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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2987 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1422 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 310)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Actualidades Biológicas
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0304-3584 - ISSN (Online) 2145-7166
   Published by SciELO Homepage  [717 journals]
  • Antiplasmodial and antibacterial in vitro activity from extracts the bark
           of Erythrina fusca Lour. (Fabaceae)

    • Abstract: El tamizaje fitoquímico del extracto en etanol de la corteza seca de Erythrina fusca Lour. (Fabaceae), determinó la presencia de alcaloides, flavonoides, terpenos y quinonas. Las fracciones en cloroformo y acetona del extracto en etanol de la corteza seca de E. fusca, presentaron actividad antiplasmodial in vitro en las cepas NF54 y FCB-2 de Plasmodium falciparum, con concentración inhibitoria (IC50) de 12,95, 18,02, 16,60 y 28,36 μg/ml y porcentajes de inhibición promedio máximo de 70,72, 69,74, 87,07 y 85,73%, respectivamente. El extracto en etanol mostró efecto antibacteriano in vitro a la concentración de 20 mg/ml sobre la cepa de Staphylococcus aureus y la fracción en cloroformo a la misma concentración sobre Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomona aeruginosa y Staphylococcus aureus.The phytochemical screening of ethanol extract of the dried bark of Erythrina fusca Lour. (Fabaceae), determined the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, and quinones. The chloroform and acetone fractions of ethanol extract of the dried bark of E. fusca, presented a moderate antiplasmodial activity in NF54 and FCB-2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 of 12.95, 18.02, 16.60, and 28.36 μg/ml, and a percentages inhibition of maximum average 70.72, 69.74, 87.07, and 85.73%, respectively. The ethanol extract showed inhibition at the concentration of 20 mg/ml for the strain of Staphylococcus aureus and chloroform fraction at the same concentration on Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomona aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus.
       
  • Divergent drivers of tree community composition in lowland and highland
           forests of the northern tropical Andes, Colombia

    • Abstract: Identifying the determinants of tree species composition among contrasting altitudinal tropical forest types will improve our understanding of the main factors and processes controlling tree species' distributions and patterns of diversity. The study area is located in the northwest region of Colombia. We used Redundancy Analysis (RDA) and a semi-log distance-decay model to analyze the influence of climate, soil fertility, and spatial processes, such as dispersal limitation, on community composition. There were 3 distinct forest types: one in the highlands and two in the lowlands. In the lowlands, both the RDA and the semi-log linear models identified calcium concentrations as the most important explanatory variable for species composition (R²adj = 0.24; p = 0.001 and R Mantel = 0.68; p = 0.006, respectively). In the highlands, the RDA only identified longitude as being a significant explanatory variable (R²adj = 0.24; p = 0.001), primarily determined by the biogeographical location of forests on either the West or the Central Cordillera of the Andes. In these neotropical forests, the factors determining tree species composition between lowlands and highlands varied in both extent and nature. Overall, our findings do not support the idea of a higher habitat-plant specialization in highlands than in lowlands due to greater geomorphologic and edaphic variation. Since tropical Andean ecosystems, and in particular highland forests, have received less attention than their lowland counterparts, our findings help to expand the current knowledge of factors and processes determining community composition of tropical montane forests.Identificar los determinantes de la composición de especies arbóreas entre tipos de bosques tropicales altitudinalmente contrastantes incrementarán nuestro conocimiento de los principales factores y procesos que controlan los patrones de diversidad y distribución de las especies. El área de estudio se localiza en la región noroeste de Colombia, principalmente en el departamento de Antioquia. Se empleó el análisis de redundancia (RDA) y un modelo semi-logarítmico linealizado para analizar la influencia del clima, fertilidad del suelo, y procesos espaciales, tales como la limitación en dispersión, sobre la composición de la comunidad arbórea. Se encontraron tres tipos de bosques: uno en tierras altas y dos en tierras bajas. En las tierras bajas, ambos modelos, el RDA y el modelo semi-logarítmico linealizado, identificaron las concentraciones de calcio como la variable que mejor explica la composición de especies (R²adj = 0,24; p = 0,001 y R Mantel = 0,68; p = 0,006, respectivamente). En las tierras altas, el RDA solo identificó la longitud como una variable explicativa significativa (R²adj = 0,24; p = 0,001), determinada principalmente por la ubicación biogeográfica de los bosques en la cordillera Occidental o Central de los Andes. En estos bosques neotropicales, los factores que determinan la composición de especies de árboles entre tierras bajas y altas varió en magnitud y naturaleza. En general, nuestros resultados no apoyan la idea que existe una mayor especialización de hábitat en tierras altas que en tierras bajas debido a mayor variación geomorfológica y edáfica. Los ecosistemas tropicales andinos y en particular los bosques de tierras altas, han recibido menos atención que sus contrapartes de tierras bajas; nuestros hallazgos ayudan a ampliar el conocimiento actual de los factores y procesos que determinan la composición de las comunidades de los bosques montanos tropicales.
       
  • Ivermectin effect on the structure of the ensembles of dung beetles
           (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae-Scarabaeinae) in the Colombian
           savannahs of the Caribbean region

    • Abstract: Sustancias como la ivermectina son utilizadas para el control de parásitos internos y externos del ganado, sin que se haya determinado el efecto sobre la estructura, distribución y comportamiento de otros organismos, entre ellos los escarabajos coprófagos (Coleoptera). En ese sentido, no se sabe cómo influye su uso sobre las pasturas dedicadas a la alimentación, al disminuir las especies de escarabajos en periodos de sequía, cuando el efecto diluyente de la lluvia no existe. Para estimar este efecto se realizaron recolectas durante tres días, en cuatro periodos, entre enero y marzo del 2014, en una finca ganadera en las sabanas de la región Caribe colombiana (Sucre). Se tomaron dos parcelas, una con animales tratados con ivermectina (CIv) y otra con animales sin tratamiento (SIv). Los escarabajos se recolectaron utilizando 20 trampas de caída y se revisaron 144 bostas directamente. Se estimó el efecto de la ivermectina y se analizó la relación entre la precipitación y el número de individuos. Se recolectaron 2.160 individuos pertenecientes a Aphodiinae y Scarabaeinae, con cuatro especies, siendo las más abundantes Ataenius cf. saulensis y Digitonthophagus gazella (99%). Se recolectaron 55,3% de individuos en CIv y 44,7% en SIv; las especies A. cf. saulensis y D. gazella estuvieron presentes en todos los periodos y tratamientos. Se encontró correlación positiva entre precipitación y abundancia para los tratamientos. Se sugiere leve atracción a las bostas y trampas CIv, evidenciando su efecto negativo. Es necesario continuar estudiando el efecto del uso de las ivermectinas sobre los procesos funcionales en agroecosistemas.Anti-parasite drugs as ivermectin are being used for internal and external parasites control in bovine cattle, without a scientific support that determined the effect on the structure, behavior or distribution of dung beetles. In this framework, an important problem emerge that consist of the lack of knowledge about which is the effect of using ivermectin in pastures when the populations of dung beetles decreases in dry periods, when the positive effect of rain disappear. Samplings were realized during three days, in four periods, between January and March of 2014, in a cattle property in the region Sabanas of the Sucre department in north of Colombia. Two pasture plots were monitored, one with animals treated with ivermectin (CIv) and another one with no treatment (SIv). The dung beetles were collected using 20 pitfall traps and 144 dung piles were reviewed directly. We estimated the effect of ivermectin and analyzed the relationship between precipitation and dungs abundance. 2.160 individuals belonging to four species from Aphodiinae and Scarabaeinae were collected, being the most abundant Ataenius cf. saulensis and Digitonthophagus gazella. We collect 55,3% individuals in CIv and 44,7% in SIv. Ataenius cf. saulensis and D. gazella were present in all periods and treatments. We found a positive correlation between precipitation and dungs abundance for the two treatments. Also it was found a slight attraction to piles and traps with ivermectin, demonstrating its negative effect on dung beetles. It is necessary to continue studying the effect of the use of ivermectin on functional processes on different ecosystems.
       
  • Medicinal plants and predictability of use in some villages of San
           Cristobal Township (Antioquia), Colombia

    • Abstract: Durante un periodo de siete meses y con la colaboración de dos conocedores se realizó un registro de plantas medicinales del Corregimiento de San Cristóbal, ejecutándose el inventario de las mismas en tres veredas de la localidad e identificándose un total de 105 especies pertenecientes a 43 familias. El objetivo principal del estudio fue determinar la posibilidad de anticipar el uso medicinal de una especie de planta, si se conoce la familia botánica a la cual pertenece la misma. Mediante un análisis de cluster se estableció la relación entre la familia botánica y el tipo de uso medicinal asignado, conformándose siete grupos de familias asociado cada uno a un conjunto particular de categorías médicas. La relación familia botánica-categoría de uso medicinal establecida, demuestra que una planta en particular puede ser utilizada para diversos fines medicinales. Se concluye que no es posible predecir solo un uso, sino un conjunto de usos medicinales de una planta si se conoce la familia botánica a la cual pertenece. En la zona estudiada, al igual que en otras tierras altas de Suramérica, las familias con uso medicinal mejor representadas, de acuerdo al número de especies y por citación de los colaboradores locales, en general son las mismas, siendo las principales: Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae y Solanaceae.For seven months, in company of two local informants, we made an inventory of medicinal plants grown in three villages of San Cristobal Township (Medellín, Antioquia). We found 105 plant species in 43 families. The aim was to establish if there was any relationship between the botanical family to which the plant belongs and the type of assigned medical use by the community, in order to know if it is possible to anticipate potential uses in other plant species. We performed a cluster analysis trying to show this relationship. Nine groups of plant families were established; each one associated to a particular set of medicinal use categories. We conclude that in this case, the relationship between botanical family and medicinal use category is not given one by one, but a particular plant can be used for various purposes, these being known in advance. We conclude that it is not possible to predict only one use, but a set of medicinal uses of a plant if known botanical family to which it belongs. According to the above, as in many other studies of South America highlands, for this community we reported that the most important medicinal families (by species number and citation) are always the same, including within them Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae and Solanaceae.
       
  • New records of macrofungi from Colombia

    • Abstract: Se presentan los resultados del trabajo realizado en la Estación Meteorológica de CARSUCRE, en bosque seco tropical del municipio de Colosó, departamento de Sucre (Colombia), donde se efectuaron transectos lineales de 100 m al lado del arroyo Sereno y parte alta del bosque (cerro), durante los meses de febreroagosto y noviembre del año 2011, se realizaron un total de 182 colecciones, distribuidas en los filos Ascomycota (4 géneros y 11 especies) y Basidiomycota (31 géneros con 59 especies), se logró recolectar 39 registros nuevos para Sucre y siete para Colombia. Este trabajo constituye un estudio pionero para el departamento de Sucre, debido a que no existe información acerca de los hongos silvestres presentes en el bosque seco tropical (Bs-T).We present the results of a study carried out in the tropical dry forest at the Meteorological Station of CARSUCRE, in the municipality of Colosó, Sucre (Colombia). We used line transects of 100 m in length, along the creek Sereno and on the top of the hills; we sampled along such transects from February to August and in November 2011. A total of 182 specimens were collected, belonging to the phyla Ascomycota (4 genera and 11 species) and Basidiomycota (31 genera and 59 species). Moreover, we report 39 new records for Sucre and seven new records for Colombia. Finally, this work is a pioneering study for the Department of Sucre, because there is no information about wild fungi in dry tropical forest (Bs-T).
       
  • Mutagenicity and genotoxicity in fractions of PM2.5 Air Villa del Rosario,
           Colombia

    • Abstract: Las partículas atmosféricas constituyen uno de los contaminantes atmosféricos más importantes, debido a que contienen metales e hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (HAP) que son compuestos con conocida actividad genotóxica, mutagénica y carcinogénica. Las partículas finas con diámetro menor a 2,5 μm (PM2,5) producidas por la combustión de los vehículos diésel están implicadas en efectos sobre la salud humana. El propósito de esta investigación fue determinar la actividad mutagénica y genotóxica de la fracción respirable del PM2,5, presente cerca de la avenida fronteriza de alto flujo vehicular en Villa de Rosario (Norte de Santander), la cual comunica los países de Colombia y Venezuela. El PM2,5 fue evaluado con filtros de cuarzo Pallflex. La actividad mutagénica y genotóxica de los extractos del PM2,5 fue determinada mediante la prueba de Ames y el ensayo cometa. En la prueba de Ames se utilizaron las cepas TA98 y TA100 de Salmonella typhimurium y el daño genotóxico se evaluó en linfocitos de sangre periférica. Los resultados mostraron mutagenicidad y genotoxicidad asociada con la fracción PM2,5 en Villa del Rosario, lo cual representa un riesgo en la aparición de enfermedades como el cáncer en la población expuesta.Atmospheric particles are one of the most important pollutants because they contain metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are compounds with known mutagenic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic activity. Particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2,5 μm (PM2.5) are generally referred to as fine particles and are involved in human health effects. The PM2.5 fraction is produced by the combustion of vehicles that run on diesel fuel. The purpose of this research is to determine the mutagenic and genotoxic activity of respirable-fraction PM2.5 particulate material captured near a high traffic flow pathway in Villa de Rosario (Norte de Santander), which connects Colombia and Venezuela. PM2.5 was monitored with a Partisol 2025 Plus computer using quartz filters Pallflex. The mutagenic and genotoxic activity of extracts of PM2.5 was determined using two tests: the Ames and the comet assay. In the Ames test, Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 were used. To determine the genotoxic damage, peripheral blood lymphocytes were used. Mutagenic and genotoxic activity associated with PM2.5 in Villa del Rosario is reported. It is concluded that PM2.5 samples from Villa del Rosario induced mutation in Salmonella typhimurium and DNA damage in human lymphocytes, representing a risk in the occurrence of diseases such as cancer for the exposed population.
       
  • Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway in the adult brain: key signaling for
           astrocyte reactivation and brain repair

    • Abstract: While neurons play a key role in neurotransmission in the nervous central system (CNS) of animals, glial cells are crucial for neuron support and brain maintenance. Recent studies reveal that glial cells regulate the release and reuptake of neurotransmitters, pyruvate and glutathione metabolism, ion buffering, the organization of blood brain barrier and ensures the production of myelin and cerebrospinal fluid. The activity of glial cells is coordinated by the communication between neurons and the glia. Among cell signals in the brain, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway plays a key role regulating the development and the patterning of the central nervous system. In the adult brain, SHH has been found to be secreted by neurons and astrocytes, and to regulate in this manner, neuro-glial interactions. Upon brain injury, SHH signaling appears to be (re)- activated in the adult brain and may be related with tissue regeneration. The glial cells and more particularly astrocytes are key cells responding to brain injury and participating in brain repair. Interestingly, astrocyte response is mediated by SHH activation in these cells that elicits diverse cell reactions in the brain leading to neuroprotection and reinforcement of the blood brain barrier upon injury. This review highlights the important role of glial cells and more specifically of astrocytes in brain physiology, the implication of SHH signaling in brain organization and function, and finally, how SHH signaling regulates astrocyte re-activation and cell response to tissue injury and repair in the brain in the adult organism.Mientras que las neuronas juegan un papel fundamental en la neurotransmisión en el sistema nervioso central de los animales, las células gliales son cruciales para dar sostén a las neuronas y por lo tanto, para el funcionamiento del cerebro. Estudios recientes han puesto de manifiesto que las células gliales regulan la liberación y reciclaje de neurotransmisores, el metabolismo del piruvato y del glutatión, sirviendo de tampón para diferentes iones, participando en la organización de la barrera hematoencefálica y en la producción de mielina y del líquido cefalorraquídeo. La actividad de las células gliales se encuentra estrechamente coordinada por la comunicación entre las neuronas y la glía. Entre la señalización celular del cerebro, la vía Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) juega un papel importante al regular el desarrollo y patrón del sistema nervioso central. En el cerebro adulto, la proteína SHH es secretada por las neuronas y por los astrocitos y media de esa manera las interacciones neuro-gliales. Cuando ocurre un daño en el cerebro, la vía de señalización SHH es (re)-activada en el cerebro adulto. Las células gliales y particularmente los astrocitos, son células esenciales para la respuesta del cerebro frente a un daño y para su reparación. La respuesta de los astrocitos se encuentra mediada por la activación de la vía SHH en estas células. En este artículo se revisa la importancia de las células gliales y específicamente de los astrocitos en la fisiología del cerebro, la implicación de la vía de señalización SHH en la organización y funcionamiento del cerebro, y cómo la señalización SHH regula la re-activación de los astrocitos y la respuesta celular frente al daño tisular y a la reparación del cerebro en el organismo adulto.
       
  • Assessment of toxicity in industrial wastewater treated by biological
           processes using luminescent bacteria

    • Abstract: The toxicity of wastewater from a meat by-products processing company was evaluated before and after treatment using the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). Toxicity tests were carried out by analyzing the inhibitory effect of samples in relation to light emission from marine bacteria of the species Vibrio fischeri. The results found that the effluents prior to treatment were highly toxic (EC50 < 60%) whereas post-treatment results showed low or no toxicity (EC50 > 82%). In some operational stages of the SBR reactor, a high correlation between the ammonia nitrogen present in each sample and the toxicity of wastewater from both the influents and the effluents was found, with correlations (R²) of 0.6141 and 0.8158, respectively. As a consequence of these results, the SBR system can be considered efficient at removing organic matter, and nitrogen, and thereby decreasing toxicity in treated water.La toxicidad de las aguas residuales provenientes de empresas de procesamiento de productos cárnicos fue evaluada antes y después del tratamiento usando un reactor secuencial por lotes (SBR). Las pruebas de toxicidad fueron evaluadas mediante el análisis del efecto inhibidor de muestras en relación con la emisión de luz a partir de bacterias marinas de la especie Vibrio fischeri. Los resultados demostraron que los efluentes antes del tratamiento eran altamente tóxicos (EC50 < 60%), mientras que los resultados después del tratamiento mostraron baja o nula toxicidad (EC50 > 82%). En algunas etapas operativas del reactor SBR, se encontró correlación entre el nitrógeno amoniacal presente en cada muestra y la toxicidad de las aguas residuales tanto en el afluente y los efluentes, con correlaciones (R²) de 0,6141 y 0,8158, respectivamente. Como consecuencia de estos resultados, el sistema SBR puede ser considerado eficiente en la eliminación de materia orgánica y nitrógeno, y de ese modo disminuir la toxicidad en el agua tratada.
       
 
 
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