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Journal Cover Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists
  [SJR: 0.382]   [H-I: 4]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0810-8889
   Published by RMIT Publishing Homepage  [408 journals]
  • Volume 49 An enigmatic univalve macromollusc from the lower Cambrian
           (Series 2, Stage 3) Heatherdale Shale, South Australia
    • Abstract: Jacquet, Sarah M; Jago, James B; Brock, Glenn A
      Fossils have been reported sporadically throughout the lower Cambrian Heatherdale Shale (Normanville Group), Fleurieu Peninsula, South Australia, but there has been little taxonomic documentation of faunas. Problematic cap-shaped fossils from the lower member of the formation originally attributed to 'Helcionella' are herein formally described as a new genus and species, 'Tribelopoma amygdala' gen. et sp. nov. The asymmetric valves with accretionary growth and probable calcium carbonate composition support a molluscan affinity, and comparisons with other enigmatic cap-shaped taxa suggest a possible helcionelloid affinity. Taphonomic processes related to early diagenesis provide evidence of a rigid shell, prone to brittle fracture during compaction.

      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2016 22:55:57 GMT
       
  • Volume 49 Cambrian series 3 (Drumian) trilobites from limestone
           olistoliths, Reilly Ridge, Northern Victoria land, Antarctica
    • Abstract: Bentley, Christopher J; Jago, James B; Cooper, Roger A
      Cambrian Series 3 (Drumian) trilobites are described from twelve limestone olistoliths within a mudstone succession at Reilly Ridge, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. The olistoliths are interpreted to occur within a debris flow deposit. Most of the olistoliths were deposited originally under shallow water, high energy conditions, although one was deposited in an outer shelf setting. The individual olistoliths from the shallow water settings show considerable variation in faunal content, suggesting that they came from slightly different depositional environments. They may be of slightly different ages, within the range of the 'Ptychagnostus atavus' Zone to the 'Goniagnostus nathorsti' Zone, and probably at the lower end of this range. A shale, about 50 m above the olistoliths, contains the agnostoid 'Lejopyge armata'. Two new genera, 'Liopeishaniella' and 'Vicnepea', are erected.

      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2016 22:55:57 GMT
       
  • Volume 49 Geological context, biostratigraphy and systematic revision of
           late early Cambrian olenelloid trilobites from the Parker and Monkton
           formations, northwestern Vermont, U.S.A.
    • Abstract: Landing, Ed; Webster, Mark
      In northwestern Vermont, upper lower Cambrian (Dyeran Stage) dysoxic deposits of the Franklin Basin are separated by 7 km from coeval, shallow-shelf deposits of the Monkton Formation on the Middlebury platform. This report presents a systematic revision of olenelloid trilobites from three localities within the basinal facies of the Parker Formation (including the Parker quarry Lagerst tte) and three localities within the Monkton Formation. The study reveals a previously underestimated diversity of olenelloid species in both formations. 'Olenellus agellus, O. crassimarginatus, O. transitans' and 'O'. aff. 'transitans' are presently known only from the basinal facies; 'Bolbolenellus hermani', 'B.' cf. 'brevispinus' and several indeterminate olenelloid species are presently known only from the shelf facies; and 'O. thompsoni', O. aff. 'Fowleri' and 'Mesonacis vermontanus' occur in both facies. The revisions demonstrate that (1) the Parker and Monkton formations share several species, thus strengthening previous claims for at least partial age-equivalence of the units; and (2) the regression(s) represented by the Monkton Formation began after the formation of the Franklin Basin but prior to the deposition of the Parker quarry Lagerstatte. Some newly documented elements of the Parker and Monkton formation faunas are possibly conspecific with olenelloids from Nevada, which permits a provisional correlation of the Parker quarry Lagerstatte with the 'Bolbolenellus euryparia' Zone or overlying uppermost Dyeran 'Nephrolenellus multinodus' Zone of the Laurentian Cordilleran margin. The Monkton Formation regression(s) were broadly contemporaneous with one or more of the four late Dyeran shallowing-up events that have been identified in the southwestern United States. This indicates that the regression(s) were a eustastic rather than an epeirogenically controlled phenomenon.

      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2016 22:55:57 GMT
       
  • Volume 49 Whitehouse's 'Redlichia' (Trilobita) specimens from the Georgina
           Basin, Western Queensland
    • Abstract: Laurie, John R
      The specimens assigned to 'Mesodema venulosa' and 'Redlichia idonea' by Whitehouse are reillustrated and reanalysed. 'Mesodema' is considered a synonym of 'Redlichia' ('Redlichia'), while Redlichia idonea is not considered synonymous with 'R. forresti. Redlichia idonea' is a very large trilobite, probably attaining a maximum length of 20 cm, while the single cranidium of 'R. venulosa' is about half that of a large 'R. idonea. Redlichia venulosa' is easily distinguished from 'R. idonea' by its much wider cranidium and narrower glabella.

      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2016 22:55:57 GMT
       
  • Volume 49 Linguliformean brachiopods from the early Templetonian (Cambrian
           series 3, stage 5) Giles Creek Dolostone, Amadeus Basin, Northern
           territory
    • Abstract: Smith, Patrick M; Brock, Glenn A; Paterson, John R
      A small assemblage of linguliformean brachiopods (nine taxa) is documented from the Giles Creek Dolostone (Cambrian Series 3, Stage 5; Templetonian) in the Ross River Gorge area, NE Amadeus Basin, central Australia. Taxa described include: 'Aksarinaia subtilicrusta' Percival and Kruse 2014, 'Aphelotreta' cf. 'minuta' Rowell 1980, 'Eothele granulata' Roberts in Roberts and Jell 1990, 'Hadrotreta' sp., 'Micromitra nerranubawu' Kruse 1990, 'Prototreta millsi' Brock and Percival 2006, 'Westonia' cf. 'nyapungensis' Kruse 1990, as well as two species left under open nomenclature: Linguloidea gen. et sp. indet. and Acrotheloidea gen. et sp. indet. The Giles Creek Dolostone fauna has strong similarities to those described from the Koonenberry Belt (far western New South Wales), and the Gum Ridge Formation from the neighboring Georgina Basin (Northern Territory and Queensland). These comparable linguliformean brachiopod faunas are all considered to be of Ordian to early Templetonian age (Cambrian Series 2, Stage 4-Series 3, Stage 5), which agrees with the early Templetonian (Cambrian Series 3, Stage 5) age assessment for the Giles Creek Dolostone based on co-occurring trilobite fauna. The absence of typical Ordian brachiopods 'Schizopholis napuru' (='Karathele napuru') (Kruse 1990) and 'Kostjubella djagoran' (='Vandalotreta djagoran') (Kruse 1990) suggests that these taxa may have shorter ranges and, therefore, would be useful for stage subdivision.

      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2016 22:55:57 GMT
       
  • Volume 49 Drumian and Guzhangian (middle Cambrian) lingulate brachiopods
           from Hunan province, China
    • Abstract: Percival, Ian G; Engelbretsen, Michael J; Peng, Shanchi
      Four new taxa of lingulate brachiopods - 'Canalilatus musculosus' sp. nov., 'Experilingula larga' sp. nov., 'Koneviella'' 'fuscina' sp. nov. and 'Parazhanatella paibia' gen. et sp. nov. - together with an unnamed new species tentatively assigned to Eoobolus, are described from the lower part of the Huaqiao Formation in Huayuan County of northwest Hunan Province, South China. The age of the fauna is Wulingian (Cambrian series 3), ranging from the lowermost 'Ptychagnostus atavus' Zone to the 'Linguagnostus reconditus' Zone, slightly below the 'Glyptagnostus stolidotus' Zone at the top of the series, thus spanning the Drumian and Guzhangian stages. Description of these lingulate brachiopods completes documentation of this fauna, supporting correlations with comparable faunas from Kazakhstan, which share close biogeographical affinities with South China at this time.

      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2016 22:55:57 GMT
       
  • Volume 49 Taxonomy of the 'Micmacca' group, new Cambrian Chengkouiidae
           (Trilobita) from Morocco, and their bearing on intercontinental
           correlation
    • Abstract: Geyer, Gerd
      The genus 'Micmacca' is poorly documented and based on incomplete material that until recently caused profound difficulties in taxonomy and nomenclature. This study attempts a complete revision of 'Micmacca' and related genera such as 'Acanthomicmacca', resulting in a subdivision of the family Chengkouiidae into the genera 'Acanthomicmacca' (with the subgenera 'Acanthomicmacca' and 'Chengkouia'), 'Amslamia, Iguidiella' and 'Erytheia', and possibly 'Micmacca'. New chengkouiid taxa include 'Acanthomicmacca (A.) hupei' n. sp., 'A. (A.)' rana n. sp., A. (A.) 'mirandoides' n. sp., 'A. (A.) morrisoni' n. sp., 'A. (A.) franconica' n. sp., 'Amslamia' n. gen. with 'A. rudkini' n. gen., n. sp., 'Iguidiella' n. gen. with 'Iguidiella schaeri' n. gen., n. sp., and 'Erytheia' n. gen. as well as five species which are known only from poorly preserved material and dealt with in open nomenclature '(A. (A.)' n. sp. A, 'A.'' n. sp. B, 'A. (A.)' n. sp. C, 'A. (A.)' n. sp. D, A. (A.)' n. sp. E). Additional new genera recognised among the previous members of the 'Micmacca' group are 'Sibirolenus' (for 'Micmacca enormis; Palaeolenidae') and 'Anaxarete' (for 'Micmacca ellipsocephaloides' var. 'senior'; Protoleninae). A number of studied species are recombined, such as 'Acanthomicmacca (A.) walcotti, A. (A.) ellipsocephaloides, A. (A.) anomocaroides, A. (A.') schwarzbachi, A. (A.') comleyensis, Erytheia klimontowi, Sibirolenus enormis, Anaxarete' senior and 'Ogygopsis'' 'Angimargo'. The genus 'Myopsolenites' Opik 1975 is considered to be a junior synonym of 'Conomicmacca' (family Bathynotidae). 'Acanthomicmacca' and other genera of the Chengkouiidae are found on several different Cambrian continents such as western and eastern Avalonia, West Gondwana, Baltica, Siberia, South China and the Tarim Platform. However, the stratigraphic range of 'Acanthomicmacca' stretches from the Cambrian Stage 4 in western Avalonia, West Gondwana, South China and the Tarim Platform, to the upper part of Stage 5 and possibly even the Drumian in West Gondwana so that it does not contribute to the problem of precise correlation in the lower-middle Cambrian boundary interval. The only chengkouiid species from Baltica, 'Erytheia klimontowi', occurs in the 'Holmia-Schmidtiellus' Assemblage Zone and is thus possibly the oldest representative of the family. The sedimentary facies in which the Chengkouiidae and particularly the species 'Acanthomicmacca' are found, indicates fairly distinct substrate preferences for most of the species. Their occurrences therefore likely indicate certain types of biofacies rather than utility as index species.

      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2016 22:55:57 GMT
       
  • Volume 49 'Ovatoryctocara granulata' assemblage (Cambrian series 2-series
           3 boundary) of Londal, North Greenland
    • Abstract: Peel, John S; Streng, Michael; Geyer, Gerd; Kouchinsky, Artem; Skovsted, Christian B
      'Ovatoryctocara granulata' Chernysheva 1962, a key trilobite in discussions concerning intercontinental correlation and the placement of the Cambrian Series 2-Series 3 boundary, occurs together with more than 60 other species in a fossil assemblage from the Henson Gletscher Formation of Londal, Peary Land, North Greenland. Most taxa are described from acid residues in which diverse protoconodonts, helcionellid molluscs and hyoliths occur together with linguliformean brachiopods, bradoriids and other fossils. Recognition of an earlier First Appearance Datum for 'O. granulata' in Londal consolidates the biostratigraphic relationship between the assemblage and other partly co-occurring trilobites valuable for correlation within Laurentia and beyond. The assemblage can be correlated with the 'Ovatoryctocara' Biozone, the basal biozone of the Molodian Stage in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia, north-eastern Siberia), proposed as the earliest stage of Cambrian Series 3. New taxa are 'Tulenicornus'' 'Frykmani' sp. nov., 'Conotheca hensoni' sp. nov., 'Capitoconus borealis' sp. nov., 'Hipponicharion pearylandica' sp. nov. and 'Liangshanella'' 'nivalis' sp. nov.

      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2016 22:55:57 GMT
       
  • Volume 49 A new Ordovician paterinate brachiopod from the Barrandian area
           of the Czech Republic
    • Abstract: Mergl, Michal; Kraft, Petr
      'Lacunites jaroslavi', a new species of paterinate brachiopod, is described from the Klabava Formation (Lower Ordovician: Floian/Dapingian boundary interval) of the Barrandian area in the Czech Republic. It is an uncommon component of a fossil assemblage dominated by minute brachiopods, dendroids and graptoloids which indicate a deeper marine environment. The new species is very similar to the approximately contemporaneous 'Lacunites balashovae' of the Baltic area. Occurrence of paterinates in the Tremadocian, Floian and Dapingian of the Barrandian confirms the special position of the Perunica terrane in a high-latitude region of Gondwana in the Early Ordovician.

      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2016 22:55:57 GMT
       
  • Volume 49 The mid-Cambrian (Drumian; Marjuman) trilobites 'Athabaskiella'
           Kobayashi 1942 and 'Bathyuriscidella' Rasetti 1948 (Dolichometopidae) from
           Quebec and Newfoundland, eastern Canada
    • Abstract: Wernette, Shelly J; Westrop, Stephen R
      'Athabaskiella' and 'Bathyuriscidella' comprise a distinctive set of dolichometopid species that share a relatively short palpebral lobe and a bacula opposite the L1 glabellar lobe. Almost all of these species are known from allochthonous boulders in debris flow conglomerates that accumulated along the Quebec Embayment and the St. Lawrence Promontory of the Laurentian continental margin. We revise both genera from a study of type material from the Grosses-Roches Formation, Quebec, and undescribed collections from the Shallow Bay Formation, western Newfoundland. A phylogenetic analysis supports monophyly of both 'Athabaskiella' and 'Bathyuriscidella', and also reveals a new clade, Rasettiella gen. nov., which includes species previous assigned to 'Bathyuriscidella. Rasettiella lupiae' and 'Rasettiella sorgehanarum' are new. Species from Quebec are poorly constrained biostratigraphically, but associated agnostoid arthropods place species from Newfoundland mostly in the 'Ptychagnostus atavus' and/or 'P. punctuosus' zones.

      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2016 22:55:57 GMT
       
  • Volume 49 Ordovician trilobites from the uppermost Zhuozishan Formation
           (early Darriwilian) at Zhuozishan, Wuhai, Inner Mongolia
    • Abstract: Zhou, Zhiyi; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Yin, Gongzheng
      Thirty Ordovician trilobite species belonging to 29 genera and subgenera are described from the top of the Zhuozishan Formation (early Darriwilian) at Zhuozishan, Wuhai, Inner Mongolia, of which nine species and two genera (nileid 'Abarrandia' and 'raphiophorid Rotundampyx') are new. Evidence from the geological setting, composition, taphonomy and predominant forms suggests this diverse fauna is assignable to the Nileid-Raphiophorid biofacies and lived in a calm upper slope environment below storm wave base (> 70 m). The described trilobites are mostly confined to low-latitude zones along eastern Peri-Gondwanan terranes, with close faunal links to South China, Tarim and Kazakhstan. The early Darriwilian transgression boosted faunal exchanges between these regions and allowed the outer shelf or slope fauna to become more unified with those of the South China and Tarim blocks. Typical Laurentian forms, such as 'Kawina, Sthenarocalymene, Heliomeroides' and 'Proscharyia', as well as those from Baltoscandia (e.g., 'Panderia'), appear for the first time in the early Darriwilian slope or outer shelf deposits and carbonate buildups of North China, suggesting widespread faunal exchanges between peri-Gondwana, Baltoscandia and Laurentia were taking place during the early Middle Ordovician.

      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2016 22:55:57 GMT
       
  • Volume 49 The present status of Tasmanian Cambrian biostratigraphy
    • Abstract: Jago, James B; Laurie, John R; Corbett, Keith D; Bentley, Christopher J
      In Tasmania, no definite fossiliferous lower Cambrian rocks are known, but trilobite faunas are found in middle (Cambrian Series 3) and upper (Furongian) Cambrian sediments in the Dundas, Fossey Mountain, Dial Range, Beaconsfield and Adamsfield Troughs, the Smithton Basin and in the Rocky Boat Inlet-Surprise Bay area. Correlations of these faunas with the northern Australian biostratigraphic scale are possible mostly using assemblages of agnostoid arthropods.

      The successions within the Dundas and Fossey Mountain Troughs belong to three main lithological groups. The youngest of these is the Owen Group extending from about the base of the Mindyallan 'Acmarhachis quasivespa' Zone to the top of the Cambrian. In the Adamsfield Trough, the Denison Group is the equivalent of the Owen Group. The Tyndall Group and correlates occurs below the Owen Group in the Dundas and Fossey Mountain troughs, and represent the upper unit of the Mount Read Volcanics. The Tyndall Group ranges in age from about the base of the Boomerangian 'Lejopyge laevigata' Zone to the base of the 'Acmarhachis quasivespa' Zone. The pre-Tyndall Group rocks, representing the earlier parts of the Mount Read Volcanics and the related volcano-sedimentary units, are mainly of Floran to Undillan age.

      In the Dundas Trough, faunas range in age from possible Late Templetonian to Payntonian. Dial Range Trough faunas range in age from Floran to late Mindyallan. The few faunas from the Fossey Mountain Trough are of Boomerangian to Mindyallan age. The Smithton Basin faunas range in age from early Boomerangian to late Idamean, although a possible early Cambrian fauna is present. In the Adamsfield Trough faunas range in age from early Boomerangian to possibly Datsonian. The single Cambrian fauna from the Beaconsfield Trough is probably late Undillan to Boomerangian in age and the three faunas from the Rocky Boat Inlet-Surprise Bay on the South Coast range in age from possibly middle Cambrian to Payntonian. The biostratigraphic information herein, in conjunction with recent geochronologic data, suggests that the age of the base of the Guzhangian Stage is better placed at about 498 Ma rather than the presently accepted figure of 500.5 Ma.

      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2016 22:55:57 GMT
       
  • Volume 49 International correlation of the Cambrian series 2-3, stages 4-5
           boundary interval
    • Abstract: Sundberg, Frederick A; Geyer, Gerd; Kruse, Peter D; McCollum, Linda B; Pegel, Tatyana V; Zylinska, Anna; Zhuravlev, Andrey YU
      International correlation of the lower-middle Cambrian boundary interval (Series 2-3, Stage 4-5) is difficult due to the paucity of globally distributed trilobite taxa and clear documentation of the stratigraphic distribution of taxa in different palaeogeographic regions. Correlation of this interval between the Great Basin of the western United States, Taconic allochthons of the eastern United States, Greenland, Newfoundland, Morocco, Iberia, Baltica (Scandinavia and Poland), Siberia, Australia and South China is presented here using the stratigraphic ranges of 47 species and 46 genera of trilobites and supplemented with archaeocyathan assemblages and acritarch assemblage zones. These data are compared to the First Appearance Datums (FAD) of two oryctocephalids, 'Ovatoryctocara granulata' and 'Oryctocephalus indicus', that have been proposed as biohorizons to define the base of Series 3, Stage 5.

      Based on this study, it is evident that there is no taxon suitable for lower-middle Cambrian correlation that is present in all regions. The correlation chart indicates that trilobite genera, previously used extensively as guides, have long stratigraphic ranges and are of limited use for correlation, in contrast to species that allow a more precise correlation. Although the regionally defined lower-middle Cambrian boundaries do not correlate, they generally occur near the FAD of either 'Ovatoryctocara granulata' or 'Oryctocephalus indicus'. The stratigraphically lower FAD of 'Ovatoryctocara granulata' more or less coincides with the boundaries in Newfoundland, Baltica (Poland) and Siberia, but the boundary in Australia is below this level. The FAD of 'Oryctocephalus indicus' approximates the boundary in South China. The boundaries in the Great Basin, Greenland, Baltica (Scandinavia) and Iberia occur between these two horizons. Only the sections in Siberia and possibly Greenland contain both candidate species. The sections in the Taconic allochthons, Baltica (both Scandinavia and Poland), Morocco, Iberia and Australia contain neither species. The Taconic allochthons are tied to the biostratigraphic scheme for Greenland and Newfoundland. Baltica is correlated to the overall scheme with taxa in common with Greenland, Newfoundland, Morocco, Iberia and Siberia. Morocco and Iberia are correlated based on similarities to Newfoundland, Siberia and South China. Australia is correlated based on similarities to South China and the Great Basin.

      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2016 22:55:57 GMT
       
  • Volume 49 Ordovician (Darriwilian-Sandbian) linguliform brachiopods from
           the Southern Cuyania Terrane of West-central Argentina
    • Abstract: Holmer, Lars E; Popov, Leonid E; Lehnert, Oliver; Pour, Mansoureh Ghobadi
      The first Ordovician micromorphic linguliform brachiopods are described from the Province of Mendoza of west-central Argentina. The focus of the study is on carbonate successions exposed in the San Rafael Block, south of the famous Precordillera of San Juan, La Rioja and Mendoza representing the largest area of the so-called Cuyania Terrane. In the San Rafael region, the lingulate brachiopod faunas occur in two successive assemblages. The older assemblage was recovered from the uppermost part of the Ponon Trehue Formation ('Lenodus variabilis' Biozone; Darriwilian), and is dominated by 'Numericoma rowelli' sp. nov. It has an affinity to contemporaneous faunas from the Antelope Valley Limestone (Whiterockian) at Meiklejohn Peak in central Nevada. The second, younger assemblage was recovered from the lower Lindero Formation (upper Darriwilian-basal Sandbian; 'Pygodus serra' and 'P. anserinus' Biozones) and is mainly dominated by the new genus 'Mendozotreta', with its type species M. devota (Krause & Rowell), and 'Conotreta' cf. 'multisinuata' Cooper, 'Rhysotreta corrugata' Cooper, 'Scaphelasma septatum' Cooper, 'Ephippelasma minutum' Cooper and 'Biernatia minor' Cooper. In addition, the fauna includes 'Elliptoglossa sylvanica' Cooper, 'Rowellella margarita' Krause & Rowell and 'Paterula' cf. 'perfecta' Cooper. This second lingulate microbrachiopod assemblage is closely comparable to the coeval microbrachiopod fauna from the Pratt Ferry Formation of Alabama.

      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2016 22:55:57 GMT
       
  • Volume 49 Trilobites and sedimentary facies of the upper Coquena formation
           (late Tremadocian; 'Notopeltis orthometopa' Zone), Cordillera Oriental,
           Northwestern Argentina
    • Abstract: Tortello, MFranco; del Huerto Benitez, Maria; Esteban, Susana B
      The area west of Purmamarca is a classic locality of the upper Tremadocian (Lower Ordovician) of the central Cordillera Oriental, northwestern Argentina. There, the upper member of the Coquena Formation documents the vertical passage of offshore to shoreface settings affected by storm activity. Updated information on the stratigraphic distribution of the trilobites from the 'Notopeltis orthometopa' Zone in the Quebrada de Chalala is provided. Offshore facies from the lower part of the succession contain high diversity assemblages including 'Asaphellus jujuanus, Geragnostus callaveiformis, G. callaveiformis', G. nesossii, Conophrys sp., Bienvillia rectifrons, Parabolinella triarthroides, Apatokephalus tibicen, Ceratopyge forficuloides, Pyrimetopus pyrifrons and Rossaspis'' sp. In contrast, shoreface deposits of the upper part of the formation have very low diversity faunas, which are composed almost exclusively of 'Notopeltis orthometopa' and 'Mekynophrys nanna'. The FAD of 'N. orthometopa' and 'M. nanna' are located well above the first records of 'Asaphellus jujuanus' and other trilobites. This fact may assist in refining the current biostratigraphic scheme of the upper Tremadocian of Argentina.

      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2016 22:55:57 GMT
       
  • Volume 49 Revision of 'Irvingella tropica' Opik 1963 from Australia and
           related species from North America: Implications for correlation of the
           base of the Jiangshanian stage (Cambrian, Furongian)
    • Abstract: Westrop, Stephen R; Adrain, Jonathan M
      'Irvingella angustilimbata' Kobayashi 1938 from Laurentian North America has been proposed as an auxiliary index species for the base of the Upper Cambrian global Jiangshanian stage, and also has been recorded from North China, South China and Siberia. 'Irvingella tropica' Opik 1963 from Queensland, Australia has been treated as a junior synonym of I. angustilimbata. However, study of types and new material shows that 'I. angustilimbata' and 'I. tropica' are distinct species that are discriminated by both cranidial and pygidial characters; reports of 'I. angustilimbata' outside of Laurentia are at best doubtful. Restudy of poorly preserved, sandstone internal molds that constitute the type material of 'I. major' Ulrich and Resser leads us to consider the species to be a 'nomen dubium'; reports of this species outside of Laurentia are also doubtful. 'Irvingella' media Resser 1942 and 'I. deckeri' Resser 1942, formerly considered to be synonyms of I. major, are readily diagnosable, valid species. 'Irvingella orrensis' from the Orr Formation of Utah is new.

      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2016 22:55:57 GMT
       
  • Volume 49 Ordovician (Darriwilian-Katian) lingulate brachiopods from
           central New South Wales, Australia
    • Abstract: Percival, Ian G; Engelbretsen, Michael J; Brock, Glenn A; Farrell, John R
      This paper completes the systematic description of all known lingulate brachiopods from the Ordovician Macquarie Volcanic Province in central New South Wales, including a new genus and species, 'Psygmakantha malachiensis' and the new species 'Acrosaccus scutatus, Apatobolus anoskelidion, Atansoria australis, Biernatia pseudoplana, Biernatia wrighti, Eoconulus puteus, Nushbiella kleithria and Scaphelasma quadratum'. The oldest lingulates documented are from latest Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) to early Upper Ordovician (Sandbian) limestones within the Fairbridge Volcanics, which yield 'Acrosaccus, Biernatia, Elliptoglossa, Ephippelasma' and 'Nushbiella'. Late Ordovician (Katian) lingulates described from the Fossil Hill Limestone (Benthic Assemblage 1-3) of the Cliefden Caves area include 'Acrosaccus, Plectoglossa and Pseudolingula''. Slightly younger, outer shelf to upper slope (BA 4-5) high diversity lingulate faunas, comprising most of the new taxa described herein, occur in allochthonous limestone breccias of the Malongulli Formation, in the Downderry Limestone Member of the Ballingoole Limestone, and in limestones redeposited in the Barnby Hills Shale and other Silurian strata. These deeper water faunas are dominated by acrotretoids, including species of 'Conotreta, Ephippelasma, Hisingerella, Rhysotreta'', 'Scaphelasma, Spondylotreta' and 'Undiferina'. Additional material of species previously described from graptolitic siltstones of the lower Malongulli Formation, including 'Elliptoglossa adela, Paterula malongulliensis and Hisingerella hetera', are figured by SEM photography for the first time. Biogeographic affinities of the lingulate faunas described here align most strongly with those from Kazakhstan, terranes along the perimeter of Laurentia, New Zealand, and to a lesser extent with South China.

      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2016 22:55:57 GMT
       
  • Volume 49 Emergence of the 'Saucrorthis' Fauna in the middle Ordovician of
           Northern Iran
    • Abstract: Popov, Leonid E; Kebriaee-Zadeh, Mohammad Reza; Pour, Mansoureh Ghobadi
      Sixteen rhynchonelliform brachiopod taxa, including 'Anisopleurella antiqua' n. sp., 'Bellimurina fluctuosa' n. sp., 'Dulankarella hyrcanica' n. sp., 'Lepidomena multiplicata' n. sp., 'Orthis dehmollaensis' n. sp., 'Phragmorthis shahrudensis' n. sp., and 'Rogorthis'' 'oriens' n. sp., are documented from the lower part of the Lashkarak Formation (Darriwilian, 'Lenodus pseudoplanus' Conodont Zone), exposed in the southern foothills of the eastern Alborz Mountains of Iran, in the vicinity of Damghan and Shahrud. This mid-shelf brachiopod association shows strong links with the contemporaneous 'Saucrorthis' Fauna of South China and Sibumasu. It sharply replaces the low diversity shallow-water brachiopod and trilobite association characteristic of the cold-water 'Neseuretus' Biofacies, signifying substantial warming and sea-level rise in the area, which occurred synchronously with the Mid Darriwilian Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion. The biogeographical analysis supports assignment of the Iranian brachiopod association to the 'Saucrorthis' Fauna with its closest link being to the contemporaneous brachiopod fauna of South China and Sibumasu. There is also no evidence for the existence of a pantropical Low Latitude Province through the Darriwilian, when shallow shelf faunas of Laurentia and tropical peri-Gondwana were widely separated.

      PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2016 22:55:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 43 - Revision of New Zealand Cenozoic fossil Mollusca described by
           Zittel (1865) based on Hochstetter's collections from the Novara
           Expedition
    • Abstract: Beu, Alan G.; Nolden, Sascha; Darragh, Thomas A.
      New Zealand Cenozoic molluscs described by Zittel in 'Pal ontologie von Neu-Seeland' (1865) are revised, the plates republished, and most type specimens reillustrated, along with comparative specimens. Hochstetter's fossil localities are clarified, based on diary entries and published descriptions, and Zittel's introduction and figure captions are translated. The locality 'several miles north of Raglan Harbour' is Te Hara Point, 6.5 km north of Raglan.

      PubDate: Fri, 28 Sep 2012 09:51:22 GMT
       
  • Issue 42 - Cambrian and Ordovician stratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the
           Arafura Basin, offshore Northern Territory
    • Abstract: Zhen, Yong Yi; Laurie, John R; Nicoll, Robert S
      Recovery of conodonts and other fossils from four petroleum exploration wells (Esso Tasman 1 and Torres 1; Petrofina Goulburn 1 and Arafura 1), drilled in the Goulburn Graben of the Arafura Basin off the northern coast of Australia, have extended the known distribution of both Ordovician and Cambrian sediments across part of the northern Australian continental margin. The Cambrian and Ordovician sediments in the Arafura Basin comprise the four formations of the Goulburn Group. The recovered fossils indicate that in the offshore, the Jigaimara Formation is most likely of middle to late Templetonian age, the Naningbura Dolomite is Furongian to early Tremadocian, the Milingimbi Formation is middle Tremadocian, and the Mooroongga Formation is of late Tremadocian to middle Floian age.

      PubDate: Thu, 8 Mar 2012 14:26:30 GMT
       
  • Issue 42 - First skeletal microfauna from the Cambrian Series 3 of the
           Jordan Rift Valley (Middle East)
    • Abstract: Elicki, Olaf
      For the first time, a Cambrian microfauna is reported from the Jordan Rift Valley. The fauna comes from low-latitude carbonates of the Numayri Member (Burj Formation, Jordan) and to a lesser degree the equivalent Nimra Member (Timna Formation, Israel). Co-occuring with trilobite, brachiopod and hyolith macrofossils, the microfauna is represented mostly by disarticulated poriferid (mostly hexactinellids) and echinoderm remains (eocrinoids and edrioasteroids). Among the hexactinellids, Rigbyella sp., many isolated triactins and tetractins, as well as a few pentactins and rare hexactins occur. Additional poriferid spicules come from heteractinids (Eiffelia araniformis [Missarzhevsky, 1981]) and polyactinellids ('Praephobetractinia). Chancelloriids (Archiasterella cf. hirundo Bengtson, 1990, Allonnia sp., Chancelloria sp., 'Ginospina sp.) are a rather rare faunal element. Micromolluscs are represented mainly by an indeterminable helcionellid. The probable octocoral spicule Microcoryne cephalata (Bengtson, 1990), torellellid and hyolithellid hyolithelminths, and a bradoriid arthropod occur as very few or single specimens. The same is the case with a probable siphogonuchitid. The occurrence of a cornulitid related microfossil may extend the stratigraphic range of this fossil group significantly. The rather low-diversity microfauna is overwhelmingly dominated by sessile epibenthic biota. The preferred feeding habit seems to have been suspension feeding and minor deposit feeding. The microfauna from the Jordan Rift Valley is typical for low-latitude carbonate environments of Cambrian Series 3 age that corresponds to the traditional late early to middle Cambrian. Some taxa indicate a closer relation to the equatorial Gondwanan Iran and Australia. Some connection to the European shelf of Perigondwana may also have existed.

      PubDate: Thu, 8 Mar 2012 09:12:47 GMT
       
  • Issue 42 - The Cambrian trilobite 'Rhyssometopus', with taxonomic revision
           of Guzhangian species from Queensland, Australia
    • Abstract: Lee, Ann Hally
      A morphometric (bivariate) analysis of middle Cambrian (Series 3; Guzhangian) species of the trilobite Rhyssometopus from northwestern Queensland is conducted. Results show that the species Rhyssometopus rhyssometopus Opik, 1967, R. princeps Opik, 1967, R. rugiceps Opik, 1967, and R. neuter Opik, 1967 cannot be differentiated on the basis of linear dimensions previously used by Opik (1967) as diagnostic characters. Nonlinear characters are found to be more reliable for differentiating the species of Rhyssometopus. The type species, R. rhyssometopus, is herein considered a senior subjective synonym of R. princeps and R. rugiceps. The erection of the subgenus Rostrifinis is also found to be unwarranted. The occurrence of all Rhyssometopus species from Australia, Antarctica and China is reviewed, and a taxonomic revision provides emended diagnoses for the following valid species: R. rhyssometopus Opik, 1967, R. neuter Opik, 1967, R. nitidus Duan, 2004, R. rostrifinis Opik, 1967, R. thielei (Chapman, 1911), and R. zhongguoensis Zhou, 1977. The family Rhyssometopidae is also discussed, with membership consisting of the following genera: Rhyssometopus, Plectrifer, Qiandongaspis and Tasmana.

      PubDate: Thu, 8 Mar 2012 09:12:47 GMT
       
  • Issue 42 - First record of silicified Cambrian (Furongian)
           rhynchonelliform brachiopods from the Mila Formation, Alborz Range, Iran
    • Abstract: Popov, Leonid E; Pour, Mansoureh Ghobadi; Kebria-Ee Zadeh, Mohammad Reza; Shahbeik, Saeid
      The discovery of a small rhynchonelliform brachiopod fauna of late Cambrian (Furongian) age, dominated by early pentamerids, is reported from the Mila Formation (Member 4) in the eastern Alborz Range of Iran. Two brachiopod associations are recognised. The first, dominated by the eostrophiid Syntrophioides tersus n. sp. in association with Billingsella aff. seletensis Nikitin as a minor component, occurs in characteristic shell beds composed primarily of disarticulated pentameride shells. The second association is characterised by Billingsella' uniplicata n. sp., Palaeostrophia shahrudensis n. sp. and Plectotrophia tenuis n. sp. and also dominated by early syntrophioids. The late Furongian age of the fauna is confirmed by the occurrence of trilobites characteristic of the Alborsella Biozone. Most of the genera in the assemblage had a pantropical distribution during the Furongian, except Syntrophioides, which was previously known only from the middle Cambrian of Laurentia.

      PubDate: Thu, 8 Mar 2012 09:12:47 GMT
       
  • Issue 42 - Lower Cambrian (Branchian) eodiscoid trilobites from the lower
           Brigus formation, Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland, Canada
    • Abstract: Westrop, Stephen R; Landing, Ed
      Eodiscoids form a significant component of the Lower Cambrian (Branchian) trilobite fauna of the St. Mary's and lower Jigging Cove members of the Brigus Formation exposed along Conception and Trinity bays, northern Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland. Two species of Serrodiscus Richter and Richter, four species of Hebediscus Whitehouse, and rare sclerites of Meniscuchus' pik and Calodiscus Howell are documented; type material of M.' helena (Walcott) is reillustrated. Hebediscus attleborensis (Shaler and Foerste) is restricted to the types, and H. williamsi is new. A parsimony analysis indicates that Serrodiscus is paraphyletic but supports monophyly of Acidiscus Rasetti, Bolboparia Rasetti and Stigmadiscus Rasetti. Above a sparsely fossiliferous interval in the lowest part of the Brigus, three eodiscoid faunas can be identified in the upper St. Mary's and lower Jigging Cove members, in ascending order, the Hebediscus planus, H. williamsi and Calodiscus cf. C. lobatus faunas. The lower two faunas correspond to part of the traditional "Callavia Zone" of previous workers.

      PubDate: Thu, 8 Mar 2012 09:12:47 GMT
       
  • Issue 42 - Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) brachiopods associated with the
           'Neseuretus' biofacies, eastern Alborz Mountains, Iran
    • Abstract: Pour, Mansoureh Ghobadi; Popov, Leonid E; Kebria-Ee Zadeh, Mohammad Reza; Baars, Christian
      Five rhynchonelliform brachiopod taxa, including Bastamorthis multicostata n. gen., n. sp., Saucrorthis obtusus n. sp. and Semnanostrophia lata n. gen., n. sp., are described from the lower part of the Lashkarak Formation at Deh-Molla and Simeh-Kuh, eastern Alborz Mountains, northern Iran. Associated conodonts indicate an early to middle Darriwilian (Lenodus variabilis to Lenodus pseudoplanus biozones) age for the fauna. The Early to Middle Ordovician benthic faunas of the Alborz Region show closest affinity to South China, which is accentuated by the occurrence of brachiopod genera such as Martellia, Saucrorthis and Yangtzeella in the Darriwilian. In the Alborz Region, Yangtzeella is already present in the late Floian-early Dapingian where it is represented by Y. longiseptata n. sp. However, the early Darriwilian brachiopod fauna shows an increased degree of endemicity, which coincides with invasion of the cold water Neseuretus trilobite biofacies and may be a reflection of cooler climate at that time. It is demonstrated that in the Alborz Region, the base of the Lashkarak Formation (as originally defined) coincides with a widespread unconformity at the beginning of the Darriwilian, and its extension to the Lower Ordovician and Dapingian sediments within the Alborz Region is not justified.

      PubDate: Thu, 8 Mar 2012 09:12:47 GMT
       
  • Issue 42 - Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician) conodonts from the Maruia-
           Springs Junction area, New Zealand
    • Abstract: Zhen, Yong Yi; Cooper, Roger A; Simes, John E; Percival, Ian G
      A diverse conodont fauna of 28 species has been recovered from the Sluice Box Formation, exposed in the Maruia-Lake Daniels-Springs Junction area at the southernmost extension of the fossiliferous Lower Palaeozoic terranes in the south west Nelson region of New Zealand's South Island. The fauna is characterised by several zonal index species including important age-diagnostic pectiniform taxa such as Pygodus serra, P. anitae, Eoplacognathus suecicus, Yangtzeplacognathus foliaceus, Histiodella kristinae, Dzikodus tablepointensis, Polonodus newfoundlandensis and P. clivosus. All except P. serra are reported for the first time from New Zealand, and indicate a middle to late Darriwilian age (from the E. suecicus Zone to the Y. foliaceus Subzone of the basal P. serra Zone) for the assemblage. Biostratigraphically the Maruia conodont fauna is the most well constrained known from this time interval in eastern Australia and New Zealand, and is comparable with contemporaneous offshore shelf-edge to slope assemblages previously documented from Thompson Creek in NW Nelson and from central New South Wales.

      PubDate: Thu, 8 Mar 2012 09:12:47 GMT
       
  • Issue 42 - Affinities of the Lower Ordovician (Tulean; lower Floian)
           trilobite 'Gladiatoria', with species from the Great Basin, western United
           States
    • Abstract: Adrain, Jonathan M; McAdams, Neo EB; Westrop, Stephen R
      Macropyge gladiator Ross, 1951a, is the type species of the previously monotypic Gladiatoria Hupe, 1955. It has been regarded as the only known post-Tremadocian macropygine ceratopygid, and the only known ceratopygid from the Ordovician of Laurentia. Well preserved new material from western Utah and southern Idaho includes the first positively identified cephalic sclerites and demonstrates that Gladiatoria is a component of Bathyuridae, a family common in shallow water Lower Ordovician assemblages from Laurentia. Gladiatoria is closely related to and regarded as the sister taxon of Bathyurellus Billings, 1865, to which it is nearly identical in cephalic morphology. In addition to an extended revision of the type species, which is from the lower Psalikilopsis cuspidicauda Zone, new species described include G. phoenixi (Hintzeia celsaora Zone), G. nielsenae (Psalikilopsis cuspidicauda Zone and Psalikilus typicum Zone), G. harrisi (upper Psalikilopsis cuspidicauda Zone), G. reedi (Psalikilus typicum Zone and Psalikilus hestoni Zone) and G. crowei (Protopliomerella contracta Zone). All are from the Tulean Stage (lower Floian).

      PubDate: Thu, 8 Mar 2012 09:12:47 GMT
       
  • Issue 42 - Systematics and affinity of the Lower Ordovician (Tulean; lower
           Floian) trilobite 'Psalikilopsis'
    • Abstract: Adrain, Jonathan M; McAdams, Neo EB; Westrop, Stephen R; Karim, Talia S
      Psalikilopsis Ross, 1953, has been known from a single species and interpreted as a "hystricurine" ancestral to some, but not all, "bathyurids". Comprehensive revision of the type species and the description of three new species demonstrate that the taxon is ingroup Bathyuridae. The unusual morphology of its more derived species is associated with a change from normal bathyurid sphaeroidal enrolment to spiral enrolment, with part of the pygidium tucked inside the cephalon, stopped medially by a pygidial spine docking against a medially modified anterior border. The oldest and apparently basal species lacks these modifications and is of "normal" bathyurid morphology. The genus occurs in lower Floian (Tulean) Psalikilus spinosum, Hintzeia celsaora, and Psalikilopsis cuspidicauda zones in Idaho, Utah, and Nevada, and its striking morphology and common occurrence make it biostratigraphically significant. A pygidium from the Fort Cassin Formation of New York, and two species illustrated in open nomenclature from the Shallow Bay Formation of Newfoundland demonstrate the occurrence of Psalikilopsis in eastern Laurentia. The eastern Laurentian species appear to be younger than those from western Laurentia. New species are Psalikilopsis paracuspidicauda (Psalikilopsis cuspidicauda Zone), P. redfordi (H. celsaora Zone), and P. newmani (Psalikilus spinosum Zone).

      PubDate: Thu, 8 Mar 2012 09:12:47 GMT
       
  • Issue 42 - New symphysurinid trilobites from the Cambrian-Ordovician
           boundary interval in the western United States
    • Abstract: Loch, James D; Taylor, John F
      The Ibexian (Lower Ordovician) Symphysurina Zone has been subdivided into three subzones (in ascending order): the Symphysurina brevispicata, Symphysurina bulbosa and Symphysurina woosteri subzones. During deliberations over the selection of the GSSP for the base of the Ordovician System the base of the S. bulbosa Subzone was believed to closely approximate the First Appearance Datum (FAD) of the conodont Iapetognathus fluctivagus and the associated restricted occurrence of the cosmopolitan trilobite Jujuyaspsis. This correspondence allowed the approximate position of the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary in platform sequences of Laurentia to be determined on the basis of the endemic trilobite faunas. However, recent work has shown the tripartite division of the Symphysurina Zone to be untenable and, in particular, raised doubt regarding the suitability of the base of the S. bulbosa Subzone as a proxy for the base of the Ordovician System. This study describes four new species from the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary interval that are assigned to the Family Symphysurinidae. Symphysurina ethingtoni sp. nov. and Symphysurina straatmannae sp. nov. are recovered from the uppermost Cambrian. The genus Chasbellus gen. nov. is erected to include punctate symphysurinids that exhibit a concave pygidial border that extends posteriorly as a flat shelf. Two species are formally described: C. milleri (the type species) and C. repetskii, while a third is left in open nomenclature. All species of Chasbellus are restricted to the lowest Ordovician. Collectively, these species allow more confident distinction of the lower (Cambrian) from upper (Ordovician) portions of the Symphysurina Zone than was previously possible.

      PubDate: Thu, 8 Mar 2012 09:12:47 GMT
       
  • Issue 42 - Middle Ordovician linguliformean brachiopods from the
           Maruia-Springs Junction area, New Zealand
    • Abstract: Percival, Ian G; Simes, John E; Cooper, Roger A; Zhen, Yong Yi
      The Sluice Box Formation, exposed in the Maruia-Lake Daniels-Springs Junction area at the southernmost extension of the Takaka Terrane, west of the Alpine Fault in New Zealand's South Island, ranges in age from late Cambrian (Furongian) to Middle Ordovician (late Darriwilian). Linguliformean brachiopods described from the upper part of the Sluice Box Formation include species previously documented from the Thompson Creek area in the northern Takaka Terrane, such as Scaphelasma paturauensis, Torynelasma takakaea and Hyperobolus' thompsonensis (herein assigned to the new genus Thomsonobolus), together with representatives of Apatobolus, Elliptoglossa, Paterula, Schizotreta, Acrosaccus', Cyrtonotreta, Physotreta' and Undiferina. The new species Multispinula pustulosa, Hisingerella potistra, Numericoma magnaspina and Biernatia maruiaensis are described from the upper Sluice Box Formation. An unnamed zhanatellid and an enigmatic form with scaphelasmatid affinities, neither of which can be confidently attributed to known genera, are also documented. Differences in the faunal composition compared with the Thompson Creek assemblage probably reflect the slightly older age (early to middle Darriwilian, Da2-3) of that fauna, whereas the brachiopods described in this report extend over the Eoplacognathus suecicus and lower Pygodus serra zones of the mid to late Darriwilian (late Da3), based on the age of associated conodonts.

      PubDate: Thu, 8 Mar 2012 09:12:47 GMT
       
  • Issue 42 - Exceptionally preserved biota from a carbonate lithofacies,
           Huaqiao Formation (Cambrian: Drumian Stage), Hunan, China
    • Abstract: Babcock, Loren E; Peng, Shanchi; Wasserman, Gregory J; Robison, Richard A
      Thinly laminated, dark lime mudstones (calcilutites and calcisiltites) of the Huaqiao Formation (Cambrian: Series 3, Drumian Stage) near Paibi, Hunan Province, China, yield remains of exceptionally preserved fossils of organisms inferred to be cyanobacteria (Eubacteria), phaeophyte and chlorophyte algae (Protoctista or Chromista), and a possible hydrozoan cnidarian (Animalia). In addition, the strata yield a problematic fossil that may represent a fecal string. The putative cyanobacterium Morania fragmenta Walcott, which was widespread in South China and Laurentia during the Cambrian, is present in the Huaqiao biota. A brown alga, Padina corrugata sp. nov., is the first putative calcifying dictyotacean to be reported from the fossil record, and the earliest known brown alga to show inferred light calcification of the blades. Padina may have contributed to the production of lime mud from the Cambrian Period onwards by means of minute aragonite needles coating the blades. A presumed chlorophyte alga present in the Huaqiao Formation, Yuknessia simplex Walcott, was widespread in the Cambrian of South China and Laurentia. Archaeocryptolaria furongguoia sp. nov. is a possible cnidarian, and the first hydrozoan to be reported from the Cambrian of China. A fossil provisionally regarded as a fecal string, Megaspirellus', is known only from South China.

      PubDate: Thu, 8 Mar 2012 09:12:47 GMT
       
  • Issue 42 - Late middle Cambrian trilobites from El Totoral, Mendoza,
           Argentina
    • Abstract: Tortello, MFranco
      Late middle Cambrian trilobites from open-shelf lithofacies of El Totoral, Precordillera of Mendoza, western Argentina, are described. The material belongs to the ngel Borrello collections in the Museum of Natural Sciences of La Plata, Argentina. In addition, type specimens of the Carlos Rusconi collections in the Museum J.C. Moyano, Mendoza, are reillustrated. Biostratigraphically important agnostoids of the Lejopyge laevigata Zone [Agnostus microcephalus (Rusconi), Ammagnostus beltensis (Lochman), Kormagnostus seclusus Walcott, Clavagnostus calensis Rusconi, Tomagnostella nepos (Br gger), Lejopyge sp.] are described from this locality for the first time, and the polymeroid faunas are fully revised. The latter include Asaphiscus cf. lasherensis (Rusconi), Blountia socorrensis Rusconi, Elrathia oscelata (Rusconi), Talbotinella communis Poulsen, Modocia sp., Olenoides faldeanus Rusconi and Hysteropleura (Verditerrina) totoralensis (Rusconi). As previously suggested by Borrello and Rusconi, the polymeroids have their closest affinities with faunas of North America (lower Cedaria Zone and equivalents).

      PubDate: Thu, 8 Mar 2012 09:12:47 GMT
       
  • Issue 42 - Revised stratigraphic nomenclature for parts of the
           Ediacaran-Cambrian Series 2 succession in the southern Great Basin, USA
    • Abstract: Ahn, Soo Yeun; Babcock, Loren E; Hollingsworth, JStewart
      Mixed carbonates and siliciclastics assigned to the Reed, Deep Spring, Campito, Poleta and Harkless formations of eastern California and western Nevada, USA, comprise one of the most complete stratigraphic successions across the Ediacaran-Cambrian Series 2 interval known in North America. Distinctive, widely mappable members, mostly informal, have long been recognised for each of the formations. New, formal lithostratigraphic names are proposed for members of the Deep Spring Formation (Dunfee, Esmeralda and Gold Point members) and the Harkless Formation (Weepah and Alkali members).

      PubDate: Thu, 8 Mar 2012 09:12:47 GMT
       
  • Issue 42 - The mid-Cambrian (Drumian) centropleurid trilobite 'Luhops' and
           its relatives from the Abbey Shale formation near Nuneaton, central
           England
    • Abstract: Rushton, Adrian WA
      Mature and juvenile specimens of Luhops expectans (Barrande) are described from strata in the English Midlands lying near the boundary between the agnostoid zones of Tomagnostus fissus and Hypagnostus parvifrons. Clarella groenwalli Howell and Poulsen is probably a synonym of L. expectans. Other centropleurid trilobites from the same strata include Clarella impar (Hicks) and Luhops coquus sp. nov. Centropleura pugnax Illing, formerly assigned to Clarella and Luhops, is returned to Centropleura; an elongated thorax is tentatively assigned to the species.

      PubDate: Thu, 8 Mar 2012 09:12:47 GMT
       
  • Issue 42 - Late Ordovician (Hirnantian) 'Mucronaspis (Songxites')-dominant
           trilobite fauna from northwestern Zhejiang, China
    • Abstract: Zhou, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Zhiyi; Yuan, Wenwei
      Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) trilobites Mucronaspis (Songxites) mucronata (Brongniart), Platycoryphe songtaoensis Lu and Wu and Eoleonaspis sp. are described from the Yankou and Anji formations at Sanqiaopu, Deqing, northwestern Zhejiang, China. The species mucronata previously referred to Mucronaspis Destombes, 1963, is reassigned to Mucronaspis (Songxites) (Lin, 1981) on the basis of a close comparison with the type species Dalmanitina (Songxites) wuningensis (Lin), the type material of which is refigured and restudied. Similar trilobites widely recorded from other areas of China in the same stage are listed and revised. Mucronaspis (Songxites) mucronata was extensively distributed in Europe, Asia and central North America, suggesting a close biogeographic link between those areas during the Hirnantian.

      PubDate: Thu, 8 Mar 2012 09:12:47 GMT
       
  • Issue 42 - Lingulate brachiopods from the upper Cambrian (Sunwaptan)
           Hellnmaria member of the Notch Peak formation, Western Utah, USA
    • Abstract: Freeman, Rebecca L; Miller, James F
      Bulk samples collected from the Hellnmaria Member of the Notch Peak Formation of western Utah, USA have yielded a lingulate brachiopod fauna with many new taxa. Two new lingulid genera are named, Stittia and Tuleobolus. Seven new species are described, the lingulid species Stittia ornata, Tuleobolus cretatus and Discotreta' arcana, and the acrotretid species Quadrisonia congerensis, Q. rattlesnakensis, Q. sawtoothensis and Q. swaseyensis. The genus Quadrisonia Rowell and Henderson, 1978 is emended. The species Obolus (Westonia) notchensis Walcott, 1908 is assigned to the new genus Stittia. Zhanatella rotunda Koneva, 1986 is documented from the lower beds of the Hellnmaria Member, establishing it as coeval with strata in Kazakhstan and southern France, from where this species was described previously. These collections extend downward the range of Quadrisonia lavadamensis Popov et al., 2002, Zhanatella utahensis Popov et al., 2002 and Wahwahlingula sp., which were described previously from Utah.

      PubDate: Thu, 8 Mar 2012 09:12:47 GMT
       
  • Issue 42 - A Cambrian series 3 (Guzhangian) fauna with 'Centropleura' from
           Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica
    • Abstract: Jago, James B; Bentley, Christopher J; Cooper, Roger A
      A Cambrian Series 3 (Guzhangian, probably lower Lejopyge laevigata Zone) trilobite assemblage is described from the northern Bowers Mountains, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. This is the oldest known fossil assemblage from the northern Bowers Mountains. There are ten agnostoid taxa including the widespread species Lejopyge armata, L. calva, Onymagnostus hybridus, Acidusus aculeatus and Goniagnostus nathorsti. The nine polymerid taxa include the cosmopolitan genus Centropleura plus the widespread genera Fuchouia, Pianaspis and Acontheus. Acontheus is recorded from Antarctica for the first time. A revised diagnosis of Acontheus is given. The fossils occur within a succession of mudstone with thin layers of calcareous mudstone and concretionary bands that are more resistant than the mudstone; an outer shelf to upper slope depositional environment is proposed.

      PubDate: Thu, 8 Mar 2012 09:12:47 GMT
       
  • Issue 42 - Exceptionally preserved 'Conchopeltis' (Cnidaria) from the
           Ordovician of New York, USA: Taphonomic inferences
    • Abstract: Babcock, Loren E
      Two specimens of the medusoid cnidarian Conchopeltis alternata Walcott from the Trenton Group of New York, USA, provide further information on the taphonomic history of this rare taxon. The specimens are unusual in that they represent exceptional preservation in a non-concretionary limestone. Umbrella-like tests were probably transported and rapidly buried by storm currents. Three-dimensional preservation of non-biomineralising umbrella-like tests or periderms is inferred to have resulted from early replication of structures related to bacterially mediated mineral precipitation. Tentacles are known from only two specimens of C. alternata, and they seem to have separated quickly from the umbrellas. When preserved, tentacles apparently have been carbonised.

      PubDate: Thu, 8 Mar 2012 09:12:47 GMT
       
  • Issue 42 - The first known complete Lichakephalid trilobite, lower
           Ordovician of Morocco
    • Abstract: Fortey, Richard A
      The trilobite Family Lichakephalidae has hitherto only been known from incomplete material. A new discovery of a complete exoskeleton of a giant species of Lichakephalus, L. stubbsi sp. nov., from the Fezouata Formation of Morocco (Tremadocian) allows a more thorough understanding of the morphology of these early lichoid trilobites. The similarity to more advanced Lichidae is confirmed, and suggested that the Family Lichakephalidae may be a paraphyletic group comprising a collection of primitive taxa. Lichakephalus is strikingly convergent upon other large, benthic trilobites in the Fezouata Formation, which may be a consequence of having shared similar predator/scavenger life habits.

      PubDate: Thu, 8 Mar 2012 09:12:47 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - Endolithic algae, fungi and bacterial activity in Holocene and
           Cretaceous brachiopod shells - diagenetic consequences
    • Abstract: Gaspard, Daniele
      Most published reports of perforations in brachiopod shells concern predatory drill holes. There has been little attention on borings produced by endolithic organisms, which use the brachiopod shells as substrates. Using the calcitic shells of both Holocene rhynchonelliform brachiopods and Cretaceous fossil representatives, from a range of different locations and environments, this study shows that many brachiopod shells are perforated by the activities of endoliths including brachiopod pedicle rootlets and other micro-endoliths like micro sponges, filamentous algae, fungi and bacteria. Despite brachiopods' natural protection (periostracum and punctae, when present), they are vulnerable to the attacks of endolithic organisms which live either in direct association with the brachiopods (e.g., the association between the living brachiopod Gryphus vitreus (Born) and the green algae Ostreobium queketti Bornet & Flahault, in the Mediterranean Sea), or attack the brachiopods as invaders into the brachiopod shells, the latter leading to early diagenetic modifications in the fine structure of the shells to form secondary calcite and/or shell silicification (e.g., in the form of amorphous silica). A precise knowledge of water depth of a sampling site is important in ascertaining the origin and nature (type) of the endoliths, which may include algae, cyanobacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria or fungi. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), which are in need of organic supply, are often located in the organic matrix. A parallel is drawn with Cretaceous brachiopod shells where comparable endolithic microorganisms were revealed.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - The Cisuralian faunal succession in Patagonia (Tepuel-Genoa
           Basin, Argentina): An updated brachiopod biostratigraphic scheme
    • Abstract: Pagani, MAlejandra; Taboada, Arturo C
      The Tepuel-Genoa Basin, located in the Patagonian region (Chubut Province) of southern Argentina, was a wide embayment open to the Panthalassic Ocean at the southwestern border of Gondwana; it was infilled by nearly 7000 m of a continuous succession (Tepuel Group), from the early Carboniferous (late Tournaisian) to the early Permian (Artinskian). Lowermost Permian faunas were recognised in the upper part of the Pampa de Tepuel Formation, but the first record of a Costatumulus-like faunal assemblage starts in the lower part of the overlying Moj n de Hierro Formation and ends in the upper part of the Rio Genoa Formation. Recently, refined proposals on the stratigraphic arrangement of the Moj n de Hierro and Rio Genoa formations, and discrimination of faunal assemblages throughout these units, allowed us to identify a wide spatial and temporal distribution for Costatumulus Waterhouse within the basin. New material collected from different localities and fossiliferous horizons throughout the Tepuel-Genoa Basin suggests a greater number of species than the previously recorded single occurrence of Costatumulus, and also the presence of its allied genus Magniplicatina Waterhouse. Such adjustment in the taxonomic composition of the former Costatumulus Biozone allows the recognition of six different and successive faunal assemblages; and also three potentially new species of Costatumulus, as follows. The Cimmeriella Fauna ( late Asselian-Sakmarian) recorded with Costatumulus sp. 1 (formerly Cancrinella cf. C. farleyensis), and the Kochiproductus-Costatumulus Fauna ( latest Sakmarian-earliest Artinskian) bearing Costatumulus sp. 2, are both recorded in the upper section of the Moj n de Hierro Formation. The younger Costatumulus-Tivertonia Fauna ( early Artinskian) yields Costatumulus sp. 3 in the lower part of the Rio Genoa Formation, whilst the Jakutoproductus ( late early Artinskian), Piatnitzkya ( late early -middle Artinskian) and the youngest Magniplicatina sp. ( middle Artinskian) faunas characterise the uppermost section of the Rio Genoa Formation. The taxonomic composition of the Costatumulus Biozone faunal succession in Patagonia initially suggests strong but temporally varied faunal links with western Australia and the Cimmerian regions in south and southeast Asia, as well as moderate but significant links with the Siberian Arctic region and, to a lesser extent, with eastern Australia.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - Reassessment of the Ordovician brachiopod Poramborthis and
           Poramborthidae
    • Abstract: Mergl, Michal
      The history, morphology and distribution of the genus Poramborthis and the family Poramborthidae are reviewed. Although the rectimarginate commissure and presence of a low notothyrial platform are suggestive of an orthid affinity, other features - especially the digitate mantle canal system, costellate ornament with subcircular pits in the interspaces and the sessile spondylium - argue for a syntrophiidine affinity. The associated brachiopod fauna, with dominant eoorthids, early plectorthoideans and tritoechiids, indicate communication with Laurentia and various low-latitude Gondwana microcontinents, representing a high-latitude counterpart of the orthide-syntrophioidean association. The uniqueness of the Mediterranean province in the late Cambrian and Tremadocian is thus challenged.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - Nanostructures in Palaeozoic linguloid brachiopods
    • Abstract: Lang, Liisa; Uibopuu, Ethel; Puura, Ivar
      SEM studies of untreated and uncoated fracture sections of the linguloid brachiopods Obolus ruchini Khazanovitch and Popov and Bicarinatina bicarinata Kutorga from the Cambrian of NW Russia and Devonian of Estonia, respectively, revealed fibril-like nanostructures, less than 200 nm in diameter. These structures are interpreted here as phosphatised biopolymers that were not mineralised in vivo and may have supported the apatite mineralisation from the early stages of the formation of bacula. Previous documentation of nanostructures in Palaeozoic fossils is quite rare.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - Morphology and systematics of late Palaeozoic syringothyrid
           brachiopods from West-Central Argentina
    • Abstract: Cisterna, Gabriela A
      Late Palaeozoic syringothyrid brachiopods from the central western Argentinian basins, have been studied for the small changes in the ventral interior features (i.e. syrinx, delthyrial plate, median septum), considered critical for the generic diagnoses of this group. Argentinian species previously described are also reviewed and, with the new collections obtained for the present study, some are considered synonyms. Three time intervals are studied. Early Carboniferous (Tournaisian-Visean) syringothyrids are not abundant and are characterised by the presence of a delthyrial plate, an incomplete wedge-shaped syrinx and a median septum, the latter suggesting a possible new (') Septosyringothyridine genus. Late Carboniferous (late Serpukhovian-Bashkirian) syringothyrids have a delthyrial plate, syrinx and median septum, all typical of Septosyringothyris Vandercammen. This genus is well known in the Argentine Precordillera with two species: Septosyringothyris keideli (Harrington) and Septosyringothyris sp. aff. S. keideli. These species are found in the Levispustula fauna that is usually associated with glaciomarine deposits related to the late Carboniferous glacial events in southwestern Gondwana. Early Permian syringothyrids (Asselian-Sakmarian) are very abundant and are characterised by a large syrinx (which is partially enclosed by the delthyrial plate unlike the genus Septosyringothyris), a very short delthyrial plate and a distinctive median septum. These features suggest that species previously described as Septosyringothyris jaguelensis Lech, Septosyringothyris sp. aff. S. jaguelensis, Septosyringothyris globosa Lech, Septosyringothyris feruglioi (Amos) and Septosyringothyris sp. aff. S. feruglioi (Amos), can be included in a new subgenus of Septosyringothyris Vandercammen, here named Septosyringothyris (Precosyringothyris) subgen. nov. The new subgenus and its constituent species appear in the Tivertonia jachalensis-Streptorhynchus inaequiornatus and Costatumulus amosi faunas, of basal Permian age, and are associated with an important climatic amelioration recorded in the central western Argentinian basins.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - Late Eocene (Priabonian) micromorphic brachiopods from the
           Upper Austrian Molasse Zone
    • Abstract: Dulai, Alfred
      Until now, Eocene brachiopods were unknown in Austria. Thirty-five upper Eocene samples from two boreholes (Helmberg-1, Perwang-1) in the Upper Austrian Molasse Zone yielded more than 2000 micromorphic brachiopod specimens, representing nine species of seven genera. Some of them (Terebratulina tenuistriata, Megathiris detruncata) are widely distributed in the European Eocene, while others (Orthothyris pectinoides, Argyrotheca batalleri, Platidia anomioides, Terebratulida gen. indet. A. [="Terebratula" italica]) are known only from a few other Eocene localities. Two species are described as new (Terebratulina johansenae n. sp., Rugia zagorseki n. sp.). Previously, Rugia was known only from the Cretaceous and early Palaeocene, making this is the first record of the genus from the Eocene. The taxonomic composition of the faunas (very limited occurrence of Megathyridoidea and dominance of Cancellothyridoidea) indicates a deep water environment. The ecological composition of the brachiopods suggests a more (Perwang) or less (Helmberg) soft sediment substrate with an abundance of small hard objects for the attachment of micromorphic, pedunculate species. Orthothyris and Terebratulina alternate with each other at the lithological change in Helmberg-1, but occur within the same lithology in Perwang-1. This suggests that they do not occupy different bottom types, but are probably competitors for the same ecological niches.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - An early Cambrian chileate brachiopod from South Australia and
           its phylogenetic significance
    • Abstract: Holmer, Lars E; Skovsted, Christian B; Brock, Glenn A; Popov, Leonid
      The first record of a chileate (Rhynchonelliformea, Chileata, Chileida) brachiopod, Chile' sp. in South Australia is described based on a well preserved, phosphatised ventral valve from the early Cambrian (lower-mid Botoman; Pararaia tatei trilobite Zone) Parara Limestone exposed in Horse Gully, Yorke Peninsula. The ventral valve of Chile' sp. is the only known record of a phosphatised chileate and provides the first critical insight into the ontogeny of the poorly understood Cambrian Chileata. The early ontogeny of Chile' sp. closely parallels that of the aberrant early Cambrian paterinate-like phosphatic-shelled Salanygolina from Mongolia. In both Salanygolina and Chile' sp., the anterior margin of the well defined ventral larval shell is indented by an unrestricted notch that, through later ontogeny, develops into a foramen, directly anterior to the umbo. In subsequent ontogenetic development, this subtriangular foramen is enlarged by resorption and covered posteriorly by the colleplax - a triangular plate - in the umbonal foramen. The ontogeny of Chile' sp. further supports the notion that the umbonal foramens and colleplax of Chileata and Salanygolina are homologous and they belong in the stem of the Rhynchonelliformea.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - Brachiopod biogeographic change during the Early to Middle
           Ordovician in South China
    • Abstract: Zhan, Renbin; Li, Rongyu; Percival, Ian G; Liang, Yan
      Biogeographic analysis of the Early to Middle Ordovician brachiopod fauna of South China shows close linkages to that of Laurentia during the Tremadoc, but as the South China block drifted away from Gondwana its faunal affinity gradually shifted to closer relationships with the terranes of Baltica, Avalonia, Sibumasu and southern Kazakhstan during the Floian to Darriwilian interval. Palaeobiogeographically, a major change of brachiopod faunal affinities in South China happened at the beginning of the Floian in the Tetragraptus approximatus Biozone, which is earlier than trends in the alpha- and beta-diversity change. The first acme of brachiopod alpha-diversity change that occurred in the Didymograptellus eobifidus Biozone (middle Floian) in South China was manifested by modest increases of regionally distributed genera, together with expansion of cosmopolitan families, outweighing a decrease in endemic genera. It is postulated that South China served as a "cradle" for brachiopod biodiversification during the Early to Middle Ordovician, because there are more than 10 genera that had their earliest known occurrence in this region.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - The type specimens of the Holocene brachiopod Diestothyris
           frontalis (Middendorff, 1849)
    • Abstract: Pakhnevich, Alexey V
      Type material of Diestothyris frontalis (Middendorff, 1849) with the original label of A.F. Middendorff has been located. One specimen was confirmed as original and is nominated as the lectotype. Serial sections of the lectotype plus 3D dorsal valve interior views were obtained using x-ray microtomography. A mass sample from the lectotype locality was analysed and provides population data on size, age and shape. The size and age structures were bimodal in this population.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - Brachiopod life histories from spiral deviations in shell shape
           and microstructural signature - preliminary report
    • Abstract: Aldridge, Anthony E; Gaspard, Daniele
      Preliminary investigation of valve shape and section microstructure has been made for individuals of the extant species Calloria inconspicua (Sowerby) and Terebratulina retusa (Linne). In each individual, valve shape closely followed that of a logarithmic spiral (r2 > 98%). Deviations from fitted spiral comprised periodic and aperiodic components that were matched to known life history and growth. One periodic component was proposed as signalling seasonal or annual growth. On a valve section, such annual changes were usually, but not always, matched to growth breaks that extended into the secondary shell layer. Although identified changes were not always clearly visible on a shell, they were located using spiral deviations. The proposed annual component of spiral deviations was distinguished from major disturbances and other, more numerous growth lines. Individual growth rates have been estimated up to four years of age. When these rates and a maximal length were included with a sigmoidal growth model, the age at death was predictable for each individual. For the individuals studied, we estimated adult ages of less than fifteen years, and around seven years as a typical life span. These results offered opportunities to develop brachiopod chronologies that could test links with environmental variables such as average water temperature, depth and salinity over long periods of time. Identifying components of deviations about spiral shape presented a nondestructive complement to conventional growth ring counting, sectioning and geochemical analysis. The starting requirement was an accurate and precise outline in the sagittal plane for either the ventral or dorsal valve. Digital photography of median longitudinal sections of valves and individual profiles provided the means for such outline processing. Further specimens and population studies are needed to confirm and extend our preliminary investigations.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - Application of niche modelling to analyse biogeographic
           patterns in Palaeozoic brachiopods: Evaluating niche stability in deep
           time
    • Abstract: Stigall, Alycia L
      The ecological niche of a species can be estimated from a set of species occurrence points associated with data about the environmental conditions at those locations using a method known as ecological niche modelling (ENM). This technique has been widely employed with modern organisms, and great potential exists for ENM studies in the fossil record. By modelling a species' niche during multiple time slices, the relative degree of niche conservatism or niche evolution a species undergoes during intervals of biotic, environmental, or climatic change can be assessed. In this case study, the relative stability of ecological niches of eight Late Ordovician (Katian) brachiopods from the Cincinnati Arch of eastern North America is assessed across an extra-basinal immigration event, the Richmondian Invasion. This framework provides an opportunity to examine whether species altered the parameters of their ecological niches more in response to species invasions and ecosystem turnover or during gradual environmental changes preceding the invasion event. Niches were modelled for nine time slices spanning the interval before, during, and after the invasion using the Maxent program based on environmental parameters estimated from the sedimentary record including: inferred water depth, lithology, bedding thickness, bedding style and physical sedimentary structures. Niche stability was assessed through pairwise comparisons of the percent contribution of each environmental parameter to species' niche models between adjacent time slices. Bray-Curtis similarity among environmental contributions to species niche models through time varied. Species exhibited low similarity (niche evolution) prior to the onset of the Richmondian Invasion, but high similarity (niche stability) during the invasion interval. Similarity levels (niche stability) relax post-invasion, although similarity values still significantly exceed pre-invasion levels. Cincinnatian brachiopod species which successfully persist through the invasion, therefore, appear to have responded to invasion pressure through niche conservatism.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - Origin and evolution of Permian brachiopods of Australia
    • Abstract: Waterhouse, JBruce
      Permian brachiopods of Australia fall into two major associations. Faunas of eastern Australia have a characteristic make-up, dominated by few families and strongly affected by cool to glacial conditions, interspersed with a few warmer-water faunas or terrestrial intervals, often containing coal measures. Brachiopods from Western Australia share some genera, but have much more in common with faunas of southeast Asia and the Himalayan region. They are of note because they later played a major role in stocking the Lopingian faunas of south Asia, especially the Himalayas. The concept that the faunas were displaced into Australia by the evolution of new taxa in the palaeotropics is dismissed: instead the faunas evolved from local forerunners and immigrants from high latitudes of Patagonia and the boreal Arctic, with some input from temperate latitudes. Rarely, Australian genera penetrated the tropics during the Guadalupian as "reciprocants". The faunas, together with Mollusca, fall in a succession of well defined biozones. As in other parts of the globe, they displayed accelerated evolution during Sakmarian time, and the greatest loss of genera in the Artinskian: otherwise gain and loss of genera proceeded erratically until the end of the period, with a last burst of new genera in the youngest known zone. However, not all parts of the earth conformed to this pattern, pointing to the need to avoid overreliance on few sample-points with unjustified extrapolation, or over-amalgamation of data that submerges unusual trends.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - Ontogenetic discontinuities in brachiopod populations: Their
           detection and significance
    • Abstract: Aldridge, Anthony E
      While measurements of shell length, width, and thickness are included in taxonomic studies, they seldom refer to population discontinuities in shape. Is this because such discontinuities are rare, or because we lack the methods to detect them' Piecewise regression fits two connected, bent lines instead of a single line to every bivariate plot of width vs length and thickness vs length. Piecewise regression is used to detect and estimate shape discontinuities as line breakpoints in six Holocene species (Calloria inconspicua, Macandrevia africana, M. cranium, Terebratella sanguinea, T. dorsata and Magellania venosa). Previously published studies and new measurements are investigated using piecewise regression on shell length, width and thickness. That is, the traditional measurements of shell shape are treated in a way to highlight additional population features. A population shape breakpoint and its size related confidence limits are estimated then corroborated through changes in valve shape with seven large individuals of the abyssal brachiopod M. africana. Breakpoints can occur at various sizes, and appear to be taxon specific. Shell and substrate relationships are the preferred, but not exclusive cause of discontinuities studied. Detail on the rotational mass of M. africana suggests an active function for the substrate plus shell shape that assists individual orientation and stability. Piecewise regression supports the hypothesis that substrate relationships and behaviour can be inferred from shell shape in articulate brachiopods. The method is suitable for both large and small samples. Spiral analysis on individual valves provides additional confirmation of breakpoints. Such confirmation is important for small samples (less than ten brachiopods), where piecewise regression itself might not be statistically valid.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - Early Devonian diversification of athyridide brachiopods in the
           Cantabrian Zone (NW Spain) and their affinities, revisited
    • Abstract: Alvarez, Fernando; Modzalevskaya, Tatyana L; Brime, Covadonga
      New athyridide brachiopods collected from the Early Devonian of the Cantabrian Zone (NW Spain) include Protathyris praecursor Kozlowski, P. strelnikovi sp. nov., and Athyris butleri sp. nov. The species of Protathyis are the first of the genus to be described from northwestern Spain. Two species referred to Athyris from the Middle-Late Devonian are also described and discussed. These are: A. concentrica (von Buch) of Givetian age and A. howardi sp. nov. of Givetian-Frasnian age.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - Mesozoic brachiopods of Misool Archipelago, eastern Indonesia
    • Abstract: MacFarlan, DAB; Hasibuan, F; Grant-Mackie, JA
      The Mesozoic brachiopod fauna of Misool is shown to consist of ten species, only one of which, the Rhaetian Misolia misolica, has previously been described. For it, a lectotype is selected. We record a further four species of Late Triassic age ('Piarorhynchiinae gen. et sp. indet., 'Cyclothyridinae gen. et sp. indet., Pentactinella pachycostata n.sp., Zugmayerella bogalica n. sp.), two of Jurassic age (Aucklandirhynchia yefbiensis n. sp., 'Terebratulina sp.) and three from Cretaceous strata (Ptilorhynchia pugnaciformis n. sp., Zeilleriinae 'n. gen. et n. sp., Prochlidonophora spinulifera n.sp.). All species, apart from M. misolica are new, although two rhynchonellides and two terebratulides are left in open nomenclature. Biogeographically the fauna is Perigondwanan (or Southern Tethyan), but Pentactinella pachycostata n. sp. is more generally Tethyan, Aucklandirhynchia yefbiensis n. sp. and Prochlidonophora spinulifera n. sp. are Austral in their affinities, and Ptilorhynchia pugnaciformis n. sp. belongs to a circum-Pacific or bipolar genus.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - There's no place like home: Cambrian to Devonian brachiopods
           critically useful for analysing palaeogeography
    • Abstract: Cocks, LRobin M
      Brachiopods useful for assessing palaeogeography from the Cambrian to the Devonian are briefly reviewed, since they mostly occur in rocks deposited under the seas on the continental shelves. Comparison of the communities which were originally represented (especially when integrated with other phyla such as trilobites in the Cambrian and Ordovician) can help to distinguish between old continents, since different benthic faunas were often confined to the opposite sides of large oceans. Because there were fewer of them and they were largely confined to shallower-water environments, Cambrian articulated brachiopods are less useful than their descendants. However, from the Ordovician onwards the brachiopod community distributions characterise, for example among others, the Iapetus Ocean and its closure; and the Mediterranean Province, which was confined to the higher-latitude parts of Gondwana. During the Silurian, most faunas were less provincially distributed, apart from in the high southern palaeolatitudes where Clarkeia and others flourished in the Afro-South American Realm, and in the northern palaeolatitudes, only preserved in Siberia and Mongolia, which was colonised by the Tuvaella Fauna. There was marked provinciality of brachiopods in the Early Devonian, for example in the Malvinokaffric Province at high southern palaeolatitudes. However, the subsequent faunas became less provincial, since global temperatures were relatively high during the Middle and Late Devonian, and there were fewer notable endemic communities. The Carboniferous communities are less well known, but the Permian is well characterised, with a variety of different provincial brachiopod faunas. A systematic note is included on Pentamerus oblongus, the type species of the rock-forming early Silurian genus Pentamerus, which is also the type of its family, superfamily, suborder and order.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - Preliminary data on shell cementation in fossil specimens of
           thecideide brachiopods
    • Abstract: Perez-Huerta, A; Harper, DAT; Jeffries, Teresa E
      Thecideide brachiopods have an uncommon mode of life as their substrate attachment is by cementation. The exact mechanisms of shell cementation, however, are currently not known for fossil and Holocene species. Analyses of fossil specimens of 'Thecidellina' reveal that there are protuberant regions at the tip of the ventral valve with differences in shell microstructure, including characteristic cavity structures. Additionally, there are differences in shell chemistry in these regions, especially enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE), compared to the rest of the ventral valve. These results suggest that these cavities may be open after shell secretion, during the animal's life cycle, contributing to cementation processes. These observations are not conclusive but add new information that contributes to a better understanding of the life mode of thecideide brachiopods.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - The howellellid branches within the delthyridoid spiriferids
           (Brachiopoda, Silurian to Devonian)
    • Abstract: Schemm-Gregory, Mena
      Study of genera and species of the brachiopod superfamily Delthyridoidea has shown that the evolution of this group of spiriferids consists of independent branches developed from Howellella and characterised by unique morphological features. The phylogeny of the howellellid descendants is described by a short introduction to each of its branches and a phylogenetic tree is presented.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - Taxonomic review and evolutionary trends of Levipustulini and
           Absenticostini (Brachiopoda) from Argentina: Palaeobiogeographic and
           palaeoclimatic implications
    • Abstract: Taboada, AC; Shi, Guang R
      The diagnosis and composition of the brachiopod Tribe Levipustulini Lazarev, 1985 is reviewed, leading to a detailed revision of the genera Levipustula Maxwell, 1951 and Lanipustula Klets, 1983, as well as a review of previous records of the species Levipustula levis Maxwell from Australia and Argentina. The presence of Lanipustula patagoniensis Simanauskas in Patagonia is confirmed with additional topotypic material described and illustrated. Based on this review, we reassign Levipustula levis from New South Wales, Australia to Lanipustula. Two new species, Lanipustula kletsi from the middle Pennsylvanian of Patagonia and the Absenticostinin Absenticosta bruntoneileenae from the latest Visean of western Argentina, are proposed. Abstenticosta bruntoneileenae is suggested as a possible ancestral stock of the Patagonian Levipustulini through the lineage Lanipustula-Verchojania-Jakutoproductus-Piatnitzkya (Serpukhovian-middle Artinskian). The development of similar phylogenetic lineages of Levipustulini in high latitude regions of both northern and southern hemispheres (such as Siberia in Northeast Asia and Patagonia in southwestern Gondwana) is here interpreted as a consequence of parallel evolution. The progressive palaeobiogeographic isolation of Patagonia from mainland South America, coupled with its southward drift under cold palaeoclimatic conditions during middle Carboniferous-earliest Permian times, is proposed to have triggered the Levipustulini vicariance.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - Revision of Sowerby's species 'Spirifer bisulcatus, Spirifer
           pinguis and Spirifer rotundatus' from the late Tournaisian-Visean of Great
           Britain
    • Abstract: Angiolini, L; Long, S; Davies, L
      Sowerby's species 'Spirifer bisulcatus, Spirifer pinguis and Spirifer rotundatus' are here revised and their generic and suprageneric position assessed. The material on which the revision is based is housed at the Natural History Museum, London, and the provenance and history of the collections is also outlined. Spirifer bisulcatus Sowerby, 1825 is placed in the genus Angiospirifer Legrand-Blain based on its cancellate micrornamentation and occurrence of vascular markings. Spirifer pinguis Sowerby, 1821 and Spirifer rotundatus Sowerby, 1825 belong to Latibrachythyris n. gen. which is similar to Brachythyris M'Coy in its general shape, but differs in its wider hinge and presence of an apical median septum. Revision of the diagnosis of the superfamily Brachythyridoidea is thus required to include taxa with a wider hinge. During the Visean, the brachythyridoid families Brachythyridae and Skelidorygmidae show a tendency to increase the width of the hinge and to develop an apical septum or a myophragm.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - Affinities and associations of new shallow-water brachiopods
           from the Late Cretaceous of New Zealand
    • Abstract: Hiller, Norton
      Four species of brachiopods are recorded from the Ostrea Bed at the top of the Broken River Formation (Haumurian; Late Cretaceous), North Canterbury, New Zealand. Two of these are indeterminate but the others are described as the new taxa Wekarhynchia cataracta gen. et sp. nov., a notosariid rhynchonellide, and Ostreathyris allani gen. et sp. nov., an unusual short-looped terebratulide of uncertain affinities. The brachiopods are interpreted to be members of a community of sessile suspension-feeding shelly invertebrates that occupied ecological niches in an oyster reef. In such a setting they lived in shallow water only a few metres deep with moderate to high energy levels; they may also have been tolerant of fluctuations in salinity.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - What do we really know about predation on modern
           rhynchonelliforms'
    • Abstract: Harper, Elizabeth M
      Although there is strong evidence that a range of predatory taxa do attack rhynchonelliform brachiopods in their natural environments, we currently lack sufficient data to establish how important such interactions might be. This contribution is an attempt to draw together and critically review the sparse and scattered data which exist, and to suggest areas for future collection of data.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - Growth rates of Calloria inconspicua (Sowerby, 1846) from the
           upper intertidal zone of Portobello, New Zealand
    • Abstract: Schumann, Dietrich
      There are few studies dealing with the growth rates of articulate brachiopods. The most comprehensive studies interpreted major growth lines as possibly annual growth increments. By means of a simple marker method, the real growth rate (and the number of visible growth bands) per unit time were analysed in a gregarious community of Calloria inconspicua living in shallow water at Portobello, New Zealand. This study demonstrates that the number of the growth bands as well as the growth increments varied considerably.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - Spine formation in 'Novocrania' and 'Danocrania' (Brachiopoda,
           Craniata)
    • Abstract: Robinson, Jeffrey H; Lee, Daphne E
      Spine formation in three species of 'Novocrania' and one species of 'Danocrania' is described and illustrated. These craniids display three methods of spine formation; tubular-hollow, sutured-hollow and, newly proposed herein, sutured-fold. Possible functions for craniid spines include extending sensory tissue beyond the valve margins, physically protecting the gape by creating a barrier, and discouraging settlement of epibionts.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - What is the ideal proxy of Palaeozoic seawater chemistry'
    • Abstract: Brand, Uwe; Logan, Alan; Bitner, Maria Aleksandra; Griesshaber, Erika; Azmy, Karem; Buhl, Dieter
      The chemistry of many biogenic allochems and whole rock is used as a proxy of original seawater chemistry during the geological past. Common Palaeozoic proxies are brachiopods, conodonts, and whole rocks. Brachiopods may secrete low-Mg calcite shells; conodonts consist of francolite, a carbonate fluorapatite; and whole rock is usually diagenetic low-Mg calcite altered from different original carbonate mineralogy. Stratigraphic uncertainty of specimens from isolated successions remains a serious impediment to accurate age assignment and in modelling events of the ancient hydrosphere. Furthermore, diagenesis is the great nemesis of these allochems and whole rocks, and in many instances they are not preserved in their original composition. Thus, the chemical composition of many of these proxies instead of being representative of the original and ambient seawater reflects the composition of the diagenetic fluid and character of the diagenetic microenvironment such as the water/rock ratio. Consequently, the best proxy is not necessarily the most abundant material, nor the most readily available (i.e. in outcrop or museums), nor the one supported exclusively by hypothetical concepts. Instead, the best proxy is the one that has passed the most screening tests, and in addition, is stratigraphically well constrained and provides results reflecting the natural variation of the ambient oceanographic environment.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
  • Issue 41 - Comparative experimental and simulation study on passive
           feeding flow generation in 'Cyrtospirifer'
    • Abstract: Shiino, Y; Kuwazuru, O
      As a preliminary step in clarifying the functional properties of the wing form of spiriferide brachiopod 'Cyrtospirifer' in terms of the generation of passive feeding flows, the flow structure around the shell of this species was analysed using both flow experiments and a computational fluid dynamics simulation of a hollow 'Cyrtospirifer' model. All passive flows in the model inevitably showed a gyrating behaviour around the sulcus, whereas the lateral space inside the shell exhibited a reversed vortex flow direction, which possibly resulted from wing form effects. Because outflows were intermittently generated at the lateral gapes in our experiments, they were used to describe the path of the wake flows in the simulation. Given the comparable results obtained from both our experiments and the simulation, this path generation is clearly related to the turbulent conditions along the spiriferide wing form. Our results suggest that wing form in spiriferids plays a role in intermittently generating both inflows and outflows through lateral gapes, making it possible to produce a high flow rate.

      PubDate: Tue, 3 Jan 2012 15:01:57 GMT
       
 
 
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