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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3149 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1495 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 293)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1557-4989 - ISSN (Online) 1557-4997
Published by Science Publications Homepage  [31 journals]
  • Effect of Cadmium on Worker Ovary Morphology of Bombus morio (Hymenoptera:
           Bombini)

    • Abstract: Bees are valuable bioindicators, providing information regarding environmental conditions through different kinds of analyses. Therefore, the effect of cadmium on the morphology of ovaries of Bombus morio workers was used to study a concentration considered environmentally safe (1 ppb) in Brazil. Workers of the same estimated age exposed for 48 h to 1 ppb cadmium showed extensive morphological changes in the germarium and vitellarium compared with the control group. Bees exposed to cadmium showed death of or damage to entire vitellogenic follicles, with chromatin condensation and fragmentation of nurse cell nuclei. In the germarium, the intercellular bridge connecting the primary oocyte to the developing nurse cells was broken. The nurse cells formed a cluster of cells with compacted chromatin, detached from an isolated primary oocyte. In some cases, the cytoblasts were absent from the germarium, leaving an empty space surrounded by collapsed peritoneal sheaths. We further propose that such a hazardous impact of 1 ppb cadmium on the ovaries of B. morio workers is not only mainly due to cadmium itself as an endocrine disruptor, indirect oxidative stress promoter, cytoskeleton destabilizer and mutagenic trace metal, but by disruption of the trophocytes, where perivitelline space filled with eosinophil material in the control group, was totally empty in exposed bees, suggesting interruption of trophocyte vitellogenin production.
       
  • Production of Xylitol from Agricultural Waste by Enzymatic Methods

    • Abstract: Enzyme catalyzed production of xylose from autoclaved and non-autoclaved wheat straw was conducted followed by bioconversion of xylose to xylitol using a Crude preparation of Xylose Reductase (CXR) from Candida guillermondii. Ground wheat straw (autoclaved and non autoclaved) was treated at 40 and 50°C for up to 9 h at pH 4.5 with various concentrations of xylanase (12.4 to 37.2 U) and the reactions were assayed for reducing sugars. Hydrolysis of autoclaved wheat straw at 50°C for 3 h with 24.8 U of xylanase at pH 4.5 resulted in the highest yield of xylose (9.8% of total xylose). Overall, the autoclave pre-treatment resulted in a 22% higher yield of reducing sugars compared to the non pre-treated samples. The xylose hydrolysed wheat straw was adjusted to pH 7 and the effects of temperature, pH, time and CXR concentration were investigated to determine optimum conditions for xylitol production with NADPH. The optimal conditions for the synthesis of xylitol were 30°C at pH 7 for 8 h with 7.92 U of CXR and 10 mM NADPH with 23.9 g xylose. This research shows that xylitol synthesis using only an enzymatic system is feasible.
       
  • Studies on Bacterial Pathogens in Some Marine Fishes in EL-Mansoura, Egypt

    • Abstract: A total of 200 marine fish of two different species (100 Tilapia zillii and100 Mugil capito) were randomly collected from different markets, during different seasons. Fish subjected to clinical, postmortem and bacteriological studies. The common clinical signs were darkness of the skin, hemorrhage in the fins base, eyes and different parts of the body, abdominal distention, congestion in gills and increasing in mucous secretion. The Post Mortem findings showed white serous fluid in the abdominal cavity and sometimes tinged with blood and pale or congested liver, kidney and spleen. The bacteriological examination, revealed that the prevalence of bacterial pathogens among naturally infected marine fishes were A. hydrophila (52; 39.39%), V. alginolyticus (38; 28.79%), Ps. fluorescens (24; 18.18%), V. cholerae (10; 7.58%) and Ps. aeruginosa (8; 6.06%). The highest prevalence of bacterial infection was during summer (33.33%) followed by spring (24.42%), then autumn (21.97%), while the least prevalence was in the winter season (20.46%). A. hydrophila was highly pathogenic to T. zillii causing 100% mortality followed by V. alginolyticus causing (90%) mortality, then Ps. fluorescens (80%), Ps. aeruginosa (60%) while V. cholerae was non-pathogenic. The results of antibiogram revealed that ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid were effective against A. hydrophila, while ciprofloxacin and rifampicin were effective against Ps. fluorescens. Ciprofloxacin and amikacin were effective against Ps. aeruginosa. While V. alginolyticus was highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin. High prevalence of pathogenic and resistant bacterial strains among marine fishes in Egypt, requires strict control measures from the responsible authorities.
       
  • Nodulation and Biomass Yield Response of Cowpea to Row Spacing and
           Phosphorus Fertilizer Application in the Guinea Savanna Agro-Ecological
           Zone of Ghana

    • Abstract: Phosphorus fertilizer application and planting distance play a major role in the production of shoot, root and nodule dry biomass of cowpea. However, phosphorus is a major limiting nutrient in soils in Ghana. Selection of cowpea varieties that produce good biomass yield under low soil phosphorus or those with high phosphorus response efficiency can be a low input approach in solving this problem in Ghana. Two-season experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of phosphorus (P) fertilizer and row spacing on growth, nodulation and biomass yield in cowpea. Each of the two experiments comprised of 16 treatment combinations of 4 cowpea varieties, 2 levels of row spacing and 2 levels of P2O5 application laid out in a 4×2×2 factorial experiments in RCBD with four replications. The cowpea varieties were IT × P 148, Valenga, Bengkpla and DPC. The levels of row spacing were 60×20 cm and 40×20 cm, whilst the levels of P were 0 and 30 kg ha-1 P2O5. The study revealed that varieties DPC and Valenga performed relatively better with respect to shoot and root dry biomass production, number of nodules produced and nodule dry biomass production across both levels of row spacing and phosphorus fertilizer application. The study further established that row spacing of 60×40 cm and P level of 30 kg ha-1 also produced significantly higher quantities of shoot and root dry biomass, number of nodules and nodule dry biomass as compared to row spacing of 40×20 cm and P level of 0 kg ha-1. For the purpose of producing leguminous fodder crops for feeding livestock, varieties DPC and Valenga should be cultivated for improved animal nutrition. Row spacing of 60×40 cm and phosphorus fertilizer application level of 30 kg ha-1 should also be used for increased biomass yield.
       
  • New Spring Wheat Mutation Resources with Improved Grain Quality, Metals
           Bioavailability and Yield Components

    • Abstract: Genetic variability in micronutrients is limited in wheat varieties. To broaden variation, seeds of cv. Eritrospermum-35 were irradiated with 100 and 200 Gy using 60Co, the treated seeds were grown to M7 generation with successive selection of the highest yield lines in each generation. Selected lines were evaluated for yield and grain quality traits such as iron, zinc and phytic acid concentrations, calculation of molar ratios of PA:Fe and PA:Zn. A number of mutant lines had 2 to 3 times more iron and zinc concentrations and lower phytic acid concentration (1.1-3.5 times) and higher protein content (11.2-12.4%) relative to the parent were identified. Some M7 lines showed significantly larger grain weight (1.3-1.5 times) and number per spike (2.0-2.1 times) than the parent. There were significant correlations between zinc and iron concentrations, between grain protein content, zinc, iron and phytic acid concentrations and grain weight per spike, mainly in 100 Gy-dosed lines. The TaPhyllc cDNAs nucleotide and protein sequence similarities between parent and these M7 lines varied from 28.2% and 30.2% to 45.7% and 56.5%, respectively. The results clearly indicate that variability in grain nutrients and metals bioavailability in mutation resource is potential in wheat improving nutritional outcomes and overcome malnutrition.
       
  • The Toxic Spectrum of Ricinus Communisand Zingiber Officinalis Essential
           Oils against Musca Domestica L.

    • Abstract: The housefly, Musca domestica L., is a cosmopolitan insect, associated with various diseases and is one of the species with the greatest ability to develop resistance to insecticides. The study designed to evaluate the larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal and ovicidal effect of lethal concentrations LC50 of R. communis and Z. officinalis essential oils against the housefly M. domestica L. The larvicidal mortality (LC50) values of R. communis and Z. officinalis essential oils against M. domestica were 349.40 ppm and 132.60 ppm, with mortality percentage 46.67±2.89 and 50.00±0.00, respectively. The LC50 doses showed pupation mortality percentage (31.21 and 46.67) and adult mortality percentage (36.90 and 63.33), respectively. As compared to control, the treated 2nd larval instar with either R. communis or Z. officinalis essential oils showed significant decline in the fecundity of M. domestica females through significant decrease in the total eggs number as compared to control (72.67% and 62.00%) with Effective Repellency (ER%) (51.34 and 58.48) and the Oviposition Activity (OAI) (-0.35 and -0.41), respectively. The hatchability of eggs recorded significant reduction as compared to control (86.38% and 73.66%) for R. communis and Z. officinalis, respectively. The present study revealed toxic properties of the tested plant extracts of R. communis and Z. officinalis against M. domestica L. and pave the way for its use as a measure of the eco-friendly housefly control.
       
  • Effect of Bacterial Inoculants on Agronomic Performance of Three Genotypes
           of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Coastal Areas of Peru

    • Abstract: To study the effect of interaction of plant genotypes and populations of microorganisms in the rhizosphere may be an important factor to assess the effectiveness of PGPRs on crop production. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of inoculation of four bacterial strains on the agronomic performance of three commercial cultivars of potato in the province of Cañete, Peru. A randomized complete blocks design with three replications on a split plot arrangement was used, in which potato genotypes (three commercial varieties) were assigned to complete plots and inoculation treatments (bacterial strains and control) were allocated to sub-plots, then evaluating the effect for growth promotion related to bacterial strains: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. simplex, Azotobacter sp. and Pantoea sp. on potato agronomic characteristics. As result of inoculation with bacterial strains in potato cultivars Canchán, Perricholi and Unica, significant differences were showed (p<0.05) for vegetative vigor, percentage of inflorescences per plant, foliage weight per plant and weight of the total biomass per hectare with use of inoculation of some of these strains, having a stimulatory effect on development in these commercial varieties, highlighting strain  AZO16 M2 (Azotobacter sp.) to promote increased weight of foliage and total biomass and flowering in cv. Perricholi and strain Bac15MB (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) to regulate the degree of senescence of foliage, specifically in cv. Canchan. Concluding that inoculation with bacterial strains in potato cultivars Canchan, Perricholi and Unica influenced some important crop agronomic characters, although its specific effect was dependent on each potato variety.
       
  • Seedling Propagation of Kulo Chrysanthemum by Tissue Culture

    • Abstract: Aims of this research were to get the right dosage of Plant Growth Regulkator (PGR) and Coconut Water (CW) for shoot multiplication of Kulo chrysanthemums. The study was conducted using a factorial design of three factors namely IAA (0.0; 0.5 and 1.0 ppm), BAP (0, 0.5 and 1.0 ppm) and coconut water (0.0 and 30%). The explants used were clean micro cuttings and were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media. The media was added IAA, BAP and coconut water. The result showed that the best shoot multiplication of Kulo chrysanthemums was the MS media using combination of 0.5 ppm and 1.0 of IAA, 0.5 ppm of BAP and 30% of coconut water. Good rooting was revealed by the combination of IAA 0.5 and 1 ppm with 30% coconut water and BAP 1 ppm and 30% coconut water.
       
  • Potential Impacts of Sustainable Dairy Farming in Char Areas of Northern
           Bangladesh

    • Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the potential impacts of sustainable dairy farming in Char areas of Northern Bangladesh. A total of 600 poorest dairy farming households were selected out of 1323 households, taking 200 households from each Upazila of Sariakandi, Islampur and Belkuchi of Bogra, Jamalpur and Sirajganj districts, respectively using simple random sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to interview the respondents (600:200 respondents ×3 districts). Difference-in-Difference (DID) approach was applied for analysing the impact of dairy farming. To determine the factors affecting income on livelihood, logistic regression model was used. Finally the sustainable livelihood framework including the asset pentagon was used to assess the impact of dairy farming on livelihood pattern. The results of this study provide that after the intervention of the project, there is a significant fall in the percentage of the farmers engaging with farming and day labourer where there is an increase in the percentage of the farmers engaging with only farming. On an average, family male members spent about 5 hours a day on dairy cattle while the female members spent about 4 hours a day over the study areas. Percentages of farmers owning 20 decimal of land are increasing and percentages of farmers owning 10 decimal of land are decreasing in all the study areas. Inclination of animal ownership indicates that there was an increasing trend in the ownership of poultry birds, sheep and goats. Both milk yield and body weight gain were significantly (p<0.001) different before and after various veterinary interventions. Average total income had increased by 51% after the project intervention but it increased by only 16% in case of the controlled farmers. The highest 34% treated group’s dairy income level is Tk. 10001.00-15000.00 followed by 33% and 18% of dairy income level of Tk. 15001.00-20000.00 and above Tk. 20000.00, respectively of respondent farmers. Income and expenditure of the treated group increased by 51% and 33%, respectively whereas it was increased by 16% and 11% in the case of the controlled group. After the intervention, milk consumption had increased to 11 litres, 8 litres, and 12 litres per month, respectively in Sariakandi, Islampur and Belkuchi upazilas. Age in year, household income and breed of dairy cow have positive impact and household size in number and years of education of household head have negative impact on changes in income on livelihood status of the poor dairy farmers. The length of time spent (working days) had increased by 52.64 percent in the study areas. This study recommends that creating diversified job opportunities, ensuring educational facilities and expansion of group-based milk marketing system should be ensured for the betterment of dairy farmers in the Char areas of Bangladesh.
       
  • GO-NGO Support in Selected Char Areas of Sirajganj District in Bangladesh:
           Impact on Crop Profitability and Farmers’ Income Generation

    • Abstract: The study was carried out to elucidate the GO-NGO support on farmers’ income generation in selected char areas of Sirajganj district. Following purposive sampling technique, a total of 60 farmers (30 non-supported and 30 GO-NGO supported) were selected for the study. Descriptive statistics, mathematical and statistical analyses were used to analyze the collected data from field survey method. The average benefit cost ratio (BCR) of crop farming for non-supported farmers was 1.70 and for GO-NGO supported farmers it was 1.80 indicated that crop farming was more profitable under GO-NGO supported farmers. The double difference estimates for total income in the year of 2012 and 2014 was Tk. 14046.8 which was statistically significant. Ravallion test result also picturized that, income was increased by Tk. 10404.0 for the support obtained from the different GOs and NGOs. From logit model it was found that farm size, household size, education level of the household head and farm income had significant influence on adopting GO-NGO supports in farming practices. Farmers expressed their opinion about the lack of transportation facilities, low price of output, etc. as major problems. Transportation and communication facilities should be improved in the study areas, government social safety net programmes should be enhanced to support the farmers in char areas and compulsory primary education programme for both male and female should be implemented.
       
  • Phenotypic Evaluation of Heritability, Agro-Morphological and Yield
           Characters of Sixteen Amaranthus Linn. Genotypes

    • Abstract: The field experiment was conducted to evaluate the heritability, genetic variance, agro-morphological and yield characters of Sixteen Amaranthus genotypes. The seeds of the sixteen (16) genotypes of Amaranthus evaluated in this study were; NG/AA/MAY/09/027, NG/AA/03/11/010, NG/AO/11/08/042, NG/AO/11/08/039, NG/SA/DEC/07/0423, NG/SA/DEC/07/0412, NGB01667, NGB01601, NGB01283, NGB01271, NGB01276, NGB01259, NGB01644, NGB01234, NGB01613 and NGB01662. The results showed that there were variability performances in growth and yield characters of Amaranthus genotypes. NG/AA/MAY/09/027 and NG/AO/11/08/039 had the best growth characters while NG/AO/11/08/042 had best yield performance compared to other genotypes. The stem length recorded the best heritability estimate of 95.5% while weight of dry leaf, weight of fresh and dry inflorescent had least (47.7%). The plant height had a positive significant correlation with number of leaf (r = 0.53), leaf width (r = 0.57), number of branches (r = 0.56) but a strong positive correlation with stem length (r = 0.97), stem girth (r = 0.75), number of inflorescent (r = 0.68), inflorescent length (0.64) and inflorescent width (r = 0.72). Prin. 1 accounted for the highest variation in growth and yield characters with proportion of 0.3376 and eigen value of 4.7269, while Prin. 14 was the least with proportion of 0.0003 and eigen value of 0.0038. Therefore, there could be genetic improvement of NG/AA/MAY/09/027 and NG/AO/11/08/039 genotypes for further improvement of Amaranthus.
       
  • Botany, Ecology and Diversity of Acacia koa in the Hawaiian Islands

    • Abstract: Acacia koa (koa) is a valuable leguminous timber-wood tree endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. Over the past century, conversion of some native forests for agriculture and ranching, uncontrolled spread of invasive plant species and outbreak of a deadly fungal wilt disease severely reduced A. koa forests. However, recently there has been a growing interest in re-establishing A. koa as an agroforestry tree because the tree has significant importance in economy, ecology and culture of Hawai‘i. This review presents the current knowledge on A. koa, including its ecological roles, various morphological forms, genetics, evolution and development of methods for seedling selection and propagation. A better understanding and awareness of the nature of A. koa will help successful development of wilt-resistant A. koa trees with high wood quality that can support Hawaii’s ecology, economy and culture.
       
  • Winter Forage Program Benefitted Small-Scale Goat Producers

    • Abstract: Small and limited resource farmers are raising goats on pastures in the southeast USA. Nevertheless, many of these farms do not have productive and quality pastures to support the nutrient requirements of their animals. Information on forages that are suitable to improve goat pastures and sustainably grazing those pastures with goats is still lacking. Study objectives were to (1) find winter forages suitable for goats, (2) evaluate the productivity and quality of these forages and (3) assess the benefits farmers would receive from pasture improvement and grazing management. Two separate studies were conducted, one in Selma and another in Phenix City, Alabama, USA in 2012 and 2013 (September/October-April). Each study was designed as a randomized complete block with three replications. Five legumes: Arrowleaf clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi), berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.), crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) and winter peas (Pisum sativum L.) were grown with Marshall ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) in 40:60 legume: Grass ratio on separate strips. A sole Marshall ryegrass strip was planted as a control. Goats’ preference for and productivity and quality of forages and benefits associated with winter pasture and grazing were evaluated. Goats readily grazed all forages but winter peas at the very first exposure; from the second exposure onwards, goats grazed winter peas well. The mixtures of crimson clover and Marshall ryegrass and hairy vetch and Marshall ryegrass produced the most. The cost of goat production was significantly reduced because of the development and management of winter pastures. Raising goats on pastures can be much more beneficial than raising them on purchased feeds.
       
  • Effect of Phosphorus Application and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi
           Inoculation on the Growth of American Jointvetch and Greenleaf Desmodium

    • Abstract: This study examined the growth and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) colonization of two tropical forage legumes, namely, American jointvetch (Aj) and Greenleaf desmodium (Gd), at two phosphate application rates (0 or 10 g P m-2 yr-1; -P or +P), with or without AM (+AM or -AM) in a pot experiment. AM inoculation and P application promoted the growth of both species. AM inoculation in the early growth stages promoted colonization in both species, but P application did not. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were affected by neither AM inoculation nor P application. Nitrogen uptake in both Aj and Gd, however, was affected by both AM inoculation and P application. Phosphorus uptake was affected by AM inoculation in Aj and by P application in Gd. The results suggest that both P application and AM promoted legume growth and AM colonization was not suppressed by P application. Nevertheless, plant responses to the treatments varied with species and growth stage. 
       
  • Global Status of Herbicide Resistance Development: Challenges and
           Management Approaches

    • Abstract: Chemicals are widely recommended for the suppression of weed in crop land. This paper attempts to a greater integration of ideas into the development of herbicide resistance. This may lead researchers to focus less on simply defining herbicide resistance and more towards comprehensive investigations of the resistance development. Weed expert in collaboration with plant biologists can work in synergy to come up with better approach and innovation aimed to curtain herbicides resistance challenges. Chemical herbicides exert undue pressure on weed fitness and the diversity of weed community’s changes over time in response to both herbicides and other strategies imposed on them. Repeatedly and intensively, the regular application of herbicides with similar effect may swiftly result in population shifts to tolerant, difficult to suppress and ultimately result to weed community that is herbicide resistant, particularly in absence of using herbicides with different modes of action. Weed expert and evolutionary biologists have to work in synergy toward an improve and broader knowledge of plant resistant development. This collaboration is likely to proffer innovative solutions to the herbicide resistance challenges.
       
  • Weed Management in Sesame Field (Sesamum indicum L) Using Wheat Straw and
           Tillage or no Tillage Systems

    • Abstract: A field trial was achieved to test the response of weed and sesame crop to use wheat straw and tillage or no tillage systems. The experiment treatments were include; no tillage without straw, tillage without straw, tillage with straw, incorporated with soil and straw as cover crop (no tillage). The result shown that weed density and biomass have high significantly suppression when wheat straw applied as cover crop and without tillage soil compared with soil tillage without straw treatments, while no significant different noticed between treatment that no tillage without straw and tillage with straw incorporated with soil treatments. Using wheat straw as cover crop significantly improved sesame yield and yield components about 50% more than using wheat straw as incorporated with soil treatment and no tillage without straw treatment. This increase in sesame yield can be attribute to amended of capsules number per plant (53.2 capsules) and number of seed per capsule (54.6 seed) compared with 18.1 capsules per plant and 53.6 seed per capsule in tillage without straw treatment . The results of this study have led to the conclusion of possibility using wheat straw hopeful approach to amended sesame planting when used as cover crop.
       
  • Susceptibility of Mango Varieties to Anthracnose Fruit Rot in South West
           Nigeria

    • Abstract: Anthracnose fruit rot is the most devastating postharvest disease of mango fruits in Nigeria. This study, investigated the susceptibility of mango varieties commonly grown in South West Nigeria to fruit anthracnose. Four locations (Ayetoro, Ibadan, Ogbomosho and Agege) in South west Nigeria, which fall along mango production belt, were selected for this study. Physiologically matured mango fruits freshly harvested separately from Alphonso, Julie and Ogbomosho varieties were ripened at room temperature for 16 days under alternating 12 h light and dark periods to assess the incidence and severity of fruit anthracnose in each variety. In addition, freshly harvested healthy fruits were deliberately inoculated with spores of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides to evaluate the degree of susceptibility of the tested varieties. Results showed that Ogbomosho variety had the lowest percentage of 66.7% disease incidence and 44% disease severity. Similarly, lesion diameter was highest in Alphonso variety (1.18 cm) with the least (0.91 cm) in Ogbomosho variety. The study found Ogbomosho variety less susceptible to anthracnose and consequently recommended it to farmers.
       
  • Improving Farmers' Income and Soil Environmental Quality through
           Conservation Agriculture Practice in Bangladesh

    • Abstract: The study was accomplished for assessing conservation agriculture practice's impact on farmers' income and soil environmental quality in Bangladesh. Majority of the farmers were within the late majority group in terms of adopting this farming practice. Average annual agricultural income of focal farmers was increased at a higher rate compared to proximal and control farmers after adopting this practice. Most of the focal and proximal farmers stated about improved soil environmental condition where majority of control farmers stated about constant soil environmental condition in this regard. Minimum tillage operation, permanent organic soil cover and application of compost and vermicompost were found significant factors under conservation agriculture affecting soil environmental quality. The problems faced by the farmers included high price of inputs, lack of institutional credit, lack of knowledge about conservation agriculture, etc. Input support, incentive, training programmes and extension services should be well executed by different government and non-government organizations for building consciousness and enhance the knowledge of the farmers on conservation agriculture practice.
       
  • Diallel Analysis and Evaluation of Parents and F1 Progenies of Maize (Zea
           mays L.) for Tolerance to Drought and Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth in
           the Guinea Savanna Agro-Ecological Zone of Ghana

    • Abstract: Field studies were conducted to evaluate 6 parents and 30 F1 hybrids of maize for tolerance to drought and Striga hermonthica in Nyankpala, Ghana during the 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons. These genotypes were evaluated for two years on single-row plots of three replicates, in a randomized complete block design. The control plants were planted in July each year which is the normal and usual time of planting of maize in the study area, whilst the water-stressed plants were planted six weeks later to ensure that their growth period coincides with the drought period. The Striga hermonthica infested plants were also planted at the normal time of planting maize in the study area. Results showed that highly negative significant GCA effect for the parent populations was observed in TAIS03, KOBN03-OB, DT-STR-W-C2 and IWD-C3-SYN-F2 for majority of the traits. The four parents were good general combiners for majority of the traits observed. For the F1 hybrids, KOBN03 × DT, DT × TAIS03, TAIS03 × KOBN03, IWD × GUMA03, GUMA03 × DT, GUMA03 × SISF03 and SISF03 × TAIS03 gave the highest negative significant SCA effect for most of the traits studied and are good specific combiners for the traits observed. The highly significant negative GCA and SCA effects of parents and F1 hybrids for majority of observed traits showed that those genotypes were highly tolerant to drought and/or Striga hermonthica. Drought rating, leaf-rolling rating, striga rating, striga count and Anthesis-Silking Interval (ASI) had been reduced significantly when plants were watered throughout the experimental period (control) as compared to the water-stressed and striga-infested plants. However, grain yield, hundred-grain weight, number of ears harvested, plant height, ear height, days to 50% anthesis, days to 50% pollen shed and days to 50% silking were significantly higher (p<0.05) for the normal (control) plants as compared to the water-stress and striga-infested plants. In drought-prevalent or striga-infested geographical areas like Northern Ghana, parent and F1 hybrid populations such as (TAIS03, KOBN03-OB, DT-STR-W-C2 and IWD-C3-SYN-F2) and (KOBN03 × DT, DT × TAIS03, TAIS03 × KOBN03, IWD × GUMA03, GUMA03 × DT, GUMA03 × SISF03 and SISF03 × TAIS03) respectively, can be used for increased grain yield.
       
  • Stable Nitrogen Isotopic Changes in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
           Induced by its Growth Temperature

    • Abstract: The nitrogen dynamics of plants can be quantified using the variation in their δ15N level. This reveals details of plant physiological characteristics and the relationship between plants and their growth conditions. To better understand plant nitrogen dynamics and the effects of external temperature changes on their nitrogen isotopic composition, we investigated the δ15N characteristics in Triticum aestivum and its mother soils during the plant's life cycle. We found that under field conditions, the plant's leaves and roots δ15N significantly changed. The δ15N values in Triticum aestivum changed from -1.6‰ to -8.1‰ for leaves and from -2.0‰ to -8.8‰ for roots, respectively. δ15N values for both, the leaves and roots were positively correlated with temperature. However, the foliar δ15N corresponded more strongly to air temperature, while the root δ15N corresponded to soil temperature. δ15N values of leaf and root both changed around 0.2‰ in response to a 1 degree change in temperature. Plant roots or shoot material cannot reflect the whole plant δ15N values due to a considerable difference between the δ15N values of root and leaf. However, the variations in leaf and root δ15N provide useful proxies to trace seasonal plant nitrogen cycles.
       
  • Identifying Factors Influencing Production and Rice Farming Income with
           Approach of Path Analysis

    • Abstract: This research analyzes direct and indirect factors that potentially affected rice quality, rice price at the farmers' level, rice production and farming income. The target population in this research were farmers who farmed on rice land area ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 ha. A multistage, stratified cluster sampling was used in this research. This research employed a survey of 300 household heads, chosen randomly. Results showed that NPK fertilizers (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium), organic fertilizers and labor had a direct effect on rice production. Rice quality had a direct effect on its price at the farmers' level, while organic fertilizers and labor directly affected rice quality. Labor had a negative correlation to rice quality, showing that technologies were very much needed to improve. Rice price at the farmers' level and production had a direct effect on the income of rice farming, while the organic fertilizers had an indirect effect. These results have the potential to help the government and agricultural professionals design effective agricultural interventions to increase rice quality, price at the farmers’ level and production so that farming income could increase.
       
  • Determinants Factors of Agricultural Extension Services Performance and
           Impacts on Farmers' Behavior

    • Abstract: Agricultural extension plays an important role in improving the quality of human resources, also it function as a learning process for the main actors so that farmer will be able to help and organize themselves in accessing market information, technology, capital and other resources. Problem that arise among stakeholders have been widely debated.  Since then, determinant factor of Agricultural Extension Services (BPP) performance should be identified and how it will impact on farmers behaviour. There is a strong assumption that, BPP performance will affect agricultural development, but it is very difficult to determine by factors. The research objectives were to analyze determinants of BPP performance and impact on farmers behaviour. This research was conducted in South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia by selecting 109 BPP based on Slovin Method. The analysis analized with Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using LISREL software. The results showed that development of  BPP; management BPP, human resources, assisted farmers, resource of BPP, adaptation of BPP are positively affect Action Program of BPP. In addition, these determinants affect farmers behaviour in terms of farmers competency and participation through indirectly action program. This leads to argue that in order to improve farmers behaviour (improving competency and participation), it is needed to step up performance of BPP (making action program properly, in other words) through extension program improvement, groups activity plan and operational cost management.
       
  • The Single and Combined Effect of MC4R and GH Genes on Productive Traits
           of Pigs

    • Abstract: The aim of our work is to identify the single and combined effect of MC4R and GH polymorphism genes on growth and reproduction traits of pigs. The study was carried out on 204 crossbred F1 females (?Landrace ? ?Large White) of the Breeding Farm in Russia. The analyzed productive traits were: The number of Days to 100-kg (Days to 100 kg), Length of Body (LB), Backfat Thickness (BF) and Number of piglets Born Alive (NBA). The G1426A of MC4R and G316A of GH polymorphism were determined by PCR-RFLP method. The results showed a significant additive effect of MC4R (G1426A) on all analyzed traits and dominant effect on LB and NBA. With better Days to 100 kg associated genotype AA/MC4R, but the best indicators LB, BF and NBA installed for genotype GG/MC4R. The single effect of GH was determined to BF (dominant effect) and NBA (additive effect). The effect of genotype AG/GH on BF was observed in combination with genotypes of MC4R. In our studies we observed only six combinations of MC4R and GH genes instead of nine theoretically expected. The detected genotypes were following: AA/MC4R - AG/GH, AA/MC4R - GG/GH, AG/MC4R - AA/GH, AG/MC4R - AG/GH, AG/MC4R - GG/GH, GG/MC4R - GG/GH. The combination effect is defined for genotype AA/MC4R with genotypes of GH. The best means for all studied productivity traits were observed for the combination AA/MC4R-AG/GH. The combined effect of genotype AG/MC4R with genotypes of GH was not identified, but it was observed independently influence of MC4R on Days to 100 kg and NBA and GH on BF. The genotype GG/MC4R was detected only in combination with GG/GH genotype, which does not allow evaluating the combination effect of other GH genotypes.
       
  • The Occurrence of Entomopathogenic Fungi on Mineral and Peat Soils in
           Peninsular Malaysia

    • Abstract: The aims of this study are to isolate and identify Entomopathogenic Fungi (EPF) from mineral and peat soils in relation with the soil physico-chemical parameters. The mineral soil was sampled from the MPOB Research Station Hulu Paka in Terengganu, whereas peat soil was sampled from the MPOB Research Station Teluk Intan in Perak. Isolation of these fungi was carried out using a selective medium. Morphological characteristics of fungi were studied by observing the mycelium and conidia grown on agar plates using a light microscope. Soil physico-chemical parameters such as pH, water content, carbon and nitrogen content were also determined. Two species of EPF isolated from both types of soils were identified as Isaria amoenerosea and Metarhizium anisopliae. On potato dextrose agar, the colony of I. amoenerosea was pink in colour and slow growing with floccose mycelium which producing conidiophores with 3 to 4 phialides. The conidia were subglobose or irregular shapes between 2.0-3.0 &micro;m long &times; 1.7-2.0 &micro;m wide. The colony of M. anisopliae was whitish yellow and turned to dark green when matured; slow growing with floccose mycelium. The conidia were cylindrical with the dimension ranging from 6.0-7.0 &micro;m long &times; 2.0-2.8 &micro;m wide. The result shows that the occurrence of I. amoenerosea was more dominant than M. anisopliae. In mineral soil, out of 30 samples, I. amoenerosea was isolated from 25 soil samples (83%), while the M. anisopliae was only found in 15 samples (50%). In peat soil, out of 36 samples collected, 26 samples (72%) were found with I. amoenerosea, while the fungus M. anisopliae was isolated from eight samples (22%). In this study, the occurrence of EPF on mineral soil was higher than from peat soil, which was possibly due to low water content, high soil temperature and low C/N ratio.
       
  • Effect of Sticky Trap Color and Height on the Capture of Adult Oriental
           Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Chili
           Pepper

    • Abstract: Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a destructive pest to many major crops, including chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L). The insect can cause yield loss up to 100% in the absence of any control measures. One control tactic commonly used by pepper growers to control the fruit fly is sticky trap to capture the adults. The purpose of the current study was to elucidate the effect of trap color and height on the fly capture. The results showed that yellow trap was consistently the most attractive trap amongst the other trap colors tested with an overall average of 62.6 adults per trap during the study. The second most attractive traps were white and green traps with overall averages of 45.2 and 40 adults per trap, respectively. The attractiveness levels of the red and blue traps were comparable each other with overall averages of 29.4 and 25.4 adults per trap, respectively. The least attractive trap was black trap with an overall average of 17.1 adults per trap, which was significantly lower than the other trap colors. In addition, traps set up at 25 and 50 cm above the ground captured significantly more adults (187.8 and 171.9 per trap, respectively) compared to those set up at 75 and 100 cm above the ground (60.8 and 37.1 per trap, respectively). When the combination of the color and height of the traps were analyzed, the yellow, white and green traps set up at 25 and 50 cm above the ground caught the highest numbers of adult fruit flies and they were not significantly different each other. Thus, these combinations should be recommended to the pepper growers to control the insect in their plantations.
       
 
 
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