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Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
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Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
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Advances in Human Biology     Open Access  
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Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 233)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Advances in Marine Biology
  [SJR: 1.645]   [H-I: 45]   [16 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2881
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 76

      PubDate: 2017-01-12T16:30:43Z
  • Contributors to Volume 76
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 76

      PubDate: 2017-01-12T16:30:43Z
  • Series Contents for Last Fifteen Years
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 76

      PubDate: 2017-01-12T16:30:43Z
  • Biological Conservation of Giant Limpets: The Implications of Large Size
    • Authors: F. Espinosa; G.A. Rivera-Ingraham
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): F. Espinosa, G.A. Rivera-Ingraham
      Patellogastropods, also known as true limpets, are distributed throughout the world and constitute key species in coastal ecosystems. Some limpet species achieve remarkable sizes, which in the most extreme cases can surpass 35cm in shell length. In this review, we focus on giant limpets, which are defined as those with a maximum shell size surpassing 10cm. According to the scientific literature, there are a total of 14 species across five genera that reach these larger sizes. Four of these species are threatened or in danger of extinction. Inhabiting the intertidal zones, limpets are frequently affected by anthropogenic impacts, namely collection by humans, pollution and habitat fragmentation. In the case of larger species, their conspicuous size has made them especially prone to human collection since prehistoric times. Size is not phylogeny-dependent among giant limpets, but is instead related to behavioural traits instead. Larger-sized species tend to be nonmigratory and territorial compared to those that are smaller. Collection by humans has been cited as the main cause behind the decline and/or extinction of giant limpet populations. Their conspicuously large size makes them the preferred target of human collection. Because they are protandric species, selectively eliminating larger specimens of a given population seriously compromises their viability and has led to local extinction events in some cases. Additionally, sustained collection over time may lead to microevolutionary responses that result in genetic changes. The growing presence of artificial structures in coastal ecosystems may cause population fragmentation and isolation, limiting the genetic flow and dispersion capacity of many limpet species. However, when they are necessitated, artificial structures could be managed to establish marine artificial microreserves and contribute to the conservation of giant limpet species that naturally settle on them.

      PubDate: 2016-12-19T18:05:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.10.002
  • Patterns and Drivers of Egg Pigment Intensity and Colour Diversity in the
           Ocean: A Meta-analysis of Phylum Echinodermata
    • Authors: E.M. Montgomery; J.-F. Hamel; A. Mercier
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): E.M. Montgomery, J.-F. Hamel, A. Mercier
      Egg pigmentation is proposed to serve numerous ecological, physiological, and adaptive functions in egg-laying animals. Despite the predominance and taxonomic diversity of egg layers, syntheses reviewing the putative functions and drivers of egg pigmentation have been relatively narrow in scope, centring almost exclusively on birds. Nonvertebrate and aquatic species are essentially overlooked, yet many of them produce maternally provisioned eggs in strikingly varied colours, from pale yellow to bright red or green. We explore the ways in which these colour patterns correlate with behavioural, morphological, geographic and phylogenetic variables in extant classes of Echinodermata, a phylum that has close phylogenetic ties with chordates and representatives in nearly all marine environments. Results of multivariate analyses show that intensely pigmented eggs are characteristic of pelagic or external development whereas pale eggs are commonly brooded internally. Of the five egg colours catalogued, orange and yellow are the most common. Yellow eggs are a primitive character, associated with all types of development (predominant in internal brooders), whereas green eggs are always pelagic, occur in the most derived orders of each class and are restricted to the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Orange eggs are geographically ubiquitous and may represent a ‘universal’ egg pigment that functions well under a diversity of environmental conditions. Finally, green occurs chiefly in the classes Holothuroidea and Ophiuroidea, orange in Asteroidea, yellow in Echinoidea, and brown in Holothuroidea. By examining an unprecedented combination of egg colours/intensities and reproductive strategies, this phylum-wide study sheds new light on the role and drivers of egg pigmentation, drawing parallels with theories developed from the study of more derived vertebrate taxa. The primary use of pigments (of any colour) to protect externally developing eggs from oxidative damage and predation is supported by the comparatively pale colour of equally large, internally brooded eggs. Secondarily, geographic location drives the evolution of egg colour diversity, presumably through the selection of better-adapted, more costly pigments in response to ecological pressure.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T12:15:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.10.001
  • Islands in a Sea of Mud: Insights From Terrestrial Island Theory for
           Community Assembly on Insular Marine Substrata
    • Authors: K.S. Meyer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): K.S. Meyer
      Most marine hard-bottom habitats are isolated, separated from other similar habitats by sand or mud flats, and can be considered analogous to terrestrial islands. The extensive scientific literature on terrestrial islands provides a theoretical framework for the analysis of isolated marine habitats. More individuals and higher species richness occur on larger marine substrata, a pattern that resembles terrestrial islands. However, while larger terrestrial islands have greater habitat diversity and productivity, the higher species richness on larger marine hard substrata can be explained by simple surface area and hydrodynamic phenomena: larger substrata extend further into the benthic boundary, exposing fauna to faster current and higher food supply. Marine island-like communities are also influenced by their distance to similar habitats, but investigations into the reproductive biology and dispersal ability of individual species are required for a more complete understanding of population connectivity. On terrestrial islands, nonrandom co-occurrence patterns have been attributed to interspecific competition, but while nonrandom co-occurrence patterns have been found for marine fauna, different mechanisms are responsible, including epibiontism. Major knowledge gaps for community assembly in isolated marine habitats include the degree of connectivity between isolated habitats, mechanisms of succession, and the extent of competition on hard substrata, particularly in the deep sea. Anthropogenic hard substrata of known age can be used opportunistically as “natural” laboratories to begin answering these questions.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T08:22:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.09.002
  • Advances in Biochemical Indices of Zooplankton Production
    • Authors: L. Yebra; T. Kobari; A.R. Sastri; F. Gusmão; S. Hernández-León
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): L. Yebra, T. Kobari, A.R. Sastri, F. Gusmão, S. Hernández-León
      Several new approaches for measuring zooplankton growth and production rates have been developed since the publication of the ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea) Zooplankton Methodology Manual (Harris et al., 2000). In this review, we summarize the advances in biochemical methods made in recent years. Our approach explores the rationale behind each method, the design of calibration experiments, the advantages and limitations of each method and their suitability as proxies for in situ rates of zooplankton community growth and production. We also provide detailed protocols for the existing methods and information relevant to scientists wanting to apply, calibrate or develop these biochemical indices for zooplankton production.

      PubDate: 2016-11-06T17:30:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.09.001
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 75

      PubDate: 2016-10-30T23:35:51Z
  • Contributors to Volume 75
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 75

      PubDate: 2016-10-30T23:35:51Z
  • Series Contents for Last Fifteen Years*
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 75

      PubDate: 2016-10-30T23:35:51Z
  • Taxonomic Index
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 75

      PubDate: 2016-10-30T23:35:51Z
  • Mediterranean Sperm Whales, Physeter macrocephalus: The Precarious State
           of a Lost Tribe
    • Authors: L. Rendell; A. Frantzis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): L. Rendell, A. Frantzis
      First observed in the classical era, a population of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) persists to this day in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea. Genetic and observational evidence support the notion that this is an isolated population, separated from its Atlantic neighbours. These whales depend on mesopelagic squid for food, and appear to occupy a very similar ecological niche to sperm whales in the open oceans. Recent evidence proving that individuals can pass between the eastern and western deep water basins confirms that this is a single population, not isolated into western and eastern stocks. We lack robust information on their population status, but they could number in the hundreds rather than thousands, and current densities appear to be much lower than those reported in the 1950s, suggesting that we should be very concerned about the conservation status of this population. This makes it vitally important to address the serious threats posed by ship strikes and entanglement in fishing nets, especially driftnets, and to carefully monitor other potential sources of anthropogenic impact. A step change in funding to collect better data and a clear shift in policy priorities are needed if we are to be serious about conserving this population.

      PubDate: 2016-10-03T19:36:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.08.001
  • Harbour Porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, in the Mediterranean Sea and
           Adjacent Regions: Biogeographic Relicts of the Last Glacial Period
    • Authors: M.C. Fontaine
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): M.C. Fontaine
      The harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, is one of the best studied cetacean species owing to its common distribution along the coastal waters of the Northern Hemisphere. In European waters, strandings are common and bycatch mortalities in commercial fisheries reach alarming numbers. Lethal interactions resulting from human activities together with ongoing environmental changes raise serious concerns about population viability throughout the species’ range. These concerns foster the need to fill critical gaps in knowledge of harbour porpoise biology, including population structure, feeding ecology, habitat preference and evolutionary history, that are critical information for planning effective management and conservation efforts. While the species is distributed fairly continuously in the North Atlantic Ocean, it becomes fragmented in the south-eastern part with isolated populations occurring along the Atlantic coasts of the Iberian Peninsula, Northwest Africa and the Black Sea. The latter population is separated from Atlantic populations by the Mediterranean Sea, where the species is almost entirely absent. Understanding the evolutionary history of these populations occurring in marginal habitats holds the potential to reveal fundamental aspects of the species' biology such as the factors determining its distribution, ecological niche, and how past and recent environmental variation have shaped the current population structure. This information can be critical for understanding the future evolution of the species in consideration of ongoing environmental changes. This chapter summarizes the recent advances in our knowledge regarding the populations bordering the Mediterranean Sea with a special emphasis on their ecological and evolutionary history, which has recently been reconstructed from genetic analyses.

      PubDate: 2016-10-03T19:36:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.08.006
  • Marine Mammals in the Mediterranean Sea: An Overview
    • Authors: G. Notarbartolo di Sciara
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): G. Notarbartolo di Sciara
      Despite being a small part of the world's oceans, the Mediterranean Sea hosts a diverse marine mammal fauna, with a total of 28 different species known to occur, or to have occurred, in the region. Species currently recognised as regular in the Mediterranean—the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) and 11 cetaceans (fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus; sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus; Cuvier's beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris; short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis; long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas; Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus; killer whale, Orcinus orca; striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba; rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis; common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus; harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena relicta) have adapted well to the region's environmental conditions, but their coexistence with humans is problematic. All the regular species are represented in the Mediterranean by populations genetically distinct from their North Atlantic relatives. Seventeen other species (three pinnipeds and 14 cetaceans) occur or have occurred in the Mediterranean as vagrants from adjacent regions. Impacts on the conservation status of marine mammals in the region deriving from a variety of threats include: (a) mortality caused by deliberate killing (to a large extent resulting from fisheries interactions), naval sonar, ship strikes, epizootics, fisheries bycatch, chemical pollution and ingestion of solid debris; (b) short-term redistribution caused by naval sonar, seismic surveys, vessel disturbance and vessel noise; and (c) long-term redistribution caused by fishery-induced food depletion, coastal development and possibly climate change. Accordingly, seven of the 12 marine mammals regular in the Mediterranean region are listed as Threatened on IUCN's Red List; regrettably, five are still Data Deficient and two remain unassessed.

      PubDate: 2016-10-03T19:36:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.08.005
  • Risso's Dolphin, Grampus griseus, in the Western Ligurian Sea: Trends in
           Population Size and Habitat Use
    • Authors: A. Azzellino; S. Airoldi; S. Gaspari; C. Lanfredi; A. Moulins; M. Podestà; M. Rosso; P. Tepsich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): A. Azzellino, S. Airoldi, S. Gaspari, C. Lanfredi, A. Moulins, M. Podestà, M. Rosso, P. Tepsich
      This paper provides a summary of 25 years of research on Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) in the western Ligurian Sea. Seasonal variations in abundance, distribution and habitat use were observed. Photographic mark–recapture methods provided a population size estimate for the period from 1998 to 2012, of about 100 individuals (95% CI of 60–220 individuals). The same methods detected a decline in population size from an average of about 120–150 from 2000 to 2005, to an average of 70–100 during 2010 to 2014. Species occurrence appeared to be significantly decreasing in coastal and continental slope areas, while it seemed to be stable in the most pelagic area. In addition, a dramatic change was observed in the local primary production, which was analysed based on time series of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll data from 1990 to 2014. Based on fisheries landings, there may have been a general decrease in fishery productivity, both in the western Ligurian Sea and in adjacent regions. Environmental variability, depletion of resources by fisheries and possibly interspecies competition may all have contributed to cause changes in Risso's dolphin habitat use and occurrence in the western Ligurian Sea.

      PubDate: 2016-09-26T18:56:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.08.003
  • Fin Whales, Balaenoptera physalus: At Home in a Changing Mediterranean
    • Authors: G. Notarbartolo di Sciara; M. Castellote; J.-N. Druon; S. Panigada
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): G. Notarbartolo di Sciara, M. Castellote, J.-N. Druon, S. Panigada
      1. The relationship of Mediterranean fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) to their Atlantic conspecifics has puzzled zoologists for centuries. Recent data indicate the occurrence of two distinct populations, one resident in the Mediterranean Sea and the other a seasonal visitor to the western Mediterranean from the northeastern North Atlantic Ocean. 2. Resident Mediterranean fin whales are nomadic opportunists that have adapted to exploit localised mesoscale hotspots of productivity that are highly variable in space and time. These appear to be fairly widespread across the region during winter, whereas in summer favourable feeding habitat is dramatically reduced, concentrating mostly in the western Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lion. This prompts a reinterpretation of the movement pattern of resident fin whales, based on a contraction/dispersion hypothesis caused by seasonal variability in available feeding habitat, as opposed to a pattern of migrations occurring along defined directions as is common in other Mysticetes. 3. Calving peaks in autumn but has been observed year-round throughout the Mediterranean, suggesting that resident fin whales engage in breeding activities whenever favourable physiological conditions occur. It can be assumed that the Mediterranean environment, which is relatively forgiving in comparison to oceanic habitats, combined with negligible predation pressure and high potential for sound-mediated socialisation due to the region's relatively small size, might have provided year-round resident fin whales an extended and more flexible calendar of breeding and feeding opportunities. 4. Considering the Mediterranean fin whales’ small and possibly decreasing population size, low survival rate and the high pressure from many threats deriving from human activities such as vessel traffic, noise, chemical pollution and likely climate change, their status raises considerable concern and conservation measures should be urgently implemented.

      PubDate: 2016-09-26T18:56:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.08.002
  • Are Mediterranean Monk Seals, Monachus monachus, Being Left to Save
           Themselves from Extinction'
    • Authors: G. Notarbartolo di Sciara; S. Kotomatas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): G. Notarbartolo di Sciara, S. Kotomatas
      Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus), amongst the most endangered marine mammals, are showing localised signs of recovery warranting their recent down-listing, from Critically Endangered to Endangered, on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. This, however, cannot be taken as a reason for complacency, as the species’ condition is still very critical, having been extirpated from most of its historical range. Monk seals within the Mediterranean, a ‘unit to conserve’ separate from Atlantic conspecifics, were once widely distributed throughout the Mediterranean Sea, with their range also extending into the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Today breeding nuclei persist only in the northeastern portion of the region, in Greek, Turkish and Cypriot waters. The main reasons for their decline include deliberate killing and human encroachment of their critical habitat. Past conservation efforts have mostly failed due to the inability of implementing institutional commitments, lack of coordination and continuity of efforts and insufficient consideration of the socioeconomic implications of conserving monk seals. Yet the small reversal of the species’ decline that has been observed in Greece may have resulted from conservation efforts by civil society, combined with ongoing societal change within the local communities coexisting with the seals. The inaccessibility of large portions of monk seal habitat in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea may also have contributed, by offering to the monk seals a refuge from persecution and encroachment. Despite continued threats to monk seals, conservation activities at the local scale that utilise lessons learned from previous failures and successes could secure the survival of the largest Mediterranean colony of monk seals, while also providing a model to support the species’ recovery in other portions of its former range.

      PubDate: 2016-09-15T18:30:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.08.004
  • Cuvier's Beaked Whale, Ziphius cavirostris, Distribution and Occurrence in
           the Mediterranean Sea: High-Use Areas and Conservation Threats
    • Authors: M. Podestà; A. Azzellino; A. Cañadas; A. Frantzis; A. Moulins; M. Rosso; P. Tepsich; C. Lanfredi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): M. Podestà, A. Azzellino, A. Cañadas, A. Frantzis, A. Moulins, M. Rosso, P. Tepsich, C. Lanfredi
      Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris G. Cuvier, 1823) is the only beaked whale species commonly found in the Mediterranean Sea. Until recently, species presence in this area was only inferred from stranding events. Dedicated cetacean surveys have increased our knowledge of the distribution of Cuvier's beaked whales, even though many areas still remain unexplored. Here, we present an updated analysis of available sighting and stranding data, focusing on the atypical mass strandings that have occurred in the Mediterranean Sea since 1963. We describe in detail the five more recent events (2006–14), highlighting their relationship with naval exercises that used mid-frequency active sonar. The distribution of the species is apparently characterized by areas of high density where animals seem to be relatively abundant, including the Alborán Sea, Ligurian Sea, Central Tyrrhenian Sea, southern Adriatic Sea and the Hellenic Trench, but other such areas may exist where little or no survey work has been conducted. Population size has been estimated for the Alborán and Ligurian seas. Habitat modelling studies for those areas, confirmed the species preference for the continental slope and its particular association with submarine canyons, as has also been found to be the case in other areas of the world. The application of results from habitat modelling to areas different from their calibration sites is proposed as a management tool for minimizing the potential impacts of human activities at sea. Military sonar is known worldwide as a threat for this species and is suggested to be a major threat for Cuvier's beaked whale in the Mediterranean Sea.

      PubDate: 2016-09-15T18:30:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.07.007
  • The Rough-Toothed Dolphin, Steno bredanensis, in the Eastern Mediterranean
           Sea: A Relict Population?
    • Authors: D. Kerem; O. Goffman; M. Elasar; N. Hadar; A. Scheinin; T. Lewis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): D. Kerem, O. Goffman, M. Elasar, N. Hadar, A. Scheinin, T. Lewis
      Only recently included among the cetacean species thought to regularly occur in the Mediterranean, the rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) is an obscure and enigmatic member of this ensemble. Preliminary genetic evidence strongly indicates an Atlantic origin, yet the Mediterranean distribution for this species is conspicuously detached from the Atlantic, with all authenticated records during the last three decades being east of the Sicilian Channel and most within the bounds of the Levantine Basin. These dolphins are apparently a small, relict population, probably the remnant of a larger one, contiguous with that in the Atlantic and nowadays entrapped in the easternmost and warmest province. Abundance data are lacking for the species in the Mediterranean. Configuring acoustic detection software to recognise the apparently idiosyncratic vocalisations of rough-toothed dolphins in past and future acoustic recordings may prove useful for potential acoustic monitoring. Evidence accumulated so far, though scant, points to seasonal occupation of shallow coastal waters. Vulnerability to entanglement in gill-nets, contaminants in the region, and the occurrence of mass strandings (possibly in response to anthropogenic noise), are major conservation concerns for the population in the Mediterranean Sea.

      PubDate: 2016-09-10T18:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.07.005
  • Dolphins in a Scaled-Down Mediterranean: The Gulf of Corinth's Odontocetes
    • Authors: G. Bearzi; S. Bonizzoni; N.L. Santostasi; N.B. Furey; L. Eddy; V.D. Valavanis; O. Gimenez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): G. Bearzi, S. Bonizzoni, N.L. Santostasi, N.B. Furey, L. Eddy, V.D. Valavanis, O. Gimenez
      The Gulf of Corinth is a 2400-km2 semi-enclosed inland system (a mediterraneus) in central Greece. Its continental shelf areas, steep bottom relief, and waters up to 500–900m deep offer suitable habitat to neritic and pelagic species. We used photographic capture–recapture, distribution modelling, and direct observations to investigate the abundance, status, habitat preferences, movements, and group size of four odontocete species regularly observed in the Gulf, based on five years (2011–2015) of survey effort from small boats. Striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) are more abundant (1324 individuals, 95%CI 1158–1515) than was determined from previous estimates. Striped dolphins appear to be confined to the Gulf, where they favour deep and oligotrophic waters, and were encountered in single-species and mixed-species groups. Short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) (22 individuals, 95%CI 16–31), individuals with intermediate pigmentation (possibly striped/common dolphin hybrids) (55, 95%CI 36–83), and a single Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) were only encountered in mixed-species groups with striped dolphins. Short-beaked common dolphins constitute a discrete conservation unit (subpopulation), and based on the current estimate, would qualify as Critically Endangered according to International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) (39 animals, 95%CI 33–47) occur in single-species groups; they prefer continental shelf waters and areas near fish farms in the northern sector, and several animals appear to move into and out of the Gulf. Additionally, we contribute records of marine fauna and an assessment of the fishing fleet operating in the Gulf. Our study shows that the importance of this vulnerable marine environment has been underestimated, and management action must be taken to mitigate human impact and ensure long-term protection.

      PubDate: 2016-08-31T15:39:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.07.003
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 74

      PubDate: 2016-08-31T15:39:38Z
  • Contributors To Volume 74
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 74

      PubDate: 2016-08-31T15:39:38Z
  • Series Contents for Last Fifteen Years*
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 74

      PubDate: 2016-08-31T15:39:38Z
  • Taxonomic Index
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 74

      PubDate: 2016-08-31T15:39:38Z
  • The International Legal Framework for Marine Mammal Conservation in the
           Mediterranean Sea
    • Authors: Scovazzi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): T. Scovazzi
      The paper reviews the international treaties that are today applicable for the protection of marine mammals in the Mediterranean Sea. They include instruments applicable at the world or the regional level. Emphasis is put on the International Whaling Commission, which is today affected by a confrontation between the two opposing groups of nonwhaling and whaling parties, the Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area (ACCOBAMS) and its implementation through the resolutions adopted by the Meeting of the Parties, as well as the subregional Agreement between France, Italy and Monaco for the establishment of a sanctuary for the protection of marine mammals (Pelagos Sanctuary). While several treaty provisions are in place to ensure the protection of marine mammals in the Mediterranean, specific mandatory provisions are still lacking for certain subjects, such as underwater noise, collisions with ships, by catch in fishing gear and ingestion of plastic litter.

      PubDate: 2016-08-26T14:10:17Z
  • Conservation Status of Killer Whales, Orcinus orca, in the Strait of
    • Authors: R. Esteban; P. Verborgh; P. Gauffier; D. Alarcón; J.M. Salazar-Sierra; J. Giménez; A.D. Foote; R. de Stephanis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): R. Esteban, P. Verborgh, P. Gauffier, D. Alarcón, J.M. Salazar-Sierra, J. Giménez, A.D. Foote, R. de Stephanis
      Killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the Mediterranean Sea are currently restricted to the Strait of Gibraltar and surrounding waters. Thirty-nine individuals were present in 2011, with a well-differentiated social structure, organized into five pods. Killer whale occurrence in the Strait is apparently related to the migration of their main prey, Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus). In spring, whale distribution was restricted to shallow waters off the western coast of the Strait where all pods were observed actively hunting tuna. In summer, the whales were observed in the shallow central waters of the Strait. A relatively new feeding strategy has been observed among two of the five pods. These two pods interact with an artisanal drop-line fishery. Pods depredating the fishery had access to larger tuna in comparison with pods that were actively hunting. The Strait of Gibraltar killer whales are socially and ecologically different from individuals in the Canary Islands. Molecular genetic research has indicated that there is little or no female-mediated gene migration between these areas. Conservation threats include small population size, prey depletion, vessel traffic, and contaminants. We propose the declaration of the Strait of Gibraltar killer whales as an endangered subpopulation. A conservation plan to protect the Strait of Gibraltar killer whales is urgently needed, and we recommend implementation of a seasonal management area where activities producing underwater noise are restricted, and the promotion of bluefin tuna conservation.

      PubDate: 2016-08-26T14:10:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.07.001
  • The Gulf of Ambracia's Common Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus: A
           Highly Dense and yet Threatened Population
    • Authors: J. Gonzalvo; G. Lauriano; P.S. Hammond; K.A. Viaud-Martinez; M.C. Fossi; A. Natoli; L. Marsili
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): J. Gonzalvo, G. Lauriano, P.S. Hammond, K.A. Viaud-Martinez, M.C. Fossi, A. Natoli, L. Marsili
      The common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is the only cetacean present in the semiclosed waters of the Gulf of Ambracia, Western Greece. This increasingly degraded coastal ecosystem hosts one of the highest observed densities in the Mediterranean Sea for this species. Photo-identification data and tissue samples collected through skin-swabbing and remote biopsy sampling techniques during boat-based surveys conducted between 2006 and 2015 in the Gulf, were used to examine bottlenose dolphin abundance, population trends, site fidelity, genetic differentiation and toxicological status. Bottlenose dolphins showed high levels of year-round site fidelity throughout the 10-year study period. Dolphin population estimates mostly fell between 130 and 170 with CVs averaging about 10%; a trend in population size over the 10 years was a decline of 1.6% per year (but this was not significant). Genetic differentiation between the bottlenose dolphins of the Gulf and their conspecifics from neighbouring populations was detected, and low genetic diversity was found among individuals sampled. In addition, pesticides where identified as factors posing a real toxicological problem for local bottlenose dolphins. Therefore, in the Gulf of Ambracia, high dolphin density does not seem to be indicative of favourable conservation status or pristine habitat.

      PubDate: 2016-08-26T14:10:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.07.002
  • Conservation Status of Long-Finned Pilot Whales, Globicephala melas, in
           the Mediterranean Sea
    • Authors: P. Verborgh; P. Gauffier; R. Esteban; J. Giménez; A. Cañadas; J.M. Salazar; R. de Stephanis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): P. Verborgh, P. Gauffier, R. Esteban, J. Giménez, A. Cañadas, J.M. Salazar, R. de Stephanis
      Mediterranean Sea long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) are currently classified as Data Deficient on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. Multiple lines of evidence, including molecular genetic and photo-identification mark-recapture analyses, indicate that the Strait of Gibraltar population (distributed from 5.8°W longitude to west of Djibouti Bank and Alborán Dorsal in the Alborán Sea) is differentiated from the Mediterranean Sea population (east of Djibouti Bank and the Alborán Dorsal up to the Ligurian Sea). There is low genetic diversity within the Mediterranean population, and recent gene flow with the Strait of Gibraltar population is restricted. Current total abundance estimates are lacking for the species in the Mediterranean. Pilot whales in the Alborán Sea region were negatively affected by a morbillivirus epizootic from 2006 to 2007, and recovery may be difficult. The Strait of Gibraltar population, currently estimated to be fewer than 250 individuals, decreased by 26.2% over 5 years after the morbillivirus epizootic. Population viability analyses predicted an 85% probability of extinction for this population over the next 100 years. Increasing maritime traffic, increased contaminant burdens, and occasional fisheries interactions may severely impair the capacity of the Strait of Gibraltar population to recover after the decline due to the pathogen.

      PubDate: 2016-08-26T14:10:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.07.004
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 73

      PubDate: 2016-01-13T08:41:51Z
  • Contributors to Volume 73
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 73

      PubDate: 2016-01-13T08:41:51Z
  • Series Contents for Last Fifteen Years
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 73

      PubDate: 2016-01-13T08:41:51Z
  • Appendix: Abbreviations and Acronyms Used Throughout this Volume
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 73

      PubDate: 2016-01-13T08:41:51Z
  • Decadal-Scale Forecasting of Climate Drivers for Marine Applications
    • Authors: J. Salinger; A.J. Hobday; R.J. Matear; T.J. O’Kane; J.S. Risbey; P. Dunstan; J.P. Eveson; E.A. Fulton; M. Feng; É.E. Plagányi; E.S. Poloczanska; A.G. Marshall; P.A. Thompson
      Pages: 1 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): J. Salinger, A.J. Hobday, R.J. Matear, T.J. O’Kane, J.S. Risbey, J.P. Eveson, E.A. Fulton, M. Feng, É.E. Plagányi, E.S. Poloczanska, A.G. Marshall, P.A. Thompson
      Climate influences marine ecosystems on a range of time scales, from weather-scale (days) through to climate-scale (hundreds of years). Understanding of interannual to decadal climate variability and impacts on marine industries has received less attention. Predictability up to 10 years ahead may come from large-scale climate modes in the ocean that can persist over these time scales. In Australia the key drivers of climate variability affecting the marine environment are the Southern Annular Mode, the Indian Ocean Dipole, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation, each has phases that are associated with different ocean circulation patterns and regional environmental variables. The roles of these drivers are illustrated with three case studies of extreme events—a marine heatwave in Western Australia, a coral bleaching of the Great Barrier Reef, and flooding in Queensland. Statistical and dynamical approaches are described to generate forecasts of climate drivers that can subsequently be translated to useful information for marine end users making decisions at these time scales. Considerable investment is still needed to support decadal forecasting including improvement of ocean-atmosphere models, enhancement of observing systems on all scales to support initiation of forecasting models, collection of important biological data, and integration of forecasts into decision support tools. Collaboration between forecast developers and marine resource sectors—fisheries, aquaculture, tourism, biodiversity management, infrastructure—is needed to support forecast-based tactical and strategic decisions that reduce environmental risk over annual to decadal time scales.

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T20:57:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.04.002
  • Acclimatization and Adaptive Capacity of Marine Species in a Changing
    • Authors: S.A. Foo; M. Byrne
      Pages: 69 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): S.A. Foo, M. Byrne
      To persist in an ocean changing in temperature, pH and other stressors related to climate change, many marine species will likely need to acclimatize or adapt to avoid extinction. If marine populations possess adequate genetic variation in tolerance to climate change stressors, species might be able to adapt to environmental change. Marine climate change research is moving away from single life stage studies where individuals are directly placed into projected scenarios (‘future shock’ approach), to focus on the adaptive potential of populations in an ocean that will gradually change over coming decades. This review summarizes studies that consider the adaptive potential of marine invertebrates to climate change stressors and the methods that have been applied to this research, including quantitative genetics, laboratory selection studies and trans- and multigenerational experiments. Phenotypic plasticity is likely to contribute to population persistence providing time for genetic adaptation to occur. Transgenerational and epigenetic effects indicate that the environmental and physiological history of the parents can affect offspring performance. There is a need for long-term, multigenerational experiments to determine the influence of phenotypic plasticity, genetic variation and transgenerational effects on species’ capacity to persist in a changing ocean. However, multigenerational studies are only practicable for short generation species. Consideration of multiple morphological and physiological traits, including changes in molecular processes (eg, DNA methylation) and long-term studies that facilitate acclimatization will be essential in making informed predictions of how the seascape and marine communities will be altered by climate change.

      PubDate: 2016-08-11T07:07:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.06.001
  • Fish Ecology and Evolution in the World's Oxygen Minimum Zones and
           Implications of Ocean Deoxygenation
    • Authors: N.D. Gallo; L.A. Levin
      Pages: 117 - 198
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): N.D. Gallo, L.A. Levin
      Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) and oxygen limited zones (OLZs) are important oceanographic features in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Ocean, and are characterized by hypoxic conditions that are physiologically challenging for demersal fish. Thickness, depth of the upper boundary, minimum oxygen levels, local temperatures, and diurnal, seasonal, and interannual oxycline variability differ regionally, with the thickest and shallowest OMZs occurring in the subtropics and tropics. Although most fish are not hypoxia-tolerant, at least 77 demersal fish species from 16 orders have evolved physiological, behavioural, and morphological adaptations that allow them to live under the severely hypoxic, hypercapnic, and at times sulphidic conditions found in OMZs. Tolerance to OMZ conditions has evolved multiple times in multiple groups with no single fish family or genus exploiting all OMZs globally. Severely hypoxic conditions in OMZs lead to decreased demersal fish diversity, but fish density trends are variable and dependent on region-specific thresholds. Some OMZ-adapted fish species are more hypoxia-tolerant than most megafaunal invertebrates and are present even when most invertebrates are excluded. Expansions and contractions of OMZs in the past have affected fish evolution and diversity. Current patterns of ocean warming are leading to ocean deoxygenation, causing the expansion and shoaling of OMZs, which is expected to decrease demersal fish diversity and alter trophic pathways on affected margins. Habitat compression is expected for hypoxia-intolerant species, causing increased susceptibility to overfishing for fisheries species. Demersal fisheries are likely to be negatively impacted overall by the expansion of OMZs in a warming world.

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T20:57:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.04.001
  • Bioenergetics, Trophic Ecology, and Niche Separation of Tunas
    • Authors: R.J. Olson; J.W. Young; F. Ménard; M. Potier; V. Allain; N. Goñi; J.M. Logan; F. Galván-Magaña
      Pages: 199 - 344
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): R.J. Olson, J.W. Young, F. Ménard, M. Potier, V. Allain, N. Goñi, J.M. Logan, F. Galván-Magaña
      Tunas are highly specialized predators that have evolved numerous adaptations for a lifestyle that requires large amounts of energy consumption. Here we review our understanding of the bioenergetics and feeding dynamics of tunas on a global scale, with an emphasis on yellowfin, bigeye, skipjack, albacore, and Atlantic bluefin tunas. Food consumption balances bioenergetics expenditures for respiration, growth (including gonad production), specific dynamic action, egestion, and excretion. Tunas feed across the micronekton and some large zooplankton. Some tunas appear to time their life history to take advantage of ephemeral aggregations of crustacean, fish, and molluscan prey. Ontogenetic and spatial diet differences are substantial, and significant interdecadal changes in prey composition have been observed. Diet shifts from larger to smaller prey taxa highlight ecosystem-wide changes in prey availability and diversity and provide implications for changing bioenergetics requirements into the future. Where tunas overlap, we show evidence of niche separation between them; resources are divided largely by differences in diet percentages and size ranges of prey taxa. The lack of long-term data limits the ability to predict impacts of climate change on tuna feeding behaviour. We note the need for systematic collection of feeding data as part of routine monitoring of these species, and we highlight the advantages of using biochemical techniques for broad-scale analyses of trophic relations. We support the continued development of ecosystem models, which all too often lack the regional-specific trophic data needed to adequately investigate climate and fishing impacts.

      PubDate: 2016-08-11T07:07:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.06.002
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