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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3200 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1529 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access  
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 317)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
Acta Médica Costarricense
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0001-6002
Published by SciELO Homepage  [726 journals]
  • Superando barreras

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  • (Epidemiological characteristics of patients diagnosed with sepsis and
           septic shock in a hospital in Cali, Colombia)

    • Abstract: Resumen Introducción: la sepsis es un problema de salud pública debido a la elevada mortalidad registrada en las salas de cuidado intensivo. El propósito de este estudio fue establecer las características epidemiológicas de pacientes diagnosticados con sepsis en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos de una clínica de la ciudad de Cali. Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, de corte transversal, con 295 historias clínicas de pacientes con diagnóstico de sepsis. La asociación entre las variables cualitativas y el desarrollo de a sepsis o choque séptico, se analizó mediante la prueba de χ2 con un valor significativo de p<0,05. El Odds Ratio se usó como medida de asociación con intervalo de confianza del 95 %, empleando el paquete estadístico SPSS. Vs 22.00. Resultados: La edad promedio de los pacientes fue 75 años (DS= 17,27), con un ligero predominio de hombres (56,6 %). La cavidad abdominal fue el foco más frecuente de sepsis, con un 28,8 % en pacientes con sepsis y un 23,6 % con choque séptico. Escherichia coli fue el agente más aislado. El mayor riesgo de mortalidad se presentó en pacientes hipertensos (39 %; OR:2,81; IC95 %: 1,39- 5,68; P= 0,003) y en aquellos con procesos hematológicos (17,1 %; OR:5,61; IC95 %: 1,96-16,12; P< 0,001). Conclusión: las bacterias Gram negativas y la cavidad abdominal como foco séptico primario fueron los factores más prevalentes en los pacientes con sepsis y choque séptico analizados. El riesgo de mortalidad se asoció a pacientes hipertensos y con procesos hematológicos. Introduction. Sepsis is a public health problem due to the high mortality rate in intensive care units. The purpose of this study was to establish the epidemiological characteristics of patients diagnosed with sepsis in the intensive care unit of a clinic in the city of Cali. Material and methods. A descriptive retrospective study was conducted with 295 clinical records of patients diagnosed with sepsis. The association between the quantitative variables and the development of sepsis or septic shock was analyzed using the χ2 test with a significant value of p <0.05. The Odds Ratio was used as a measure of association with a confidence interval of 95% using the SPSS statistical package, Vs 22.00. Results. The average age of the patients was 75 years (SD = 17.27). With a slight predominance of men (56.6%). The abdominal cavity was the most frequent focus of sepsis, with 28.8% in patients with sepsis and 23.6% with septic shock. Escherichia coli was the most isolated agent. The highest risk of mortality occurred in hypertensive patients (39%, OR: 2.81, 95% CI: 1.39-5.68, P = 0.003) and in those with haematological processes (17.1%; OR: 5 61, 95% CI: 1.96-16.12, P <= 0.001). Conclusion. Gram-negative bacteria and abdominal cavity, as primary septic focus were the most prevalent factors in the patients with sepsis and septic shock analyzed. The risk of mortality was associated with hypertensive patients and with hematological processes.
       
  • (Comparative study of mortality causes between subjects with bipolar
           disorder and a control sample between 1995 and 2005)

    • Abstract: Resumen Justificación: el trastorno afectivo bipolar afecta entre un 1 % y un 2 % de la población mundial. Se ha descrito que se acompaña de un aumento en la mortalidad por causas tanto violentas como no violentas. Existen pocos estudios en el país acerca de las causas de muerte en esta población. Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar las causas de muerte de personas con trastorno afectivo bipolar y compararlas con las de controles sanos. Métodos: de los sujetos con trastorno afectivo bipolar previamente reclutados para estudios genéticos del Centro de Investigación en Biología Celular y Molecular de la UCR, se seleccionó a las 154 personas que habían fallecido entre 1993 y 2005. Se eligieron 154 controles apareados por sexo, que hubiesen nacido y fallecido en el mismo periodo que el sujeto, con una diferencia no mayor a tres meses. El análisis estadístico consistió en una prueba exacta de Fisher con 1000 simulaciones del valor de p con Monte Carlo. Resultados: de los 154 sujetos, un 50 % (n=77) fueron mujeres. No hubo diferencia en la causa de muerte entre sexos. Se encontró diferencia significativa en las principales causas de muerte entre casos y controles (p<0,05). Se observó una diferencia significativa en las categorías de “lesiones autoinflingidas” (χ2 (1)=11.0, p<0,05) y “cáncer” (χ2(1)= 4,1, p= 0,04). No se documentó diferencia en enfermedad cardiovascular (χ2(1)=0,3, p= 0,61), neumonía (χ2(1)=3,1, p= 0,07) y accidentes (χ2(1)= 2,0, p= 0,16). Conclusión: como se ha documentado en bibliografía internacional, las lesiones autoinfligidas son la causa de muerte de mayor importancia en la población afectada con trastorno afectivo bipolar. Background: Bipolar disorder affects 1% to 2% of the world population. It has been described that it is accompanied by an increase in mortality from both violent and non-violent causes. Few studies have been published in our country about causes of death in this particular population. The objective of our study is to analyze the causes of death of subjects with bipolar disorder and compare them to healthy controls. Methods: From the pool of subjects with bipolar disorder previously recruited for genetic studies conducted at the Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Centre of the UCR, we recruited the 154 subjects who had died between 1993 and 2005. Controls of the same sex who were born and died in the same period as the subject, with a difference no greater than three months, were selected. For the statistical analysis we ran a Fisher’s exact test with 1000 simulations of the p-value with Monte Carlo. Results: Of 154 subjects, 50% (n=77) were women. We found no difference in the cause of death between sexes among the cases. A significant difference in the main causes of death was found between cases and controls (p<0.05). A significant difference was observed in the categories of “self-inflicted lesions” (χ2 (1)=11.0, p<0.05) and “cancer” (χ2(1)= 4.1, p= 0.04). No difference was documented in cardiovascular disease, (χ2(1)=0.3, p= 0.61), pneumonia (χ2(1)=3.1, p= 0.07) nor accidents (χ2(1)= 2.0, p= 0.16). Conclusion: Self-inflicted lesions, as has been documented in international literature, are a cause of death of major importance in the population affected with bipolar disorder.
       
  • (Identification of β-thalassemia in hypochromic microcytic anemias
           refractory to iron treatment in Nicaragua)

    • Abstract: Resumen Justificación y objetivo: gran parte de los casos descritos de anemias microcíticas-hipocrómicas corresponden a anemias ferropénicas y síndromes talasémicos. El diagnóstico diferencial se complementa con pruebas de laboratorio como el hierro sérico, ferritina, entre otras; sin embargo, estas son de baja disponibilidad en países en vías de desarrollo. En Nicaragua, el diagnóstico de estas patologías se basa en el historial clínico y análisis hematológicos de rutina. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la implementación de la técnica de cuantificación de hemoglobina A2 en el diagnóstico clínico de β-talasemia. Métodos: se realizó un estudio transversal con 30 pacientes que mostraban microcitosis e hipocromía después de 3 meses de tratamiento con sales de hierro. Se realizó electroforesis de hemoglobina y se utilizó el kit de la casa comercial Beta-Thal HbA2 Quik Column para cuantificar la hemoglobina A2 en cada paciente. El análisis estadístico utilizado fue la prueba de t de student. Se consideraron significativas las diferencias a p<0,05. Esta investigación respetó los principios éticos que conciernen. Se contó con la aprobación del Comité de Ética Institucional, UNAN-Managua. Los participantes dieron su consentimiento informado. Resultados: al aplicar el método para cuantificación de hemoglobina A2, se obtuvo que el 67 % de las muestras presentaron una concentración de hemoglobina A2 mayor al valor de referencia establecido (3,3 %), siendo pacientes diagnosticados para β-talasemia menor. El 33 % restante presentó valores normales de hemoglobina A2 con microcitosis e hipocromía. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las medias de glóbulos rojos, volumen corpuscular medio, hemoglobina corpuscular media y hemoglobina A2, entre ambos grupos. Conclusión: el diagnóstico diferencial de anemias microcíticas hipocrómicas refractarias al tratamiento con hierro, se realiza inicialmente por el historial clínico del paciente, pero es necesario contar con pruebas diagnósticas como la cuantificación de hemoglobina A2 que permitan identificar las diversas patologías que cursan con microcitosis e hipocromía. Justification and objective: much of the described cases of microcytic-hypochromic anemias are ferropenic anemias and Thalassemia syndromes. The differential diagnosis is complemented by laboratory tests as serum iron, ferritin, among others; However, these are of low availability in developing countries. In Nicaragua, the diagnosis of these diseases is based on clinical history and routine blood analysis. The objective of this work was to implement a technique for quantification of hemoglobin A2 in the clinical diagnosis of β-Thalassemia. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 30 patients showing hypochromia and microcytosis after 3 months of treatment with iron salts. Hemoglobin electrophoresis was performed, a kit from Beta-Thal HbA2 Quik Column was used to quantify the hemoglobin A2 in each patient. The statistical analysis used was the student’s t test. The differences were considered significant at p < 0.05. This research respected ethical principles that concern. It had the approval of the committee of ethics institutional, UNAN-Managua and the participants gave their informed consent. Results: when applying the method for quantification of hemoglobin A2, 67% of samples presented a concentration of hemoglobin A2 greater than the reference value set at 3.3%, these patients were diagnosed with β-Thalassemia minor. The remaining 33% presented normal values of hemoglobin A2 with hypochromia and microcytosis. Statistically significant differences between the averages of red blood cells, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and hemoglobin A2 between the two groups was observed. Conclusion: The differential diagnosis of microcytic hypochromic anemias refractory to treatment with iron, is initially performed by the clinical history of the patient, but it is necessary to have diagnostic tests such as the quantification of hemoglobin A2, which allow the identification of patients with β-Thalassemia minor within this group. In our study 67% of the studied samples were identified as β-Thalassemia minor.
       
  • (Experience on children’s splenectomy: a ten year single center
           retrospective study)

    • Abstract: Resumen Objetivo: describir las características clínicas y la evolución de los pacientes sometidos a esplenectomía en el Hospital Nacional de Niños, de enero de 1996 a diciembre del 2006. Métodos: este es un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo que analiza un periodo de 10 años, de pacientes sometidos a esplenectomías en el Hospital Nacional se Niños. Se realizó una revisión de 107 expedientes con el diagnóstico en cuestión. De estos expedientes se obtuvieron: datos clínicos, epidemiológicos, indicaciones para el procedimiento y su respectiva evolución, complicaciones y mortalidad asociada. Se analiza además el seguimiento de las recomendaciones con respecto a profilaxis antibiótica y vacunación. Resultados: se analizó una muestra total de 107 casos. Entre los resultados se encontró que la edad promedio de intervención fue de 6,4 años. Los diagnósticos más comunes fueron hemoglobinopatías (59,8 %), púrpura trombocitopénica idiopática (16,8 %) y osteopetrosis maligna (8,4 %). Entre las indicaciones para esplenectomías predominaron el tratamiento de enfermedad de base (39,9%), hiperesplenismo (26,2 %) y ausencia de respuesta al tratamiento médico (22,4 %). El procedimiento quirúrgico más común fue la laparotomía en el 87,9 % de los casos. La complicación quirúrgica inmediata más frecuente fue la hemorragia persistente (3,7 %), mientras que la complicación quirúrgica tardía más común fue la sepsis (16,8 %). La respuesta terapéutica en la mayoría de los pacientes fue completa (66,7 %). Hubo 5 pacientes fallecidos, de los cuales en dos se relacionó su mortalidad con sepsis. La edad promedio al momento de fallecimiento fue de 6,7 años. Conclusiones: la esplenectomía es una alternativa para el tratamiento de las enfermedades médicas, tras la cual se evidenció una respuesta satisfactoria en la mayoría de los casos del estudio. Aim: to describe clinical characteristics and evolution of patients who underwent splenectomy in Costa Rica’s National Children’s Hospital during January 1996 through December 2006. Methods: This is a chart review study in a 10 year period including children who underwent splenectomy. A hundred and seven charts of children with ages between 0 and 18 years old were reviewed to obtain their clinical presentation, characteristics, indications for splenectomy, follow up, complications and mortality. Also the antibiotic prophylaxis and immunization schedule was analyzed based on international recommendations. Results: A total of 107 patients were included. Results showed that the mean age at which splenectomy was performed was 6.4 years. Most of the patients had their splenectomy due to hemoglobinophaties (59.8%), followed by immune thrombocytopenic purpura (16.8%) and malignant osteopetrosis (8.4%). The most common indications for splenectomy were treatment of the disease (39.9%), hyperesplenism (26.2%) and lack of responde to medical treatment (22.4%). Laparotomy was the most performed surgery (87.9%). Mainly sepsis and hemorrhage were found as complications due to procedure. Overall, complete response to surgical treatment was observed (66.7%). Five patients died during follow up. Conclusions: Splenectomy is an alternative for treating medical disease with predominantly good outcomes observed in our study.
       
  • (Survival of children born with congenital heart defects in Costa Rica: a
           retrospective study of the birth cohort 2006-2007)

    • Abstract: Resumen Justificación: alrededor del mundo las cardiopatías congénitas ocupan las primeras causas de mortalidad infantil. En Costa Rica son el grupo de defectos congénitos más frecuentes, con una prevalencia de 6 x 1000 nacimientos (IC95 % 5 -7 x 1000 nacimientos), que representan cerca del 13 % de la mortalidad infantil. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la supervivencia a cinco años de edad de los niños nacidos con defectos cardiacos en Costa Rica. Métodos: se analizó una cohorte retrospectiva de 543 niños nacidos con cardiopatías congénitas entre enero de 2006 y junio de 2007 en Costa Rica; utilizando los registros médicos y la base nacional de defunciones se brindó un seguimiento mínimo de 5 años en todos los casos. Se obtuvo estimados de supervivencia de Kaplan-Meier al mes, año y cinco años de vida, y se evaluaron factores pronóstico empleando el modelo de riesgos proporcionales de Cox. Se estimaron riesgos relativos crudos y ajustados con su respectivo intervalo de confianza del 95 %. Resultados: la prevalencia de cardiopatías congénitas fue de 5,14 por 1000 nacimientos (IC95 % 4,73-5,60; n: 543) para el período de estudio. La mortalidad fue del 27,9 % (IC 95 % = 24,21- 31,73; n: 152). La supervivencia acumulada al año y cinco años fue del 76,1 % y el 72,4 %, respectivamente, frente al 99,1 % y 98,8 % sobrevivencia de la cohorte de nacimientos nacional (con y sin cardiopatía) de la misma edad. La edad temprana al diagnóstico, severidad, cardiopatías congénitas múltiples y la asociación de defectos congénitos mayores se asociaron significativamente (p≤0,05) a una menor probabilidad de supervivencia. Conclusiones: la cohorte de niños con cardiopatías congénitas estudiada presentó una alta mortalidad al año y cinco años. El peor pronóstico de supervivencia fue para aquellos que necesitaban una cirugía cardíaca a temprana edad. Background: Around the world, congenital heart defects occupy the first causes of infant mortality. In Costa Rica heart malformations are the most frequent group of birth defects, with a prevalence of 6 x 1000 births (95% CI 5-7 x 1000 births). They represent about 13% of infant mortality and are. the leading cause of death due to birth defects. The objective of this study is to analyze the survival of children with CC in Costa Rica. Methods: A retrospective cohort of 543 children born with CC between January 2006 and June 2007 in Costa Rica was analyzed. Using medical records and the national database of deaths, a minimum follow-up of 5 years was given in all cases. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were obtained at month, year and five years of life. Prognostic factors were assessed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Raw and adjusted relative risks were estimated with their respective 95% confidence interval. Results: The prevalence of CC was 5.14 per 1000 births (95% CI: 4.73-5.60; n: 543) for the study period. Mortality was 27.9% (95% CI: 24.21-31.73; n: 152). Cumulative survival at one year and five years was 76.1% and 72.4%, respectively, compared to 99.1% and 98.8% of survival in the same national birth cohort (with and without CC), at the same age. Early age at diagnosis, severity, multiple CC and the association of major BD were significantly associated (p≤0.05) with a lower probability of survival. Conclusions: The cohort of children with congenital heart disease studied had a high mortality rate at one year and five years. The worst prognosis of survival was for those who needed cardiac surgery at an early age.
       
  • Faltas a la ética en la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social

    • Abstract: Resumen Justificación: alrededor del mundo las cardiopatías congénitas ocupan las primeras causas de mortalidad infantil. En Costa Rica son el grupo de defectos congénitos más frecuentes, con una prevalencia de 6 x 1000 nacimientos (IC95 % 5 -7 x 1000 nacimientos), que representan cerca del 13 % de la mortalidad infantil. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la supervivencia a cinco años de edad de los niños nacidos con defectos cardiacos en Costa Rica. Métodos: se analizó una cohorte retrospectiva de 543 niños nacidos con cardiopatías congénitas entre enero de 2006 y junio de 2007 en Costa Rica; utilizando los registros médicos y la base nacional de defunciones se brindó un seguimiento mínimo de 5 años en todos los casos. Se obtuvo estimados de supervivencia de Kaplan-Meier al mes, año y cinco años de vida, y se evaluaron factores pronóstico empleando el modelo de riesgos proporcionales de Cox. Se estimaron riesgos relativos crudos y ajustados con su respectivo intervalo de confianza del 95 %. Resultados: la prevalencia de cardiopatías congénitas fue de 5,14 por 1000 nacimientos (IC95 % 4,73-5,60; n: 543) para el período de estudio. La mortalidad fue del 27,9 % (IC 95 % = 24,21- 31,73; n: 152). La supervivencia acumulada al año y cinco años fue del 76,1 % y el 72,4 %, respectivamente, frente al 99,1 % y 98,8 % sobrevivencia de la cohorte de nacimientos nacional (con y sin cardiopatía) de la misma edad. La edad temprana al diagnóstico, severidad, cardiopatías congénitas múltiples y la asociación de defectos congénitos mayores se asociaron significativamente (p≤0,05) a una menor probabilidad de supervivencia. Conclusiones: la cohorte de niños con cardiopatías congénitas estudiada presentó una alta mortalidad al año y cinco años. El peor pronóstico de supervivencia fue para aquellos que necesitaban una cirugía cardíaca a temprana edad. Background: Around the world, congenital heart defects occupy the first causes of infant mortality. In Costa Rica heart malformations are the most frequent group of birth defects, with a prevalence of 6 x 1000 births (95% CI 5-7 x 1000 births). They represent about 13% of infant mortality and are. the leading cause of death due to birth defects. The objective of this study is to analyze the survival of children with CC in Costa Rica. Methods: A retrospective cohort of 543 children born with CC between January 2006 and June 2007 in Costa Rica was analyzed. Using medical records and the national database of deaths, a minimum follow-up of 5 years was given in all cases. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were obtained at month, year and five years of life. Prognostic factors were assessed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Raw and adjusted relative risks were estimated with their respective 95% confidence interval. Results: The prevalence of CC was 5.14 per 1000 births (95% CI: 4.73-5.60; n: 543) for the study period. Mortality was 27.9% (95% CI: 24.21-31.73; n: 152). Cumulative survival at one year and five years was 76.1% and 72.4%, respectively, compared to 99.1% and 98.8% of survival in the same national birth cohort (with and without CC), at the same age. Early age at diagnosis, severity, multiple CC and the association of major BD were significantly associated (p≤0.05) with a lower probability of survival. Conclusions: The cohort of children with congenital heart disease studied had a high mortality rate at one year and five years. The worst prognosis of survival was for those who needed cardiac surgery at an early age.
       
 
 
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