Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3447 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1643 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biologica Venezuelica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Scientiae Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biosystems     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de Biología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Research & Review in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bacterial Empire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
BIO-SITE : Biologi dan Sains Terapan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BIODIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Bioenergy Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.151
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 4  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1939-1242 - ISSN (Online) 1939-1234
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Microwave Drying Effect on Pyrolysis Characteristics and Kinetics of
    • Abstract: Microalgae are one of the most potential biomass energy sources. An efficient drying method is important to development and utilization of microalgae. Microwave drying is receiving increasing attention because it is a rapid, high-efficiency, and economical method compared to conventional drying. Pyrolysis characteristics of microalgae (C. vulgaris) after conventional drying (drying at 105 °C for 20 h) and microwave drying (the microwave drying time of 20, 30, and 40 min) were investigated. The pyrolysis experiment of microalgae was carried out at the heating rates of 10, 20, and 40 °C·min−1 in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). And the bio-char after pyrolysis of C. vulgaris under different heating powers (conventional power of 2500 W and microwave power of 600, 1000, 1500, and 2250 W) were analyzed. Results show that comprehensive pyrolysis characteristic index (S) of C. vulgaris after microwave drying was higher than conventional drying; however, energy consumption and activation energy (E) after microwave drying were lower. For microwave drying, as microwave drying time increases, ignition temperature (Ti), final temperature detected as mass stabilization (Tf), reaction rate at the second peaks (Rp2), residual mass (Mr), and energy consumption increased, while average reaction rate (Rv) decreased. As the heating rate (β) increased, the Ti, Tf, Rp2, Rv, and S of C. vulgaris increased, while Mr decreased, and E firstly decreased and then increased. And except for microwave power of 600 W, as microwave power increased, the volatile content and the fixed carbon content of C. vulgaris bio-char decreased, and the ash was increased.
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
  • Investigation of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Coffee Silverskin Aimed at the
           Production of Butanol and Succinic Acid by Fermentative Processes
    • Abstract: Coffee silverskin (CSS) is an agro-food waste obtained in large amount from the roasting phase of green coffee beans. Its potential use as biorefinery feedstock together with other agro-food wastes has been suggested, even though few experimental studies proved the production of bio-commodities at lab-scale from lignocellulosic sugars from CSS. The present work mainly aims at (i) the maximization of the sugar release by CSS pretreatment and hydrolysis; (ii) the fermentation of the CSS hydrolysate in order to produce butanol and succinic acid as bio-commodities having industrial interest. Alkali-pretreated CSS was enzymatically hydrolyzed in glass bottles on a rotary shaker. Biomass loading (5–12.5%w v−1) and cellulase concentration (1–80 FPU gcellulose−1) were the operating conditions investigated to maximize the sugar release. Biomass loading at 10%w v−1 gave the best results in terms of sugar concentration and sugar yield. Curve fitting of experimental data was performed: increasing of hydrolysis rate and sugar concentration was observed increasing cellulase concentration. Biomass loading at 10%w v−1 and enzyme loading at 80 FPU gcellulose−1 were applied to produce the hydrolysate to use as the medium for fermentation tests: the sugars from CSS were the only carbon source. The batch fermentations by Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792 and Actinobacillus succinogenes DSM 22257 were characterized in terms of metabolite and sugar conversion. Butanol (2.2 g L−1) and succinic acid (20.8 g L−1) were produced, respectively. The results highlight the possibility of using CSS to produce fermentable sugars, solvents, and biochemicals of industrial interest.
      PubDate: 2019-03-18
  • Bioethanol Production From Sugarcane Bagasse Hemicellulose Hydrolysate by
    • Abstract: Bioethanol production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate using immobilized Scheffersomyces shehatae on magnetic biosupports in a fluidized bed bioreactor assisted by magnetic field has been studied. Fermentations were carried out in two experimental setups operating in a magnetically stabilized bed mode with transversal and axial magnetic field lines at 8 and 12 kA/m, respectively. The best results were attained when experiments were carried out using a fermenter assisted by axial field whose ethanol/substrate yield and ethanol productivity were 0.15 ± 0.8E-3 g/g and 0.055 ± 0.3E-3 g/gh. These values were 12 and 34%, respectively, higher than those observed in fermentations with transversal field lines (Tukey’s test, p < 0.05). Thus, these results are attractive and can be considered as a technological advance in the bioethanol production from biomass using this unconventional fermentation technology.
      PubDate: 2019-03-18
  • Nanoparticle-Mediated Impact on Growth and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester
           Composition in the Cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon
    • Abstract: Insufficient light supply is a major limitation in cultivation of cyanobacteria for scaled-up biofuel production and other biotechnological applications, which has driven interest in nanoparticle-mediated enhancement of cellular light capture. In the present study, Fremyella diplosiphon wild-type (Fd33) and halotolerant (HSF33-2) strains were grown in solution with 20-, 100-, and 200-nm-diameter gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to determine their impact on biomass accumulation, pigmentation, and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) production. Results revealed a significant increase in growth of Fd33 (0.244 ± 0.006) and HSF33-2 (0.112 ± 0.003) when treated with 200-nm AuNPs. In addition, we observed a significant increase in chlorophyll a accumulation in 200-nm AuNP-treated Fd33 (25.7%) and HSF33-2 (36.3%) indicating that NPs enhanced photosynthetic pigmentation. We did not observe any alteration in FAME composition and biodiesel properties of transesterified F. diplosiphon lipids among all AuNP treatments. Interactions between F. diplosiphon and AuNPs were visualized using scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the presence of AuNPs outside the cells with aggregation in high cell density locales. Our findings indicate that nanotechnological approaches could significantly enhance growth of the organism with no negative effect on FAME-derived biodiesel properties, thus augmenting F. diplosiphon potential as a biofuel agent.
      PubDate: 2019-03-08
  • Sequential Enzymatic and Mild-Acid Hydrolysis of By-Product of Carrageenan
           Process from Kappaphycus alvarezii
    • Abstract: Kappaphycus alvarezii is a red macroalgae widely used to produce carrageenan. The carrageenan processing produces a by-product rich in glucan which has been reported as easily hydrolyzed with enzymes, but the hydrolysate forms a gel at usual fermentation temperatures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic hydrolysis integrated with a mild-acid treatment of the by-product to obtain a hydrolysate rich in monomeric sugars. Using an enzyme load of 10 FPU g−1 of by-product, close to 100 and 14.7% of glucan and galactan conversion were reached, respectively. Increasing the enzyme load to 100 FPU g−1 raised the galactan conversion to 30%. The mild-acid treatment after enzymatic hydrolysis was satisfactory, increasing the glucose and galactose concentrations, without producing significant amounts of fermentation inhibitors and avoiding the formation of a gel structure. The statistical analysis showed that the main effects on the response were negative for the three independent variables, meaning that the selectivity (S) becomes lower when experimental conditions at the higher levels are used (longer time, higher temperature, and acid concentration). Therefore, the integrated enzymatic and acid hydrolysis of the by-product becomes a promising technological route to produce monomeric sugars for bioethanol or fine chemical production.
      PubDate: 2019-03-04
  • Methane Production Variability According to Miscanthus Genotype and
           Alkaline Pretreatments at High Solid Content
    • Abstract: In the context of increasing needs of lignocellulosic biomass for emerging biorefinery, miscanthus is expected to represent a resource for energy production. Regarding biogas production, its potential may be improved either by genotype selection or pretreatment. Eight different miscanthus genotypes belonging to Miscanthus × giganteus (FLO, GID and H8), M. sacchariflorus (GOL, MAL, AUG, H6) and M. sinensis (H5) species were first compared for biomass composition and potential methane. In a second time, alkali pretreatments (NaOH 10 g 100 gTS−1, CaO 10 g 100 gTS−1) were applied at ambient temperature and high solid content, in different conditions of duration and particle size on the genotype FLO presenting the lowest methane potential. The methane potential varied between miscanthus genotypes with values ranging from 166 ± 10 to 202 ± 7 NmLCH4 gVS−1. All of the studied pretreatments increased the methane production up to 55% and reduced Klason lignin and holocellulose contents up to 37%. From this study, NaOH was more efficient than CaO with an increase of the methane production between 24 and 55% and between 19 and 30%, respectively.
      PubDate: 2019-02-12
  • Short Ozonation of Lignocellulosic Waste as Energetically Favorable
    • Abstract: Lignocellulosic waste (here municipal trimmings) is a promising sustainable feedstock for ethanol production, but requires costly and polluting pretreatment, often resulting in toxic by-products. Ozonation, nonpolluting, effective pretreatment method, is not used commercially due to high energy requirements of ozone production at high ozone doses needed. Our results, however, demonstrated that low-dose ozonation (15 min, accumulated TOD = 318 mg L−1) of water-submerged waste resulted in improved enzymatic saccharification efficiency (31% of cellulose) compared to a non-ozonated sample (12%) although only 20% of the lignin was removed. Ozonation up to 90 min resulted in better conversion however exceptionally long ozonation (6 h and beyond) resulted in reduced conversion. These results suggest that contrary to common hypothesis, short ozonation could offer an effective and feasible pretreatment method for high sugar release without the need for delignification. In addition, the ozonation process was accompanied by changes in absorbance, mainly at 280 nm, making it a useful tool for process monitoring. Net calculated energy balance was positive for all ozonation regimes, with increased process efficiency at lower ozone doses. Furthermore, ozonation can be generated on-site and on demand, enabling decentralized pretreatment operated near the feed source, thus overcoming transportation costs.
      PubDate: 2019-02-12
  • Preparation and Characterization of Biomass Carbon–Based Solid Acid
    • Abstract: Biomass carbon derived from rice husk (RH), Moringa oleifera seeds (MOR), and biomass of lipid extracted marine algae (BM) bearing sulfuric acid groups, were investigated for the potential application to environmental benign biodiesel production. The physiochemical characteristics of the biomass-derived catalysts were determined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. These studies confirmed the presence of sulfur-incorporated functional groups on the carbonaceous materials. The SO3H-RH demonstrates the amorphous structure and higher surface area that enhances the possibility to attach –SO3H group. The acid site density of the catalysts was measured by utilizing ion exchange titration. It was found that SO3H-RH-based catalyst carries the most prominent acid site density (4.24 mmol/g by NaOH titration) when compared to other prepared solid acid catalysts. However, by employing SO3H-RH and SO3H-BM, almost full quantitative yield of ester was achieved with a 5 wt% mixture of catalyst/lipid for a reaction time of 20 min at a 5:1 M ratio of methyl alcohol/lipid extract. Whereas, they outperform the conventionally used sulfuric acid catalyst that gave 70% yield after 2 h under the same reaction condition. The results proved that the SO3H-RH has highly porous carbon structure and greater surface area that prominently enhances the acid site density. Therefore, SO3H-RH displays relatively better catalytic activity and stability when used compared to other solid acid and a sulfuric acid catalyst. The solid acid catalysts prepared from low-cost raw materials show enhance catalytic performance at room temperature and suitable for biodiesel production applications.
      PubDate: 2019-02-08
  • A Cyanobacterial Sidestream Nutrient Removal Process and Its Life Cycle
    • Abstract: This study proposes a novel integration of a municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) with a cyanobacterial nutrient removal process for sidestream wastewater treatment. A life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used to determine the effectiveness and environmental performances of the integrated system. The LCA is populated by models of wastewater process engineering, material balance, cyanobacterial growth, and kinetics of anaerobic digestion. The cyanobacteria growth model incorporates chlorophyll synthesis, nitrogen uptake, photosynthesis, centrate inhibition, and competition for nitrogen between cyanobacteria and nitrifiers. Modeling results are validated against experiments with Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 grown in sludge centrate. With a maximum specific growth rate of 1.09 day−1, the nitrogen removal rate of the proposed WWTF would be increased by 15% when compared to the baseline wastewater treatment facility with a biological nutrient removal process. Incorporating the cyanobacterial nutrient removal process as the sidestream wastewater treatment of a conventional activated sludge process reduces the total nitrogen concentrations discharged from the WWTF from 25.9 to 15.2 mg 1−1. Methane yield was found to be increased by 4% of the baseline value when cyanobacterial biomass was co-digested with the activated sludge. Life cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions were found to be reduced by 8% and 17%, respectively, relative to a baseline wastewater treatment facility. Overall, a cyanobacteria-based sidestream municipal wastewater treatment process could be an effective and environmentally sustainable biological nutrient removal process in the future addressing the water-energy-food nexus.
      PubDate: 2019-01-26
  • Determination of the Bioenergy Potential of Brazilian Pine-Fruit Shell via
           Pyrolysis Kinetics, Thermodynamic Study, and Evolved Gas Analysis
    • Abstract: This work provides the first study about the evaluation of the bioenergy potential of lignocellulosic waste from Brazilian pine-fruit shell (Araucaria angustifolia). Physicochemical characterization, evolved gas from pyrolysis, and kinetic and thermodynamic studies were performed. A thermogravimetric analyzer was used for the pyrolysis experiments, where the runs were performed under an inert atmosphere of nitrogen at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 850 °C at different low heating rates (5, 10, 20, and 30 °C min−1). The physicochemical characterization of Brazilian pine-fruit shell showed good applicability for the gasification process due to the high fixed carbon content. Similarly, the pyrolysis experiments and FTIR-evolved gas analysis indicate its great potential for use as a solid biofuel. The kinetic study showed that the Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose method (ε = 0.07–0.11%) had a smaller relative error, when compared with the methods of Friedman (ε = 5.12–28.89%), Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (ε = 0.26–1.21%), and Starink (ε = 0.17%), and it was comparable to the Vyazovkin method (ε = 0.08–0.09%). Furthermore, the conversion rate curves obtained from kinetic parameters showed a satisfactory behavior, with a high regression coefficient (R2 ≥ 0.9165), thus demonstrating the great applicability of the parameters for the design and optimization of the thermochemical system. The endothermic and nonspontaneous process was observed, based on the positive ΔH, positive ΔG, and positive ΔS values of Brazilian pine-fruit shell. The pyrolysis of Brazilian pine-fruit shell has been identified as a viable alternative for bioenergy generation, acting as a solution for the final disposal of this agricultural waste biomass.
      PubDate: 2019-01-25
  • Can Energy Cropping for Biogas Production Diversify Crop Rotations'
           Findings from a Multi-Site Experiment in Germany
    • Abstract: During the last years, a demand for regionally produced biogas feedstocks was created by government subsidies to biogas production in Germany—contrary to the trend of specialization of agricultural production towards global commodity markets. The question arose whether this trend could contribute to an increased cultivation of uncommon crops and diversification of cropping patterns, owing to comparably different and less restricted feedstock requirements. In the cooperative research project “EVA,” a multi-site experimental crop rotation field trial was conducted over 8 years at eight sites, representing the variety of soil-climatic conditions in Germany. The aim of the trial was to assess a variety of established and novel crops for anaerobic digestion. This paper presents the key findings of the trial. Special emphasis is given to biomass productivity and profitability. The chances for the approach “diversification of cropping patterns via energy cropping” are discussed. Results show that maize (average 4-year dry matter yield varied site-specific between 14.22 and 25.12 t ha−1) is clearly the most efficient crop for biogas production in Central Europe. Some cropping options for biogas feedstock production, such as winter triticale (whole crop, average yield of 6.71 to 15.17 t ha−1) or perennial fodder mixtures (average yield of 7.51 to 19.44 t ha−1) are feasible choices for farmers in some regions, which could contribute to diverse cropping systems.
      PubDate: 2019-01-23
  • Effect of Sludge Retention Time on Biomass Production and Nutrient Removal
           at an Algal Membrane Photobioreactor
    • Abstract: In this study, the effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on biomass production and nutrient removal was determined by constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) with mixed microalgae culture. The SRTs of 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 days with constant 24 h HRT were studied in microalgae membrane photobioreactor (msMpBR) by using hollow fiber (HF) membranes with a pore diameter of 0.45 μm. According to the results, the best removal was achieved within 3 days of SRT. Chlorophyll-a/mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) ratios were found to be 0.033. Total nitrogen (TN) and phosphate phosphorus (PO4–P) removal rates were found to be 5.55 mg N/L day−1, and 0.4 mg PO4–P/L day−1, respectively. The volumetric microalgae production was found to be 0.118 g/L day−1. Also, Chaetophora sp. and Navicula sp. cultures were found to be dominant in steady state. The percentage of lipid and protein in dry biomass was obtained to be 8.94% and 30.34%, respectively. It is advisable to use algal membrane photobioreactor, and mixed microalgae cultures instead of specific microalgae cultures, which could be readily affected by seasonal changes and outdoor conditions in wastewater treatment.
      PubDate: 2019-01-17
  • New Insight into Enzymatic Hydrolysis of the Rice Straw and Poplar: an
           In-depth Statistical Analysis on the Multiscale Recalcitrance
    • Abstract: Certain substrate-related parameters that determine sugar release from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass are important for the biorefinery process optimization. Unfortunately, phylogenetical differences in plants often complicate physicochemical variances and mask mechanisms of biomass recalcitrance. Herein, an in-depth statistical approach that combines correlation analysis, principal component analysis, multiple linear regression, and multiscale validation procedures was employed to comprehensively analyze 14 compositional and structural parameters of cell wall collected after acid and base pretreatment. Individual and sequential analysis provided quantitative proof of lignin-relevant parameters as particular constraints for sugar release in two typical plants, the rice straw (Oryza sativa) and poplar (Populus girinensis). More striking contributions of lignin removal to xylose release were found in both biomasses, while the combination of crystallinity index (CrI) and CrI/glucan highlighted the specific hindrance of crystallinity of cellulose to glucose release. The compositional changes of lignin additionally affected glucose release in rice straw, while functional groups of lignin played a less pronounced role in poplar. The direct impacts of xylan removal and concomitant changes in biomass porosities insignificantly improved the sugar release. These results suggest that innate differences in diverse plants and the targeted sugar species should be considered when designing proper pretreatment for efficient enzymatic hydrolysis.
      PubDate: 2019-01-07
  • Optimization of Carbonization Process for the Production of Solid Biofuel
           from Corn Stalk Using Response Surface Methodology
    • Abstract: Corn stalk is not suitable for direct combustion due to poor grindability, high moisture content, and insufficient heating value. The aim of this study was to optimize reaction conditions to improve the quality of corn stalk char, and to investigate the effects of carbonization on the physicochemical and combustion characteristics of corn stalks and chars. Optimal conditions for the carbonization of corn stalk were investigated with regard to temperature, holding time, and particle size. Response surface methodology (RSM) provided satisfactory models of responses, and the optimal conditions for higher heating values were obtained as follows: temperature of 551 °C, holding time of 150 min, and particle size range of 0.8–1.0 mm. In addition, after carbonization, changes in surface morphology, functional groups, and organic elements were clearly observed on the chars. The optimal point char experienced fairly complete carbonization, and holds promise for use as a solid biofuel.
      PubDate: 2019-01-03
  • Addition of Soybean Protein Improves Saccharification and Ethanol
           Production from Hydrothermally Pretreated Sugarcane Bagasse
    • Abstract: The bioconversion yield of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks is negatively affected by the unproductive adsorption of cellulolytic enzymes onto lignin. In this work, soybean protein was used as a lignin-blocking additive, with the aim of improving the production of ethanol from enzymatic hydrolysates of pretreated sugarcane bagasse. Investigation was made of the effects of the type of hydrothermal pretreatment process—steam explosion (SE) or liquid hot water (LHW), loadings of solids and enzymes, and bioreactor type. The addition of soybean protein led to a exceptional 76% increase of glucose released using the LHW pretreated bagasse, after 24 h of reaction, employing a high-solids loading (15%, w/v) and a low enzyme dosage (5 FPU/g dry biomass). A significant improvement was also achieved for industrial-like mixing conditions in a bench-scale stirred tank reactor, increasing the glucose released by 61 and 42% for the LHW and SE processes, respectively. Ethanol production was also positively affected by the presence of soybean protein, with increases of up to 86 and 65% for the LHW and SE hydrolysates, compared to the control experiment. Characterization of the sugarcane bagasse after the adsorption of soybean protein, using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), corroborated the higher affinity of the additive for the LHW bagasse. These findings suggest that soybean protein supplementation during enzymatic hydrolysis by commercially available enzymes is an effective strategy for achieving higher saccharification yields from hydrothermally pretreated biomass, hence improving ethanol production.
      PubDate: 2019-01-03
  • A Demonstration of the Consistency of Maize Stover Pretreatment by Soaking
           in Aqueous Ammonia from Bench to Pilot-Scale
    • Abstract: Soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) is a means of pretreating biomass at moderate temperatures and ammonia concentrations (15% w/w). To establish process consistency and scalability, sieved maize stover was pretreated at 50-ml, 300-ml, and 100-l scales. Each scale was carried out through different methods. Sealed reactor tubes were used for 50-ml pretreatment. Fabric dyeing apparatus was used for the 300-ml pretreatment and a commercial Littleford DVT reactor was used for 100-l pretreatment. For each scale, biomass washing and solid-liquid separations were scaled appropriately. Washed pretreated solids were analyzed for composition and recovery of dry biomass and carbohydrates calculated. Nearly 100% of the glucan content was recovered in pretreated solids at all three scales, indicating the viability of SAA pretreatment. Pretreated solids (15% w/w) were hydrolyzed in a 1-l twin Sigma blade mixer using Cellic CTec2 (15 FPU.g-glucan−1) followed by fermentation in shake flasks. Hydrolytic yields ranged 65–70% across scale treatments. In comparison, fermentative yields averaged 95% across scale treatments, indicating saccharification to be a rate-limiting step in effective bioconversion of lignocellulose.
      PubDate: 2018-12-03
  • The Impact of Hydrothermal and Dilute Acid Pretreatments and Inorganic
           Metals on Thermal Decomposition of Agricultural Residues and Agricultural
           Residue Ash Properties
    • Abstract: The impacts of hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreatments and alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs) on the thermal degradation of biomass were studied. Besides, the influence of these pretreatments on the biomass ash properties was investigated. The influence of pretreatments on the biomass thermal degradation was manifested in the removal of potassium out of the biomass. The presence of potassium in the biomass catalyzed cellulose thermal degradation and increased the char percentage at temperatures higher than 380 °C. Pretreatments were effective at removing the potassium from biomass and dramatically reduced the char percentage at temperatures higher than 380 °C. It was found that the best burning temperature for biomass ash production was 500 °C because at this temperature the thermal degradation of biomass was completed under pure combustion. It was shown that when burning biomass in oxygen-limited environments, removing AAEMs, particularly potassium, will improve the quality of ash as a potential candidate for supplementary cementitious materials for concrete application.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Improvement of Biomethane Production from Sewage Sludge in Co-digestion
           with Glycerol and Waste Frying Oil, Using a Design of Experiments
    • Abstract: A central composite design circumscribed method was used to define the experimental conditions that improve the methane production rate (kCH4, liters of methane per kilogram of VS of waste added and per day) and the cumulative methane production (cMP, liters of methane per kilogram of VS of waste added) of the co-digestion of sewage sludge (SS) with crude glycerol (cGly) and waste frying oil (WFO). Three factors were selected, i.e., SS concentration, global co-substrate concentration, and mass fraction of cGly (xcGly) in a mixture of cGly and WFO (in chemical oxygen demand, COD). SS digestion without co-substrate reached a cMP of (294 ± 6) L·kg−1 and a kCH4 of (64 ± 1) L·kg−1·d−1, at standard temperature and pressure conditions and expressed relatively to the initial volatile solids. After statistical analysis, SS and co-substrate concentrations of 4.6 g·L−1 and 8.8 g·L−1 (in COD), respectively, with xcGly of 0.8, were defined to simultaneously boost cMP (91 % more) and kCH4 (3-fold increase). Application of these conditions would yield 214 MWh more in electricity per 1000 m3 of SS digested.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Shrub Willow ( Salix ) Biomass Crop Performance on Five Sites Over Two
           Rotations in Michigan, USA and the Implications of Adequate Field Testing
           to Commercial Producers
    • Abstract: Fifteen varieties of willow (Salix) hybrids were observed in a replicated study on five diverse sites in Michigan during the establishment year and over two subsequent 3-year rotations. Sixty-one percent of the total variation in yield observed was due to environmental factors, 11% was due to genetic factors, and the remainder was unexplained. Biomass yield over 6 years ranged from 50.5 oven-dry Mg ha−1 at one site to 22.9 oven-dry Mg ha−1 at another. Warmer and wetter sites tended to produce more biomass than colder drier sites, but correlations between yield and other edaphic and climatic factors were less clear. High-yielding varieties tended to be taller, but survival and number of stems per stool were uncorrelated with yield. A cohort of elite varieties selected based on test-wide performance produced up to 26% more biomass than randomly chosen varieties. Cohorts of elite varieties selected based on performance in local tests did better, producing up to 31% more biomass than randomly chosen varieties. Because of ranking changes, selections made after two rotations outperformed those made after only one rotation by as much as 9%. Adequately tested planting stock has the potential to increase the financial return to a willow energy farmer by nearly $100 ha−1 year−1. This will multiply rapidly as willow is planted on some of the 700 million hectares of retired cropland in the USA. The nominal cost of breeding and field testing willow energy crops can be easily justified as we proceed to the envisioned billion-ton bioeconomy.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
  • Comparing Biochar Application Methods for Switchgrass Yield and C
           Sequestration on Contrasting Marginal Lands in Pennsylvania, USA
    • Abstract: To avoid competition with food crops, biofuel feedstocks may need to be produced on economically marginal lands where yields are limited and replacement of existing vegetation will reduce soil C, foregoing some CO2 emission savings. Therefore, our first goal was to determine whether biochar application to marginal lands could improve switchgrass yield while sequestering sufficient soil C to eliminate the negative impact of cultivation. Because it may be difficult to obtain large quantities of biochar, our second goal was to compare small, incremental and large, all-at-once biochar applications. Our third goal was to determine whether biochar had any negative effects on earthworms, mycorrhizal fungi, soil bacteria, soil fungi, and soil enzyme activity. We grew switchgrass at two sites with poorly drained soils and two sites with excessively drained soils. Irrespective of site, biochar significantly increased yield when we rototilled in the entire amount before planting but not when we applied it incrementally between crop rows using a chisel plow. Biochar increased soil C stocks, in some cases increasing it beyond that found in soils of intact marginal land vegetation. Nevertheless, mixing biochar with soil had little or no impact on earthworm activity, mycorrhizal colonization, soil bacterial and fungal communities, and soil enzyme activities. We conclude that biochar may be part of an effective strategy for producing switchgrass on marginal lands, but the choice of application method depends on the relative importance of several considerations including biochar availability, switchgrass yield, C sequestration, soil erosion, and ease of application.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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