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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3003 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1427 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
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Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
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Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
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Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 310)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
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Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)

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Journal Cover Advances in Virus Research
  [SJR: 1.878]   [H-I: 68]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-3527
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Virus Research, Volume 99


      PubDate: 2017-10-13T08:25:45Z
       
  • Assessing the Diversity of Rodent-Borne Viruses: Exploring of
           High-Throughput Sequencing and Classical Amplification/Sequencing
           Approaches
    • Authors: Stephan Drewes; Petra Straková; Jan F. Drexler; Jens Jacob; Rainer G. Ulrich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): Stephan Drewes, Petra Straková, Jan F. Drexler, Jens Jacob, Rainer G. Ulrich
      Rodents are distributed throughout the world and interact with humans in many ways. They provide vital ecosystem services, some species are useful models in biomedical research and some are held as pet animals. However, many rodent species can have adverse effects such as damage to crops and stored produce, and they are of health concern because of the transmission of pathogens to humans and livestock. The first rodent viruses were discovered by isolation approaches and resulted in break-through knowledge in immunology, molecular and cell biology, and cancer research. In addition to rodent-specific viruses, rodent-borne viruses are causing a large number of zoonotic diseases. Most prominent examples are reemerging outbreaks of human hemorrhagic fever disease cases caused by arena- and hantaviruses. In addition, rodents are reservoirs for vector-borne pathogens, such as tick-borne encephalitis virus and Borrelia spp., and may carry human pathogenic agents, but likely are not involved in their transmission to human. In our days, next-generation sequencing or high-throughput sequencing (HTS) is revolutionizing the speed of the discovery of novel viruses, but other molecular approaches, such as generic RT-PCR/PCR and rolling circle amplification techniques, contribute significantly to the rapidly ongoing process. However, the current knowledge still represents only the tip of the iceberg, when comparing the known human viruses to those known for rodents, the mammalian taxon with the largest species number. The diagnostic potential of HTS-based metagenomic approaches is illustrated by their use in the discovery and complete genome determination of novel borna- and adenoviruses as causative disease agents in squirrels. In conclusion, HTS, in combination with conventional RT-PCR/PCR-based approaches, resulted in a drastically increased knowledge of the diversity of rodent viruses. Future improvements of the used workflows, including bioinformatics analysis, will further enhance our knowledge and preparedness in case of the emergence of novel viruses. Classical virological and additional molecular approaches are needed for genome annotation and functional characterization of novel viruses, discovered by these technologies, and evaluation of their zoonotic potential.

      PubDate: 2017-10-06T19:28:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.08.002
       
  • Software Dedicated to Virus Sequence Analysis “Bioinformatics Goes
           Viral”
    • Authors: Martin Hölzer; Manja Marz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): Martin Hölzer, Manja Marz
      Computer-assisted technologies of the genomic structure, biological function, and evolution of viruses remain a largely neglected area of research. The attention of bioinformaticians to this challenging field is currently unsatisfying in respect to its medical and biological importance. The power of new genome sequencing technologies, associated with new tools to handle “big data”, provides unprecedented opportunities to address fundamental questions in virology. Here, we present an overview of the current technologies, challenges, and advantages of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) in relation to the field of virology. We present how viral sequences can be detected de novo out of current short-read NGS data. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges and applications of viral quasispecies and how secondary structures, commonly shaped by RNA viruses, can be computationally predicted. The phylogenetic analysis of viruses, as another ubiquitous field in virology, forms an essential element of describing viral epidemics and challenges current algorithms. Recently, the first specialized virus-bioinformatic organizations have been established. We need to bring together virologists and bioinformaticians and provide a platform for the implementation of interdisciplinary collaborative projects at local and international scales. Above all, there is an urgent need for dedicated software tools to tackle various challenges in virology.

      PubDate: 2017-10-06T19:28:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.08.004
       
  • Bluetongue Virus: From BTV-1 to BTV-27
    • Authors: Guillaume Belbis; Stéphan Zientara; Emmanuel Bréard; Corinne Sailleau; Grégory Caignard; Damien Vitour; Houssam Attoui
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): Guillaume Belbis, Stéphan Zientara, Emmanuel Bréard, Corinne Sailleau, Grégory Caignard, Damien Vitour, Houssam Attoui
      Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the type species of genus Orbivirus within family Reoviridae. Bluetongue virus is transmitted between its ruminant hosts by the bite of Culicoides spp. midges. Severe BT cases are characterized by symptoms including hemorrhagic fever, particularly in sheep, loss of productivity, and death. To date, 27 BTV serotypes have been documented. These include novel isolates of atypical BTV, which have been almost fully characterized using deep sequencing technologies and do not rely on Culicoides vectors for their transmission among hosts. Due to its high economic impact, BT is an Office International des Epizooties (OIE) listed disease that is strictly controlled in international commercial exchanges. During the 20th century, BTV has been endemic in subtropical regions. In the last 15 years, novel strains of nine “typical” BTV serotypes (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 14, and 16) invaded Europe, some of which caused disease in naive sheep and unexpectedly in bovine herds (particularly serotype 8). Over the past few years, three novel “atypical” serotypes (25–27) were characterized during sequencing studies of animal samples from Switzerland, Kuwait, and France, respectively. Classical serotype-specific inactivated vaccines, although expensive, were very successful in controlling outbreaks as shown with the northern European BTV-8 outbreak which started in the summer of 2006. Technological jumps in deep sequencing methodologies made rapid full characterizations of BTV genome from isolates/tissues feasible. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches are powerful tools to study the variability of BTV genomes on a fine scale. This paper provides information on how NGS impacted our knowledge of the BTV genome.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T16:15:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.08.003
       
  • The Expanding Field of Mammalian Astroviruses: Opportunities and
           Challenges in Clinical Virology
    • Authors: Céline L. Boujon; Michel C. Koch; Torsten Seuberlich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): Céline L. Boujon, Michel C. Koch, Torsten Seuberlich
      Astroviruses are best known as being one of the leading causes of diarrhea in infants and were first described in this context in 1975. In its first years, astrovirus research was mainly restricted to electron microscopy and serology studies. The ability to culture some of these viruses in vitro allowed a first consequent step forward, especially at the molecular level. Since the emergence of more powerful genetic methods, though, the face of this research field has dramatically changed and evolved. From the exponential number of discoveries of new astrovirus strains in the most varied of animal species to their association with atypical diseases, these viruses revealed a lot of surprises, and many more are probably still waiting to be uncovered. This chapter summarizes the most important knowledge about astroviruses and discusses the implication of the latest findings in this area of research.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T16:15:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.07.002
       
  • Loeffler 4.0: Diagnostic Metagenomics
    • Authors: Dirk Höper; Claudia Wylezich; Martin Beer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): Dirk Höper, Claudia Wylezich, Martin Beer
      A new world of possibilities for “virus discovery” was opened up with high-throughput sequencing becoming available in the last decade. While scientifically metagenomic analysis was established before the start of the era of high-throughput sequencing, the availability of the first second-generation sequencers was the kick-off for diagnosticians to use sequencing for the detection of novel pathogens. Today, diagnostic metagenomics is becoming the standard procedure for the detection and genetic characterization of new viruses or novel virus variants. Here, we provide an overview about technical considerations of high-throughput sequencing-based diagnostic metagenomics together with selected examples of “virus discovery” for animal diseases or zoonoses and metagenomics for food safety or basic veterinary research.

      PubDate: 2017-09-22T12:31:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.08.001
       
  • The First “Virus Hunters”
    • Authors: Thomas Mettenleiter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): Thomas C. Mettenleiter
      The history of virology is a history of conceptual and technological inventions and breakthroughs. The development of filters made of porcelain or kieselgur by the end of the 19th century which withheld bacteria allowed the identification of infectious agents smaller than bacteria and noncultivable on the media known at that time and used to grow bacteria. Even finer-grain filters resulted in the observation that the ultravisible novel infectious agents are in fact of particulate nature. Infections of plants and animals were the first to be attributed to these tiny entities. Proof resulted from experimental infection of the natural hosts (including humans). Thus, of the first 30 viruses identified, 20 are veterinary viruses, i.e. infectious agents of poultry and livestock. The discovery that bacteria also have viruses in the 1910s expanded the viral universe which continues today. Filterability and ultravisibility remained a hallmark for the identification of viruses until the advent of the electron microscope in the late 1930s marking another technological breakthrough in virology. Cell culture techniques allowed virus propagation outside the infected organism. In the past decades, the advent and development of molecular biology has brought more innovations culminating in the rapid and accurate determination of genomic material of a variety of living beings including viruses in a hitherto unknown speed and depth using next-generation sequencing and metagenomic analyses. Thus, it is no surprise that new viruses are detected constantly including specimens of unprecedented size and shape. Virologists agree that the viral universe is immense, and only a small fraction has been explored yet.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T11:35:58Z
       
  • The Recently Discovered Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus: Insights Into Its Genetic
           Heterogeneity and Spatial Distribution in Europe and the Population
           Genetics of Its Primary Host
    • Authors: Elisa Eggerbauer; Cécile Troupin; Karsten Passior; Florian Pfaff; Dirk Höper; Antonie Neubauer-Juric; Stephanie Haberl; Christiane Bouchier; Thomas C. Mettenleiter; Hervé Bourhy; Thomas Müller; Laurent Dacheux; Conrad M. Freuling
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): Elisa Eggerbauer, Cécile Troupin, Karsten Passior, Florian Pfaff, Dirk Höper, Antonie Neubauer-Juric, Stephanie Haberl, Christiane Bouchier, Thomas C. Mettenleiter, Hervé Bourhy, Thomas Müller, Laurent Dacheux, Conrad M. Freuling
      In 2010, a novel lyssavirus named Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV) was isolated from a Natterer's bat (Myotis nattereri) in Germany. Two further viruses were isolated in the same country and in France in recent years, all from the same bat species and all found in moribund or dead bats. Here we report the description and the full-length genome sequence of five additional BBLV isolates from Germany (n =4) and France (n =1). Interestingly, all of them were isolated from the Natterer's bat, except one from Germany, which was found in a common Pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus), a widespread and abundant bat species in Europe. The latter represents the first case of transmission of BBLV to another bat species. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated the presence of two different lineages among this lyssavirus species: lineages A and B. The spatial distribution of these two lineages remains puzzling, as both of them comprised isolates from France and Germany; although clustering of isolates was observed on a regional scale, especially in Germany. Phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b (CYTB) gene from positive Natterer's bat did not suggest a circulation of the respective BBLV sublineages in specific Natterer's bat subspecies, as all of them were shown to belong to the M. nattereri sensu stricto clade/subspecies and were closely related (German and French positive bats). At the bat host level, we demonstrated that the distribution of BBLV at the late stage of the disease seems large and massive, as viral RNA was detected in many different organs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T11:35:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.07.004
       
  • New Leaves in the Growing Tree of Pestiviruses
    • Authors: Sandra Blome; Martin Beer; Kerstin Wernike
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): Sandra Blome, Martin Beer, Kerstin Wernike
      Pestiviruses are a group of viruses of veterinary importance infecting livestock animals like pigs, cattle, and sheep, and also wildlife animals like wild boar and different deer species. While for decades only four classical species (Classical swine fever virus, Bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, Border disease virus), and a few so-called atypical pestiviruses were known (e.g., Giraffe virus, Pronghorn virus, HoBi virus), a series of novel pestiviruses was identified in the last years (Bungowannah virus, Bat pestivirus, Norway rat pestivirus, Atypical porcine pestivirus, LINDA virus). The Australian Bungowannah virus could be isolated and further characterized by classical sequencing, but all the other latest novel pestiviruses were identified by metagenomics using next-generation sequencing technologies. Here, we describe these new viruses and their discovery and characterization. Differentiation is made between the occurrence of classical pestiviruses in new species and novel viruses or virus types.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T11:35:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.07.003
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Virus Research, Volume 98


      PubDate: 2017-04-24T09:23:03Z
       
  • The Envelope Proteins of the Bunyavirales
    • Authors: Pablo Guardado-Calvo; Félix A. Rey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2017
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): Pablo Guardado-Calvo, Félix A. Rey
      The Bunyavirales Order encompasses nine families of enveloped viruses containing a single-stranded negative-sense RNA genome divided into three segments. The small (S) and large (L) segments encode proteins participating in genome replication in the infected cell cytoplasm. The middle (M) segment encodes the viral glycoproteins Gn and Gc, which are derived from a precursor polyprotein by host cell proteases. Entry studies are available only for a few viruses in the Order, and in each case they were shown to enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. The acidic endosomal pH triggers the fusion of the viral envelope with the membrane of an endosome. Structural studies on two members of this Order, the phleboviruses and the hantaviruses, have shown that the membrane fusion protein Gc displays a class II fusion protein fold and is homologous to its counterparts in flaviviruses and alphaviruses, which are positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. We analyze here recent data on the structure and function of the structure of the phlebovirus Gc and hantavirus Gn and Gc glycoproteins, and extrapolate common features identified in the amino acid sequences to understand also the structure and function of their counterparts in other families of the Bunyavirales Order. Our analysis also identified clear structural homology between the hantavirus Gn and alphavirus E2 glycoproteins, which make a heterodimer with the corresponding fusion proteins Gc and E1, respectively, revealing that not only the fusion protein has been conserved across viral families.

      PubDate: 2017-04-10T05:26:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.02.002
       
  • Metabolomics: Strategies to Define the Role of Metabolism in Virus
           Infection and Pathogenesis
    • Authors: Marianne Manchester; Anisha Anand
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): Marianne Manchester, Anisha Anand
      Metabolomics is an analytical profiling technique for measuring and comparing large numbers of metabolites present in biological samples. Combining high-throughput analytical chemistry and multivariate data analysis, metabolomics offers a window on metabolic mechanisms. Because they intimately utilize and often rewire host metabolism, viruses are an excellent choice to study by metabolomics techniques. Studies of the effects of viruses on metabolism during replication in vitro and infection in animal models or human subjects have provided novel insights into these networks and provided new targets for therapy and biomarker development. Identifying the common metabolic pathways utilized by viruses has the potential to reveal those that can be targeted by broad-spectrum antiviral and vaccine approaches.

      PubDate: 2017-04-03T04:27:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2017.02.001
       
  • Zoonotic Potential of Emerging Paramyxoviruses: Knowns and Unknowns
    • Authors: P.A. Thibault; R.E. Watkinson; A. Moreira-Soto; J.F. Drexler; B. Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): P.A. Thibault, R.E. Watkinson, A. Moreira-Soto, J.F. Drexler, B. Lee
      The risk of spillover of enzootic paramyxoviruses and the susceptibility of recipient human and domestic animal populations are defined by a broad collection of ecological and molecular factors that interact in ways that are not yet fully understood. Nipah and Hendra viruses were the first highly lethal zoonotic paramyxoviruses discovered in modern times, but other paramyxoviruses from multiple genera are present in bats and other reservoirs that have unknown potential to spillover into humans. We outline our current understanding of paramyxovirus reservoir hosts and the ecological factors that may drive spillover, and we explore the molecular barriers to spillover that emergent paramyxoviruses may encounter. By outlining what is known about enzootic paramyxovirus receptor usage, mechanisms of innate immune evasion, and other host-specific interactions, we highlight the breadth of unexplored avenues that may be important in understanding paramyxovirus emergence.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T18:07:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.12.001
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Virus Research, Volume 97


      PubDate: 2017-01-13T09:23:31Z
       
  • Insect-Specific Viruses: A Historical Overview and Recent Developments
    • Authors: C.M. Roundy; S.R. Azar; S.L. Rossi; S.C. Weaver; N. Vasilakis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): C.M. Roundy, S.R. Azar, S.L. Rossi, S.C. Weaver, N. Vasilakis
      Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have in recent years become a tremendous global health concern resulting in substantial human morbidity and mortality. With the widespread utilization of molecular technologies such as next-generation sequencing and the advancement of bioinformatics tools, a new age of viral discovery has commenced. Many of the novel agents being discovered in recent years have been isolated from mosquitoes and exhibit a highly restricted host range. Strikingly, these insect-specific viruses have been found to be members of viral families traditionally associated with human arboviral pathogens, including but not limited to the families Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, Reoviridae, and Bunyaviridae. These agents therefore present novel opportunities in the fields of viral evolution and viral/vector interaction and have tremendous potential as agents for biocontrol of vectors and or viruses of medical importance.

      PubDate: 2016-11-21T15:50:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.10.001
       
  • Biomedical and Catalytic Opportunities of Virus-Like Particles in
           Nanotechnology
    • Authors: B. Schwarz; M. Uchida; T. Douglas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): B. Schwarz, M. Uchida, T. Douglas
      Within biology, molecules are arranged in hierarchical structures that coordinate and control the many processes that allow for complex organisms to exist. Proteins and other functional macromolecules are often studied outside their natural nanostructural context because it remains difficult to create controlled arrangements of proteins at this size scale. Viruses are elegantly simple nanosystems that exist at the interface of living organisms and nonliving biological machines. Studied and viewed primarily as pathogens to be combatted, viruses have emerged as models of structural efficiency at the nanoscale and have spurred the development of biomimetic nanoparticle systems. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are noninfectious protein cages derived from viruses or other cage-forming systems. VLPs provide incredibly regular scaffolds for building at the nanoscale. Composed of self-assembling protein subunits, VLPs provide both a model for studying materials’ assembly at the nanoscale and useful building blocks for materials design. The robustness and degree of understanding of many VLP structures allow for the ready use of these systems as versatile nanoparticle platforms for the conjugation of active molecules or as scaffolds for the structural organization of chemical processes. Lastly the prevalence of viruses in all domains of life has led to unique activities of VLPs in biological systems most notably the immune system. Here we discuss recent efforts to apply VLPs in a wide variety of applications with the aim of highlighting how the common structural elements of VLPs have led to their emergence as paradigms for the understanding and design of biological nanomaterials.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T14:01:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.09.002
       
  • Nonsegmented Negative-Sense RNA Viruses—Structural Data Bring New
           Insights Into Nucleocapsid Assembly
    • Authors: M. Jamin; F. Yabukarski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): M. Jamin, F. Yabukarski
      Viruses with a nonsegmented negative-sense RNA genome (NNVs) include important human pathogens as well as life-threatening zoonotic viruses. These viruses share a common RNA replication complex, including the genomic RNA and three proteins, the nucleoprotein (N), the phosphoprotein (P), and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L). During genome replication, the RNA polymerase complex first synthesizes positive-sense antigenomes, which in turn serve as template for the production of negative-sense progeny genomes. These newly synthesized antigenomic and genomic RNAs must be encapsidated by N, and the source of soluble, RNA-free N, competent for the encapsidation is a complex between N and P, named the N0–P complex. In this review, we summarize recent progress made in the structural characterization of the different components of this peculiar RNA polymerase machinery. We discuss common features and replication strategies and highlight idiosyncrasies encountered in different viruses, along with the key role of the dual ordered/disordered architecture of protein components and the dynamics of the viral polymerase machinery. In particular, we focus on the N0–P complex and its role in the nucleocapsid assembly process. These new results provide evidence that the mechanism of NC assembly is conserved between the different families and thus support a divergent evolution from a common ancestor. In addition, the successful inhibition of infection due to different NNVs by peptides derived from P suggests that the mechanism of NC assembly is a potential target for antiviral development.

      PubDate: 2016-10-09T23:43:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.09.001
       
  • A Renaissance in Nepovirus Research Provides New Insights Into Their
           Molecular Interface With Hosts and Vectors
    • Authors: M. Fuchs; C. Schmitt-Keichinger; H. Sanfaçon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): M. Fuchs, C. Schmitt-Keichinger, H. Sanfaçon
      Nepoviruses supplied seminal landmarks to the historical trail of plant virology. Among the first agriculturally relevant viruses recognized in the late 1920s and among the first plant viruses officially classified in the early 1970s, nepoviruses also comprise the first species for which a soil-borne ectoparasitic nematode vector was identified. Early research on nepoviruses shed light on the genome structure and expression, biological properties of the two genomic RNAs, and mode of transmission. In recent years, research on nepoviruses enjoyed an extraordinary renaissance. This resurgence provided new insights into the molecular interface between viruses and their plant hosts, and between viruses and dagger nematode vectors to advance our understanding of some of the major steps of the infectious cycle. Here we examine these recent findings, highlight ongoing work, and offer some perspectives for future research.

      PubDate: 2016-10-03T18:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.08.009
       
  • Have NEC Coat, Will Travel: Structural Basis of Membrane Budding During
           Nuclear Egress in Herpesviruses
    • Authors: J.M. Bigalke; E.E. Heldwein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): J.M. Bigalke, E.E. Heldwein
      Herpesviruses are unusual among enveloped viruses because they bud twice yet acquire a single envelope. Furthermore, unlike other DNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus, herpesviruses do not exit it by passing through the nuclear pores or by rupturing the nuclear envelope. Instead, herpesviruses have a complex mechanism of nuclear escape whereby nascent capsids bud at the inner nuclear membrane to form perinuclear virions that subsequently fuse with the outer nuclear membrane, releasing capsids into the cytosol. This makes them some of the very few known viruses that bud into the nuclear envelope. The envelope acquired during nuclear budding does not end up in the mature viral particle but instead allows the capsid to translocate from the nucleus into the cytosol. The viral nuclear egress complex (NEC) is a critical player in the nuclear egress, yet its function and mechanism have remained enigmatic. Recent studies have demonstrated that the NEC buds membranes without the help of other proteins by forming a honeycomb coat, which established the NEC as the first virally encoded budding machine that operates at the nuclear, as opposed to cytoplasmic, membrane. This review discusses our current understanding of the NEC budding mechanism, with the emphasis on studies that illuminated the structure of the NEC coat and its role in capsid budding during herpesvirus nuclear escape.

      PubDate: 2016-09-05T19:23:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.07.002
       
  • Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara: History, Value in Basic Research, and
           Current Perspectives for Vaccine Development
    • Authors: A. Volz; G. Sutter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Virus Research
      Author(s): A. Volz, G. Sutter
      Safety tested Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is licensed as third-generation vaccine against smallpox and serves as a potent vector system for development of new candidate vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Historically, MVA was developed by serial tissue culture passage in primary chicken cells of vaccinia virus strain Ankara, and clinically used to avoid the undesirable side effects of conventional smallpox vaccination. Adapted to growth in avian cells MVA lost the ability to replicate in mammalian hosts and lacks many of the genes orthopoxviruses use to conquer their host (cell) environment. As a biologically well-characterized mutant virus, MVA facilitates fundamental research to elucidate the functions of poxvirus host-interaction factors. As extremely safe viral vectors MVA vaccines have been found immunogenic and protective in various preclinical infection models. Multiple recombinant MVA currently undergo clinical testing for vaccination against human immunodeficiency viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Plasmodium falciparum. The versatility of the MVA vector vaccine platform is readily demonstrated by the swift development of experimental vaccines for immunization against emerging infections such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. Recent advances include promising results from the clinical testing of recombinant MVA-producing antigens of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 or Ebola virus. This review summarizes our current knowledge about MVA as a unique strain of vaccinia virus, and discusses the prospects of exploiting this virus as research tool in poxvirus biology or as safe viral vector vaccine to challenge existing and future bottlenecks in vaccinology.

      PubDate: 2016-08-06T09:25:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.07.001
       
 
 
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