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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3003 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1427 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 310)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Advances in Genome Biology
  [11 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1067-5701
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • List of contributors
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • DNA: Structure and function
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter discusses the structure and function of DNA. DNA occupies a critical role in cells, because it is the source of all intrinsic genetic information. Chemically, DNA is a very stable molecule, a characteristic important for a macromolecule that may have to persist in an intact form for a long period of time before its information is accessed by the cell. Although DNA plays a critical role as an informational storage molecule, it is by no means as unexciting as a computer tape or disk drive. The structure of the DNA described by Watson and Crick in 1953 is a right handed helix of two individual antiparallel DNA strands. Hydrogen bonds provide specificity that allows pairing between the complementary bases (A.T and G.C) in opposite strands. Base stacking occurs near the center of the DNA helix and provides a great deal of stability to the helix (in addition to hydrogen bonding). The sugar and phosphate groups form a “backbone” on the outside of the helix. There are about 10 base pairs (bp) per turn of the double helix.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Intron-exon structures From molecular to population biology
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter discusses the intron–exon structures. In principle, any intervening sequence spliced out at the RNA level can be classified as an intron. In the past decade, it became clear that introns fall into several groups. The structural as well as functional features can be used to classify an intron into a specific group. On the basis of functional features, it is possible to make a distinction between self-splicing and spliceosomal introns. The chapter gives a brief description of each major group of introns, their structures, and the way they are excised from RNA to produce a mature message. Spliceosomal introns have been characterized in almost all eukaryotes, with the exception of a few early protists. A major feature is their dependence for splicing on a ribonucleoprotein complex called the “spliceosome.” Spliceosome structure seems to be much conserved in eukaryotes but very well described in fungi and humans.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Genome architecture
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter describes the genome architecture. There is no doubt that spatial order exists within the cell nucleus, and genome architecture is a prominent constituent within this order. An extreme example is metaphase chromosomes, which reappear during each cell division in a reliable, recognizable, and reproducible pattern. A much more meaningful example is the chromosome structure in the nucleus during the interphase, during which DNA expresses and multiplies. Interphase nuclei are arranged so that replication, transcription, repair, and RNA processing can occur at restricted sites. These events are accompanied (and may be regulated) by dynamic changes in genome architecture at levels well above an individual gene and even chromatin structure. The current study of genome architecture is a very dynamic and active field of research relevant to such topics as cell differentiation, carcinogenesis, development, and others; yet after more than a century, this field is still in its adolescence. Collectively, genome architecture refers to the spatial arrangement of chromosomes within the nuclear volume. (The same term is used in a different context to describe the relative linear organization of DNA sequences of different types (e.g. unique, repetitive, etc.).

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • The mitotic chromosome
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter describes the mitotic chromosome. Chromosomes were recognized as important components of cells in the latter half of the nineteenth century; and by 1903, only a few years after the rediscovery of Mendel's classic work, it was realized that the behavior of chromosomes was exactly that required to explain the behavior of genes, the Mendelian factors. Chromosomes, thus, determine the behavior of genes, and their position in genetics is, therefore, central. The chapter describes the organization of the chromosome as a whole. The behavior of genes is then simply an inevitable consequence of the way chromosomes are organized and the way they behave; and therefore, genetics cannot be understood without a proper knowledge of chromosomes. It is now generally accepted that there is only a single DNA molecule running throughout the length of a chromatid—that is, the undivided chromosome is unineme.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • List of contributors
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • The centromere Structural and functional aspects
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter describes the point and regional centromeres so as to integrate data at the structural level with particular reference to their sequence, composition, and organization. This structural description has to be viewed, however, as the basis for the functional organization of the centromere. Eukaryotic cells have developed complex mechanisms to ensure proper chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. An essential element in this process is the centromere, which in higher eukaryotes corresponds to a structurally well defined chromosome feature called the “primary constriction.” Centromeres appear to have multiple roles during mitosis and meiosis, and their non-random localization at other cell cycle stages suggests possible functions also during interphase. During mitosis, the centromere is now known to be required for a number of processes. First, it is the chromosomal site of attachment to spindle microtubules. Second, it constitutes the last point of contact between sister chromatids, before the initiation of poleward movement in anaphase. Third, recent data have shown that there is an important control mechanism at the kinetochore that ensures proper bipolar chromosomal orientation before sister chromatid separation can take place.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Telomeres
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter describes telomeres. Telomeres are DNA–protein complexes that form the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomeric DNA is complexed with specific proteins that are essential for telomere functioning. In some organisms, the telomeric DNA–protein complex drives the formation of inactive chromatin, which suppresses gene expression. Although much of the molecular nature of the inactive telomeric chromatin has been elucidated, especially in yeast, its biological role is still to be clarified. Telomere replication is carried out by the specialized enzyme telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein. When telomerase activity is absent, telomeres shorten because of the inability of DNA polymerase to replicate the 3' end of a linear DNA molecule. In the absence of telomerase, alternative mechanisms for the maintenance of telomeres can be switched on. Telomere length is variable among different organisms and among different chromosomes of the same cell. Maintaining telomeres in a certain range of length is essential for cellular viability. However, the regulation of telomere length is a poorly understood complex phenomenon involving many factors.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Chromatin structure
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter discusses the structural features of DNA and histones, the way they assemble into nucleosomes and nucleosome arrays, and the way nucleosomal arrays fold into chromatin fibers. The chapter also describes the way the chromatin fiber is organized into a chromosome and the various ways in which this can be modified. The most striking property of a eukaryotic chromosome is the length of each molecule of DNA incorporated and folded into it. The fundamental proteins whose properties mediate the folding of DNA into chromatin are the histones. Aside from the compaction of DNA, the histone proteins undertake protein–protein interactions between themselves and other distinct chromosomal proteins. These interactions lead to several constraints on the properties of histones contributing toward maintaining their high degree of evolutionary conservation. All core histones are remarkably conserved in length and amino acid sequence through evolution. Histones H3 and H4 are the most highly conserved—for example, calf and pea histone H4 differ at only two sites in 102 residues.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Mitochondrial genomes A paradigm of organizational diversity
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter presents a survey of mitochondrial genome organization in animals, fungi, protists, and plants. It highlights recent advances in understanding of the structural and genetic diversity displayed by mitochondria from different eukaryotes. It also outlines some of the more unusual aspects of mitochondrial gene expression—such as altered genetic codes, aberrant tRNAs, RNA editing, mobile introns, and scrambled genes—features that further illustrate the multiplicity of evolutionary pathways taken by mitochondrial genomes. It is well established that mitochondria are the site of energy production in eukaryotic cells, long before it is appreciated that they contain their own distinct genetic information and protein-synthesizing systems, without which respiration would not be possible. The combination of genetic, biochemical, and, more recently, powerful molecular approaches has led to significant advances in understanding of these small but essential genetic systems. One of the first surprises to come from the molecular analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was that even though all mitochondria share the same fundamental function in respiration, they display a great diversity in genome size, gene organization, mode of expression, and the rate/mode of evolution among various eukaryotic lineages.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Topoisomerases
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter describes topoisomerases. Much progress has been made in structural and functional studies on DNA topoisomerases. New enzymes of the topoisomerase family are still being discovered, and the biological implications of these enzymes stands under open discussion. The potential of DNA topoisomerases as drug targets has expanded this research field into the realm of pharmacology and clinical medicine. Some topics like the viral and mithocondrial topoisomerases remain largely unexplored. The chapter presents the current understanding on the structure and mechanism of these enzymes, and the biological roles of DNA topoisomerases in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. All known DNA topoisomerases share two characteristics. One is their ability to cleave and reseal the phosphodiester backbone of DNA in two successive transesterification reactions. The second characteristic is that once a topoisomerase-cleaved DNA intermediate is formed, the enzyme allows the severed DNA ends to come apart, opening a gate for the passage of another single- or double-stranded DNA segment.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Trinucleotide repeats and human diseases
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter describes trinucleotide repeats and human diseases. Simple repeats involving micro-and mini-satellites occur frequently and are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. In recent years, it has become quite apparent that these are an entirely new class of genomic mutations that do not adhere strictly to the laws of Mendelian inheritance. Several diseases have been identified whereby the repeat length expands remarkably and can lead to non-Mendelian inheritance because of incomplete penetrance and/or variable expressivity. The molecular explanation for some unusual inheritance patterns is described in the chapter. Diseases that share common features of trinucleotide repeats can be classified into two groups. The type 1 includes the five neurodegerative disorders: spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), Huntington's disease (HD); spinocerebellar ataxia type I (SCA 1), dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA), and Machado–Joseph disease (MDJ). The type 2 includes: myotonic dystrophy (DM), Fragile-X syndrome with XA locus (FRAXA), and Fragile-X mental retardation (FRAXE). They contain much larger expansions and unlike previous ones fall outside the protein coding region.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Heterochromatin Evolutionary aspects
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter discusses the evolutionary aspects of heterochromatin. Heterochromatin was first defined as chromatin that remains condensed during interphase and suggested that it is genetically inactive. A criteria used to identify the two subsets of heterochromatin are based on condensation properties. Later interest in heterochromatin extended from cytological to biochemical. Heterochromatin that is located at the same position of homologous chromosomes in all cells as a permanent structural entity is considered “constitutive heterochromatin,” whereas heterochromatin that varies in its state of condensation in different cell types and developmental stages is regarded as “facultative heterochromatin.” The structural organization of heterochromatin has been subject of scrutiny and debate owing to its obscurity. The pericentromeric heterochromatin is associated with DNA sequences that are highly repeated in long tandem arrays and are generally known as “satellite DNA.” Centromeres are composed of very large repeated sequences whose structure is highly complex. The tandemly repeated satellite DNA sequences have been subject of great investigation. The centromeric regions contain highly specific code domains that are highly conserved. The amplification, insertion, and deletion of different sequences of repetitive code domain create a variety of variations, which are highly conserved.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • List of contributors
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Genetics of sex determination: An overview
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • The testis determining gene, Sry
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Sex reversal in mammals
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Molecular genetics of X-chromosome inactivation
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Sex chromosome aberrations and genetic consequences
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Genetics of male pseudohermaphroditism and true hermaphroditism
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Pseudoautosomal regions at the tip of the short and long arms of the human
           sex chromosomes
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Temperature dependent sex determination: Evaluation and hypotheses
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Mammalian Spermatogenesis
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Mechanism of sex determination in mammals
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Commentary: Genes, chromosomes, and sex
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4

      The origin of differential tissues from pluripotent cells in the embryo during the developmental process has intrigued geneticists, biologists, and evolutionists alike. The testis and the ovary both develop from the gonodal ridge resulting in two sexual forms with a few exceptions. Sex determination leading to sex differentiation depends upon a number of factors, such as the X:autosome ratio, temperature, hormones, and dominant male or female genes. The fundamental theory behind dimorphisms is that the Y chromosome acts in some way as a dominant male-determining factors while the presence of two X chromosomes leads to normal development of a female. Cloning of a gene on the Y chromosome has been carried out. A number of views regarding mammalian chromosome inactivation are reviewed here. The evolutionary concept concerning pseudoautosomal regions and pairing or mispairing of them has dire consequences. The diversity of sex-determination systems in various taxa is quite intriguing while similarities must have arisen through a convergent path. The most recent investigations using molecular techniques in mapping sex-linked genes have been reviewed and the sex reversal phenomenon in mammals have opened new vistas concerning SRY variant, but other various mutated genes which affect the sex phenotypes remain to be explored.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • List of contributors
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Genetics of human cancer An overview
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      This chapter discusses the genetics of human cancer. It has been a long-held belief that cancer arises from a single cell involving multiple genetic events. In other terms, neoplasia is a genetic disease at the cellular level. The recent advances in molecular techniques have implicated the role of single genes in proliferation and growth control. Of course, tumorigenesis proceeds in a multistep order requiring both the activation of transforming genes and inactivation of recessive tumor suppressor genes. The detection of genetic changes at the DNA level has added a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The expression of genes in specialized organs reflects the unique production of proteins that govern signals of the cell cycle. The recognition of Mendelian inheritance in families with cancer and the identification of genetic markers in families that are predisposed to certain cancers has opened new avenues for investigation through the so-called “predisposing genes.” The majority of cancers do not show definite inheritance patterns. However, a two-to-three fold increased risk of some cancers among first-degree relatives has been reported, suggesting a multifactorial mode of inheritance.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Oncogenes in tumor progression
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      This chapter discusses oncogenes in tumor progression. Protooncogenes are normal components of the genome that are involved in cell growth and differentiation. Oncogenes are the activated homologues of protooncogenes. More liberally defined, any gene that is significantly associated with a tumor may be thought of as an oncogene. Oncogenes may be activated by a number of mechanisms. Retroviruses may transduce a neighboring protooncogene and carry it to other cells as an oncogenic virus. Transcriptional activation can also occur as a result of the insertion of viral enhancer or promoter sequences near growth-related genes; in fact, there is some evidence to suggest that an enhanced expression of normal, unmutated protooncogenes may be sufficient for oncogenic function. Tumor cells have a growth advantage when compared to normal cells. The focus of research in this area has been on the ability of transforming or activating oncogenes to stimulate tumor cell proliferation. For example, the overexpression of c-myc or of c-myb plays a central role in the deregulation of the cell cycle.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • The p53 tumor suppressor gene
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      This chapter describes the p53 tumor suppressor gene. The discovery that certain viruses are able to transform cells in vitro and induce tumors in rodents has led to extensive efforts to identify the gene(s) involved in the transforming process. In contrast to the majority of oncogenic RNA retroviruses, which carry modified cellular genes, DNA tumor viruses (papovaviruses, papillomaviruses, adenoviruses, herpes viruses, and hepadnaviruses) carry their own specific genetic information that is responsible for their ability to transform cells. As the history of p53 is closely linked with that of small DNA tumor viruses, a brief description of several viruses is necessary to fully appreciate its behavior in normal and transformed cells. Undifferentiated F9 embryonal carcinoma cells and murine erythroleukemia cells have a more unusual behavior than SV40-transformed cells. F9 cells contain high levels of p53 protein, but when they are induced toward differentiation by treatment with retinoic acid, there is a marked decrease in the p53 protein.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Genetic aspects of tumor suppressor genes
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      In this chapter, we will review the history of genetic studies of the control of tumorigenicity, metastasis, genetic instability, and cellular senescence focusing mainly on somatic cell genetic studies of human tumor cells. After a brief consideration of the development of somatic cell fusion techniques, we will examine the experimental evidence supporting the concept of the recessive genetic nature of tumorigenic potential. We will also synopsize the literature showing the existence of multiple tumor suppressor genes. After the examination of the suppression of in vivo tumor growth, we will consider the genetics of other transformed cell phenotypes. We will then attempt to correlate features of known tumor suppressor genes such as rb and p53 with the data from the functional cell fusion experiments. Finally, we will explore some of the mechanisms by which tumor suppressor genes might function to control the in vitro and in vivo growth of human tumor cells.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • p21ras From oncoprotein to signal transducer
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      This chapter discusses the relevance of mutated ras genes for the development of tumors based on the stage in tumor development at which these mutations occurs and on the observation that mutated ras genes are frequently found in only a subfraction of tumor cells. The functions of the p21 ras gene products in signal transduction are discussed in the chapter. Alterations in genes involved in the regulation of growth and differentiation are considered to be the main cause of cancer. Molecular cancer research aims at identifying the genes that are altered in human tumors and elucidating the function. One of the paradigms of this research is the ras gene family. In the human genome, three different functional ras genes are present, the H-ras gene, the K-ras gene, and the N-ras gene, which is not found in viral genomes. Each of these genes has been isolated from human tumors as a “transforming gene.” Several analyses have revealed that transforming ras genes differed from non-transforming ras genes by the presence of a point mutation at one of a few restrictive positions within the gene.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Chromosomal basis of hematologic malignancies
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      This chapter discusses the chromosomal basis of hematologic malignancies. Major advances in cancer cytogenetics took place in the early 1970s with the introduction of both improved banding techniques and tissue culture methods. The surprising relationship of unique chromosomal abnormalities with specific neoplasia during neoplastic development has been a prime concern. Almost all human cancers have aberrant genomic constitution, whose significance has been explained using chromosome bands. A definite relationship between genetic anomalies and specific types of proliferative processes is described in the chapter. The gain of genetic material has been implicated with gene amplification, while complex chromosomal abnormalities suggest different mechanism of genetic changes, which may be responsible for the development of malignancies. Literature pertaining to chromosomal changes in neoplastic diseases has been quite extensive. The acute leukemias are a highly heterogeneous group of malignant proliferations and are generally classified as either acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL). Consistent chromosomal abnormalities in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) are described in the chapter and, more importantly, these nonrandom chromosomal abnormalities have been correlated with histological and immunological phenotype.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • The molecular genetics of chromosomal translocations in lymphoid
           malignancy
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      This chapter discusses the molecular genetics of chromosomal translocations in lymphoid malignancy. No approach to the understanding of the molecular basis of acute and chronic leukemias has been more productive than that of molecular cytogenetics. The approach of the utilization of the techniques of molecular cloning to isolate and characterize regions of various chromosomes involved in chromosome translocations, inversions, and deletions has been successfully employed to implicate known oncogenes in such rearrangements to identify new oncogenes and to demonstrate the involvement of genes previously not known for contributing to malignancy. The chromosome translocations involve genes generally involved in cellular growth control. Second, the translocation disrupts the normal control of expression or function of these genes. This may occur in several ways. The gene may be juxtaposed to control elements that result in its being expressed at inappropriate times or abnormal levels. The translocation may alter the gene's own control elements so that they no longer function correctly.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • List of contributors
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Transcription and cancer
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      This chapter describes transcription and cancer. Transcription is the process of copying small regions of the genomic DNA in the nucleus into mobile RNA species that, after processing, are translocated to the cytoplasm, where the information they carry is translated into a polypeptide chain by ribosomes. The regulation of transcription is central to the control of the vast majority of cellular functions and, in particular, differentiation and the response of cells to external signals. Cancers, or more generally neoplasms, are clones of cells that have the ability to grow and divide independent of external controls and that, on the whole, are less differentiated than the cells of the organ in which they arose. As transcriptional regulation is of such importance to both growth responses and differentiation, it is clear that the deregulation of transcription must play an important part in the development of neoplasms. Evidence is accumulating rapidly to support this notion from the study of the functions of viral oncogenes and their cellular counterparts and also from the genetic analysis of human tumors, most notably the leukemias.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Loss of constitutional heterozygosity in human cancer A practical approach
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      This chapter discusses a practical approach for the loss of constitutional heterozygosity in human cancer. First observed in rare heritable cancer syndromes and eliminating genes that exert cellular control functions, “genetic losses” have now also been found in frequent and noninherited cancers as the initial step of tumorigenesis and contributing to tumor progression. Screening for genetic losses is, therefore, a generally applied method for the characterization of cancer. Apart from methods related to classical cytogenetics, new molecular tools developed in the past decade have dramatically refined the resolution and facilitated the characterization of the tumor cell genotype. DNA markers have been developed that distinguish between the alleles of homologous chromosomes, enabling the investigator to monitor losses of single alleles and to determine their parental origin. Thus, the detection of “loss of heterozygosity” (LOH) has become a widespread method in cancer research and in the search for the specific genes involved in the genesis and progression of several tumors.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • The role of the BCR/ABL oncogene in human leukemia
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      This chapter discusses the role of the BCR/ABL oncogene in human leukemia. Cancer is the consequence of an accumulation of multiple critical genetic alterations that confer a growth advantage. The complexity of the process is apparent from both the diversity of genes that are involved in the process (oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes with diverse functions), the mechanisms of genetic alteration (amplification, overexpression, deregulation, deletion, point mutation, and translocation), and from the subtleties of the alterations arising within individual genes that can elicit a proliferative advantage. One example of oncogene activation by translocation is described in detail in the chapter. The translocation fuses two human genes, BCR and ABL, and this juxtaposition appears to be a critical change in some leukemias. The gene fusion is the first recognized example of a specific genetic change in human cancer. Following the cytogenetic identification of the translocation, the genetic rearrangement is characterized precisely by molecular techniques.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Adventures in myc-ology
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      This chapter discusses the adventures in mycology. Many of the now familiar concepts concerning the molecular biology of cancer are derived from the study of viral oncology. This includes a major contribution to the list of the dominantly acting transforming genes called “oncogenes.” Although the study of the viral oncogenes currently is not the dominant theme in the molecular biology of cancer, an understanding of the contributions from viral research is a necessary element in understanding any of the oncogenes. The myc gene is discovered in the avian acute transforming retroviruses, CMII, MC29, MH2, and OK I0. The viruses in this group cause a broad spectrum of malignancies in vivo, including sarcomas, carcinomas, and myelocytomas, and also possess the ability to transform fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and bone marrow cells in culture. As for all of the other retroviral oncogenes, the viral myc gene (v-myc) is derived from the host cell genome by a recombination event between a replication competent retrovirus and a preexisting host cell gene, in this case the cellular myc gene (c-myc).

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Cytogenetic and molecular studies of male germ-cell tumors
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      Although the biological significance of GCTs to the study of malignancy and differentiation has been well recognized for some time, detailed genetic analysis based on fresh tumor biopsies has not been initiated until recently. The first stage of such studies, as with other, more extensively investigated tumor systems, has been cytogenetic analysis. To date, cytogenetic data on 225 tumors are available which, although small in number, have already yielded valueble insights into the biology of these tumors and a clinically useful marker. Thus, initial correlations between chromosome change and histology have been recorded, gene amplification associated with malignant progression has been identified, cytogenetic basis of malignant differentiation in teratomatous lesions has been clarified, and sites of candidate tumor suppressor genes unique to this system have been identified. The usefulness of i(12p) as a diagnostic marker, especially in tumors of uncertain histologies has been established. Because of the clinical usefulness of this marker, molecularly based methods for its detection, without the need for formal cytogenetic analysis, have been developed. Cytogenetic analysis of larger prospectively ascertained series than have been performed so far and analysis of large numbers of tumors utilizing molecular techniques can be expected to yield significant insights into the biology and clinical behavior of these tumors.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
 
 
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