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Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Advances in Marine Biology
  [SJR: 1.645]   [H-I: 45]   [15 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2881
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • Chapter Two Biodiversity, Life History, and Conservation of Northeastern
           Pacific Chondrichthyans
    • Authors: David A. Ebert; Jennifer S. Bigman; Julia M. Lawson
      Pages: 9 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 77
      Author(s): David A. Ebert, Jennifer S. Bigman, Julia M. Lawson
      The sharks, batoids, and chimaeras, collectively the class Chondrichthyes, are one of the most successful groups of fishes, with over 1250 species globally. Recent taxonomic revisions have increased their diversity by about 20% over the past 17 years (2000–2016). The Northeast Pacific Ocean is one of the top 20 most diverse regions/countries on the globe with 77 chondrichthyan species, a number less than a quarter that of the most species-rich area (Australia) but that has increased by 10% since 2000 to include three new species (two skates and a chimaera). In this chapter we discuss the species richness of chondrichthyans occurring in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, characterize their life histories, briefly review several fisheries, and summarize the conservation status of those chondrichthyans occurring in the region. Detailed descriptions and evaluations of fisheries can be found in Chapter 7 of AMB Volume 78.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Chapter One Marine Mammals in the Mediterranean Sea
    • Authors: G. Notarbartolo di Sciara
      Pages: 1 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 75
      Author(s): G. Notarbartolo di Sciara
      Despite being a small part of the world's oceans, the Mediterranean Sea hosts a diverse marine mammal fauna, with a total of 28 different species known to occur, or to have occurred, in the region. Species currently recognised as regular in the Mediterranean—the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) and 11 cetaceans (fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus; sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus; Cuvier's beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris; short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis; long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas; Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus; killer whale, Orcinus orca; striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba; rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis; common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus; harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena relicta) have adapted well to the region's environmental conditions, but their coexistence with humans is problematic. All the regular species are represented in the Mediterranean by populations genetically distinct from their North Atlantic relatives. Seventeen other species (three pinnipeds and 14 cetaceans) occur or have occurred in the Mediterranean as vagrants from adjacent regions. Impacts on the conservation status of marine mammals in the region deriving from a variety of threats include: (a) mortality caused by deliberate killing (to a large extent resulting from fisheries interactions), naval sonar, ship strikes, epizootics, fisheries bycatch, chemical pollution and ingestion of solid debris; (b) short-term redistribution caused by naval sonar, seismic surveys, vessel disturbance and vessel noise; and (c) long-term redistribution caused by fishery-induced food depletion, coastal development and possibly climate change. Accordingly, seven of the 12 marine mammals regular in the Mediterranean region are listed as Threatened on IUCN's Red List; regrettably, three are Data Deficient and two remain unassessed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2017)
  • Chapter Two Mediterranean Sperm Whales, Physeter macrocephalus
    • Authors: L. Rendell; A. Frantzis
      Pages: 37 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 75
      Author(s): L. Rendell, A. Frantzis
      First observed in the classical era, a population of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) persists to this day in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea. Genetic and observational evidence support the notion that this is an isolated population, separated from its Atlantic neighbours. These whales depend on mesopelagic squid for food, and appear to occupy a very similar ecological niche to sperm whales in the open oceans. Recent evidence proving that individuals can pass between the eastern and western deep water basins confirms that this is a single population, not isolated into western and eastern stocks. We lack robust information on their population status, but they could number in the hundreds rather than thousands, and current densities appear to be much lower than those reported in the 1950s, suggesting that we should be very concerned about the conservation status of this population. This makes it vitally important to address the serious threats posed by ship strikes and entanglement in fishing nets, especially driftnets, and to carefully monitor other potential sources of anthropogenic impact. A step change in funding to collect better data and a clear shift in policy priorities are needed if we are to be serious about conserving this population.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2017)
  • Chapter Three Fin Whales, Balaenoptera physalus
    • Authors: G. Notarbartolo di Sciara; M. Castellote; J.-N. Druon; S. Panigada
      Pages: 75 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 75
      Author(s): G. Notarbartolo di Sciara, M. Castellote, J.-N. Druon, S. Panigada
      1. The relationship of Mediterranean fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) to their Atlantic conspecifics has puzzled zoologists for centuries. Recent data indicate the occurrence of two distinct populations, one resident in the Mediterranean Sea and the other a seasonal visitor to the western Mediterranean from the northeastern North Atlantic Ocean. 2. Resident Mediterranean fin whales are nomadic opportunists that have adapted to exploit localised mesoscale hotspots of productivity that are highly variable in space and time. These appear to be fairly widespread across the region during winter, whereas in summer favourable feeding habitat is dramatically reduced, concentrating mostly in the western Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lion. This prompts a reinterpretation of the movement pattern of resident fin whales, based on a contraction/dispersion hypothesis caused by seasonal variability in available feeding habitat, as opposed to a pattern of migrations occurring along defined directions as is common in other Mysticetes. 3. Calving peaks in autumn but has been observed year-round throughout the Mediterranean, suggesting that resident fin whales engage in breeding activities whenever favourable physiological conditions occur. It can be assumed that the Mediterranean environment, which is relatively forgiving in comparison to oceanic habitats, combined with negligible predation pressure and high potential for sound-mediated socialisation due to the region's relatively small size, might have provided year-round resident fin whales an extended and more flexible calendar of breeding and feeding opportunities. 4. Considering the Mediterranean fin whales’ small and possibly decreasing population size, low survival rate and the high pressure from many threats deriving from human activities such as vessel traffic, noise, chemical pollution and likely climate change, their status raises considerable concern and conservation measures should be urgently implemented.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2017)
  • Chapter Four Cuvier's Beaked Whale, Ziphius cavirostris, Distribution and
           Occurrence in the Mediterranean Sea
    • Authors: M. Podestà; A. Azzellino; A. Cañadas; A. Frantzis; A. Moulins; M. Rosso; P. Tepsich; C. Lanfredi
      Pages: 103 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 75
      Author(s): M. Podestà, A. Azzellino, A. Cañadas, A. Frantzis, A. Moulins, M. Rosso, P. Tepsich, C. Lanfredi
      Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris G. Cuvier, 1823) is the only beaked whale species commonly found in the Mediterranean Sea. Until recently, species presence in this area was only inferred from stranding events. Dedicated cetacean surveys have increased our knowledge of the distribution of Cuvier's beaked whales, even though many areas still remain unexplored. Here, we present an updated analysis of available sighting and stranding data, focusing on the atypical mass strandings that have occurred in the Mediterranean Sea since 1963. We describe in detail the five more recent events (2006–14), highlighting their relationship with naval exercises that used mid-frequency active sonar. The distribution of the species is apparently characterized by areas of high density where animals seem to be relatively abundant, including the Alborán Sea, Ligurian Sea, Central Tyrrhenian Sea, southern Adriatic Sea and the Hellenic Trench, but other such areas may exist where little or no survey work has been conducted. Population size has been estimated for the Alborán and Ligurian seas. Habitat modelling studies for those areas, confirmed the species preference for the continental slope and its particular association with submarine canyons, as has also been found to be the case in other areas of the world. The application of results from habitat modelling to areas different from their calibration sites is proposed as a management tool for minimizing the potential impacts of human activities at sea. Military sonar is known worldwide as a threat for this species and is suggested to be a major threat for Cuvier's beaked whale in the Mediterranean Sea.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2017)
  • Chapter Five Conservation Status of Killer Whales, Orcinus orca, in the
           Strait of Gibraltar
    • Authors: R. Esteban; P. Verborgh; P. Gauffier; D. Alarcón; J.M. Salazar-Sierra; J. Giménez; A.D. Foote; R. de Stephanis
      Pages: 141 - 172
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 75
      Author(s): R. Esteban, P. Verborgh, P. Gauffier, D. Alarcón, J.M. Salazar-Sierra, J. Giménez, A.D. Foote, R. de Stephanis
      Killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the Mediterranean Sea are currently restricted to the Strait of Gibraltar and surrounding waters. Thirty-nine individuals were present in 2011, with a well-differentiated social structure, organized into five pods. Killer whale occurrence in the Strait is apparently related to the migration of their main prey, Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus). In spring, whale distribution was restricted to shallow waters off the western coast of the Strait where all pods were observed actively hunting tuna. In summer, the whales were observed in the shallow central waters of the Strait. A relatively new feeding strategy has been observed among two of the five pods. These two pods interact with an artisanal drop-line fishery. Pods depredating the fishery had access to larger tuna in comparison with pods that were actively hunting. The Strait of Gibraltar killer whales are socially and ecologically different from individuals in the Canary Islands. Molecular genetic research has indicated that there is little or no female-mediated gene migration between these areas. Conservation threats include small population size, prey depletion, vessel traffic, and contaminants. We propose the declaration of the Strait of Gibraltar killer whales as an endangered subpopulation. A conservation plan to protect the Strait of Gibraltar killer whales is urgently needed, and we recommend implementation of a seasonal management area where activities producing underwater noise are restricted, and the promotion of bluefin tuna conservation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2017)
  • Chapter Six Conservation Status of Long-Finned Pilot Whales, Globicephala
           melas, in the Mediterranean Sea
    • Authors: P. Verborgh; P. Gauffier; R. Esteban; J. Giménez; A. Cañadas; J.M. Salazar-Sierra; R. de Stephanis
      Pages: 173 - 203
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 75
      Author(s): P. Verborgh, P. Gauffier, R. Esteban, J. Giménez, A. Cañadas, J.M. Salazar-Sierra, R. de Stephanis
      Mediterranean Sea long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) are currently classified as Data Deficient on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. Multiple lines of evidence, including molecular genetic and photo-identification mark-recapture analyses, indicate that the Strait of Gibraltar population (distributed from 5.8°W longitude to west of Djibouti Bank and Alborán Dorsal in the Alborán Sea) is differentiated from the Mediterranean Sea population (east of Djibouti Bank and the Alborán Dorsal up to the Ligurian Sea). There is low genetic diversity within the Mediterranean population, and recent gene flow with the Strait of Gibraltar population is restricted. Current total abundance estimates are lacking for the species in the Mediterranean. Pilot whales in the Alborán Sea region were negatively affected by a morbillivirus epizootic from 2006 to 2007, and recovery may be difficult. The Strait of Gibraltar population, currently estimated to be fewer than 250 individuals, decreased by 26.2% over 5 years after the morbillivirus epizootic. Population viability analyses predicted an 85% probability of extinction for this population over the next 100 years. Increasing maritime traffic, increased contaminant burdens, and occasional fisheries interactions may severely impair the capacity of the Strait of Gibraltar population to recover after the decline due to the pathogen.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2017)
  • Chapter Seven Risso's Dolphin, Grampus griseus, in the Western Ligurian
    • Authors: A. Azzellino; S. Airoldi; S. Gaspari; C. Lanfredi; A. Moulins; M. Podestà; M. Rosso; P. Tepsich
      Pages: 205 - 232
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 75
      Author(s): A. Azzellino, S. Airoldi, S. Gaspari, C. Lanfredi, A. Moulins, M. Podestà, M. Rosso, P. Tepsich
      This paper provides a summary of 25 years of research on Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus) in the western Ligurian Sea. Seasonal variations in abundance, distribution and habitat use were observed. Photographic mark–recapture methods provided a population size estimate for the period from 1998 to 2012, of about 100 individuals (95% CI of 60–220 individuals). The same methods detected a decline in population size from an average of about 120–150 from 2000 to 2005, to an average of 70–100 during 2010 to 2014. Species occurrence appeared to be significantly decreasing in coastal and continental slope areas, while it seemed to be stable in the most pelagic area. In addition, a dramatic change was observed in the local primary production, which was analysed based on time series of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll data from 1990 to 2014. Based on fisheries landings, there may have been a general decrease in fishery productivity, both in the western Ligurian Sea and in adjacent regions. Environmental variability, depletion of resources by fisheries and possibly interspecies competition may all have contributed to cause changes in Risso's dolphin habitat use and occurrence in the western Ligurian Sea.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2017)
  • Chapter Eight The Rough-Toothed Dolphin, Steno bredanensis, in the Eastern
           Mediterranean Sea
    • Authors: D. Kerem; O. Goffman; M. Elasar; N. Hadar; A. Scheinin; T. Lewis
      Pages: 233 - 258
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 75
      Author(s): D. Kerem, O. Goffman, M. Elasar, N. Hadar, A. Scheinin, T. Lewis
      Only recently included among the cetacean species thought to regularly occur in the Mediterranean, the rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) is an obscure and enigmatic member of this ensemble. Preliminary genetic evidence strongly indicates an Atlantic origin, yet the Mediterranean distribution for this species is conspicuously detached from the Atlantic, with all authenticated records during the last three decades being east of the Sicilian Channel and most within the bounds of the Levantine Basin. These dolphins are apparently a small, relict population, probably the remnant of a larger one, contiguous with that in the Atlantic and nowadays entrapped in the easternmost and warmest province. Abundance data are lacking for the species in the Mediterranean. Configuring acoustic detection software to recognise the apparently idiosyncratic vocalisations of rough-toothed dolphins in past and future acoustic recordings may prove useful for potential acoustic monitoring. Evidence accumulated so far, though scant, points to seasonal occupation of shallow coastal waters. Vulnerability to entanglement in gill-nets, contaminants in the region, and the occurrence of mass strandings (possibly in response to anthropogenic noise), are major conservation concerns for the population in the Mediterranean Sea.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2017)
  • Chapter Nine The Gulf of Ambracia's Common Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops
    • Authors: J. Gonzalvo; G. Lauriano; P.S. Hammond; K.A. Viaud-Martinez; M.C. Fossi; A. Natoli; L. Marsili
      Pages: 259 - 296
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 75
      Author(s): J. Gonzalvo, G. Lauriano, P.S. Hammond, K.A. Viaud-Martinez, M.C. Fossi, A. Natoli, L. Marsili
      The common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is the only cetacean present in the semiclosed waters of the Gulf of Ambracia, Western Greece. This increasingly degraded coastal ecosystem hosts one of the highest observed densities in the Mediterranean Sea for this species. Photo-identification data and tissue samples collected through skin-swabbing and remote biopsy sampling techniques during boat-based surveys conducted between 2006 and 2015 in the Gulf, were used to examine bottlenose dolphin abundance, population trends, site fidelity, genetic differentiation and toxicological status. Bottlenose dolphins showed high levels of year-round site fidelity throughout the 10-year study period. Dolphin population estimates mostly fell between 130 and 170 with CVs averaging about 10%; a trend in population size over the 10 years was a decline of 1.6% per year (but this was not significant). Genetic differentiation between the bottlenose dolphins of the Gulf and their conspecifics from neighbouring populations was detected, and low genetic diversity was found among individuals sampled. In addition, pesticides where identified as factors posing a real toxicological problem for local bottlenose dolphins. Therefore, in the Gulf of Ambracia, high dolphin density does not seem to be indicative of favourable conservation status or pristine habitat.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2017)
  • Chapter Ten Dolphins in a Scaled-Down Mediterranean
    • Authors: G. Bearzi; S. Bonizzoni; N.L. Santostasi; N.B. Furey; L. Eddy; V.D. Valavanis; O. Gimenez
      Pages: 297 - 331
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 75
      Author(s): G. Bearzi, S. Bonizzoni, N.L. Santostasi, N.B. Furey, L. Eddy, V.D. Valavanis, O. Gimenez
      The Gulf of Corinth is a 2400-km2 semi-enclosed inland system (a mediterraneus) in central Greece. Its continental shelf areas, steep bottom relief, and waters up to 500–900m deep offer suitable habitat to neritic and pelagic species. We used photographic capture–recapture, distribution modelling, and direct observations to investigate the abundance, status, habitat preferences, movements, and group size of four odontocete species regularly observed in the Gulf, based on five years (2011–2015) of survey effort from small boats. Striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) are more abundant (1324 individuals, 95%CI 1158–1515) than was determined from previous estimates. Striped dolphins appear to be confined to the Gulf, where they favour deep and oligotrophic waters, and were encountered in single-species and mixed-species groups. Short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) (22 individuals, 95%CI 16–31), individuals with intermediate pigmentation (possibly striped/common dolphin hybrids) (55, 95%CI 36–83), and a single Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) were only encountered in mixed-species groups with striped dolphins. Short-beaked common dolphins constitute a discrete conservation unit (subpopulation), and based on the current estimate, would qualify as Critically Endangered according to International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) (39 animals, 95%CI 33–47) occur in single-species groups; they prefer continental shelf waters and areas near fish farms in the northern sector, and several animals appear to move into and out of the Gulf. Additionally, we contribute records of marine fauna and an assessment of the fishing fleet operating in the Gulf. Our study shows that the importance of this vulnerable marine environment has been underestimated, and management action must be taken to mitigate human impact and ensure long-term protection.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2017)
  • Chapter Eleven Harbour Porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, in the Mediterranean
           Sea and Adjacent Regions
    • Authors: M.C. Fontaine
      Pages: 333 - 358
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 75
      Author(s): M.C. Fontaine
      The harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, is one of the best studied cetacean species owing to its common distribution along the coastal waters of the Northern Hemisphere. In European waters, strandings are common and bycatch mortalities in commercial fisheries reach alarming numbers. Lethal interactions resulting from human activities together with ongoing environmental changes raise serious concerns about population viability throughout the species’ range. These concerns foster the need to fill critical gaps in knowledge of harbour porpoise biology, including population structure, feeding ecology, habitat preference and evolutionary history, that are critical information for planning effective management and conservation efforts. While the species is distributed fairly continuously in the North Atlantic Ocean, it becomes fragmented in the south-eastern part with isolated populations occurring along the Atlantic coasts of the Iberian Peninsula, Northwest Africa and the Black Sea. The latter population is separated from Atlantic populations by the Mediterranean Sea, where the species is almost entirely absent. Understanding the evolutionary history of these populations occurring in marginal habitats holds the potential to reveal fundamental aspects of the species' biology such as the factors determining its distribution, ecological niche, and how past and recent environmental variation have shaped the current population structure. This information can be critical for understanding the future evolution of the species in consideration of ongoing environmental changes. This chapter summarizes the recent advances in our knowledge regarding the populations bordering the Mediterranean Sea with a special emphasis on their ecological and evolutionary history, which has recently been reconstructed from genetic analyses.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2017)
  • Chapter Twelve Are Mediterranean Monk Seals, Monachus monachus, Being Left
           to Save Themselves from Extinction'
    • Authors: G. Notarbartolo di Sciara; S. Kotomatas
      Pages: 359 - 386
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 75
      Author(s): G. Notarbartolo di Sciara, S. Kotomatas
      Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus), amongst the most endangered marine mammals, are showing localised signs of recovery warranting their recent down-listing, from Critically Endangered to Endangered, on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. This, however, cannot be taken as a reason for complacency, as the species’ condition is still very critical, having been extirpated from most of its historical range. Monk seals within the Mediterranean, a ‘unit to conserve’ separate from Atlantic conspecifics, were once widely distributed throughout the Mediterranean Sea, with their range also extending into the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Today breeding nuclei persist only in the northeastern portion of the region, in Greek, Turkish and Cypriot waters. The main reasons for their decline include deliberate killing and human encroachment of their critical habitat. Past conservation efforts have mostly failed due to the inability of implementing institutional commitments, lack of coordination and continuity of efforts and insufficient consideration of the socioeconomic implications of conserving monk seals. Yet the small reversal of the species’ decline that has been observed in Greece may have resulted from conservation efforts by civil society, combined with ongoing societal change within the local communities coexisting with the seals. The inaccessibility of large portions of monk seal habitat in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea may also have contributed, by offering to the monk seals a refuge from persecution and encroachment. Despite continued threats to monk seals, conservation activities at the local scale that utilise lessons learned from previous failures and successes could secure the survival of the largest Mediterranean colony of monk seals, while also providing a model to support the species’ recovery in other portions of its former range.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 75 (2017)
  • Chapter One Decadal-Scale Forecasting of Climate Drivers for Marine
    • Authors: J. Salinger; A.J. Hobday; R.J. Matear; T.J. O’Kane; J.S. Risbey; P. Dunstan; J.P. Eveson; E.A. Fulton; M. Feng; É.E. Plagányi; E.S. Poloczanska; A.G. Marshall; P.A. Thompson
      Pages: 1 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 74
      Author(s): J. Salinger, A.J. Hobday, R.J. Matear, T.J. O’Kane, J.S. Risbey, P. Dunstan, J.P. Eveson, E.A. Fulton, M. Feng, É.E. Plagányi, E.S. Poloczanska, A.G. Marshall, P.A. Thompson
      Climate influences marine ecosystems on a range of time scales, from weather-scale (days) through to climate-scale (hundreds of years). Understanding of interannual to decadal climate variability and impacts on marine industries has received less attention. Predictability up to 10 years ahead may come from large-scale climate modes in the ocean that can persist over these time scales. In Australia the key drivers of climate variability affecting the marine environment are the Southern Annular Mode, the Indian Ocean Dipole, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation, each has phases that are associated with different ocean circulation patterns and regional environmental variables. The roles of these drivers are illustrated with three case studies of extreme events—a marine heatwave in Western Australia, a coral bleaching of the Great Barrier Reef, and flooding in Queensland. Statistical and dynamical approaches are described to generate forecasts of climate drivers that can subsequently be translated to useful information for marine end users making decisions at these time scales. Considerable investment is still needed to support decadal forecasting including improvement of ocean-atmosphere models, enhancement of observing systems on all scales to support initiation of forecasting models, collection of important biological data, and integration of forecasts into decision support tools. Collaboration between forecast developers and marine resource sectors—fisheries, aquaculture, tourism, biodiversity management, infrastructure—is needed to support forecast-based tactical and strategic decisions that reduce environmental risk over annual to decadal time scales.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2016.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2017)
  • The Economy of Shark Conservation in the Northeast Pacific: The Role of
           Ecotourism and Citizen Science
    • Authors: Peter A. Mieras; Chris Harvey-Clark; Michael Bear; Gina Hodgin; Boone Hodgin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): Peter A. Mieras, Chris Harvey-Clark, Michael Bear, Gina Hodgin, Boone Hodgin
      Historically sharks have been seen either as a source of income through harvesting, or as a nuisance and danger. The economic value of sharks has traditionally been measured as the total value of sharks caught for liver oil, fins, or meat for consumption. Sharks have also been killed to near extinction in cases where they were seen as a threat to fisheries on other species. This is illustrated by the mass extermination of Basking Sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) in British Columbia. They were seen as a nuisance to fishermen as they got entangled in gill nets during the salmon fishing season. However with the development of the SCUBA diving industry, and ecotourism in general, increased awareness of the role sharks play in marine ecosystems has resulted in changes in how they are perceived and utilized. Despite an ongoing harvest of sharks such as the North Pacific Spiny Dogfish (Squalus suckleyi), sharks now generate economic value through SCUBA diving enthusiasts who travel the globe to see, swim with, and photograph them. The use of digital cameras and other digital media has brought sharks into households around the world and increased awareness of the conservation issues facing many species. This renewed appreciation has led to a better understanding of sharks by the public, resulting in advocates calling for better protections and conservation. In particular, a growing part of the SCUBA diving community wants to contribute to conservation and research projects, which has led to participation in citizen science projects. These projects provide scientific data but also gain ground as ecotourism activities, thus adding to both economic value of tourism and conservation efforts.

      PubDate: 2017-09-22T00:56:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2017.08.003
  • An Introduction to Modelling Abundance and Life History Parameters in
           Shark Populations
    • Authors: Dovi Kacev; Timothy J. Sippel; Michael J. Kinney; Sebastián A. Pardo; Christopher G. Mull
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): Dovi Kacev, Timothy J. Sippel, Michael J. Kinney, Sebastián A. Pardo, Christopher G. Mull
      Elasmobranchs play critically important ecological roles throughout the world's oceans, yet in many cases, their slow life histories and interactions with fisheries makes them particularly susceptible to exploitation. Management for these species requires robust scientific input, and mathematical models are the backbone of science-based management. In this chapter, we provide an introductory overview of the use of mathematical models to estimate shark abundance. First, we discuss life history models that are used to understand the basic biology of elasmobranchs. Second, we cover population dynamics models, which are used to make inferences regarding population trend, size, and risk of extinction. Finally, we provide examples of applied models used to assess the status of elasmobranchs in the Northeast Pacific Ocean to guide management for these species. This chapter is not a comprehensive review of quantitative methods, but rather introduces various mathematical tools in fisheries management, with a focus on shark management in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

      PubDate: 2017-09-22T00:56:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2017.08.001
  • Sharks in Captivity: The Role of Husbandry, Breeding, Education, and
           Citizen Science in Shark Conservation
    • Authors: Michael Grassmann; Bryan McNeil; Jim Wharton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): Michael Grassmann, Bryan McNeil, Jim Wharton
      The role of public aquariums in promoting conservation has changed substantially over the decades, evolving from entertainment attractions to educational and research centres. In many facilities, larger sharks are an essential part of the collection and represent one of the biggest draws for the public. Displaying healthy elasmobranchs comes with many challenges, but improvements in husbandry techniques have enabled aquariums to have success with a variety of species. The establishment of organisations such as the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, and the completion of texts like the Elasmobranch Husbandry Manual, has helped set high standards of care for sharks in captivity and promoted international conservation efforts. Aquariums keeping sharks are in a unique position to influence local, regional, and international attitudes and policies by acting as both educational and research facilities. Interactions with multiple stakeholders of diverse educational and demographic backgrounds through the use of in-house advocacy, public outreach, media interviews, and partnerships with academic and government institutions enable these facilities to engage and share information with a broad audience. Although the data collected on sharks in captivity often cannot be directly translated to animals in the wild, it offers better insight into a number of life history traits and poorly understood behaviours, and has been the foundation for many captive breeding programs. Several Northeast Pacific (NEP) shark species are commonly displayed for long durations or bred in aquariums, while other less studied species have been held for short periods to collect valuable data that can be applied towards ongoing studies and conservation measures. Here, we discuss past and current tangible benefits of holding NEP sharks in captivity, as well as noting several ways in which future research and education activities will continue to inform and shape public opinions on shark management and conservation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-16T22:24:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2017.08.002
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 75

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
  • Contributors to Volume 75
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 75

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
  • Series Contents for Last Fifteen Years*
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 75

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
  • Chapter Thirteen The International Legal Framework for Marine Mammal
           Conservation in the Mediterranean Sea
    • Authors: Scovazzi
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 75
      Author(s): T. Scovazzi
      The paper reviews the international treaties that are today applicable for the protection of marine mammals in the Mediterranean Sea. They include instruments applicable at the world or the regional level. Emphasis is put on the International Whaling Commission, which is today affected by a confrontation between the two opposing groups of nonwhaling and whaling parties, the Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area (ACCOBAMS) and its implementation through the resolutions adopted by the Meeting of the Parties, as well as the subregional Agreement between France, Italy and Monaco for the establishment of a sanctuary for the protection of marine mammals (Pelagos Sanctuary). While several treaty provisions are in place to ensure the protection of marine mammals in the Mediterranean, specific mandatory provisions are still lacking for certain subjects, such as underwater noise, collisions with ships, by catch in fishing gear and ingestion of plastic litter.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
  • Taxonomic Index
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 75

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 74

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
  • Contributors To Volume 74
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 74

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
  • Series Contents for Last Fifteen Years*
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 74

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T21:01:34Z
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 77

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T20:59:46Z
  • Contributors to Volume 77
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 77

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T20:59:46Z
  • Series Contents for Last Fifteen Years
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 77

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T20:59:46Z
  • Taxonomic Index
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 77

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T20:59:46Z
  • Diet Composition and Trophic Ecology of Northeast Pacific Ocean Sharks
    • Authors: Joseph J. Bizzarro; Aaron B. Carlisle; Wade D. Smith; Enric Cortés
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): Joseph J. Bizzarro, Aaron B. Carlisle, Wade D. Smith, Enric Cortés
      Although there is a general perception of sharks as large pelagic, apex predators, most sharks are smaller, meso- and upper-trophic level predators that are associated with the seafloor. Among 73 shark species documented in the eastern North Pacific (ENP), less than half reach maximum lengths >200cm, and 78% occur in demersal or benthic regions of the continental shelf or slope. Most small (≤200cm) species (e.g., houndsharks) and demersal, nearshore juveniles of larger species (e.g., requiem sharks) consume small teleosts and decapod crustaceans, whereas large species in pelagic coastal and oceanic environments feed on large teleosts and squids. Several large, pelagic apex predator species occur in the ENP, but the largest species (i.e., Basking Shark, Whale Shark) consume zooplankton or small nekton. Size-based dietary variability is substantial for many species, and segregation of juvenile and adult foraging habitats also is common (e.g., Horn Shark, Shortfin Mako). Temporal dietary differences are most pronounced for temperate, nearshore species with wide size ranges, and least pronounced for smaller species in extreme latitudes and deep-water regions. Sympatric sharks often occupy various trophic positions, with resource overlap differing by space and time and some sharks serving as prey to other species. Most coastal species remain in the same general region over time and feed opportunistically on variable prey inputs (e.g., season migrations, spawning, or recruitment events), whereas pelagic, oceanic species actively seek hot spots of prey abundance that are spatiotemporally variable. The influence of sharks on ecosystem structure and regulation has been downplayed compared to that of large teleosts species with higher per capita consumption rates (e.g., tunas, billfishes). However, sharks also exert indirect influences on prey populations by causing behavioural changes that may result in restricted ranges and reduced fitness. Except for food web modelling efforts in Alaskan waters, the trophic impacts of sharks are poorly incorporated into current ecosystem approaches to fisheries management in the NEP.

      PubDate: 2017-08-28T20:20:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2017.06.001
  • Stable Isotope Applications for Understanding Shark Ecology in the
           Northeast Pacific Ocean
    • Authors: Jonathan C.P. Reum; Gregory D. Williams; Chris J. Harvey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): Jonathan C.P. Reum, Gregory D. Williams, Chris J. Harvey
      Stable isotopes are used to address a wide range of ecological questions and can help researchers and managers better understand the movement and trophic ecology of sharks. Here, we review how shark studies from the Northeast Pacific Ocean (NEP) have employed stable isotopes to estimate trophic level and diet composition and infer movement and habitat-use patterns. To date, the number of NEP shark studies that have used stable isotopes is limited, suggesting that the approach is underutilized. To aid shark researchers in understanding the strengths and limitations of the approach, we provide a brief overview of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope trophic discrimination properties (e.g., change in δ 15N between predator and prey), tissue sample preparation methods specific to elasmobranchs, and methodological considerations for the estimation of trophic level and diet composition. We suggest that stable isotopes are a potentially powerful tool for addressing basic questions about shark ecology and are perhaps most valuable when combined and analysed with other data types (e.g., stomach contents, tagging data, or other intrinsic biogeochemical markers).

      PubDate: 2017-08-28T20:20:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2017.06.003
  • Age and Growth of Elasmobranchs and Applications to Fisheries Management
           and Conservation in the Northeast Pacific Ocean
    • Authors: Mary E. Matta; Cindy A. Tribuzio; David A. Ebert; Kenneth J. Goldman; Christopher M. Gburski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): Mary E. Matta, Cindy A. Tribuzio, David A. Ebert, Kenneth J. Goldman, Christopher M. Gburski
      In addition to being an academic endeavour, the practical purpose of conducting age and growth studies on fishes is to provide biological data to stock assessment scientists and fisheries managers so they may better understand population demographics and manage exploitation rates. Age and size data are used to build growth models, which are a critical component of stock assessments. Though age determination of elasmobranchs in the northeast Pacific Ocean (NEP) began in the 1930s, the field has evolved substantially in recent years, allowing scientists to incorporate age data into assessments for more species than ever before. Owing to the highly diverse biology of this group of fishes, each species has its own set of challenges with regard to age determination. Age determination methods typically rely on semicalcified hard structures that form regular growth patterns; however, the structure selected and preparation method used is often species specific. New staining techniques have improved the ability to assess age and improve ageing precision for some species, and advances in microchemical methods have allowed for independent means of estimating age and validating age determination accuracy. Here we describe current age determination methods for NEP elasmobranchs. While the library of available techniques is increasing, there are still some NEP species for which reliable ageing methods have yet to be defined; we discuss these challenges and potential avenues of future research. Finally, we conclude by describing how age estimates are used in growth models and subsequently in stock assessments of selected NEP elasmobranchs.

      PubDate: 2017-08-17T20:04:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2017.06.002
  • Review of Current Conservation Genetic Analyses of Northeast Pacific
    • Authors: Shawn Larson; Toby S. Daly-Engel; Nicole M. Phillips
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): Shawn Larson, Toby S. Daly-Engel, Nicole M. Phillips
      Conservation genetics is an applied science that utilizes molecular tools to help solve problems in species conservation and management. It is an interdisciplinary specialty in which scientists apply the study of genetics in conjunction with traditional ecological fieldwork and other techniques to explore molecular variation, population boundaries, and evolutionary relationships with the goal of enabling resource managers to better protect biodiversity and identify unique populations. Several shark species in the northeast Pacific (NEP) have been studied using conservation genetics techniques, which are discussed here. The primary methods employed to study population genetics of sharks have historically been nuclear microsatellites and mitochondrial (mt) DNA. These markers have been used to assess genetic diversity, mating systems, parentage, relatedness, and genetically distinct populations to inform management decisions. Novel approaches in conservation genetics, including next-generation DNA and RNA sequencing, environmental DNA (eDNA), and epigenetics are just beginning to be applied to elasmobranch evolution, physiology, and ecology. Here, we review the methods and results of past studies, explore future directions for shark conservation genetics, and discuss the implications of molecular research and techniques for the long-term management of shark populations in the NEP.

      PubDate: 2017-08-17T20:04:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2017.06.005
  • Introduction to Northeast Pacific Shark Biology, Ecology, and Conservation
    • Authors: Dayv Lowry; Shawn Larson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology
      Author(s): Dayv Lowry, Shawn Larson
      Sharks are iconic, sometimes apex, predators found in every ocean and, as a result, they have featured prominently in the mythology, history, and fisheries of diverse human cultures around the world. Because of their regional significance to fisheries and ecological role as predators, and as a result of concern over long-term stability of their populations, there has been an increasing amount of work focused on shark conservation in recent decades. This volume highlights the biodiversity and biological attributes of, and conservation efforts targeted at, populations of sharks that reside in the Northeast Pacific Ocean bordering the west coast of the United States and Canada, one of the most economically and ecologically important oceanic regions in the world. A companion volume addresses details of fisheries and ecotourism in the same region, as well as delving into the relationship between captive husbandry of sharks and education/outreach efforts aimed at fostering a conservation mindset in the public at large. Together, these volumes provide readers a detailed backdrop against which to consider their own actions, and those of resource managers, academics, and educators, as they relate to the long-term conservation of sharks and their relatives.

      PubDate: 2017-08-07T19:46:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.amb.2017.06.004
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 76

      PubDate: 2017-01-12T16:30:43Z
  • Contributors to Volume 76
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 76

      PubDate: 2017-01-12T16:30:43Z
  • Series Contents for Last Fifteen Years
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 76

      PubDate: 2017-01-12T16:30:43Z
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