of support. In conclusion, the PCR without extraction, apart from reducing the cost and time needed for processing the samples, it allows obtaining genetic profiles that meet the quality criteria established by the laboratory, in a more efficiently way, since DNA extraction and purification steps are eliminated.
       
 
 
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