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BIOLOGY (1548 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Biologica Venezuelica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access  
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 345)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1996-3351
Published by Science Alert Homepage  [63 journals]
  • Nano-Dispersed Glycerol as an Alternative Energy Source for Ruminant

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives: The growth of the ethanol industry has increased the need for alternatives to corn in lactating cow diets. Glycerol has the potential to replace corn in the diet. Due to high potential fermentation of glycerol in the rumen, the study aimed to investigate the efficiency of encapsulation and nano-dispersed techniques to protect glycerol from ruminal degradation and fermentation. Materials and Methods: The current study was carried out using batch culture technique using 9 treatments as follow: Control diet (50% concentrate: 50% roughage), G20: replacing 20% of corn in control diet with glycerol, G30: replacing 30% of corn in control diet with glycerol, G40: replacing 40% of corn in control diet with glycerol, B20: replacing 20% of corn in control diet with glycerol encapsulated beads, B30: replacing 30% of corn in control diet with glycerol encapsulated beads, B40: replacing 40% of corn in control diet with glycerol encapsulated beads, N20: replacing 20% of corn in control diet with nano-dispersed glycerol solution, N30: replacing 30% of corn in control diet with nano-dispersed glycerol solution and N40: replacing 40% of corn in control diet with nano-dispersed glycerol solution. Results: The results showed a negative effect of using crude glycerol and encapsulated glycerol beads on ruminal digestibility and pH, while using nano-dispersed solution were similar to control diet. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the nano-dispersed glycerol solution might be more effective under rumen condition and fermentation.
      PubDate: 22 March, 2019
  • Influence of Intestinal Helminthiasis on Children Health in Ugbighoko
           Rural Community of Benin City, Southern Nigeria

    • Abstract: Background and Objective: Helminth infections have emerged as a major health concern in African and have been linked to regional ecological and socio-economic status. This study was aimed to ascertain the impact of helminthiasis on the hematological, immunity and antioxidant status of children in the community. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in selected schools of Ugbighoko, Benin, Nigeria. The pupils were grouped; 5-7 years, 8-10 years, 11-13 years, 14-16 years and 17-19 years for control and test. Stool samples were assessed for helminthic parasites (A. duodenale, A. lumbricodes, T. trichuira) and plasma samples were analyzed for CD4+ level, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin C and E using standard procedures. The control stools had no observed helminth infection. Results: There were significant decrease in PCV and hemoglobin concentration with more severity in age groups 5-7 years and 8-10 years and these correlated negatively with the degree of helminthic parasites. The CD4+ decreased with helminth infection with more severity at 8-10 years. The SOD activity decreased significantly across the groups, while CAT activity increased significantly across the groups. These antioxidant enzymes correlated significantly with the degree of infection. The non-enzymic antioxidants reduced (p
      PubDate: 22 March, 2019
  • Formulation of Trichoderma, Saccharomyces and Rhizobium Metabolites
           Against Damping-off and Root Rot Pathogens in Peanut Plant

    • Abstract: Background and Objective: In Egypt, peanut is one of the most important crops for exportation and local consumption. It is a good source of dietary proteins and contains high lipid that is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Damping-off and root rot diseases are the main constraints in peanut production. The current study aimed to determine the effect of cell-free filtrates of Trichoderma harzianum (T), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Y) and/or Rhizobium japonicum (R) on the control of damping-off and root rot diseases in peanut. Materials and Methods: Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii were the common causal pathogens isolated from naturally infected peanut, causing damping-off and root rot diseases. Peanut seeds cv. Giza 6 were soaked for 4 h in each tested treatment before sowing; treatments also used as a foliar spraying at 28 days from sowing. While, fungicide Rizolex-T50 was used as seed coating at 3 g kg–1 seeds. Results: In the in vitro tests, the combined application of T+Y+R culture filtrates at the rate of 1:2:1 and the dual application of T+Y completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungi. While, R alone had no significant effect on the fungal linear growth. In vivo, the best protection against damping-off and root rot diseases were observed under fungicide (Rizolex-T50) application followed by the combination of T+Y+R (1:2:1). All culture filtrates of T, Y, R and their combinations stimulated the activity of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and chitinase. The highest activity was obtained by the combined application of T+Y+R (2:1:1) for polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase. While the highest chitinase activity was observed with Y treatment alone. The application of T+Y+R increased the percentage of plant survivals and improved plant growth and yield. Conclusion: The application of a mixture of biotic culture filtrates was more effective in decreasing the infection of soil borne fungi in peanut. Wherein, a commercial production of a mixture of growth filtrates of T+Y+R is recommended for therapy both damping-off and root rot diseases in peanut plant.
      PubDate: 22 March, 2019
  • Allelopathic Potentials of Chromolaena odorata L. on Growth and
           Biochemical Characteristics of Salvadora persica

    • Abstract: Background and Objective: Siam weed is a fast-growing perennial, is now regarded as one of the most harmful weeds present on earth due to its highly invasive and allelopathic nature. The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the allelopathic effect of aqueous extract and leaf litter leachate extracts from Chromolaena odorata on the growth of mangrove associate plant Salvadora persica. Materials and Methods: Germination of Salvodora persica was performed in Petri dishes under different concentrations (20, 40, 60 and 80%) of leaf aqueous extracts of Chromolaena odorata collected from natural habitats of Konkan region of Maharashtra, India. At the end of experiment (10 days), the growth and biochemical characteristics of S. persica seedlings were measured. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA analysis of variance. Results: The effects of extracts on germination percentage, seedling growth and dry biomass were investigated. Higher concentrations of extract (60 and 80%) significantly reduced germination percentage, radicle length, plumule length and dry matter accumulation of the Salvadora seedlings as compared to control. The inhibitory effect was concentration dependent and the more pronounced effect noticed in leaf litter leachate extract. A significant correlation was found in different concentrations of extracts used with respect to morphological attributes. The allelopathic effect also noticed in biochemical parameters. The GC MS analysis of leaves revealed the presence of some allelochemical compounds which supported the allelopathic potential of leaf extract. Conclusion: Based on the findings, it could be speculated that the delayed germination and low germination rate of the test species after treatment by extracts may be due to the allelochemicals present in the extracts which might release phenolics into the soil and these are probably involved in the growth inhibitory effect of surrounding plant species.
      PubDate: 22 March, 2019
  • Evaluation of Toxicity and Anti-microbial Activity of Tribulus terrestris
           Fruits in Sudan

    • Abstract: Background and Objective: Tribulus terrestris, a plant of Zygophyllaceae family have been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of urinary stones, circulatory system problem, intestinal parasitic worms and for skin disorders and many other body ailments. In Sudan, it is traditionally used to remove the urinary tract stones. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential toxicity of T. terrestris fruits on Wister rats by using three different doses in 8 weeks. Materials and Methods: The rats were allocated into 4 groups, each of 6 rats. Group 2,3 and 4 rats were fed a diet containing different concentrations of Tribulus terrestris plant. The mortality and weight gain, sero-biochemical and hematological parameters were recorded in addition to determination of lipid profile and pathological changes. In addition, the anti-microbial activity of T. terrestris fruits methanolic extract were tested against two Gram+ve bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtitles), three Gram-ve bacteria (Salmonella sp., Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli) and Candida albicans. Results: The results showed no significant changes observed in all the measured parameters including serum lipid profile, hematological and sero-biochemical parameters, they were not significantly different from the control group. In addition, histopathological examination revealed no lesions observed on the vital organs namely, liver, kidney and intestine. Methanolic extracts from the fruits of T. terrestris showed a broad spectrum of anti-microbial activity against tested pathogens. Conclusion: The characteristic traits of T. terrestris fruits are not toxic and found to be a save alternative to be used in the treatment of various diseases.
      PubDate: 22 March, 2019
  • Essential Oils from the Leaves of Euphorbia milii and Cassia occidentalis
           Exert Insecticidal Action Through Gene Toxicity

    • Abstract: Background and Objective: Cassia occidentalis (Coffee senna) and Euphorbia milii (Crown of thorns) are plants which possess some insecticidal properties against insect pests. This study investigated genetic toxicity as the possible route of insecticidal action of botanical oils extracted via soxhlet apparatus from the leaves of these two plants. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out at the Molecular Biology Laboratory of Covenant University Otta, Ogun State, Nigeria. It lasted for 12 months from October, 2015 to September, 2016. High quality deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs) were extracted from Periplaneta americana (American cockroach) and Tettigonia viridissima (Great green bush cricket) exposed for 24 h to 600 mg of oils extracted from the leaves of C. occidentalis and E. milii. Purity and concentration of extracted deoxyribonucleic acids was ascertained using Thermo Scientific Nanodrop 2000 Spectrophotometer. The extracted DNAs were then amplified using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) technique to determine the level of genotoxicity induced by the oils. Results: A total of 68 and 31 polymorphic bands were observed for chi-15 and EZ primers, respectively accruing to 100% polymorphism with no monomorphic bands present. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) result for group analysis also revealed 31.8% variation among population and 68.19% variation within population with a PhiST ('ST) value of 0.3181. This indicates that the plant oils induced strong polymorphic effects on the DNAs of test insects. Conclusion: The plant oils may carry out their insecticidal effects on insect pests through mutation in the DNA of test insects causing gene toxicity and eventual death in their target. Results from this research postulate another class of insecticides ”Genetic disruptor insecticides”.
      PubDate: 22 March, 2019
  • Anti-inflammatory Activity of Biphenyls from Streptomyces sp. BO07 in
           LPS-induced RAW 264.7 Cells

    • Abstract: Background and Objective: Two new biphenyls, 3'-hydroxy-5-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybiphenyl (1) And 3'-hydroxy-5,5'-dimethoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybiphenyl (2) Have been isolated from Streptomyces sp. BO07, an endophyte in the root tissue of Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf A. Although, there are many biphenyls on anti-inflammatory activity have been reported. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory property of these biphenyls on LPS-induced macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Materials and Methods: The effects of the two biphenyl compounds were investigated on the formation of NO, PGE2, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and also on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-induced murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Results: The data obtained were consistent with the modulation of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 production by these biphenyls at concentration of 5-20 μg mL–1. A similar effect was also observed when LPS-induced NO release, iNOS and COX-2 enzyme expression were tested. The inhibitory effects were shown in concentration-dependent manners. However these compounds did not significantly reduce the formation of PGE2. Conclusion: From the obtained results, it is concluded that these biphenyls possess anti-inflammatory activity on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells.
      PubDate: 22 March, 2019
  • Frequency and Spectrum of Chlorophyll Mutations Induced by Single and
           Combination Treatments of Gamma Rays and EMS in Urdbean

    • Abstract: Background and Objective: Chlorophyll mutation frequency is useful in assessing the potency of a mutagen. Hence, scoring of chlorophyll mutations are dependable indices for evaluating the genetic effects of mutagenic treatments. Present investigation was undertaken to understand the response of urdbean varieties T-9 and Pant U-30 to individual and combined treatments of gamma rays and EMS for identifying such mutagenic treatments causing maximum chlorophyll mutations which could be exploited for inducing beneficial viable mutations in subsequent generations. Materials and Methods: Seeds of two urdbean varieties were irradiated with 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy doses of gamma rays. For chemical treatments, seeds were treated with 0.1-0.4% of EMS for 6 h and for combination treatments, dry seeds of each variety were first irradiated with gamma rays at 200 and 300 Gy followed by the treatment with 0.2 and 0.3% of EMS. The mutagen treated seeds were sown in complete randomized block design to raise M1 generation. The M1 seeds were sown in next season in plant progeny rows for raising M2 generation. Chlorophyll mutations were observed when seedlings were 8-15 days old in M2 generation. They were identified and classified according to Gustafson’s method. Results: Six kinds of chlorophyll mutants viz., albina, chlorina, maculata, xantha, virescent and viridis were recorded in M2 generation when seedlings were 7-15 days old. Out of the six chlorophyll mutation types, albina, chlorina and xantha survived upto 7-15 days only, while the other three types were viable and set seeds. Gamma rays alone as well as in combination with EMS produced large number of albina mutations, while EMS alone induced the maximum number of chlorina mutations in both the varieties. Frequency of chlorophyll mutations was dose dependent and increased with increasing dose of each mutagen. The combined treatments of gamma rays+EMS produced higher frequency of chlorophyll mutations as compared to their individual treatments. Conclusion: Chlorophyll mutations could be exploited for identifying the threshold dose of a mutagen that would increase the probability of retrieving economically useful mutations in ensuing generations.
      PubDate: 22 March, 2019
  • Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycemic Effect of Sub-fractions Derived from
           Ethanol-aqueous Fraction of Balanites aegyptiaca Leaves in
           Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    • Abstract: Background and Objective: Previous studies showed both leaves and stem-bark of Balanites aegyptiaca possess anti-diabetic properties however, extract from the leaves seem to be more effective. In comparison of activity between fractionated ethanol extracts; aqueous fraction (ALF) and ethyl acetate fraction (ELF) of the plant leaves, it was found that the aqueous fraction was highly effective over the ethyl acetate fraction. Guided by this, the present study subjected ALF to bio-guided fractionation where sub-fractions were validated in STZ-induced diabetic rats with the aim to ascertain whether anti-diabetic components presence could be further separated. Materials and Methods: Ethanol-aqueous fraction (ALF) of Balanites aegyptiaca leaves was fractionated by Gel Filtration Chromatograph using silica gel packed in a chromatographic column. The ALF was dissolved in distilled water and then applied unto the gel packed in a chromatographic column and eluted with solvent system of increasing polarity; diethyl ether, diethyl ether/chloroform (1:1 v/v), chloroform and methanol. The eluted sub-fractions namely: L1, L2, L3 and L4 were kept at room temperature (25°C) for the solvents to be evaporated and sub-fractions subjected to thin layer chromatography using silica gel G-coated plate. Diabetic rat groups were administered to various sub-fractions while positive control rats received metformin, normal and negative control rat groups received distilled water. Results: The yields, total phenolics and flavonoids content of sub-fractions obtained from the column fractionation of ethanol-aqueous fraction of Balanites aegyptiaca leaves showed methanol sub-fraction (L4) with highest percent yield and total phenolics content whereas diethyl ether/chloroform leaves sub-fraction (L2) was high in flavonoids content. Significant anti-hyper-glycemic effect were recorded from diabetic rat groups that received metformin and methanol leaves sub-fraction (L4) as indicative by a significant decrease in the trend of their weekly fasting blood glucose levels and values of area under fasting blood glucose curve (AUC). Diabetic rat groups that received L4 showed a significant reverse in serum lipid levels but increase in body weight comparable with diabetic rat groups treated with other sub-fractions. Water and feed intake of all diabetic treated rats were significantly different when compared with the untreated diabetic and normal control rats. Conclusion: The study suggested that bio-active compound(s) of Balanites aegyptiaca leaves is/are polar in nature and could be carefully isolated by bio-guided fractionation.
      PubDate: 22 March, 2019
  • Dietary Inclusion of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Meal Can Influence
           Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    • Abstract: Background and Objective: Synthetic and semi-synthetic antibiotics as growth promoters are widely used in poultry production with some positive and negative effects and this has redirected research to natural antimicrobial products and plant leaves like neem leaf meal. The relevance of neem leaf meal as a growth promoter is due to its useful medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiprotozoal, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory and other peculiarities. This study therefore evaluated the effect of dietary inclusion of neem leaf meal (NLM) on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: The feeding trial lasted for 8 weeks and a total of 192 day-old broiler chicks were used. The chicks were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments of 48 birds per treatment and replicated thrice with 16 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design (CRD). Four iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated containing NLM at inclusion levels 0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. Appropriate data on growth performance and carcass characteristics were determined and results subjected to one-way ANOVA accordingly. Results: Results showed the proximate composition of the NLM as 94 DM, 22.4 CP, 20.5 CF, 3 EE, 12.2 ash and 41.9% NFE. At the starter phase, performance traits like the average final weight, total weight gain, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by dietary treatments, with the exception of the average daily feed intake was significantly (p
      PubDate: 22 March, 2019
  • Blood and Hormonal Profile Association with the Length of Estrous Cycle in
           Saanen Etawah Crossbreed Goat

    • Abstract: Background and Objective: In mammals the prevalence for short estrous cycle (SEC) was increased which may cause reproductive failures. So the aim of the study was to identify the hormonal and blood metabolite profiles of Saanen-Etawah cross-breed does (SECD) which has a short estrous cycle (SEC) and normal estrous cycle (NEC). Materials and Methods: The does (n = 32) were divided into 2 groups, according to the length of the estrous cycle: SEC (
      PubDate: 22 March, 2019
  • Risk of Metribuzin (Triazinone Herbicide) on Hematological and Renal
           Structure and Function of Pregnant Rabbits

    • Abstract: Background and Objective: Metribuzin (Triazinone herbicide) is used worldwide as an ecotoxic herbicide and is the most widely used in Algeria and in random ways without respect for the doses approved. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pesticide on hematological and renal structure and function in rabbits. Materials and Methods: About 15 pregnant female rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus divided into three groups (n = 5), the first group of non-treated pregnant rabbits serve as control, the second group of pregnant rabbits treated with 3.22 mg kg–1 b.wt., of Metribuzin and the third group of pregnant rabbits treated with 6.44 mg kg–1 b.wt., of Metribuzin. Metribuzin added in their drinking water for 60 days before and during pregnancy. Results: Results revealed a significant increase (p
      PubDate: 22 March, 2019
  • Growth and Survival of Blue Swimming Crab, Portunus pelagicus Larvae at
           Different Photo Period and Light Intensity

    • Abstract: Background and Objective: Blue swimming crabs, Portunus pelagicus is a commercially important species of the southeast Asian region especially Malaysia. However, an establish methods for extensive larval rearing is in developmental stage. Thus, optimization of hatchery culture for this species including photo period and light intensity is therefore vital. This study presented the effect of different photo period and light intensity levels on survival and growth rates of blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus larvae. Materials and Methods: Three different photo period regime (24 h light: 0 h dark, 12 h light: 12h dark and 0 h light: 24 h dark) and three different light intensity (1302, 326 and 1.2 lux) were adopted during this experiment. Results: Light intensity of 1302 lux and full lightness 24 h lights achieved the highest specific growth rate. For the early larval stage of Zoea 1 and Zoea 2, high intensity of 1302 lux and 24 h light resulted high survival rate and for the late larval stage of Zoea 3 and Zoea 4. Conclusion: It was concluded that higher light intensity and longer photo period conditions are required during early larval stages meanwhile medium light intensity and ambient photo period of 12 h: 12 d are required during the later stage of culture.
      PubDate: 22 March, 2019
  • Ameliorating Potential of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) On Caffeine Induced
           Sperm Toxicity in Male Albino Rats

    • Abstract: Background and Objective: Globally, men constantly seek medical help for problems associated with fertility. Male infertility has been linked with several factors, therefore, different of approaches are required to resolve this problem. This study evaluated the ameliorating effect of sesame seeds on caffeine-induced sperm toxicity in male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy male albino rats of 12 weeks old were used for this study. The 20 male rats were randomly divided into four groups of five rats each using a completely randomized design. The animals were acclimatized for 1 week before the commencement of the treatment. Group A served as control and received only water and pellet feed while Group B received 200 mg kg–1 b.wt. of caffeine only. Group C received 1 g kg–1 b.wt. of sesame (S. indicum) only and group D received 2 g kg–1 b.wt. of sesame and 200 mg kg–1 b.wt. of caffeine (C+S). The treatments lasted for a period of 65 days. Results: There was no significant difference in the weight of testes, sperm viability, semen pH and sperm motility in caffeine treated animals when compared with the control. Results showed statistically significant (p
      PubDate: 22 March, 2019
  • Impact of an Acylanilide Herbicide Propanil on Biochemical Indices in
           Kidney of Diabetic Rats

    • Abstract: Background and Objective: Propanil (PRO) is an acylanilide herbicide used to control barnyard grass and broad leaf weeds. This study evaluated the impact of PRO in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in rats by a single injection of STZ (60 mg kg–1 intraperitoneal, i.p.). The PRO was administered at the dose of 200 mg kg–1 (i.p. for 7 days), to both normal and diabetic rats. Results: The plasma levels of triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine and renal malondialdehyde level (an index of lipid peroxidation) were significantly increased in diabetic rats. In addition, the levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, superoxide dismutase were depressed in the STZ-treated rats compared to the control group. The co-exposure of PRO increased absolute organ weight, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and malondialdehyde levels. Conclusion: Taken together, exposure to PRO exacerbated oxidative stress in renal tissue of diabetic rats.
      PubDate: 22 March, 2019
  • Common Ancestry of Egyptian Puccinia striiformis Population Along with
           Effective and Ineffective Resistance Genes

    • Abstract: Background and Objective: Stripe (yellow) rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) has been constantly reported as an increasing problem with repeated cases of worldwide invasions, causing great losses of wheat production. This study aimed to determine the common ancestry of the Egyptian population of Pst races and effective/ineffective resistance genes. Materials and Methods: Rusted wheat samples collected across Egyptian provinces were processed for race analysis. Single uredinial isolates of Pst were inoculated to 8 day-old seedlings of a core set of the World/European differential hosts and Avocet near-isogenic lines corresponding to 14 stripe rust resistance genes (Yr), i.e., Yr1, Yr2, Yr3, Yr4, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr10, Yr17, Yr25, Yr27, Yr32 and Yr Sp. Results: Virulence phenotyping revealed the common ancestry of the current population of Pst belonging to three races i.e., Triticale aggressive (virulence to Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr10 ), PstS3 (virulence to Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr25 ) and PstS2 (virulence to Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr25, Yr27 ). The effective genes for Triticale aggressive race were Yr1, Yr3, Yr4, Yr9, Yr17, Yr25, Yr27, Yr32, YrSp, while effective genes for PstS2 race were Yr1, Yr3, Yr4, Yr10, Yr17, Yr32, YrSp and for the race PstS3 were Yr1, Yr3, Yr4, Yr9, Yr10, Yr17, Yr27, Yr32, Yr Sp. Conclusion: The Triticale aggressive race was first detected in Egypt, while the Warrior race was not found. Resistant genes for the three detected races should be considered in breeding programmes.
      PubDate: 22 March, 2019
  • Breeding Record of the Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus (Timminek,
           1823) at Emi Abumo Woro, Kogi State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Background and Objective: The hooded vulture Necrosyrtes monachus is a critically endangered species and recently published evidence suggests that its population is experiencing an extremely rapid decline, owing to indiscriminate poisoning, trade for traditional medicine, hunting, persecution, electrocution, habitat loss and degradation. As a result of these threats, the species is gradually disappearing from its range and thus, the sighting of vultures or their nests is becoming very rare. This paper thus, presents a report on the sighting of the Hooded Vulture and its nest at Emi Abumo Woro Village, Kogi State, Nigeria. This is an evident and equally an indication that Emi Abumo Woro village harbours the remnant of this rare and critically endangered bird species. Materials and Methods: Two vultures and a nest were sighted on 3rd March, 2018, during a bird survey of the area. The nest was sighted on a Baobab tree Adansonia digitata, located in a fork on the main trunk, at a height above ground of 12.8 m. The nest was accessed using a ladder to determine its content. Results: The content of the nest were two eggs, which were photographed. On 17th March, 2018, when the nest was revisited, one of the eggs had disappeared and could not be accounted for. Fifteen other vultures were seen flying within the nest environment. The nest was revisited on 2nd April, 2018 and it was observed that the one remaining egg had been hatched and the vultures had disappeared to an unknown destination. The nest was a statant-cupped shaped nest of large size and the nest materials were mostly sticks and leaves of the nesting tree, which were used in lining the nest. Conclusion: This study reveals that the Hooded Vulture still exist in some parts of Nigeria and that Emi Abumo Woro village presents a good breeding site for this vulture. It is therefore very important to take some measures towards conserving the vulture and its breeding site.
      PubDate: 22 March, 2019
  • Comparison Between the Physiological Role of Carrot Root Extract and
           β-carotene in Inducing Helianthus annuus L. Drought Tolerance

    • Abstract: Background and Objective: The adverse effects of drought can be mitigated by application of natural plant extracts as carrot root or antioxidants as β-carotene. Carrot root is characterized by high nutritional value and rich with bioactive constituents and antioxidants (phenolic compounds and carotenoids). This work aimed to compare between the physiological role of carrot root extract (5 and 10%) and β-carotene (25 and 50 mM) as seed soaking in inducing drought tolerance of sunflower plant (Giza 102 cultivar). Materials and Methods: Two pot experiments were conducted during two successive summer seasons (2015 and 2016) at wire house of National Research Centre, Egypt. The sterilized seeds were divided into three groups, the first group was soaked with distilled water, while second and third groups were soaked for 12 h with different concentrations of carrot root extract (5 and 10%) and β-carotene (25 and 50 mM). Results: Data showed that drought stress (50% FC) decreased quality and quantity of sunflower plants. Meanwhile carrot root extract and β-carotene mitigate the adverse effects of drought and induce plant tolerance through enhancement plant growth regulators; photosynthetic pigments; antioxidant enzymes; IAA; phenolic compound; osmolytes (TSS; proline, free amino acids); seed yield and seed composition as protein and oil content. Conclusion: Carrot root extract treatments were more pronounced than β-carotene treatments. Worthy, 10% carrot root extract was the most pronounced treatment in increasing drought tolerance of sunflower plant.
      PubDate: 22 March, 2019
  • Effects of Oral L-carnitine Supplementation on Visceral Proteins,
           C-reactive Protein, Homocysteine and Blood Lipid of Hemodialysis Patients:
           A Randomized Clinical Trial

    • Abstract: Background and Objective: Protein-energy malnutrition and carnitine deficiency are common in hemodialysis patients. Carnitine supplementation may improve the general health and quality of hemodialysis patients’ lives. The aim of study was to determine the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on the visceral protein status, malnutrition status and blood lipid profile in hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical controlled trial by participating of 42 Hemodialysis patients. Participants were randomly divided into 2 groups, the carnitine group (CAG) consumed oral syrup of L-carnitine containing 1000 mg of carnitine per day for 12 weeks but the control group (COG) did not use any carnitine. Serum levels of albumin, pre-albumin, transferrin, total lymphocyte count (TLC), C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine and lipid profiles were measured from the baseline and at the end of the study. The malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) was used to assess the nutritional status of patients. Results: The variations and mean concentration of all variables except LDLc were not statistically significant. The mean difference of LDLc concentration in CAG and COG were -4.3±38.3 and 26.7±55.4 mg dL–1, respectively (p = 0.05). Based on the MIS, 52.9% of patients in CAG and 36% of COG had moderate degree of malnutrition at the baseline. Conclusion: A daily supplementation of 1000 mg of L-carnitine for three months did not affect the improvement of serum albumin, pre-albumin, transferrin, TLC, CRP, homocysteine, triglyceride, total cholesterol and BMI of hemodialysis patient but it may prevent lipid disorders and cardiovascular disease in these patients by reducing serum LDLc.
      PubDate: 22 March, 2019
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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