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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3121 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1487 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 73)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 299)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.109
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1554-4516
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3159 journals]
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes, Volume 22


      PubDate: 2015-08-12T13:41:49Z
       
  • Stimuli-Sensitive Liposomes: Lipids as Gateways for Cargo Release
    • Authors: Mathias Viard; Anu Puri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2015
      Source:Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes
      Author(s): Mathias Viard , Anu Puri
      Lipids are integral part of cell membranes and play a vital role in biological processes such as membrane fusion, exocytosis, cell signaling, and disease progression. Uniquely defined chemical structures of lipids as well as their assembly in the aqueous environment are often known to dictate their biological activity. Some of these features of lipids have been exploited to develop carriers for drugs, bioactive molecules, and nucleic acids. Lipid-based nanocarriers (specifically liposomes) have claimed their status in the field of cancer nanomedicine. Liposomes, the longest studied nanocarriers (at least since four decades), are currently used in the clinics for delivery of drugs to treat certain types of cancers though not at their full potential. Further development in this field by utilizing site-specific targeting molecules and/or efforts to generate tunable liposomes can be predicted to enhance their suitability in the clinical settings. In general, the chemical and biophysical properties of lipid molecules primarily dictate the development of tunable (stimuli-sensitive) liposomes. Research activities toward stimuli-responsive liposomes can be broadly classified into internal (pH, redox, and enzyme) or external (heat, light and/or magnetic field, and ultrasound) stimulus. In this review, we will discuss the current status and latest developments in the field of stimuli-sensitive liposomes. The topics covered in this review will include (i) a brief summary of liposomes used in the clinics, stimuli-sensitive liposomes; (ii) triggering events by inclusion of coagents in the liposomes; (iii) triggering based on properties of lipids to yield heat, light, pH, redox, and enzyme-activatable liposomes; and (iv) limitations and future directions for the development of clinically viable stimuli-responsive liposomes.

      PubDate: 2015-07-10T09:02:36Z
       
  • Biomembrane Organization and Function: The Decisive Role of Ordered Lipid
           Domains
    • Authors: Joaquim Catarina; A.C. Antunes Filipa Santos Rodrigo F.M. Almeida
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2015
      Source:Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes
      Author(s): Joaquim T. Marquês , Catarina A.C. Antunes , Filipa C. Santos , Rodrigo F.M. de Almeida
      There has been a great effort to study lipid lateral organization in biomembranes in the past decades, in order to unravel the structural basis and functional significance of membrane lipid domains. However, in both respects fundamental doubts still persist, and recent results have widened this topic well beyond lipid rafts. In particular, the detection of sphingolipid-enriched gel domains in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasma membrane, which are not the prototypical liquid ordered, sterol-enriched lipid rafts, will be described. The critical role of ordered lipid domains will be demonstrated with biophysical studies of membrane lipid organization in living cells and in model systems, concerning mammalian and fungal membranes. Membrane interactions with different types of bioactive molecules will be briefly presented, including endogenous molecules such as the hormone epinephrine or membrane proteins, as well as drugs, including anticancer and antitubercular compounds. Strategies to tackle the complexity of living cell membranes will be discussed, in an attempt to reach a compromise between lipid lamellar phases in artificial or reconstituted systems and observations in living cells. The development of new and improved biomimetic systems might provide answers to some of the open questions in the lipid domains field. Therefore, new lipid bilayer membrane models containing lipid domains stably formed on a conducting support (gold), where powerful surface and electrochemical techniques can be employed, will also be presented. The redox behavior of the catecholamine hormone epinephrine studied in such system showed that the lipid bilayer has a crucial role for the hormone chemical stability.

      PubDate: 2015-07-10T09:02:36Z
       
  • Membrane Microvesiculation and its Suppression
    • Authors: Veronika
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015
      Source:Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes
      Author(s): Veronika Kralj-Iglič
      Membrane microvesiculation is a common process in cells. Membrane constituents undergo lateral redistribution coupled to the change in local membrane curvature. Thin necks that are formed in this process can be torn by mechanical stress and membrane-enclosed fragments that contain various biologically active molecules become more or less free to move with fluids. Released vesicles are small in size (micrometer down to tens of nanometers). They interact with distant cells and thereby present an intercellular communication system which plays important physiological role in organisms. Micro and nanovesicles (NVs) can be isolated from body fluids. It was found that the concentration of NVs is increased in isolates from blood of patients with different diseases (e.g., cancer, inflammation, infection, thromboembolic diseases) indicating an increased vesiculability of blood cells. Here, we present some mechanisms of microvesiculation of biological membranes and suggest a possible mechanism for suppression of microvesiculation by a mediated attractive interaction between membranes.

      PubDate: 2015-07-06T05:12:09Z
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes, Volume 21


      PubDate: 2015-04-02T02:50:56Z
       
  • Microscopy of Model Membranes: Understanding How Bcl-2 Proteins Mediate
           Apoptosis
    • Authors: Kushal Kumar; Das Joseph Unsay Ana Garcia-Saez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2015
      Source:Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes
      Author(s): Kushal Kumar Das , Joseph D. Unsay , Ana J. Garcia-Saez
      Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death that plays an important role in key biological processes like development of organisms, the correct functioning of the immune system, and the maintenance of the cellular homeostasis. Dysregulation in the apoptotic pathway leads to diseases like cancer or neurodegenerative disorders. The proteins of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family are key regulators of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) during apoptosis, which is a critical step in the cell's commitment to death. However, their mechanism of action is still under intense investigation. Here, we discuss how microscopy approaches applied to model membranes are used to understand the intrinsic apoptotic pathway involving MOMP. We describe how model membranes mimicking the outer mitochondrial membrane (LUVs, GUVs, SLB) are used to understand the mechanism of Bcl-2-mediated apoptosis using state-of-the-art techniques like atomic force microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. These studies have revealed interesting features like the role of membrane in altering the affinity of Bcl-2 proteins, Bax and Bak proapoptotic activity, mechanistic differences between pro- and antiapoptotic members, and the critical helices involved in pore formation by Bax.

      PubDate: 2015-02-12T01:36:21Z
       
  • Development of Polymer/Nanodiamond Composite Coatings to Control Cell
           Adhesion, Growth, and Functions
    • Authors: Milena Keremidarska; Kamelia Hristova; Todor Hikov; Ekaterina Radeva; Dimitar Mitev; Ivailo Tsvetanov; Radina Presker; Damjana Drobne; Barbara Drašler; Sara Novak; Veno Kononenko; Kristina Eleršič; Lilyana Pramatarova; Natalia Krasteva
      Pages: 1 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2015
      Source:Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes
      Author(s): Milena Keremidarska , Kamelia Hristova , Todor Hikov , Ekaterina Radeva , Dimitar Mitev , Ivailo Tsvetanov , Radina Presker , Damjana Drobne , Barbara Drašler , Sara Novak , Veno Kononenko , Kristina Eleršič , Lilyana Pramatarova , Natalia Krasteva
      The identification of biomaterials that support appropriate cellular attachment, proliferation, and functions is critical for tissue engineering and cell therapy. There is a growing interest in functional organic/inorganic composites where a small amount of nanometer-sized material yields better physicochemical properties for cells to attach, grow, and differentiate. In this work, we prepared polymer/nanodiamond composite layers based on hexamethyldisiloxane and detonation-generated nanodiamond (DND) particles, in which the particles were either embedded into a polymer matrix or deposited on the preliminary formed plasma-polymerized (PP) layer. The surface properties of composites, such as roughness and wettability, as well as adhesion, growth, and functions of osteosarcoma MG-63 cells and primary rat mesenchymal stem cells were studied. We aimed to investigate the influence of the incorporation methods of DND into the polymer on the material surface properties and the cell response in order to control them by manipulating diamond-containing composite surfaces. We found differences between both composites in respect to their physicochemical properties and to the cell behavior suggesting that the method of particle incorporation into polymers should be taken in account during the development of new biomaterials for a specific application.

      PubDate: 2015-02-12T01:36:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adplan.2015.01.001
       
  • Tethered Phospholipid Bilayer Membranes: An Interpretation of the
           Electrochemical Impedance Response
    • Authors: Gintaras Valincius; Mindaugas Mickevicius
      Pages: 27 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2015
      Source:Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes
      Author(s): Gintaras Valincius , Mindaugas Mickevicius
      In this study, we discuss applications of the electrochemical impedance (EI) response of tethered bilayer membranes (tBLMs) in protein (peptide)/phospholipid membrane interaction studies. Because of highly asymmetric geometry, tBLMs exhibit unique EI response, which cannot be modeled by simple equivalent circuits consisting of capacitors and resistors. Special functions describe the characteristic features of EI spectra. They take into account the structural and the dielectric properties of the tBLMs. The analysis of the EI response provides the theoretical background for the utility of tBLMs as bioanalytical sensors for the membrane-damaging agents, such as pore-forming toxins. We demonstrate that the magnitude and frequency of the minimum of the negative of the phase as well as the modulus of impedance are the parameters indicative of the extent of the membrane damage and may be used to estimate the defect density in bilayers. The precision of such estimates is highly dependent on the knowledge of the physical properties of the submembrane reservoir separating phospholipid bilayer and solid surface. Clustering of the defects affects the EI response in a unique way, which may be used for the qualitative analysis of protein–membrane interactions.

      PubDate: 2015-02-12T01:36:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adplan.2015.01.003
       
  • Effect of Lipid Bilayer Composition on Membrane Protein Association
    • Authors: Aiswarya B. Pawar; Xavier Prasanna; Durba Sengupta
      Pages: 43 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2015
      Source:Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes
      Author(s): Aiswarya B. Pawar, Xavier Prasanna, Durba Sengupta
      Diverse cellular functions are supported by membrane protein assemblies associated with the cell membrane. Although considered to be protein-mediated, membrane components are now being recognized as critical in modulating and sometime dictating function. This chapter discusses the effect of the lipid bilayer, in particular its composition on membrane protein organization. Computational methods have been successful in quantifying transmembrane protein association and general features of dimerization profiles are explored. Understanding the molecular basis of the interactions has lead to the recognition of the lipophobic effects. These nonspecific effects include those that arise from membrane perturbations and lipid chain packing and have been shown to modulate the energetics as well as the structural characteristics of membrane protein dimerization. In addition, specific interactions arising from direct protein–lipid interactions and protein–cholesterol interactions have been suggested to influence membrane protein association. We summarize here a few examples highlighting the role of the lipid bilayer on membrane protein organization.

      PubDate: 2015-07-18T23:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adplan.2015.06.001
       
  • Membrane-Bound Conformations of Antimicrobial Agents and Their Modes of
           Action
    • Authors: Upayan Baul; Satyavani Vemparala
      Pages: 97 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2015
      Source:Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes
      Author(s): Upayan Baul, Satyavani Vemparala
      All antimicrobial agents are inherently membrane active and the complex interactions involved can lead to considerable conformational changes in the agents, while also inducing structural rearrangements of membrane lipids. Such structural modifications can trigger series of events enabling the agent to affect the structural integrity of the microbial membrane or translocate to the interior of the microbial cell. Therapeutic use of such agents requires a detailed understanding of the interaction of such antimicrobial agents with bacterial membranes. It is of interest to note that despite the existence of diversity in chemical compositions of many naturally occurring antimicrobial agents, the possible number of secondary structure conformations that they possess, either in solution or in membrane environment, is very small in number. In spite of considerable effort put in to probe the relationship between secondary structure and mode of antimicrobial action over the past two decades through experiments and simulations, a detailed understanding of the same is yet to be achieved. Furthermore, recent experimental and simulation results suggest that built-in well-defined secondary conformations such as α-helix or β-sheet may not be the essential feature of potent antimicrobial agents, but rather the ability of these agents to acquire amphiphilic conformations, involving the spatial separation of charged and hydrophobic moieties, near the bacterial membrane. In this chapter, we review different antimicrobial agents that have been the focus of various studies with special emphasis on computer simulations and their role in understanding the interactions of biomimetic antimicrobial polymers, based on methacrylate copolymers, with bacterial membranes.

      PubDate: 2015-07-23T03:19:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adplan.2015.06.006
       
  • Optical Microscopy of Giant Vesicles as a Tool to Reveal the Mechanism of
           Action of Antimicrobial Peptides and the Specific Case of Gomesin
    • Authors: Karin A. Riske
      Pages: 99 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2015
      Source:Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes
      Author(s): Karin A. Riske
      Antimicrobial peptides are part of the immune defense system involved in protection against pathogenic agents, such as bacteria and fungi. Most of them are cationic and amphipathic, an essential feature that confers them special affinity for their main target: the lipid matrix of the cell membrane of microorganisms. Their activity as biocides depends on perturbation of the membrane barrier, either by causing the opening of pores or by inducing membrane disintegration. Lipid bilayers have been widely used as biomimetic system of the complex cell membrane and were essential in providing mechanistic detail on the mode of action of antimicrobial peptides. In particular, giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) are cell-sized lipid vesicles that can be individually followed under a microscope, providing a direct way to correlate peptide binding with membrane permeabilization and domain formation. Here, an overview on the contributions of optical microscopy to reveal the mode of action of several membrane-active peptides is given and discussed. A complete characterization of the mechanism of action of the antimicrobial peptide gomesin from the Brazilian spider Acanthoscurria gomesiana developed by our group in recent works is presented, combining optical microscopy observation of GUVs and complementary techniques on large unilamellar vesicles, such as isothermal titration calorimetry, light scattering, and a leakage assay of an entrapped fluorescent dye.

      PubDate: 2015-02-12T01:36:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adplan.2014.12.001
       
  • Phenomenology Based Multiscale Models as Tools to Understand Cell Membrane
           and Organelle Morphologies
    • Authors: Ramakrishnan Natesan; Ravi Radhakrishnan
      Pages: 129 - 175
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 July 2015
      Source:Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes
      Author(s): N. Ramakrishnan, Ravi Radhakrishnan
      An intriguing question in cell biology is “how do cells regulate their shape?” It is commonly believed that the observed cellular morphologies are a result of the complex interaction among the lipid molecules (constituting the cell membrane), and with a number of other macromolecules, such as proteins. It is also believed that the common biophysical processes essential for the functioning of a cell also play an important role in cellular morphogenesis. At the cellular scale—where typical dimensions are in the order of micrometers—the effects arising from the molecular scale can either be modeled as equilibrium or nonequilibrium processes. In this chapter, we discuss the dynamically triangulated Monte Carlo technique to model and simulate membrane morphologies at the cellular scale, which in turn can be used to investigate several questions related to shape regulation in cells. In particular, we focus on two specific problems within the framework of isotropic and anisotropic elasticity theories: namely, (i) the origin of complex, physiologically relevant, membrane shapes due to the interaction of the membrane with curvature remodeling proteins, and (ii) the genesis of steady state cellular shapes due to the action of nonequilibrium forces that are generated by the fission and fusion of transport vesicles and by the binding and unbinding of proteins from the parent membrane.

      PubDate: 2015-07-18T23:25:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adplan.2015.06.004
       
  • Steric Stabilizers for Cubic Phase Lyotropic Liquid Crystal
           Nanodispersions (Cubosomes)
    • Authors: Josephine Y.T. Chong; Xavier Mulet; Ben J. Boyd; Calum J. Drummond
      Pages: 131 - 187
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2015
      Source:Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes
      Author(s): Josephine Y.T. Chong , Xavier Mulet , Ben J. Boyd , Calum J. Drummond
      Lyotropic liquid crystalline nanostructured particles, such as cubosomes, have grown in popularity as drug delivery systems in the last few years. These systems require steric stabilizers to maintain colloidal stability in an aqueous medium, with Pluronic®F127, a block copolymer, being the most commonly employed stabilizer. However, in recent years, alternative, more effective stabilizers, as well as rationally designed systems with opportunities for further biofunctionalization have been reported. The purpose of this chapter is to collate and collectively interpret studies in the field of steric stabilization of this important emerging class of nanoparticles for drug and medical imaging agent delivery.

      PubDate: 2015-02-06T00:50:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adplan.2014.11.001
       
 
 
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