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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3310 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (255 journals)
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    - BIOLOGY (1577 journals)
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    - ZOOLOGY (143 journals)

BIOLOGY (1577 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Biologica Venezuelica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 80)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 379)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Ecological Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.524
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 44  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0065-2504
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3181 journals]
  • Preface: Mechanistic links between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 61Author(s): Nico Eisenhauer, David A. Bohan, Alex J. Dumbrell
       
  • Terrestrial laser scanning reveals temporal changes in biodiversity
           mechanisms driving grassland productivity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2019Source: Advances in Ecological ResearchAuthor(s): Claudia Guimarães-Steinicke, Alexandra Weigelt, Anne Ebeling, Nico Eisenhauer, Joaquín Duque-Lazo, Björn Reu, Christiane Roscher, Jens Schumacher, Cameron Wagg, Christian Wirth Biodiversity often enhances ecosystem functioning likely due to multiple, often temporarily separated drivers. Yet, most studies are based on one or two snapshot measurements per year. We estimated productivity using bi-weekly estimates of high-resolution canopy height in 2 years with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in a grassland diversity experiment. We measured how different facets of plant diversity (functional dispersion [FDis], functional identity [PCA species scores], and species richness [SR]) predict aboveground biomass over time. We found strong intra- and inter-annual variability in the relative importance of different mechanisms underlying the diversity effects on mean canopy height, i.e., resource partitioning (via FDis) and identity effects (via species scores), respectively. TLS is a promising tool to quantify community development non-destructively and to unravel the temporal dynamics of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning mechanisms. Our results show that harvesting at estimated peak biomass—as done in most grassland experiments—may miss important variation in underlying mechanisms driving cumulative biomass production.
       
  • Lost in trait space: Species-poor communities are inflexible in properties
           that drive ecosystem functioning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2019Source: Advances in Ecological ResearchAuthor(s): Anja Vogel, Peter Manning, Marc W. Cadotte, Jane Cowles, Forest Isbell, Alexandre L.C. Jousset, Kaitlin Kimmel, Sebastian T. Meyer, Peter B. Reich, Christiane Roscher, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, David Tilman, Alexandra Weigelt, Alexandra J. Wright, Nico Eisenhauer, Cameron Wagg It is now well established that biodiversity plays an important role in determining ecosystem functioning and its stability over time. A possible mechanism for this positive effect of biodiversity is that more diverse plant communities have a greater capacity to respond to environmental changes through shifts in species dominance and composition. In our study, we utilized data from five long-term grassland biodiversity experiments located in North America (three studies) and Central Europe (two studies), in which plant species richness and global change drivers were manipulated simultaneously. The global change drivers included warming, drought, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, elevated N inputs, or intensive management. Across drivers, functional change over time was significantly greater for communities of high plant diversity than that of low diversity because of a higher functional and phylogenetic richness and mostly associated with a dominance by species with a ‘slow and tall’ strategy. Community functional shifts in response to global change drivers were, however, relatively weak and mostly not influenced by diversity. The exception to this was warming, where diverse communities showed stronger shifts than species-poor communities. Our results confirm the hypothesis that diverse communities have a greater capacity for functional change than species-poor communities, particularly in their successional dynamics, but also potentially in their responses to environmental change. This capacity could underlie the positive biodiversity-stability relationship and buffer ecosystem responses to environmental change.
       
  • A multitrophic perspective on biodiversity–ecosystem functioning
           research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2019Source: Advances in Ecological ResearchAuthor(s): Nico Eisenhauer, Holger Schielzeth, Andrew D. Barnes, Kathryn Barry, Aletta Bonn, Ulrich Brose, Helge Bruelheide, Nina Buchmann, François Buscot, Anne Ebeling, Olga Ferlian, Grégoire T. Freschet, Darren P. Giling, Stephan Hättenschwiler, Helmut Hillebrand, Jes Hines, Forest Isbell, Eva Koller-France, Birgitta König-Ries, Hans de Kroon Concern about the functional consequences of unprecedented loss in biodiversity has prompted biodiversity–ecosystem functioning (BEF) research to become one of the most active fields of ecological research in the past 25 years. Hundreds of experiments have manipulated biodiversity as an independent variable and found compelling support that the functioning of ecosystems increases with the diversity of their ecological communities. This research has also identified some of the mechanisms underlying BEF relationships, some context-dependencies of the strength of relationships, as well as implications for various ecosystem services that humankind depends upon. In this chapter, we argue that a multitrophic perspective of biotic interactions in random and non-random biodiversity change scenarios is key to advance future BEF research and to address some of its most important remaining challenges. We discuss that the study and the quantification of multitrophic interactions in space and time facilitates scaling up from small-scale biodiversity manipulations and ecosystem function assessments to management-relevant spatial scales across ecosystem boundaries. We specifically consider multitrophic conceptual frameworks to understand and predict the context-dependency of BEF relationships. Moreover, we highlight the importance of the eco-evolutionary underpinnings of multitrophic BEF relationships. We outline that FAIR data (meeting the standards of findability, accessibility, interoperability, and reusability) and reproducible processing will be key to advance this field of research by making it more integrative. Finally, we show how these BEF insights may be implemented for ecosystem management, society, and policy. Given that human well-being critically depends on the multiple services provided by diverse, multitrophic communities, integrating the approaches of evolutionary ecology, community ecology, and ecosystem ecology in future BEF research will be key to refine conservation targets and develop sustainable management strategies.
       
  • How plant diversity impacts the coupled water, nutrient and carbon cycles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2019Source: Advances in Ecological ResearchAuthor(s): Markus Lange, Eva Koller-France, Anke Hildebrandt, Yvonne Oelmann, Wolfgang Wilcke, Gerd Gleixner Soils are important for ecosystem functions and services. However, soil processes are complex and changes of solid phase soil properties, such as soil organic matter contents are slow. As a consequence, a comprehensive understanding of the role of soil in the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) relationship is still lacking. Thus, long-term observations and experiments are needed in biodiversity research in order to better understand how biodiversity influences soil properties and thus the BEF relationships. To elucidate the integrated response of soil-related functions and processes to plant diversity, we reviewed literature on the water, nutrient and carbon cycles in biodiversity research with specific focus on the Jena Experiment. Furthermore, we took advantage of the long-term observations of water, nutrient and carbon dynamics gathered in the Jena Experiment to investigate changes of the plant diversity effect over time on theses cycles and the accompanying plant-microbial interactions. We found that soil organic carbon and soil nitrogen stocks in the top 15 cm constantly increased over time and that this increase was positively related to plant species richness. In contrast, the concentrations of the quantitatively most important nutrient ions nitrate and phosphate in soil solution decreased with time, likely because of the ongoing removal of nutrients by plant biomass harvest. We furthermore observed a shift in the microbial community composition, which was triggered by an increased availability of plant-derived carbon at higher plant species richness over time, suggesting that plant communities compensated for nutrient losses by stimulating the microbial nutrient cycling. In addition, water including dissolved nutrients and carbon percolated deeper in plots of higher plant diversity. Thereby, higher plant diversity spatially extended the nutrient cycling through the microbial communities to deeper soil layers from which nutrients are transferred to the topsoil by deep-rooting plants. Although microbial nutrient cycling cannot fully compensate for negative plant diversity effects on nutrient availability in soil solution, this suggests that over time the role of plant-derived inputs becomes increasingly important for ecosystem functioning. It furthermore implies that plant species richness tightens plant-microbial interactions, which in the long-term feed back on other ecosystem functions, such as productivity.
       
  • Mapping change in biodiversity and ecosystem function research: Food webs
           foster integration of experiments and science policy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2019Source: Advances in Ecological ResearchAuthor(s): Jes Hines, Anne Ebeling, Andrew Barnes, Ulrich Brose, Christoph Scherber, Stefan Scheu, Teja Tscharntke, Wolfgang W. Weisser, Darren P. Giling, Alexandra Klein, Nico Eisenhauer Human activities are causing major changes in biological communities worldwide. Due to concern about the consequences of these changes, an academic conversation about biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) has emerged over the last few decades. Here we use a keyword co-occurrence analysis to characterize and review 28 years of research focused on these terms. We find that the rapidly growing literature has developed in four research domains. The first two domains “BEF Experiments” and “Science Policy” emerge early, and persist through time, as core research areas with emphases on experiments and management, respectively. The second two domains, “Agricultural Landscapes” and “Aquatic Food Webs”, arise as integrative domains that connect divisions in scientific discussion surrounding BEF Experiments and Science Policy. Terms related to species interactions (i.e. pollinator, predator, food web) appear more commonly in the two integrative domains reflecting shared interests of many scientists focusing on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Despite shared interests in food webs, research in the four domains differ with respect to their spatial scale, baseline comparisons, and currency of measurements. Food-web research that bridges these divides should be pushed to the forefront of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning research priorities.
       
  • Transferring biodiversity-ecosystem function research to the management of
           ‘real-world’ ecosystems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2019Source: Advances in Ecological ResearchAuthor(s): Peter Manning, Jacqueline Loos, Andrew D. Barnes, Péter Batáry, Felix J.J.A. Bianchi, Nina Buchmann, Gerlinde B. De Deyn, Anne Ebeling, Nico Eisenhauer, Markus Fischer, Jochen Fründ, Ingo Grass, Johannes Isselstein, Malte Jochum, Alexandra M. Klein, Esther O.F. Klingenberg, Douglas A. Landis, Jan Lepš, Regina Lindborg, Sebastian T. Meyer Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) research grew rapidly following concerns that biodiversity loss would negatively affect ecosystem functions and the ecosystem services they underpin. However, despite evidence that biodiversity strongly affects ecosystem functioning, the influence of BEF research upon policy and the management of ‘real-world’ ecosystems, i.e., semi-natural habitats and agroecosystems, has been limited. Here, we address this issue by classifying BEF research into three clusters based on the degree of human control over species composition and the spatial scale, in terms of grain, of the study, and discussing how the research of each cluster is best suited to inform particular fields of ecosystem management. Research in the first cluster, small-grain highly controlled studies, is best able to provide general insights into mechanisms and to inform the management of species-poor and highly managed systems such as croplands, plantations, and the restoration of heavily degraded ecosystems. Research from the second cluster, small-grain observational studies, and species removal and addition studies, may allow for direct predictions of the impacts of species loss in specific semi-natural ecosystems. Research in the third cluster, large-grain uncontrolled studies, may best inform landscape-scale management and national-scale policy. We discuss barriers to transfer within each cluster and suggest how new research and knowledge exchange mechanisms may overcome these challenges. To meet the potential for BEF research to address global challenges, we recommend transdisciplinary research that goes beyond these current clusters and considers the social-ecological context of the ecosystems in which BEF knowledge is generated. This requires recognizing the social and economic value of biodiversity for ecosystem services at scales, and in units, that matter to land managers and policy makers.
       
  • Plant functional trait identity and diversity effects on soil meso- and
           macrofauna in an experimental grassland
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2019Source: Advances in Ecological ResearchAuthor(s): Rémy Beugnon, Katja Steinauer, Andrew Barnes, Anne Ebeling, Christiane Roscher, Nico Eisenhauer Understanding aboveground-belowground linkages and their consequences for ecosystem functioning is a major challenge in soil ecology. It is already well established that soil communities drive essential ecosystem processes, such as nutrient cycling, decomposition, or carbon storage. However, knowledge of how plant diversity affects belowground community structure is limited. Such knowledge can be gained from studying the main plant functional traits that modulate plant community effects on soil fauna. Here, we used a grassland experiment manipulating plant species richness and plant functional diversity to explore the effects of community-level plant traits on soil meso- and macrofauna and the trophic structure of soil fauna by differentiating predators and prey. The functional composition of plant communities was described by six plant traits related to spatial and temporal resource use: plant height, leaf area, rooting depth, root length density, growth start, and flowering start. Community-Weighted Means (CWMs), Functional Dissimilarity (FDis), and Functional Richness (FRic) were calculated for each trait. Community-level plant traits better explained variability in soil fauna than did plant species richness. Notably, each soil fauna group was affected by a unique set of plant traits. Moreover, the identity of plant traits (CWM) explained more variance of soil fauna groups than trait diversity. The abundances of soil fauna at the lower trophic levels were better explained by community-level plant traits than higher trophic levels soil fauna groups. Taken together, our results highlight the importance of the identity of different plant functional traits in driving the diversity and trophic structure of soil food communities.
       
  • Above- and belowground overyielding are related at the community and
           species level in a grassland biodiversity experiment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2019Source: Advances in Ecological ResearchAuthor(s): Kathryn E. Barry, Alexandra Weigelt, Jasper van Ruijven, Hans de Kroon, Anne Ebeling, Nico Eisenhauer, Arthur Gessler, Janneke M. Ravenek, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Natalie J. Oram, Anja Vogel, Cameron Wagg, Liesje Mommer Plant species richness positively affects plant productivity both above- and belowground. While this suggests that they are related at the community level, few studies have calculated above- and belowground overyielding simultaneously. It thus remains unknown whether above- and belowground overyielding are correlated. Moreover, it is unknown how belowground community level overyielding translates to the species level.We investigated above- and belowground overyielding in the Jena Trait-Based Biodiversity Experiment, at both the community and species level and across two 8-species pools. We found that above- and belowground overyielding were positively correlated at the community level and at the species level—for seven out of the 13 investigated species. Some plant species performed better in mixtures compared to monocultures and others performed worse, but the majority did so simultaneously above- and belowground. However, plants invested more in aboveground overyielding than belowground. Based on this disproportional investment in overyielding aboveground, we conclude that light was more limiting than belowground resources in the present study, which requires individual species to compete more for light than for belowground resources.
       
  • Linking local species coexistence to ecosystem functioning: A conceptual
           framework from ecological first principles in grassland ecosystems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2019Source: Advances in Ecological ResearchAuthor(s): Kathryn E. Barry, Hans de Kroon, Peter Dietrich, W. Stanley Harpole, Anna Roeder, Bernhard Schmid, Adam T. Clark, Margaret M. Mayfield, Cameron Wagg, Christiane Roscher One of the unifying goals of ecology is understanding the mechanisms that drive ecological patterns. For any particular observed pattern, ecologists have proposed varied mechanistic models. However, in spite of their differences, all of these mechanistic models rely on either abiotic conditions or biotic conditions, our “ecological first principles”. These major components underlie all of the major mechanistic explanations for patterns of diversity like the latitudinal gradient in diversity, the maintenance of diversity, and the (often positive) biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship. These components and their interactions alter the dynamics of plant populations, which ultimately determine local coexistence at the community level, and functioning at the ecosystem level. We present a review, starting from ecological first principles of the ways in which ecosystem functioning may be linked to local coexistence in plant communities via mutual effects on and reactions to the abiotic and biotic conditions in which they are imbedded.
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 60Author(s):
       
  • Extensive grassland-use sustains high levels of soil biological activity,
           but does not alleviate detrimental climate change effects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2019Source: Advances in Ecological ResearchAuthor(s): Julia Siebert, Madhav P. Thakur, Thomas Reitz, Martin Schädler, Elke Schulz, Rui Yin, Alexandra Weigelt, Nico Eisenhauer Climate change and intensified land use simultaneously affect the magnitude and resilience of soil-derived ecosystem functions, such as nutrient cycling and decomposition. Thus far, the responses of soil organisms to interacting global change drivers remain poorly explored and our knowledge of below-ground phenology is particularly limited. Previous studies suggest that extensive land-use management has the potential to buffer detrimental climate change impacts, via biodiversity-mediated effects. According to the insurance hypothesis of biodiversity, a higher biodiversity of soil communities and thus an elevated response diversity to climate change would facilitate a more stable provisioning of ecosystem functions under environmental stress. Here we present results of a two-year study investigating, at fine temporal resolution, the effects of predicted climate change scenarios (altered precipitation patterns; passive warming) on three grassland types, differing in land-use intensity, soil biological activity, and in resilience.We show that future climate conditions consistently reduced soil biological activity, revealing an overall negative effect of predicted climate change. Furthermore, future climate caused earlier and significantly lower peaks of biological activity in the soil. Land-use intensity also significantly decreased soil biological activity, but contrary to general expectations, extensive land use did not alleviate the detrimental effects of simulated climate change. Instead, the greatest reduction in soil biological activity was observed in extensively-used grasslands, highlighting their potential vulnerability to predicted climate change. To assure high levels of biological activity in resilient agroecosystems, extensive land use needs to be complemented by other management approaches, such as the adoption of specific plant species compositions that secure ecosystem functioning in a changing world.
       
  • Modelling land use dynamics in socio-ecological systems: A case study in
           the UK uplands
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2019Source: Advances in Ecological ResearchAuthor(s): Mette Termansen, Daniel S. Chapman, Claire H. Quinn, Evan D.G. Fraser, Nanlin Jin, Nesha Beharry-Borg, Klaus Hubacek It is well-recognised that to achieve long-term sustainable and resilient land management we need to understand the coupled dynamics of social and ecological systems. Land use change scenarios will often aim to understand (i) the behaviours of land management, influenced by direct and indirect drivers, (ii) the resulting changes in land use and (iii) the environmental implications of these changes. While the literature in this field is extensive, approaches to parameterise coupled systems through integration of empirical social science based models and ecology based models still need further development. We propose an approach to land use dynamics modelling based on the integration of behavioural models derived from choice experiments and spatially explicit systems dynamics modelling. This involves the specification of a choice model to parameterise land use behaviour and the integration with a spatial habitat succession model.We test this approach in an upland socio-ecological system in the United Kingdom. We conduct a choice experiment with land managers in the Peak District National Park. The elicited preferences form the basis for a behavioural model, which is integrated with a habitat succession model to predict the landscape level vegetation impacts. The integrated model allows us to create projections of how land use may change in the future under different environmental and policy scenarios, and the impact this may have on landscape vegetation patterns. We illustrate this by showing future projection of landscape changes related to hypothetical changes to EU level agricultural management incentives.The advantages of this approach are (i) the approach takes into account potential environmental and management feedbacks, an aspect often ignored in choice modelling, (ii) the behavioural rules are revealed from actual and hypothetical choice data, which allow the research to test the empirical evidence for various determinants of choice, (iii) the behavioural choice models generate probabilities of alternative behaviours which make them ideally suited for integration with simulation models.The paper concludes that the modelling approach offers a promising route for linking socio-economic and ecological features of socio-ecological systems. Furthermore, our proposed approach allows testing of the underlying socio-economic and environmental drivers and their interaction in real environmental systems.
       
  • Differing perceptions of socio-ecological systems: Insights for future
           transdisciplinary research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2019Source: Advances in Ecological ResearchAuthor(s): Noa Avriel-Avni, Jan Dick The growing understanding that transdisciplinary research is required for sustainable land management (i.e., co-production of knowledge by researchers and land managers) stems from the complexity and unpredictability of social-ecological systems. However, many scientists feel that the large gap between the agendas and worldviews of scientists and land managers makes it difficult to co-produce knowledge. This challenge was the focus of our study in Cairngorms National Park (CNP), Long-Term Social-Ecological Research Platform (LTSER), Scotland.Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 land managers and 15 scientists, who are active in CNP, focussed on their individual perception of the park's social-ecological system. The findings point to differences in interests between the two groups. Land managers are mainly troubled by local economic and legacy problems, while scientists are more concerned by environmental and global questions. However, the findings also indicated a shared sense of uncertainty about the future of the region along with willingness for both groups to work together. These findings suggest a need for transdisciplinary research that co-produces science best future vision; i.e., a synthesis of scientific knowledge and land managers' practical knowledge, motivations and aspirations to create a resilient socio-ecological system.
       
  • Assessing the resilience of biodiversity-driven functions in
           agroecosystems under environmental change
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2019Source: Advances in Ecological ResearchAuthor(s): Emily A. Martin, Benjamin Feit, Fabrice Requier, Hanna Friberg, Mattias Jonsson Predicting the resilience of biodiversity-driven functions in agroecosystems to drivers of environmental change (EC) is of critical importance to ensure long-term and environmentally safe agricultural production. However, operationalizing resilience of such functions is challenging, because conceptual approaches differ, direct measures are difficult, and the validity and interpretation of existing indicators are unclear. Here, we (1) summarize dimensions of resilience that apply in agroecosystems, and the disturbances they are subject to under EC. We then (2) review indicators of the resilience of biodiversity-driven functions in agroecosystems, and their support in theoretical and empirical studies. (3) Using these indicators, we examine what can be learned for the resilience of these functions to drivers of EC, focussing on the ecosystem services of biological pest control, biological disease control in soil and pollination. We conclude (4) that research into the resilience of these services is still in its infancy, but novel tools and approaches can catalyse further steps to assess and improve the resilience of biodiversity-driven agroecosystem functions under EC.
       
  • Adaptive capacity in ecosystems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2019Source: Advances in Ecological ResearchAuthor(s): David G. Angeler, Hannah B. Fried-Petersen, Craig R. Allen, Ahjond Garmestani, Dirac Twidwell, W. Chuang, V.M. Donovan, T. Eason, C.P. Roberts, S.M. Sundstrom, C.L. Wonkka Understanding the capacity of ecosystems to adapt and to cope (i.e. adaptive capacity) with change is crucial to their management. However, definitions of adaptive capacity are often unclear and confusing, making application of this concept difficult. In this paper, we revisit definitions of adaptive capacity and operationalize the concept. We define adaptive capacity as the latent potential of an ecosystem to alter resilience in response to change. We present testable hypotheses to evaluate complementary attributes of adaptive capacity that may help further clarify the components and relevance of the concept. We suggest how sampling, inference and modelling can reduce key uncertainties incrementally over time and increase learning about adaptive capacity. Improved quantitative assessments of adaptive capacity are needed because of the high uncertainty about global change and its potential effect on the capacity of ecosystems to adapt to social and ecological change. An improved understanding of adaptive capacity might ultimately allow for more efficient and targeted management.
       
 
 
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