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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3190 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1522 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Biology     Open Access  
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 315)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
Actualidades Biológicas
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0304-3584 - ISSN (Online) 2145-7166
Published by SciELO Homepage  [726 journals]
  • Larvicidal activity of plant extracts from Asteraceae family and a
           mathematical model for its use to control populations of Aedes aegypti

    • Abstract: Resumen El dengue, chikunguña y Zika, todas transmitidas por Aedes aegypti, son enfermedades que afectan ampliamente la población mundial. La evaluación de extractos vegetales permite el establecimiento de productos eficientes para el control de éste mosquito. Este trabajo evaluó la actividad larvicida en A. aegypti de 23 especies de la familia Asteraceae, y su composición fitoquímica preliminar. El material vegetal utilizado se recolectó en el Departamento del Quindío, Colombia. Con este material se prepararon los extractos vegetales etanólicos utilizados en la caracterización fitoquímica y en los bioensayos. Para cada extracto se realizó un bioensayo dosis-respuesta con larvas provenientes del municipio de Armenia (Quindío, Colombia) siguiendo el protocolo de la OMS. Estos indican que, después de 48 h, los extractos de Jaegeria hirta (694,8% ± 149,9), Austroeupatorium inulaefolium (753,3% ± 198,8) y Heliopsis oppsitifolia (764,4% ± 170,0) requieren menor concentración para matar el 95% de las larvas. Adicionalmente, se construyó un modelo matemático que describe el comportamiento de las poblaciones, con el fin de evaluar diferentes estrategias de control con los extractos; las simulaciones obtenidas a partir de la solución numérica del sistema permiten concluir que la aplicación de extractos de estas plantas constituye una herramienta viable para el control de A. aegypti. Por su parte, la marcha fitoquímica preliminar de las 23 especies muestra la presencia de taninos, quinonas, flavonoides, esteroles, cumarinas y alcaloides. Se concluye que J. hirta, A. inulaefoliu y H. oppsitifolia ameritan ser estudiadas en profundidad, dado su potencial larvicida para el control de A. aegypti. Dengue, chikungunya and Zika, all transmitted by Aedes aegypti, are diseases that affect the human world population. The evaluation of raw plant extracts allows the establishment of efficient products for the control of populations of this mosquito. This work evaluated the larvicidal activity of 23 species of the family Asteraceae, and its preliminary phytochemical composition, to control populations of A. aegypti. The vegetable material was collected in the department of Quindío, Colombia. We prepared the plant extracts used in the phytochemical characterization and bioassays with the material collected. For each extract, a dose-response bioassay was performed with larvae from the municipality of Armenia (Quindío, Colombia) following the WHO protocol. These assays indicated that after 48h the extracts of Jaegeria hirta (694.8% ± 149.9), Austroeupatorium inulaefolium (753.3% ± 198.8) and Heliopsis oppsitifolia (764.4% ± 170.0) require less concentration to kill 95% of larvae. Additionally, a mathematical model that describes the behavior of the mosquito populations was constructed, in order to evaluate different control strategies using the extracts; the simulations obtained from the numerical solution of the system allow us to conclude that the application of extracts from these plants constitutes a viable tool for A. aegypti control. On the other hand, the preliminary phytochemical analysis of the 23 plant species shows the presence of tannins, quinones, falvonoides, sterols, coumarins and alkaloids. It is concluded then, that J. hirta, A. inulaefoliu and H. oppsitifolia deserve to be further studied, given their larvicidal potential for the control of A. aegypti.
       
  • Evaluation of capacity of tannin degradation with microorganisms isolated
           from a tannery effluent in Copacabana, Antioquia

    • Abstract: Resumen Los taninos son el segundo grupo de compuestos fenólicos de las plantas más abundantes en la naturaleza y son usados como materia prima en diversos procesos industriales, entre los cuales el más representativo es el teñido del cuero animal. El ácido tánico, un tanino hidrolizable utilizado en éste proceso, puede degradarse por vía biológica, mediante hidrólisis enzimática por la tanasa (EC 3.1.1.20). Para evaluar la capacidad degradadora de taninos y sus condiciones óptimas utilizando microorganismos aislados del proceso de curtiembre, se siguieron técnicas de enriquecimiento y siembra directa en placa, logrando el aislamiento de microorganismos tanino-resistentes, sometidos posteriormente a ensayos de concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI) llegando hasta 0,4% v/v de ácido tánico. Finalmente, se identificó molecularmente a Bacillus licheniformis como la cepa con mayor capacidad degradadora a pH 7, 35 °C y 90 r. p. m. Tannins are the phenolic compounds most abundant in nature, used as raw material in several industrial processes like tanning leather. Tannic acid is a hydrolyzable tannin used in tannery, which can be degraded by a biological enzymatic hydrolysis using tannase. To evaluate the capacity and optimal conditions of tannin degradation using microorganisms isolated from a tannery, we used an enrichment technique and plate culture. We obtained the isolation of tannin-resistant bacteria, that were subjected to minimum inhibitory concentration tests (MIC), retaining 0,4% v/v tannic acid. Finally, Bacillus licheniformis was identified as the bacteria with the major capacity of degradation in growth conditions of pH 7, 35 °C and 90 r. p. m.
       
  • Characterization and status of the fisheries in Porce II Reservoir
           (Antioquia)

    • Abstract: Resumen En Colombia, las evaluaciones sobre el conocimiento del uso del recurso pesquero en embalses y las medidas posteriores tomadas para su ordenación son escasas. Es por esto que el objetivo de este artículo es presentar una revisión y compilación de la información sobre la pesquería y algunas medidas de ordenación recomendadas para el embalse Porce II, el cual fue construido con fines de generación de energía. Entre noviembre de 2011 y octubre de 2012, en un ambiente híper-eutrofizado, se registró una riqueza de dieciocho especies de peces siendo nueve de estas de uso pesquero, de las cuales seis fueron exóticas. Adicionalmente, se registró una especie de crustáceo (Macrobrachium sp.) como aporte a la seguridad alimentaria local. Sesenta y siete pescadores artesanales ejercieron la actividad extractiva y generaron capturas que ascendieron a 238 toneladas, representadas en un 99% por tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus y Tilapia sp.). La captura por unidad de esfuerzo (cpue) fluctuó entre 8,1 y 34,7 kg/UEP/día con un promedio de 15,2 kg/UEP/día. Las capturas aportaron el 70% de los ingresos económicos locales y contribuyeron de manera significativa con la seguridad alimentaria de las comunidades circundantes. Los análisis de estado del recurso indican que las dos especies que sustentan la pesquería artesanal podrían soportar mayores niveles de aprovechamiento. Por último, se discuten algunos riesgos e incertidumbres que posee la propuesta del plan de ordenación pesquera formulada para el embalse. The assessment of fishing resources in reservoirs and the implementation of measures for their management are scarce in Colombia. It is for this reason that the objective of this article is to present information on fishery and management measures for the Porce II, a hydroelectric generation purposes dam. From November 2011 to October 2012, eighteen fish species were collected from the reservoir, nine of which are harvested for food, six of which are exotic. Additionally, a species of shrimp (Macrobrachium sp.) was found to be an important element of local communities’ food security. Sixty-seven fishermen are registered and the annual catches are 238 metric tonnes, 99% of which are tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia sp.). The catch per unit effort (cpue) fluctuated between 8.1 and 34.7 kg/FEU/day (average 15.2 kg/FEU/day). Catches constituted 70% of the local economic income and also contributed significantly to food security to local communities. The two principal species could support higher exploitation levels and there are several risks and uncertainties for the implementation of the fishing management plan formulated for the Porce II Reservoir.
       
  • Fecundity of the most abundant fish species in the area of influence of
           the cascading reservoirs Porce II and Porce III, Antioquia, Colombia

    • Abstract: Resumen Las tácticas y las estrategias dirigidas a la reproducción de las especies resultan de un complejo juego evolutivo donde los individuos ajustan su inversión energética de acuerdo con las condiciones ambientales. La fecundidad es un rasgo de vida que refleja la cantidad de energía que invierten los individuos en la reproducción. Considerando que aún se conoce poco sobre las respuestas de este rasgo de vida de las especies que persisten en los embalses, se analizaron tanto la fecundidad como ciertas variables relacionadas con esta, en algunas de las especies más abundantes en el ensamblaje de especies en el área de influencia de los embalses en cascada Porce II y Porce III. Los muestreos se realizaron entre septiembre de 2011 y diciembre de 2016, durante periodos climáticos contrastantes (lluvias y estiajes), en 31 sitios distribuidos entre los embalses Porce II y Porce III, el canal del río y las quebradas tributarias a los embalses. Se encontró que Astyanax microlepis presentó los mayores valores de fecundidad total (20.202 huevos en promedio), mientras Poecilia reticulata tuvo los menores valores (15 embriones). Se determinó asociación entre el número de huevos y el tamaño de los peces (longitud estándar y peso corporal). Las fecundidades de las especies analizadas fueron similares entre aquellas filogenéticamente próximas (especies de una misma familia), y a su vez, se determinó que este rasgo reproductivo fue particular para cada especie. A species’ reproductive tactics and life history strategy are the result of a complex evolutionary interplay where individuals constantly adjust their energy investment in accordance with the environmental conditions. Fecundity is a key feature of life that reflects the amount of energy that an individual invests in reproduction. Little is known about the response of this life history feature of species that persist in reservoirs, and for this reason, fecundity and some variables related to it were analyzed for some of the most abundant species within the fish assemblage in the area of influence of the cascading reservoirs Porce II and Porce III. Sampling was carried out from September 2011 to December 2016, during contrasting climatic periods (dry and rainy seasons), in 31 sites distributed throughout Porce II and Porce III reservoirs, and also including the river channel and tributary streams of the reservoirs. It was found that Astyanax microlepis had the highest value of total fecundity (20.202 eggs on average), while Poecilia reticulate had the lowest values (15 embryos). A relation was found between the number of eggs and the size of the fish (standard length and body weight). The fecundity of the species analyzed was similar among those phylogenetically related (species of the same family), and in turn, it was determined that this reproductive trait was specific to each species.
       
  • Ichthyofauna of cascade reservoirs in the channel of a tropical Andean
           river

    • Abstract: Resumen El Concepto de Discontinuidad Serial afirma que la formación de embalses en cadena dentro de los ríos genera cambios en la estructura de la biota acuática que se acumulan a lo largo del cauce. En el río Porce (Cuenca del río Magdalena-Cauca, Colombia) se formaron dos embalses en cadena, los embalses Porce II y Porce III. Para conocer la respuesta del ensamblaje de peces dentro del sector del río que fue embalsado se tomaron muestras de cuatro periodos de lluvias abundantes y cuatro de menores lluvias entre los años 2011 y 2013, en sitios dentro de los dos embalses seleccionados según su posición en el eje longitudinal (cola, transición y presa); para eliminar el efecto de la profundidad en cada sitio se tomaron muestras a dos profundidades (superficial-fondo). Se capturaron 15 especies; 12 en Porce II y 10 en Porce III. Se observaron diferencias espaciales en cuanto a la composición y estructura de especies de peces, tanto en el eje longitudinal (cola-presa), como en el vertical (superficie-fondo). En el embalse Porce II, la riqueza y la abundancia de individuos disminuyeron en dirección cola-presa y fue mayor en la superficie que en el fondo; en el embalse Porce III, aunque la riqueza presentó la misma tendencia en el eje longitudinal, la abundancia fue mayor en el fondo que en la superficie. Las características del ensamblaje no estuvieron asociadas a los periodos pluviométricos en ninguno de los dos embalses. Se concluye que la composición y estructura del ensamblaje está definida por las características morfológicas del embalse, así como la edad y tiempo de retención hidráulica. The Serial Discontinuity Concept affirms that the formation of reservoirs in cascade within rivers generates changes in the structure of the aquatic biota that accumulate along the basin. In the Porce River (Magdalena-Cauca River Basin, Colombia) two reservoirs were formed in cascade, Porce II and Porce III. To know the response of the fish assemblage in the sector of the river that was dammed, we collected samples during four periods of abundant rains and four of lesser rains from 2011 to 2013 from sites inside both reservoirs selected according to position on the longitudinal axis (tail, transition and dam). To eliminate the effect of depth, at every site, we took samples from two depths, surface and bottom. 15 species were captured; 12 in Porce II and 10 in Porce III. Differences in the composition and structure of the species of fish were found to vary depending on the location along the river flow (from tail to dam), and also by the water depth (surface to river bottom). In Porce II reservoir, the richness and the abundance of fish diminished in direction tail to dam and the abundance decreased from surface to bottom. In Porce III though the species richness presented the same trend along the longitudinal axis, the abundance was greater on the bottom that at the surface. The characteristics of the assemblage were not associated with the rainfall periods in either reservoir. One concludes that the composition and structure of the assemblage are defined by the morphologic characteristics of the reservoir, as well as the age and time of hydraulic retention.
       
  • DNA Barcode methods reveal diversity of Astroblepus species in the Porce
           River drainage, Colombia

    • Abstract: Resumen El género Astroblepus es endémico de la región Andina y está representado por aproximadamente 81 especies válidas que habitan ríos de alta montaña desde Panamá hasta Bolivia. Para Colombia, se han registrado 32 especies, de las cuales 23 fueron registradas en monitoreos recientes en la cuenca del río Porce, indicando que cerca del 71% de la diversidad de especies se encuentra en esta área. Morfológicamente, las especies de Astroblepus son muy similares y los caracteres empleados tradicionalmente para su determinación son poco resolutivos, lo que dificulta su identificación taxonómica. Con el objetivo de determinar la diversidad de Astroblepus en la cuenca del río Porce, se analizaron 129 individuos empleando herramientas de identificación genética mediante la secuenciación del gen Citrocromo Oxidasa sub-unidad I (COI) de 580pb y un análisis morfométrico basado en proporciones corporales, usando 12 hitos morfológicos. Los análisis genéticos y el método de delimitación de especies “General mixed Yule-coalescent”, indicaron la presencia de 12 entidades taxonómicas, las cuales fueron soportadas por sus distancias genéticas y por 13 medidas corporales basadas en proporciones. Los resultados indican que la diversidad de especies en el área ha sido sobreestimada, por lo que es necesario integrar diferentes metodologías para una correcta delimitación de especies. The genus Astroblepus, is endemic to the Andean region and is represented by 81 valid species inhabiting high mountain rivers from Panama to Bolivia. In Colombia, about 32 species of this genus have been reported, of which 23 were recorded in the Porce River drainage, which indicates that about 71% of species diversity can be found in this area. Morphologically the species of Astroblepus are very similar and the characters traditionally used for their determination are not very diagnostic, which limits their identification at species level. In order to determine the diversity of Astroblepus in the Porce River drainage, 129 individuals were analyzed using genetic identification tools through the sequencing of the 580bp Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and an analysis based on morphometry. The genetic analyses and the method of delimitation of species "General mixed Yule-coalescent", indicated the presence of 12 taxonomic entities, which were supported by genetic distances and by 13 body measurements based on corporal proportions. The results indicate that the diversity of species has been overestimated in this river and highlight the importance to integrate different methodologies in the delimitation species studies.
       
  • Fishes and the ecosystem services they provide in the Porce River Drainage

    • Abstract: Resumen Por su ubicación y geomorfología Colombia presenta gran variedad de ecosistemas y una alta biodiversidad; esta riqueza natural también se observa en sus cuencas hidrográficas en donde se registra, adicionalmente, un considerable número de endemismos de plantas y animales. Desafortunadamente, estos cuerpos de agua han sufrido grandes transformaciones realizadas por el hombre; tal es el caso de la Cuenca del río Porce, que además del uso de sus aguas en la generación hidroeléctrica, se ha alterado su cauce y afectado por el crecimiento de una gran urbe sobre sus riberas, haciendo que las poblaciones de peces que la habitan soporten grandes alteraciones y desapariciones y en consecuencia, no gestionen adecuadamente los servicios ecosistémicos que prestan los peces de este ecosistema. Basados en los rasgos funcionales como talla, dieta, hábitat y distribución en la columna de agua que presentan los peces del río Porce, se caracterizaron los servicios ecosistémicos que suministran estos organismos, mostrando su importancia y qué tipo de servicios prestan a la sociedad directa o indirectamente, lo que permitirá proponer una gestión más integral del manejo de la biodiversidad de esta cuenca. Mediante la revisión de información secundaria se encontraron 62 especies de peces en esta cuenca que pueden prestar servicios ecosistémicos de regulación como control biológico (32 spp.), mejoramiento de la calidad del agua (30 spp.) y recurso genético (54 spp.); servicios de provisión como alimento (11 spp.) y peces de ornato (31 spp.); y servicios culturales como fuentes de ocio y recreación (15 spp.). Desafortunadamente, esta cuenca ha sido altamente intervenida con modificaciones de su cauce, contaminación de sus aguas e introducción de especies de peces exóticas para la provisión de alimento, afectando fuertemente este ecosistema y disminuyendo drásticamente las poblaciones de peces nativas registradas para este río, haciendo que los servicios ecosistémicos que pueden suministrar las especies del río Porce, que son fundamentales para el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas asociados a esta cuenca y para el bienestar humano de la región, se encuentren bastante perturbados y en riesgo de desaparecer permanentemente. Due to its location and geomorphology, Colombia has a great variety of ecosystems and a high biodiversity; this natural wealth is also observed in its drainage basins where, additionally, a considerable number of endemic plants and animals have been reported. Unfortunately, these bodies of water have undergone major changes made by man; such is the case of the Porce River Drainage. In addition to the use of its water for hydroelectric generation, its channel has been altered and affected by the growth of a great city on its banks, causing the populations of fish that live there to suffer great alterations and disappearances. The ecosystem services provided by fish in this ecosystem have not been adequately determined. Based on functional traits such as size, diet, habitat and distribution in the water column of the fish of the Porce River, the ecosystem services provided by these organisms will be characterized, showing their importance and which types of services they provide direct or indirectly to society. This will allow the formulation of a proposal for more integral management of the biodiversity of this heavily impacted drainage. Sixty-two species of fish were found in this drainage that can provide regulatory ecosystem services such as: biological control (32 species); water quality improvement (30 spp.); genetic resources (54 spp.); provision services such as food (11 spp.) and ornamental fishes (31 spp.); and cultural services as sources of leisure and recreation (15 spp.). Unfortunately, this drainage has been negatively impacted by modifications of its channel, contamination of its waters and introduction of exotic fish species for the provision of food. All these impacts strongly affect this ecosystem and drastically decrease the surviving native fish populations that have been reported for this river, seriously reducing the ecosystem services that the Porce River species can supply, and which are essential for the functioning of the other ecosystems associated with this drainage and for the human well-being of the region.
       
  • Reproduction of fishes in reservoirs in cascade located in a tropical
           Andean river (Colombia)

    • Abstract: Resumen La variación de las lluvias y el nivel de los ríos han sido identificados como los factores más importantes para la reproducción de los peces de agua dulce en el trópico. Las presas y embalses cambian la influencia de estos dos factores, por lo tanto, el ensamblaje debe desarrollar nuevas tácticas para continuar reproduciéndose. Nuestro objetivo fue definir los periodos y sitios de reproducción del ensamblaje de peces en la cuenca media del río Porce (Antioquia, Colombia), modificado por dos embalses en cascada (embalses Porce II y Porce III). Los muestreos se realizaron entre septiembre de 2011 y diciembre de 2016, durante periodos climáticos contrastantes (lluvias y estiajes), en 31 sitios distribuidos en los embalses de Porce II y Porce III, en el canal del río (antes del embalse Porce II entre los embalses y después del embalse Porce III) y quebradas tributarias a los dos embalses. Los peces fueron capturados con trasmallo, atarraya y electropesca. Se usó la escala de Vazzoler (1996) para determinar el desarrollo gonadal y se estimó la relación gonadosomática; estos datos se utilizaron para hacer los análisis de la temporalidad reproductiva del ensamblaje de peces, que se definió de acuerdo con la intensidad reproductiva (IR) y el porcentaje de ínvidos maduros de las especies. Los resultados mostraron que en los embalses los peces se reproducen intensamente independiente del periodo climático, mientras en las quebradas y el río se observa una tendencia similar, aunque con un incremento de la reproducción asociado con los periodos de estiaje; de manera particular se encontró que la especie Brycon henni tiene un mayor porcentaje de individuos maduros durante los periodos de lluvias en el embalse Porce III y en sus quebradas tributarias. Variations in rainfall and river level have been identified as the most crucial factors in freshwater fish reproduction in the tropics. Dams and reservoirs change the seasonality of these factors, so fish must develop new tactics to continue reproducing themselves. Our objective was to define the period and sites of reproduction of fish in the middle Porce River drainage, which has been modified by the construction of two reservoirs in cascade (reservoirs Porce II and Porce III). Sampling was carried out from September 2011 to December 2016, during contrasting climatic periods (drought and rains) at 31 sites distributed as follows: in the reservoirs of Porce II and Porce III, in the river channel (above Porce II reservoir, between the reservoirs and below Porce III dam) and tributary streams to two reservoirs. The fish were captured with gillnet, seines and electro-fishing gear. The Vazzoler scale (1996) was used to determine the gonadal development, the gonadosomatic relationship was also estimated and these data were used to make the analysis of the reproductive seasonality of the fish assemblage, which was defined according to the reproductive intensity (RI) and the percentage of mature individuals of the species. The results showed that in the reservoirs the fish reproduce intensely independent of the climatic period, whereas in streams and river a similar tendency is observed, but with an increase of reproduction associated with the dry season. However, the species Brycon henni particularly had a higher percentage of mature individuals during rainy periods in the Porce III reservoirs and in its tributary streams.
       
  • Fish inside the discharge tunnels of a hydropower facility in the Porce
           River

    • Abstract: Resumen La corriente generada por el agua turbinada en las centrales hidroeléctricas estimula el ingreso de peces potamódromos a los túneles de descarga, ante el bloqueo que hace la presa a la migración. El rescate de peces en el túnel de descarga es una medida de manejo para reducir la probabilidad de afectación por atrapamiento que se produce dentro de los túneles. En la central hidroeléctrica Porce III, la presencia de los peces es detectada cuando el túnel de descarga de la central Porce III se desocupa para hacerle mantenimiento a las compuertas de descarga de las unidades de generación. En los años 2012, 2013 y 2015 se realizó el traslado de peces presentes en los túneles de descarga hacia el cauce del río Porce, aguas abajo de la presa. Se encontraron ocho especies de peces diferentes a las registradas en otras estructuras similares. En los traslados predominaron ejemplares de las especies migratorias que se desplazan dos veces al año, desde las zonas bajas de la cuenca y que usan como ruta de migración los diferentes ríos tributarios. Esta estrategia de mitigación ha sido favorable para evitar la mortalidad de peces por su atrapamiento dentro de estas estructuras durante los momentos de mantenimiento de las compuertas y frecuentemente se desarrolla como una actividad de manejo de las empresas de generación de energía. Flow in discharge tunnels of hydropower plants stimulates the entrance of potamodromous fish into these structures since the dam acts as a barrier to migration. Rescue of fish in the discharge tunnel is a management strategy to reduce the probability of entrapment inside the tunnels. At the Porce III hydropower station, the presence of the fish is detected when the discharge tunnel of the Porce III plant is emptied to perform maintenance activities to the discharge gates of the generation units. In the years 2012, 2013 and 2015 the trapped fish were transported from the discharge tunnels to the channel of the Porce River, downstream of the dam. Eight species of fish were found, different from those reported in other similar structures. In the transfers, individuals of migratory species were predominant. Those species move two times by year from the lowlands of the basin to the different tributaries. This mitigation strategy has been favorable to avoid fish mortalities due to their entrapment within these structures during their maintenance and it has been frequently adopted as a management activity by hydropower companies.
       
 
 
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