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BIOLOGY (1420 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 232)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Advances in Virus Research
  [SJR: 1.878]   [H-I: 68]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-3527
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Virus Research, Volume 98

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T09:23:03Z
  • The Envelope Proteins of the Bunyavirales
    • Authors: Pablo Guardado-Calvo; Félix A. Rey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2017
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): Pablo Guardado-Calvo, Félix A. Rey
      The Bunyavirales Order encompasses nine families of enveloped viruses containing a single-stranded negative-sense RNA genome divided into three segments. The small (S) and large (L) segments encode proteins participating in genome replication in the infected cell cytoplasm. The middle (M) segment encodes the viral glycoproteins Gn and Gc, which are derived from a precursor polyprotein by host cell proteases. Entry studies are available only for a few viruses in the Order, and in each case they were shown to enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. The acidic endosomal pH triggers the fusion of the viral envelope with the membrane of an endosome. Structural studies on two members of this Order, the phleboviruses and the hantaviruses, have shown that the membrane fusion protein Gc displays a class II fusion protein fold and is homologous to its counterparts in flaviviruses and alphaviruses, which are positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. We analyze here recent data on the structure and function of the structure of the phlebovirus Gc and hantavirus Gn and Gc glycoproteins, and extrapolate common features identified in the amino acid sequences to understand also the structure and function of their counterparts in other families of the Bunyavirales Order. Our analysis also identified clear structural homology between the hantavirus Gn and alphavirus E2 glycoproteins, which make a heterodimer with the corresponding fusion proteins Gc and E1, respectively, revealing that not only the fusion protein has been conserved across viral families.

      PubDate: 2017-04-10T05:26:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.02.002
  • Metabolomics: Strategies to Define the Role of Metabolism in Virus
           Infection and Pathogenesis
    • Authors: Marianne Manchester; Anisha Anand
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): Marianne Manchester, Anisha Anand
      Metabolomics is an analytical profiling technique for measuring and comparing large numbers of metabolites present in biological samples. Combining high-throughput analytical chemistry and multivariate data analysis, metabolomics offers a window on metabolic mechanisms. Because they intimately utilize and often rewire host metabolism, viruses are an excellent choice to study by metabolomics techniques. Studies of the effects of viruses on metabolism during replication in vitro and infection in animal models or human subjects have provided novel insights into these networks and provided new targets for therapy and biomarker development. Identifying the common metabolic pathways utilized by viruses has the potential to reveal those that can be targeted by broad-spectrum antiviral and vaccine approaches.

      PubDate: 2017-04-03T04:27:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.02.001
  • Zoonotic Potential of Emerging Paramyxoviruses: Knowns and Unknowns
    • Authors: P.A. Thibault; R.E. Watkinson; A. Moreira-Soto; J.F. Drexler; B. Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): P.A. Thibault, R.E. Watkinson, A. Moreira-Soto, J.F. Drexler, B. Lee
      The risk of spillover of enzootic paramyxoviruses and the susceptibility of recipient human and domestic animal populations are defined by a broad collection of ecological and molecular factors that interact in ways that are not yet fully understood. Nipah and Hendra viruses were the first highly lethal zoonotic paramyxoviruses discovered in modern times, but other paramyxoviruses from multiple genera are present in bats and other reservoirs that have unknown potential to spillover into humans. We outline our current understanding of paramyxovirus reservoir hosts and the ecological factors that may drive spillover, and we explore the molecular barriers to spillover that emergent paramyxoviruses may encounter. By outlining what is known about enzootic paramyxovirus receptor usage, mechanisms of innate immune evasion, and other host-specific interactions, we highlight the breadth of unexplored avenues that may be important in understanding paramyxovirus emergence.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T18:07:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.12.001
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Virus Research, Volume 97

      PubDate: 2017-01-13T09:23:31Z
  • Insect-Specific Viruses: A Historical Overview and Recent Developments
    • Authors: C.M. Roundy; S.R. Azar; S.L. Rossi; S.C. Weaver; N. Vasilakis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): C.M. Roundy, S.R. Azar, S.L. Rossi, S.C. Weaver, N. Vasilakis
      Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have in recent years become a tremendous global health concern resulting in substantial human morbidity and mortality. With the widespread utilization of molecular technologies such as next-generation sequencing and the advancement of bioinformatics tools, a new age of viral discovery has commenced. Many of the novel agents being discovered in recent years have been isolated from mosquitoes and exhibit a highly restricted host range. Strikingly, these insect-specific viruses have been found to be members of viral families traditionally associated with human arboviral pathogens, including but not limited to the families Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, Reoviridae, and Bunyaviridae. These agents therefore present novel opportunities in the fields of viral evolution and viral/vector interaction and have tremendous potential as agents for biocontrol of vectors and or viruses of medical importance.

      PubDate: 2016-11-21T15:50:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.10.001
  • Biomedical and Catalytic Opportunities of Virus-Like Particles in
    • Authors: B. Schwarz; M. Uchida; T. Douglas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): B. Schwarz, M. Uchida, T. Douglas
      Within biology, molecules are arranged in hierarchical structures that coordinate and control the many processes that allow for complex organisms to exist. Proteins and other functional macromolecules are often studied outside their natural nanostructural context because it remains difficult to create controlled arrangements of proteins at this size scale. Viruses are elegantly simple nanosystems that exist at the interface of living organisms and nonliving biological machines. Studied and viewed primarily as pathogens to be combatted, viruses have emerged as models of structural efficiency at the nanoscale and have spurred the development of biomimetic nanoparticle systems. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are noninfectious protein cages derived from viruses or other cage-forming systems. VLPs provide incredibly regular scaffolds for building at the nanoscale. Composed of self-assembling protein subunits, VLPs provide both a model for studying materials’ assembly at the nanoscale and useful building blocks for materials design. The robustness and degree of understanding of many VLP structures allow for the ready use of these systems as versatile nanoparticle platforms for the conjugation of active molecules or as scaffolds for the structural organization of chemical processes. Lastly the prevalence of viruses in all domains of life has led to unique activities of VLPs in biological systems most notably the immune system. Here we discuss recent efforts to apply VLPs in a wide variety of applications with the aim of highlighting how the common structural elements of VLPs have led to their emergence as paradigms for the understanding and design of biological nanomaterials.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T14:01:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.09.002
  • Nonsegmented Negative-Sense RNA Viruses—Structural Data Bring New
           Insights Into Nucleocapsid Assembly
    • Authors: M. Jamin; F. Yabukarski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): M. Jamin, F. Yabukarski
      Viruses with a nonsegmented negative-sense RNA genome (NNVs) include important human pathogens as well as life-threatening zoonotic viruses. These viruses share a common RNA replication complex, including the genomic RNA and three proteins, the nucleoprotein (N), the phosphoprotein (P), and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L). During genome replication, the RNA polymerase complex first synthesizes positive-sense antigenomes, which in turn serve as template for the production of negative-sense progeny genomes. These newly synthesized antigenomic and genomic RNAs must be encapsidated by N, and the source of soluble, RNA-free N, competent for the encapsidation is a complex between N and P, named the N0–P complex. In this review, we summarize recent progress made in the structural characterization of the different components of this peculiar RNA polymerase machinery. We discuss common features and replication strategies and highlight idiosyncrasies encountered in different viruses, along with the key role of the dual ordered/disordered architecture of protein components and the dynamics of the viral polymerase machinery. In particular, we focus on the N0–P complex and its role in the nucleocapsid assembly process. These new results provide evidence that the mechanism of NC assembly is conserved between the different families and thus support a divergent evolution from a common ancestor. In addition, the successful inhibition of infection due to different NNVs by peptides derived from P suggests that the mechanism of NC assembly is a potential target for antiviral development.

      PubDate: 2016-10-09T23:43:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.09.001
  • A Renaissance in Nepovirus Research Provides New Insights Into Their
           Molecular Interface With Hosts and Vectors
    • Authors: M. Fuchs; C. Schmitt-Keichinger; H. Sanfaçon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): M. Fuchs, C. Schmitt-Keichinger, H. Sanfaçon
      Nepoviruses supplied seminal landmarks to the historical trail of plant virology. Among the first agriculturally relevant viruses recognized in the late 1920s and among the first plant viruses officially classified in the early 1970s, nepoviruses also comprise the first species for which a soil-borne ectoparasitic nematode vector was identified. Early research on nepoviruses shed light on the genome structure and expression, biological properties of the two genomic RNAs, and mode of transmission. In recent years, research on nepoviruses enjoyed an extraordinary renaissance. This resurgence provided new insights into the molecular interface between viruses and their plant hosts, and between viruses and dagger nematode vectors to advance our understanding of some of the major steps of the infectious cycle. Here we examine these recent findings, highlight ongoing work, and offer some perspectives for future research.

      PubDate: 2016-10-03T18:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.08.009
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research, Volume 96

      PubDate: 2016-10-03T18:41:23Z
  • In Memoriam
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research, Volume 96

      PubDate: 2016-10-03T18:41:23Z
  • Have NEC Coat, Will Travel: Structural Basis of Membrane Budding During
           Nuclear Egress in Herpesviruses
    • Authors: J.M. Bigalke; E.E. Heldwein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): J.M. Bigalke, E.E. Heldwein
      Herpesviruses are unusual among enveloped viruses because they bud twice yet acquire a single envelope. Furthermore, unlike other DNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus, herpesviruses do not exit it by passing through the nuclear pores or by rupturing the nuclear envelope. Instead, herpesviruses have a complex mechanism of nuclear escape whereby nascent capsids bud at the inner nuclear membrane to form perinuclear virions that subsequently fuse with the outer nuclear membrane, releasing capsids into the cytosol. This makes them some of the very few known viruses that bud into the nuclear envelope. The envelope acquired during nuclear budding does not end up in the mature viral particle but instead allows the capsid to translocate from the nucleus into the cytosol. The viral nuclear egress complex (NEC) is a critical player in the nuclear egress, yet its function and mechanism have remained enigmatic. Recent studies have demonstrated that the NEC buds membranes without the help of other proteins by forming a honeycomb coat, which established the NEC as the first virally encoded budding machine that operates at the nuclear, as opposed to cytoplasmic, membrane. This review discusses our current understanding of the NEC budding mechanism, with the emphasis on studies that illuminated the structure of the NEC coat and its role in capsid budding during herpesvirus nuclear escape.

      PubDate: 2016-09-05T19:23:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.07.002
  • Feline Coronaviruses: Pathogenesis of Feline Infectious Peritonitis
    • Authors: Tekes H.-J.; Thiel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): G. Tekes, H.-J. Thiel
      Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) belongs to the few animal virus diseases in which, in the course of a generally harmless persistent infection, a virus acquires a small number of mutations that fundamentally change its pathogenicity, invariably resulting in a fatal outcome. The causative agent of this deadly disease, feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), arises from feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). The review summarizes our current knowledge of the genome and proteome of feline coronaviruses (FCoVs), focusing on the viral surface (spike) protein S and the five accessory proteins. We also review the current classification of FCoVs into distinct serotypes and biotypes, cellular receptors of FCoVs and their presumed role in viral virulence, and discuss other aspects of FIPV-induced pathogenesis. Our current knowledge of genetic differences between FECVs and FIPVs has been mainly based on comparative sequence analyses that revealed “discriminatory” mutations that are present in FIPVs but not in FECVs. Most of these mutations result in amino acid substitutions in the S protein and these may have a critical role in the switch from FECV to FIPV. In most cases, the precise roles of these mutations in the molecular pathogenesis of FIP have not been tested experimentally in the natural host, mainly due to the lack of suitable experimental tools including genetically engineered virus mutants. We discuss the recent progress in the development of FCoV reverse genetics systems suitable to generate recombinant field viruses containing appropriate mutations for in vivo studies.

      PubDate: 2016-09-05T19:23:02Z
  • Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara: History, Value in Basic Research, and
           Current Perspectives for Vaccine Development
    • Authors: A. Volz; G. Sutter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): A. Volz, G. Sutter
      Safety tested Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is licensed as third-generation vaccine against smallpox and serves as a potent vector system for development of new candidate vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Historically, MVA was developed by serial tissue culture passage in primary chicken cells of vaccinia virus strain Ankara, and clinically used to avoid the undesirable side effects of conventional smallpox vaccination. Adapted to growth in avian cells MVA lost the ability to replicate in mammalian hosts and lacks many of the genes orthopoxviruses use to conquer their host (cell) environment. As a biologically well-characterized mutant virus, MVA facilitates fundamental research to elucidate the functions of poxvirus host-interaction factors. As extremely safe viral vectors MVA vaccines have been found immunogenic and protective in various preclinical infection models. Multiple recombinant MVA currently undergo clinical testing for vaccination against human immunodeficiency viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Plasmodium falciparum. The versatility of the MVA vector vaccine platform is readily demonstrated by the swift development of experimental vaccines for immunization against emerging infections such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. Recent advances include promising results from the clinical testing of recombinant MVA-producing antigens of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 or Ebola virus. This review summarizes our current knowledge about MVA as a unique strain of vaccinia virus, and discusses the prospects of exploiting this virus as research tool in poxvirus biology or as safe viral vector vaccine to challenge existing and future bottlenecks in vaccinology.

      PubDate: 2016-08-06T09:25:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.07.001
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research, Volume 95

      PubDate: 2016-04-23T03:34:40Z
  • Historical Perspective: What Constitutes Discovery (of a New Virus)'
    • Authors: F.A. Murphy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): F.A. Murphy
      A historic review of the discovery of new viruses leads to reminders of traditions that have evolved over 118 years. One such tradition gives credit for the discovery of a virus to the investigator(s) who not only carried out the seminal experiments but also correctly interpreted the findings (within the technological context of the day). Early on, ultrafiltration played a unique role in “proving” that an infectious agent was a virus, as did a failure to find any microscopically visible agent, failure to show replication of the agent in the absence of viable cells, thermolability of the agent, and demonstration of a specific immune response to the agent so as to rule out duplicates and close variants. More difficult was “proving” that the new virus was the etiologic agent of the disease (“proof of causation”)—for good reasons this matter has been revisited several times over the years as technologies and perspectives have changed. One tradition is that the discoverers get to name their discovery, their new virus (unless some grievous convention has been broken)—the stability of these virus names has been a way to honor the discoverer(s) over the long term. Several vignettes have been chosen to illustrate several difficulties in holding to the traditions (vignettes chosen include vaccinia and variola viruses, yellow fever virus, and influenza viruses. Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, human immunodeficiency virus 1, Sin Nombre virus, and Ebola virus). Each suggests lessons for the future. One way to assure that discoveries are forever linked with discoverers would be a permanent archive in one of the universal virus databases that have been constructed for other purposes. However, no current database seems ideal—perhaps members of the global community of virologists will have an ideal solution.

      PubDate: 2016-03-31T19:27:49Z
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research, Volume 94

      PubDate: 2016-03-18T09:20:50Z
  • Autophagy and Mammalian Viruses: Roles in Immune Response, Viral
           Replication, and Beyond
    • Authors: Paul
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): P. Paul, C. Münz
      Autophagy is an important cellular catabolic process conserved from yeast to man. Double-membrane vesicles deliver their cargo to the lysosome for degradation. Hence, autophagy is one of the key mechanisms mammalian cells deploy to rid themselves of intracellular pathogens including viruses. However, autophagy serves many more functions during viral infection. First, it regulates the immune response through selective degradation of immune components, thus preventing possibly harmful overactivation and inflammation. Additionally, it delivers virus-derived antigens to antigen-loading compartments for presentation to T lymphocytes. Second, it might take an active part in the viral life cycle by, eg, facilitating its release from cells. Lastly, in the constant arms race between host and virus, autophagy is often hijacked by viruses and manipulated to their own advantage. In this review, we will highlight key steps during viral infection in which autophagy plays a role. We have selected some exemplary viruses and will describe the molecular mechanisms behind their intricate relationship with the autophagic machinery, a result of host–pathogen coevolution.

      PubDate: 2016-03-14T07:53:30Z
  • Functional Genomic Strategies for Elucidating Human–Virus Interactions:
           Will CRISPR Knockout RNAi and Haploid Cells'
    • Authors: Jill Perreira; Paul Meraner Abraham Brass
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): Jill M. Perreira, Paul Meraner, Abraham L. Brass
      Over the last several years a wealth of transformative human–virus interaction discoveries have been produced using loss-of-function functional genomics. These insights have greatly expanded our understanding of how human pathogenic viruses exploit our cells to replicate. Two technologies have been at the forefront of this genetic revolution, RNA interference (RNAi) and random retroviral insertional mutagenesis using haploid cell lines (haploid cell screening), with the former technology largely predominating. Now the cutting edge gene editing of the CRISPR/Cas9 system has also been harnessed for large-scale functional genomics and is poised to possibly displace these earlier methods. Here we compare and contrast these three screening approaches for elucidating host–virus interactions, outline their key strengths and weaknesses including a comparison of an arrayed multiple orthologous RNAi reagent screen to a pooled CRISPR/Cas9 human rhinovirus 14–human cell interaction screen, and recount some notable insights made possible by each. We conclude with a brief perspective on what might lie ahead for the fast evolving field of human–virus functional genomics.

      PubDate: 2016-03-05T01:33:06Z
  • Alphaherpesvirus Latency: A Dynamic State of Transcription and
    • Authors: David Bloom
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): David C. Bloom
      Alphaherpesviruses infect a variety of species from sea turtles to man and can cause significant disease in mammals including humans and livestock. These viruses are characterized by a lytic and latent state in nerve ganglia, with the ability to establish a lifelong latent infection that is interrupted by periodic reactivation. Previously, it was accepted that latency was a dominant state and that only during relatively infrequent reactivation episodes did latent genomes within ganglia become transcriptionally active. Here, we review recent data, focusing mainly on Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 which indicate that the latent state is more dynamic than recently appreciated.

      PubDate: 2016-02-17T12:33:24Z
  • Supramolecular Architecture of the Coronavirus Particle
    • Authors: B.W. Neuman; M.J. Buchmeier
      Pages: 1 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): B.W. Neuman, M.J. Buchmeier
      Coronavirus particles serve three fundamentally important functions in infection. The virion provides the means to deliver the viral genome across the plasma membrane of a host cell. The virion is also a means of escape for newly synthesized genomes. Lastly, the virion is a durable vessel that protects the genome on its journey between cells. This review summarizes the available X-ray crystallography, NMR, and cryoelectron microscopy structural data for coronavirus structural proteins, and looks at the role of each of the major structural proteins in virus entry and assembly. The potential wider conservation of the nucleoprotein fold identified in the Arteriviridae and Coronaviridae families and a speculative model for the evolution of corona-like virus architecture are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-09-22T08:51:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.08.005
  • Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus
    • Authors: M.D. Baron; A. Diallo; R. Lancelot; G. Libeau
      Pages: 1 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): M.D. Baron, A. Diallo, R. Lancelot, G. Libeau
      Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively through the developing world. Because of its disproportionately large impact on the livelihoods of low-income livestock keepers, and the availability of effective vaccines and good diagnostics, the virus is being targeted for global control and eventual eradication. In this review we examine the origin of the virus and its current distribution, and the factors that have led international organizations to conclude that it is eradicable. We also review recent progress in the molecular and cellular biology of the virus and consider areas where further research is required to support the efforts being made by national, regional, and international bodies to tackle this growing threat.

      PubDate: 2016-03-18T09:20:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.02.001
  • Coronavirus Spike Protein and Tropism Changes
    • Authors: R.J.G. Hulswit; C.A.M. de Haan; B.-J. Bosch
      Pages: 29 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): R.J.G. Hulswit, C.A.M. de Haan, B.-J. Bosch
      Coronaviruses (CoVs) have a remarkable potential to change tropism. This is particularly illustrated over the last 15 years by the emergence of two zoonotic CoVs, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)- and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV. Due to their inherent genetic variability, it is inevitable that new cross-species transmission events of these enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses will occur. Research into these medical and veterinary important pathogens—sparked by the SARS and MERS outbreaks—revealed important principles of inter- and intraspecies tropism changes. The primary determinant of CoV tropism is the viral spike (S) entry protein. Trimers of the S glycoproteins on the virion surface accommodate binding to a cell surface receptor and fusion of the viral and cellular membrane. Recently, high-resolution structures of two CoV S proteins have been elucidated by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. Using this new structural insight, we review the changes in the S protein that relate to changes in virus tropism. Different concepts underlie these tropism changes at the cellular, tissue, and host species level, including the promiscuity or adaptability of S proteins to orthologous receptors, alterations in the proteolytic cleavage activation as well as changes in the S protein metastability. A thorough understanding of the key role of the S protein in CoV entry is critical to further our understanding of virus cross-species transmission and pathogenesis and for development of intervention strategies.

      PubDate: 2016-09-16T05:02:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.08.004
  • Cell-to-Cell Spread of HIV and Viral Pathogenesis
    • Authors: K.M. Law; N. Satija; A.M. Esposito; B.K. Chen
      Pages: 43 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): K.M. Law, N. Satija, A.M. Esposito, B.K. Chen
      Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gives rise to a chronic infection that progressively depletes CD4+ T lymphocytes. CD4+ T lymphocytes play a central coordinating role in adaptive cellular and humoral immune responses, and to do so they migrate and interact within lymphoid compartments and at effector sites to mount immune responses. While cell-free virus serves as an excellent prognostic indicator for patient survival, interactions of infected T cells or virus-scavenging immune cells with uninfected T cells can greatly enhance viral spread. HIV can induce interactions between infected and uninfected T cells that are triggered by cell surface expression of viral Env, which serves as a cell adhesion molecule that interacts with CD4 on the target cell, before it acts as the viral membrane fusion protein. These interactions are called virological synapses and promote replication in the face of selective pressure of humoral immune responses and antiretroviral therapy. Other infection-enhancing cell–cell interactions occur between virus-concentrating antigen-presenting cells and recipient T cells, called infectious synapses. The exact roles that these cell–cell interactions play in each stage of infection, from viral acquisition, systemic dissemination, to chronic persistence are still being determined. Infection-promoting immune cell interactions are likely to contribute to viral persistence and enhance the ability of HIV-1 to evade adaptive immune responses.

      PubDate: 2016-04-05T22:01:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.03.001
  • The Nonstructural Proteins Directing Coronavirus RNA Synthesis and
    • Authors: E.J. Snijder; E. Decroly; J. Ziebuhr
      Pages: 59 - 126
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): E.J. Snijder, E. Decroly, J. Ziebuhr
      Coronaviruses are animal and human pathogens that can cause lethal zoonotic infections like SARS and MERS. They have polycistronic plus-stranded RNA genomes and belong to the order Nidovirales, a diverse group of viruses for which common ancestry was inferred from the common principles underlying their genome organization and expression, and from the conservation of an array of core replicase domains, including key RNA-synthesizing enzymes. Coronavirus genomes (~26–32 kilobases) are the largest RNA genomes known to date and their expansion was likely enabled by acquiring enzyme functions that counter the commonly high error frequency of viral RNA polymerases. The primary functions that direct coronavirus RNA synthesis and processing reside in nonstructural protein (nsp) 7 to nsp16, which are cleavage products of two large replicase polyproteins translated from the coronavirus genome. Significant progress has now been made regarding their structural and functional characterization, stimulated by technical advances like improved methods for bioinformatics and structural biology, in vitro enzyme characterization, and site-directed mutagenesis of coronavirus genomes. Coronavirus replicase functions include more or less universal activities of plus-stranded RNA viruses, like an RNA polymerase (nsp12) and helicase (nsp13), but also a number of rare or even unique domains involved in mRNA capping (nsp14, nsp16) and fidelity control (nsp14). Several smaller subunits (nsp7–nsp10) act as crucial cofactors of these enzymes and contribute to the emerging “nsp interactome.” Understanding the structure, function, and interactions of the RNA-synthesizing machinery of coronaviruses will be key to rationalizing their evolutionary success and the development of improved control strategies.

      PubDate: 2016-09-16T05:02:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.08.008
  • Nuclear Egress of Herpesviruses: The Prototypic Vesicular
           Nucleocytoplasmic Transport
    • Authors: Teresa Hellberg; Lars Paßvogel; Katharina S. Schulz; Barbara G. Klupp; Thomas C. Mettenleiter
      Pages: 81 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): Teresa Hellberg, Lars Paßvogel, Katharina S. Schulz, Barbara G. Klupp, Thomas C. Mettenleiter
      Herpesvirus particles mature in two different cellular compartments. While capsid assembly and packaging of the genomic linear double-stranded DNA occur in the nucleus, virion formation takes place in the cytoplasm by the addition of numerous tegument proteins as well as acquisition of the viral envelope by budding into cellular vesicles derived from the trans-Golgi network containing virally encoded glycoproteins. To gain access to the final maturation compartment, herpesvirus nucleocapsids have to cross a formidable barrier, the nuclear envelope (NE). Since the ca. 120nm diameter capsids are unable to traverse via nuclear pores, herpesviruses employ a vesicular transport through both leaflets of the NE. This process involves proteins which support local dissolution of the nuclear lamina to allow access of capsids to the inner nuclear membrane (INM), drive vesicle formation from the INM and mediate inclusion of the capsid as well as scission of the capsid-containing vesicle (also designated as “primary virion”). Fusion of the vesicle membrane (i.e., the “primary envelope”) with the outer nuclear membrane subsequently results in release of the nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm for continuing virion morphogenesis. While this process has long been thought to be unique for herpesviruses, a similar pathway for nuclear egress of macromolecular complexes has recently been observed in Drosophila. Thus, herpesviruses may have coopted a hitherto unrecognized cellular mechanism of vesicle-mediated nucleocytoplasmic transport. This could have far reaching consequences for our understanding of cellular functions as again unraveled by the study of viruses.

      PubDate: 2016-02-02T00:01:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2015.10.002
  • Future Scenarios for Plant Virus Pathogens as Climate Change Progresses
    • Authors: R.A.C. Jones
      Pages: 87 - 147
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): R.A.C. Jones
      Knowledge of how climate change is likely to influence future virus disease epidemics in cultivated plants and natural vegetation is of great importance to both global food security and natural ecosystems. However, obtaining such knowledge is hampered by the complex effects of climate alterations on the behavior of diverse types of vectors and the ease by which previously unknown viruses can emerge. A review written in 2011 provided a comprehensive analysis of available data on the effects of climate change on virus disease epidemics worldwide. This review summarizes its findings and those of two earlier climate change reviews and focuses on describing research published on the subject since 2011. It describes the likely effects of the full range of direct and indirect climate change parameters on hosts, viruses and vectors, virus control prospects, and the many information gaps and deficiencies. Recently, there has been encouraging progress in understanding the likely effects of some climate change parameters, especially over the effects of elevated CO2, temperature, and rainfall-related parameters, upon a small number of important plant viruses and several key insect vectors, especially aphids. However, much more research needs to be done to prepare for an era of (i) increasingly severe virus epidemics and (ii) increasing difficulties in controlling them, so as to mitigate their detrimental effects on future global food security and plant biodiversity.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T01:04:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.02.004
  • Coronavirus cis-Acting RNA Elements
    • Authors: R. Madhugiri; M. Fricke; M. Marz; J. Ziebuhr
      Pages: 127 - 163
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): R. Madhugiri, M. Fricke, M. Marz, J. Ziebuhr
      Coronaviruses have exceptionally large RNA genomes of approximately 30 kilobases. Genome replication and transcription is mediated by a multisubunit protein complex comprised of more than a dozen virus-encoded proteins. The protein complex is thought to bind specific cis-acting RNA elements primarily located in the 5′- and 3′-terminal genome regions and upstream of the open reading frames located in the 3′-proximal one-third of the genome. Here, we review our current understanding of coronavirus cis-acting RNA elements, focusing on elements required for genome replication and packaging. Recent bioinformatic, biochemical, and genetic studies suggest a previously unknown level of conservation of cis-acting RNA structures among different coronavirus genera and, in some cases, even beyond genus boundaries. Also, there is increasing evidence to suggest that individual cis-acting elements may be part of higher-order RNA structures involving long-range and dynamic RNA–RNA interactions between RNA structural elements separated by thousands of nucleotides in the viral genome. We discuss the structural and functional features of these cis-acting RNA elements and their specific functions in coronavirus RNA synthesis.

      PubDate: 2016-09-11T01:33:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.08.007
  • Structure and Associated Biological Functions of Viroids
    • Authors: Gerhard Steger; Jean-Pierre Perreault
      Pages: 141 - 172
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): Gerhard Steger, Jean-Pierre Perreault
      Mature viroids consist of a noncoding, covalently closed circular RNA that is able to autonomously infect respective host plants. Thus, they must utilize proteins of the host for most biological functions such as replication, processing, transport, and pathogenesis. Therefore, viroids can be regarded as minimal parasites of the host machinery. They have to present to the host machinery the appropriate signals based on either their sequence or their structure. Here, we summarize such sequence and structural features critical for the biological functions of viroids.

      PubDate: 2016-03-05T01:33:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2015.11.002
  • Viral and Cellular mRNA Translation in Coronavirus-Infected Cells
    • Authors: K. Nakagawa; K.G. Lokugamage; S. Makino
      Pages: 165 - 192
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): K. Nakagawa, K.G. Lokugamage, S. Makino
      Coronaviruses have large positive-strand RNA genomes that are 5′ capped and 3′ polyadenylated. The 5′-terminal two-thirds of the genome contain two open reading frames (ORFs), 1a and 1b, that together make up the viral replicase gene and encode two large polyproteins that are processed by viral proteases into 15–16 nonstructural proteins, most of them being involved in viral RNA synthesis. ORFs located in the 3′-terminal one-third of the genome encode structural and accessory proteins and are expressed from a set of 5′ leader-containing subgenomic mRNAs that are synthesized by a process called discontinuous transcription. Coronavirus protein synthesis not only involves cap-dependent translation mechanisms but also employs regulatory mechanisms, such as ribosomal frameshifting. Coronavirus replication is known to affect cellular translation, involving activation of stress-induced signaling pathways, and employing viral proteins that affect cellular mRNA translation and RNA stability. This chapter describes our current understanding of the mechanisms involved in coronavirus mRNA translation and changes in host mRNA translation observed in coronavirus-infected cells.

      PubDate: 2016-09-11T01:33:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.08.001
  • Interaction of SARS and MERS Coronaviruses with the Antiviral Interferon
    • Authors: E. Kindler; V. Thiel; F. Weber
      Pages: 219 - 243
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): E. Kindler, V. Thiel, F. Weber
      Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) are the most severe coronavirus (CoV)-associated diseases in humans. The causative agents, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, are of zoonotic origin but may be transmitted to humans, causing severe and often fatal respiratory disease in their new host. The two coronaviruses are thought to encode an unusually large number of factors that allow them to thrive and replicate in the presence of efficient host defense mechanisms, especially the antiviral interferon system. Here, we review the recent progress in our understanding of the strategies that highly pathogenic coronaviruses employ to escape, dampen, or block the antiviral interferon response in human cells.

      PubDate: 2016-09-11T01:33:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.08.006
  • Molecular Basis of Coronavirus Virulence and Vaccine Development
    • Authors: L. Enjuanes; S. Zuñiga; C. Castaño-Rodriguez; J. Gutierrez-Alvarez; J. Canton; I. Sola
      Pages: 245 - 286
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): L. Enjuanes, S. Zuñiga, C. Castaño-Rodriguez, J. Gutierrez-Alvarez, J. Canton, I. Sola
      Virus vaccines have to be immunogenic, sufficiently stable, safe, and suitable to induce long-lasting immunity. To meet these requirements, vaccine studies need to provide a comprehensive understanding of (i) the protective roles of antiviral B and T-cell-mediated immune responses, (ii) the complexity and plasticity of major viral antigens, and (iii) virus molecular biology and pathogenesis. There are many types of vaccines including subunit vaccines, whole-inactivated virus, vectored, and live-attenuated virus vaccines, each of which featuring specific advantages and limitations. While nonliving virus vaccines have clear advantages in being safe and stable, they may cause side effects and be less efficacious compared to live-attenuated virus vaccines. In most cases, the latter induce long-lasting immunity but they may require special safety measures to prevent reversion to highly virulent viruses following vaccination. The chapter summarizes the recent progress in the development of coronavirus (CoV) vaccines, focusing on two zoonotic CoVs, the severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV), and the Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV, both of which cause deadly disease and epidemics in humans. The development of attenuated virus vaccines to combat infections caused by highly pathogenic CoVs was largely based on the identification and characterization of viral virulence proteins that, for example, interfere with the innate and adaptive immune response or are involved in interactions with specific cell types, such as macrophages, dendritic and epithelial cells, and T lymphocytes, thereby modulating antiviral host responses and viral pathogenesis and potentially resulting in deleterious side effects following vaccination.

      PubDate: 2016-08-31T10:11:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.08.003
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