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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3153 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1504 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
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Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
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Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
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AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
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American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
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Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 305)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
Advances in Virus Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.262
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 5  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0065-3527
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Chapter Nine - Ecological Complexity in Plant Virus Host Range Evolution
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 101Author(s): Michael J. McLeish, Aurora Fraile, Fernando García-Arenal The host range of a plant virus is the number of species in which it can reproduce. Most studies of plant virus host range evolution have focused on the genetics of host–pathogen interactions. However, the distribution and abundance of plant viruses and their hosts do not always overlap, and these spatial and temporal discontinuities in plant virus–host interactions can result in various ecological processes that shape host range evolution. Recent work shows that the distributions of pathogenic and resistant genotypes, vectors, and other resources supporting transmission vary widely in the environment, producing both expected and unanticipated patterns. The distributions of all of these factors are influenced further by competitive effects, natural enemies, anthropogenic disturbance, the abiotic environment, and herbivory to mention some. We suggest the need for further development of approaches that (i) explicitly consider resource use and the abiotic and biotic factors that affect the strategies by which viruses exploit resources; and (ii) are sensitive across scales. Host range and habitat specificity will largely determine which phyla are most likely to be new hosts, but predicting which host and when it is likely to be infected is enormously challenging because it is unclear how environmental heterogeneity affects the interactions of viruses and hosts.
       
  • Chapter Eight - Emerging Viruses in Bees: From Molecules to Ecology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 101Author(s): Dino P. McMahon, Lena Wilfert, Robert J. Paxton, Mark J.F. Brown Emerging infectious diseases arise as a result of novel interactions between populations of hosts and pathogens, and can threaten the health and wellbeing of the entire spectrum of biodiversity. Bees and their viruses are a case in point. However, detailed knowledge of the ecological factors and evolutionary forces that drive disease emergence in bees and other host–pathogen communities is surprisingly lacking. In this review, we build on the fundamental insight that viruses evolve and adapt over timescales that overlap with host ecology. At the same time, we integrate the role of host community ecology, including community structure and composition, biodiversity loss, and human-driven disturbance, all of which represent significant factors in bee virus ecology. Both of these evolutionary and ecological perspectives represent major advances but, in most cases, it remains unclear how evolutionary forces actually operate across different biological scales (e.g., from cell to ecosystem). We present a molecule-to-ecology framework to help address these issues, emphasizing the role of molecular mechanisms as key bottom-up drivers of change at higher ecological scales. We consider the bee–virus system to be an ideal one in which to apply this framework. Unlike many other animal models, bees constitute a well characterized and accessible multispecies assemblage, whose populations and interspecific interactions can be experimentally manipulated and monitored in high resolution across space and time to provide robust tests of prevailing theory.
       
  • Chapter Seven - Evolutionary Determinants of Host and Vector Manipulation
           by Plant Viruses
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 101Author(s): Kerry E. Mauck, Quentin Chesnais, Lori R. Shapiro Plant viruses possess adaptations for facilitating acquisition, retention, and inoculation by vectors. Until recently, it was hypothesized that these adaptations are limited to virus proteins that enable virions to bind to vector mouthparts or invade their internal tissues. However, increasing evidence suggests that viruses can also manipulate host plant phenotypes and vector behaviors in ways that enhance their own transmission. Manipulation of vector–host interactions occurs through virus effects on host cues that mediate vector orientation, feeding, and dispersal behaviors, and thereby, the probability of virus transmission. Effects on host phenotypes vary by pathosystem but show a remarkable degree of convergence among unrelated viruses whose transmission is favored by the same vector behaviors. Convergence based on transmission mechanism, rather than phylogeny, supports the hypothesis that virus effects are adaptive and not just by-products of infection. Based on this, it has been proposed that viruses manipulate hosts through multifunctional proteins that facilitate exploitation of host resources and elicitation of specific changes in host phenotypes. But this proposition is rarely discussed in the context of the numerous constraints on virus evolution imposed by molecular and environmental factors, which figure prominently in research on virus–host interactions not dealing with host manipulation. To explore the implications of this oversight, we synthesized available literature to identify patterns in virus effects among pathogens with shared transmission mechanisms and discussed the results of this synthesis in the context of molecular and environmental constraints on virus evolution, limitations of existing studies, and prospects for future research.
       
  • Chapter Six - Plant and Insect Viruses in Managed and Natural
           Environments: Novel and Neglected Transmission Pathways
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 101Author(s): Roger A.C. Jones The capacity to spread by diverse transmission pathways enhances a virus’ ability to spread effectively and survive when circumstances change. This review aims to improve understanding of how plant and insect viruses spread through natural and managed environments by drawing attention to 12 novel or neglected virus transmission pathways whose contribution is underestimated. For plant viruses, the pathways reviewed are vertical and horizontal transmission via pollen, and horizontal transmission by parasitic plants, natural root grafts, wind-mediated contact, chewing insects, and contaminated water or soil. For insect viruses, they are transmission by plants serving as passive “vectors,” arthropod vectors, and contamination of pollen and nectar. Based on current understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics of virus spread, the likely roles of each pathway in creating new primary infection foci, enlarging previously existing infection foci, and promoting generalized virus spread are estimated. All pathways except transmission via parasitic plants, root grafts, and wind-mediated contact transmission are likely to produce new primary infection foci. All 12 pathways have the capability to enlarge existing infection foci, but only to a limited extent when spread occurs via virus-contaminated soil or vertical pollen transmission. All pathways except those via parasitic plant, root graft, contaminated soil, and vertical pollen transmission likely contribute to generalized virus spread, but to different extents. For worst-case scenarios, where mixed populations of host species occur under optimal virus spread conditions, the risk that host species jumps or virus emergence events will arise is estimated to be “high” for all four insect virus pathways considered, and, “very high” or “moderate” for plant viruses transmitted by parasitic plant and root graft pathways, respectively. To establish full understanding of virus spread and thereby optimize effective virus disease management, it is important to examine all transmission pathways potentially involved, regardless of whether the virus’ ecology is already presumed to be well understood or otherwise.
       
  • Chapter Five - Evaluating the Importance of Environmental Persistence for
           Ranavirus Transmission and Epidemiology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 101Author(s): Jesse L. Brunner, Christian M. Yarber Viruses persist outside their hosts in a variety of forms, from naked virions to virus protected in sloughed tissues or carcasses, and for a range of times, all of which affect the likelihood and importance of transmission from the environment. This review synthesizes the literature on environmental persistence of viruses in the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae), which are large double-stranded DNA viruses of ectothermic, often aquatic or semiaquatic vertebrates. Ranaviruses have been associated with mass mortality events in natural and captive settings around the world, and with population and community-wide declines in Europe. Early work suggested ranaviruses are environmentally robust and transmission from the environment should be common. More recent work has shown a large effect of temperature and microbial action on persistence times, although other aspects of the environment (e.g., water chemistry) and aquatic communities (e.g., zooplankton) may also be important. Ranaviruses may persist in the carcasses of animals that have died of infection, and so decomposing organisms and invertebrate scavengers may reduce these persistence times. The question is, do persistence times vary enough to promote or preclude substantial transmission from the environment. We built an epidemiological model with transmission from contacts, free virus in water, and carcasses, to explore the conditions in which environmental persistence could be important for ranavirus epidemiology. Based on prior work, we expected a substantial amount of transmission from the water and that longer persistence times would make this route of transmission dominant. However, neither water-borne nor transmission from carcasses played an important role in the simulated epidemics except under fairly restrictive conditions, such as when there were high rates of virus shedding or high rates of scavenging on highly infectious carcasses. While many aspects of environmental persistence of ranaviruses are being resolved by experiments, key parameters such as viral shedding rates are virtually unknown and will need to be empirically constrained if we are to determine whether environmental persistence and transmission from the environment are essential or insignificant features of Ranavirus epidemiology. We conclude by emphasizing the need to place environmental persistence research in an epidemiological framework.
       
  • Chapter Four - Water-Mediated Transmission of Plant, Animal, and Human
           Viruses
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 101Author(s): Nataša Mehle, Ion Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Denis Kutnjak, Maja Ravnikar Viruses represent the most abundant and diverse of the biological entities in environmental waters, including the seas and probably also freshwater systems. They are important players in ecological networks in waters and influence global biochemical cycling and community composition dynamics. Among the many diverse viruses from terrestrial environments found in environmental waters, some are plant, animal, and/or human pathogens. The majority of pathogenic viral species found in waters are very stable and can survive outside host cells for long periods. The occurrence of such viruses in environmental waters has raised concerns because of the confirmation of the infectivity of waterborne viruses even at very low concentrations. This chapter focuses mainly on the survival of human, animal, and plant pathogenic viruses in aqueous environments, the possibility of their water-mediated transmission, the ecological implications of viruses in water, the methods adapted for detecting such viruses, and how to minimize the risk of viruses spreading through water.
       
  • Chapter Three - From Spatial Metagenomics to Molecular Characterization of
           Plant Viruses: A Geminivirus Case Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 101Author(s): Sohini Claverie, Pauline Bernardo, Simona Kraberger, Penelope Hartnady, Pierre Lefeuvre, Jean-Michel Lett, Serge Galzi, Denis Filloux, Gordon W. Harkins, Arvind Varsani, Darren P. Martin, Philippe Roumagnac The number of plant viruses that are known likely remains only a vanishingly small fraction of all extant plant virus species. Consequently, the distribution and population dynamics of plant viruses within even the best-studied ecosystems have only ever been studied for small groups of virus species. Even for the best studied of these groups very little is known about virus diversity at spatial scales ranging from an individual host, through individual local host populations to global host populations. To date, metagenomics studies that have assessed the collective or metagenomes of viruses at the ecosystem scale have revealed many previously unrecognized viral species. More recently, novel georeferenced metagenomics approaches have been devised that can precisely link individual sequence reads to both the plant hosts from which they were obtained, and the spatial arrangements of these hosts. Besides illuminating the diversity and the distribution of plant viruses at the ecosystem scale, application of these “geometagenomics” approaches has enabled the direct testing of hypotheses relating to the impacts of host diversity, host spatial variations, and environmental conditions on plant virus diversity and prevalence. To exemplify how such top-down approaches can provide a far deeper understanding of host–virus associations, we provide a case-study focusing on geminiviruses within two complex ecosystems containing both cultivated and uncultivated areas. Geminiviruses are a highly relevant model for studying the evolutionary and ecological aspects of viral emergence because the family Geminiviridae includes many of the most important crop pathogens that have emerged over the past century. In addition to revealing unprecedented degrees of geminivirus diversity within the analyzed ecosystems, the geometagenomics-based approach enabled the focused in-depth analysis of the complex evolutionary dynamics of some of the highly divergent geminivirus species that were discovered.
       
  • Chapter Two - Viruses in Polar Lake and Soil Ecosystems
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 101Author(s): Alberto Rastrojo, Antonio Alcamí Viruses play an important role in the control of microbial communities, and it has been suggested that the influence of viruses in polar ecosystems, with low nutrients and under extreme environmental conditions, may be greater. Viral metagenomics allows the genetic characterization of complex viral communities without the need to isolate and grow viruses. Recent investigations in Antarctica and the Arctic are uncovering a great diversity of DNA viruses, including bacteriophages, circular single-stranded DNA viruses, algal-infecting phycodnaviruses, and virophages, adapted to these extreme environments. The limited sequence similarity between viruses in Antarctica and the Arctic suggests that viral communities in the two polar regions have evolved independently since the formation of the Antarctic continent, estimated to occur 25 million years ago. The community of RNA viruses in Antarctica is dominated by the order Picornavirales and their quasispecies composition suggests that higher genetic variability may correlate with viral adaptation to new environmental conditions.
       
  • Chapter One - Viruses in Marine Ecosystems: From Open Waters to Coral
           Reefs
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 101Author(s): Karen D. Weynberg Viruses infect all kingdoms of marine life from bacteria to whales. Viruses in the world's oceans play important roles in the mortality of phytoplankton, and as drivers of evolution and biogeochemical cycling. They shape host population abundance and distribution and can lead to the termination of algal blooms. As discoveries about this huge reservoir of genetic and biological diversity grow, our understanding of the major influences viruses exert in the global marine environment continues to expand. This chapter discusses the key discoveries that have been made to date about marine viruses and the current direction of this field of research.
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 101Author(s):
       
  • Chapter Fourteen - How Does Vaccinia Virus Interfere With Interferon'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 100Author(s): Geoffrey L. Smith, Callum Talbot-Cooper, Yongxu Lu Interferons (IFNs) are secreted glycoproteins that are produced by cells in response to virus infection and other stimuli and induce an antiviral state in cells bearing IFN receptors. In this way, IFNs restrict virus replication and spread before an adaptive immune response is developed. Viruses are very sensitive to the effects of IFNs and consequently have evolved many strategies to interfere with interferon. This is particularly well illustrated by poxviruses, which have large dsDNA genomes and encode hundreds of proteins. Vaccinia virus is the prototypic poxvirus and expresses many proteins that interfere with IFN and are considered in this review. These proteins act either inside or outside the cell and within the cytoplasm or nucleus. They function by restricting the production of IFN by blocking the signaling pathways leading to transcription of IFN genes, stopping IFNs binding to their receptors, blocking IFN-induced signal transduction leading to expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), or inhibiting the antiviral activity of ISG products.
       
  • Chapter Thirteen - Intracellular Antiviral Immunity
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 100Author(s): Maria Bottermann, Leo C. James Innate immunity is traditionally thought of as the first line of defense against pathogens that enter the body. It is typically characterized as a rather weak defense mechanism, designed to restrict pathogen replication until the adaptive immune response generates a tailored response and eliminates the infectious agent. However, intensive research in recent years has resulted in better understanding of innate immunity as well as the discovery of many effector proteins, revealing its numerous powerful mechanisms to defend the host. Furthermore, this research has demonstrated that it is simplistic to strictly separate adaptive and innate immune functions since these two systems often work synergistically rather than sequentially.Here, we provide a broad overview of innate pattern recognition receptors in antiviral defense, with a focus on the TRIM family, and discuss their signaling pathways and mechanisms of action with special emphasis on the intracellular antibody receptor TRIM21.
       
  • Chapter Twelve - Changing Role of Wild Birds in the Epidemiology of Avian
           Influenza A Viruses
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 100Author(s): Rogier Bodewes, Thijs Kuiken Waterbirds are the main reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (LPAIV), from which occasional spillover to poultry occurs. When circulating among poultry, LPAIV may become highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (HPAIV). In recent years, the epidemiology of HPAIV viruses has changed drastically. HPAIV H5N1 are currently endemic among poultry in a number of countries. In addition, global spread of HPAIV H5Nx viruses has resulted in major outbreaks among wild birds and poultry worldwide. Using data collected during these outbreaks, the role of migratory birds as a vector became increasingly clear. Here we provide an overview of current data about various aspects of the changing role of wild birds in the epidemiology of avian influenza A viruses.
       
  • Chapter Eleven - Antiviral Immune Response and the Route of Infection in
           Drosophila melanogaster
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 100Author(s): Juan A. Mondotte, Maria-Carla Saleh The use of Drosophila as a model organism has made an important contribution to our understanding of the function and regulation of innate immunity in insects. Indeed, insects can discriminate between different types of pathogens and mount specific and effective responses. Strikingly, the same pathogen can trigger a different immune response in the same organism, depending solely on the route of infection by which the pathogen is delivered. In this review, we recapitulate what is known about antiviral responses in Drosophila, and how they are triggered depending on the route and the mode used for the virus to infect its host.
       
  • Chapter Ten - An Orchestra of Reovirus Receptors: Still Searching for the
           Conductor
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 100Author(s): Danica M. Sutherland, Pavithra Aravamudhan, Terence S. Dermody Viruses are constantly engaged in a molecular arms race with the host, where efficient and tactical use of cellular receptors benefits critical steps in infection. Receptor use dictates initiation, establishment, and spread of viral infection to new tissues and hosts. Mammalian orthoreoviruses (reoviruses) are pervasive pathogens that use multiple receptors to overcome protective host barriers to disseminate from sites of initial infection and cause disease in young mammals. In particular, reovirus invades the central nervous system (CNS) with serotype-dependent tropism and disease. A single viral gene, encoding the attachment protein σ1, segregates with distinct patterns of CNS injury. Despite the identification and characterization of several reovirus receptors, host factors that dictate tropism via interaction with σ1 remain undefined. Here, we summarize the state of the reovirus receptor field and discuss open questions toward understanding how the reovirus attachment protein dictates CNS tropism.
       
  • Chapter Nine - Filoviruses: Ecology, Molecular Biology, and Evolution
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 100Author(s): Jackson Emanuel, Andrea Marzi, Heinz Feldmann The Filoviridae are a family of negative-strand RNA viruses that include several important human pathogens. Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus are well-known filoviruses which cause life-threatening viral hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. In addition to severe pathogenesis, filoviruses also exhibit a propensity for human-to-human transmission by close contact, posing challenges to containment and crisis management. Past outbreaks, in particular the recent West African EBOV epidemic, have been responsible for thousands of deaths and vaulted the filoviruses into public consciousness. Both national and international health agencies continue to regard potential filovirus outbreaks as critical threats to global public health. To develop effective countermeasures, a basic understanding of filovirus biology is needed. This review encompasses the epidemiology, ecology, molecular biology, and evolution of the filoviruses.
       
  • Chapter Eight - Hosts and Sources of Endemic Human Coronaviruses
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 100Author(s): Victor M. Corman, Doreen Muth, Daniela Niemeyer, Christian Drosten The four endemic human coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 contribute a considerable share of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in adults and children. While their clinical representation resembles that of many other agents of the common cold, their evolutionary histories, and host associations could provide important insights into the natural history of past human pandemics. For two of these viruses, we have strong evidence suggesting an origin in major livestock species while primordial associations for all four viruses may have existed with bats and rodents. HCoV-NL63 and -229E may originate from bat reservoirs as assumed for many other coronaviruses, but HCoV-OC43 and -HKU1 seem more likely to have speciated from rodent-associated viruses. HCoV-OC43 is thought to have emerged from ancestors in domestic animals such as cattle or swine. The bovine coronavirus has been suggested to be a possible ancestor, from which HCoV-OC43 may have emerged in the context of a pandemic recorded historically at the end of the 19th century. New data suggest that HCoV-229E may actually be transferred from dromedary camels similar to Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus. This scenario provides important ecological parallels to the present prepandemic pattern of host associations of the MERS coronavirus.
       
  • Chapter Seven - So What Have Plant Viruses Ever Done for Virology and
           Molecular Biology'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 100Author(s): George P. Lomonossoff The discovery of a new class of pathogen, viruses, in the late 19th century, ushered in a period of study of the biochemical and structural properties of these entities in which plant viruses played a prominent role. This was, in large part, due to the relative ease with which sufficient quantities of material could be produced for such analyses. As analytical techniques became increasingly sensitive, similar studies could be performed on the viruses from other organisms. However, plant viruses continued to play an important role in the development of molecular biology, including the demonstration that RNA can be infectious, the determination of the genetic code, the mechanism by which viral RNAs are translated, and some of the early studies on gene silencing. Thus, the study of plant viruses should not be considered a “niche” subject but rather part of the mainstream of virology and molecular biology.
       
  • Chapter Six - Protein Localization and Interaction Studies in Plants:
           Toward Defining Complete Proteomes by Visualization
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 100Author(s): Michael M. Goodin Protein interaction and localization studies in plants are a fundamental component of achieving mechanistic understanding of virus:plant interactions at the systems level. Many such studies are conducted using transient expression assays in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, the most widely used experimental plant host in virology, examined by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. This chapter provides a workflow for protein interaction and localization experiments, with particular attention to the many control and supporting assays that may also need to be performed. Basic principles of microscopy are introduced to aid researchers in the early stages of adding imaging techniques to their experimental repertoire. Three major types of imaging-based experiments are discussed in detail: (i) protein localization using autofluorescent proteins, (ii) colocalization studies, and (iii) bimolecular fluorescence complementation, with emphasis on judicious interpretation of the data obtained from these approaches. In addition to establishing a general framework for protein localization experiments in plants, the need for proteome-scale localization projects is discussed, with emphasis on nuclear-localized proteins.
       
  • Chapter Five - Viruses of Plant-Interacting Fungi
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 100Author(s): Bradley I. Hillman, Aulia Annisa, Nobuhiro Suzuki Plant-associated fungi are infected by viruses at the incidence rates from a few % to over 90%. Multiple viruses often coinfect fungal hosts, and occasionally alter their phenotypes, but most of the infections are asymptomatic. Phenotypic alterations are grouped into two types: harmful or beneficial to the host fungi. Harmful interactions between viruses and hosts include hypovirulence and/or debilitation that are documented in a number of phytopathogenic fungi, exemplified by the chestnut blight, white root rot, and rapeseed rot fungi. Beneficial interactions are observed in a limited number of plant endophytic and pathogenic fungi where heat tolerance and virulence are enhanced, respectively. Coinfections of fungi provided a platform for discoveries of interesting virus/virus interactions that include synergistic, as in the case for those in plants, and unique antagonistic and mutualistic interactions between unrelated RNA viruses. Also discussed here are coinfection-induced genome rearrangements and frequently observed coinfections by the simplest positive-strand RNA virus, the mitoviruses.
       
  • Chapter Four - Morbillivirus Pathogenesis and Virus–Host
           Interactions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 100Author(s): Kristin Pfeffermann, Mareike Dörr, Florian Zirkel, Veronika von Messling Despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines against measles and several animal morbilliviruses, they continue to cause regular outbreaks and epidemics in susceptible populations. Morbilliviruses are highly contagious and share a similar pathogenesis in their respective hosts. This review provides an overview of morbillivirus history and the general replication cycle and recapitulates Morbillivirus pathogenesis focusing on common and unique aspects seen in different hosts. It also summarizes the state of knowledge regarding virus–host interactions on the cellular level with an emphasis on viral interference with innate immune response activation, and highlights remaining knowledge gaps.
       
  • Chapter Three - African Swine Fever Virus Biology and Vaccine Approaches
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 100Author(s): Yolanda Revilla, Daniel Pérez-Núñez, Juergen A. Richt African swine fever (ASF) is an acute and often fatal disease affecting domestic pigs and wild boar, with severe economic consequences for affected countries. ASF is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and the island of Sardinia, Italy. Since 2007, the virus emerged in the republic of Georgia, and since then spread throughout the Caucasus region and Russia. Outbreaks have also been reported in Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Romania, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Poland, threatening neighboring West European countries. The causative agent, the African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a large, enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that enters the cell by macropinocytosis and a clathrin-dependent mechanism. African Swine Fever Virus is able to interfere with various cellular signaling pathways resulting in immunomodulation, thus making the development of an efficacious vaccine very challenging. Inactivated preparations of African Swine Fever Virus do not confer protection, and the role of antibodies in protection remains unclear. The use of live-attenuated vaccines, although rendering suitable levels of protection, presents difficulties due to safety and side effects in the vaccinated animals. Several African Swine Fever Virus proteins have been reported to induce neutralizing antibodies in immunized pigs, and vaccination strategies based on DNA vaccines and recombinant proteins have also been explored, however, without being very successful. The complexity of the virus particle and the ability of the virus to modulate host immune responses are most likely the reason for this failure. Furthermore, no permanent cell lines able to sustain productive virus infection by both virulent and naturally attenuated African Swine Fever Virus strains exist so far, thus impairing basic research and the commercial production of attenuated vaccine candidates.
       
  • Chapter Two - The Role of Immune Responses in HIV Mother-to-Child
           Transmission
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 100Author(s): Caitlin Milligan, Jennifer A. Slyker, Julie Overbaugh HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) represents a success story in the HIV/AIDS field given the significant reduction in number of transmission events with the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment and other prevention methods. Nevertheless, MTCT still occurs and better understanding of the basic biology and immunology of transmission will aid in future prevention and treatment efforts. MTCT is a unique setting given that the transmission pair is known and the infant receives passively transferred HIV-specific antibodies from the mother while in utero. Thus, infant exposure to HIV occurs in the face of HIV-specific antibodies, especially during delivery and breastfeeding. This review highlights the immune correlates of protection in HIV MTCT including humoral (neutralizing antibodies, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and binding epitopes), cellular, and innate immune factors. We further discuss the future implications of this research as it pertains to opportunities for passive and active vaccination with the ultimate goal of eliminating HIV MTCT.
       
  • Chapter One - The Species Problem in Virology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 100Author(s): Marc H.V. Van Regenmortel Virus classification deals with conceptual species classes that have viruses as their members. A virus species cannot be described but can only be defined by listing certain species-defining properties of its member. However, it is not possible to define a virus species by using a single species-defining property. The new 2013 official definition of virus species is not appropriate because it applies equally to virus genera. A nucleotide motif is a chemical part of a viral genome and is not a species-defining property that could be used for establishing new virus species. A virus classification based solely on nucleotide sequences is a classification of viral genomes and not of viruses. The variable distribution of species-defining properties of a polythetic species class is not itself a single common property of all the members of the class, since this would lead to the paradox that every polythetic class is also a monothetic one.
       
  • Preface to Volume 100: History and Looking Forward
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 100Author(s): Thomas C. Mettenleiter, Margaret Kielian, Marilyn J. Roossinck
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Virus Research, Volume 100Author(s):
       
 
 
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