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Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
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Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
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AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
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Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access  
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 330)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
Advances in Ecological Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.524
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 44  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0065-2504
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 59Author(s):
  • Cummulative List Of Titles
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 59Author(s):
  • Acknowledgements
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 59Author(s):
  • Linking DNA Metabarcoding and Text Mining to Create Network-Based
           Biomonitoring Tools: A Case Study on Boreal Wetland Macroinvertebrate
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2018Source: Advances in Ecological ResearchAuthor(s): Zacchaeus G. Compson, Wendy A. Monk, Colin J. Curry, Dominique Gravel, Alex Bush, Christopher J.O. Baker, Mohammad Sadnan Al Manir, Alexandre Riazanov, Mehrdad Hajibabaei, Shadi Shokralla, Joel F. Gibson, Sonja Stefani, Michael T.G. Wright, Donald J. Baird Ecological networks are powerful tools for visualizing biodiversity data and assessing ecosystem health and function. Constructing these networks requires considerable empirical efforts, and this remains highly challenging due to sampling limitations and the laborious and notoriously limited, error-prone process of traditional taxonomic identification. Recent advancements in high-throughput gene sequencing and high-performance computing provide new ways to address these challenges. DNA metabarcoding, a method of bulk taxonomic identification from DNA extracted from environmental samples, can generate detailed biodiversity information through a standardizable analytical pipeline for species detection. When this biodiversity information is annotated with prior knowledge on taxon interactions, body size, and trophic position, it is possible to generate trait-based networks, which we call “heuristic food webs”. Although curating trait matrices for constructing heuristic food webs is a laborious, often intractable process using manual literature surveys, it can be greatly accelerated via text mining, allowing knowledge of relevant traits to be gathered across large databases. To explore this possibility, we employed a General Architecture for Text Engineering (GATE) system to create a hybrid text-mining pipeline combining rule-based and machine-learning modules. This pipeline was then used to query online repositories of published papers for missing data on a key trait, body size, that could not be gathered from existing trophic link libraries of freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates. Combining text-mined body size information with feeding information from existing sources allowed us to generate a database of over 20,000 pairwise trophic interactions. Next, we developed a pipeline that uses taxa lists generated from DNA metabarcoding and annotates this matrix with trophic information from existing databases and text-mined body size data. In this way, we generated heuristic food webs for wetland sites within a large delta complex formed by the confluence of the Peace and Athabasca rivers in northern Alberta: the Peace–Athabasca delta. Finally, we used these putative food webs and their network properties to resolve spatial and temporal differences between the benthic subwebs of wetlands in the Peace and Athabasca sectors of the delta complex. Specifically, we asked two questions. (1) How do food web properties (e.g. number of links, linkage density, trophic height) differ between the wetlands of the Peace and Athabasca deltas' (2) How do food web properties change temporally in wetlands of the two deltas' We discuss using DNA-generated, trait-based food webs as a powerful tool for rapid bioassessment, assess the limitations of our current approach, and outline a path forward to make this powerful tool more widely available for land managers and conservation biologists.
  • Volatile Biomarkers for Aquatic Ecological Research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2018Source: Advances in Ecological ResearchAuthor(s): Michael Steinke, Luli Randell, Alex J. Dumbrell, Mahasweta Saha All organisms and ecosystems emit and consume volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Traditionally, these have been qualitatively and quantitatively described in isolation without full consideration of the ‘signatures’ produced by the totality of all volatiles released. Here, we suggest that volatilomics, a research area applied to medical diagnostics, soil biology and pest control, can advance aquatic ecological research by providing a relatively fast diagnostic tool to investigate, for example, taxonomic and likely also functional diversity in aquatic systems—providing a novel technique for the biomonitoring of aquatic environments. Our case study demonstrates the utility of volatilomics to differentiate between four different algal genera using a principal component analysis. We highlight the utility of volatilomics to the monitoring of environmental processes and discuss its application to inform industrial mariculture procedures.
  • A Vision for Global Biodiversity Monitoring With Citizen Science
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2018Source: Advances in Ecological ResearchAuthor(s): Michael J.O. Pocock, Mark Chandler, Rick Bonney, Ian Thornhill, Anna Albin, Tom August, Steven Bachman, Peter M.J. Brown, Davi Gasparini Fernandes Cunha, Audrey Grez, Colin Jackson, Monica Peters, Narindra Romer Rabarijaon, Helen E. Roy, Tania Zaviezo, Finn Danielsen Global biodiversity monitoring is urgently needed across the world to assess the impacts of environmental change on biodiversity. One way to increase monitoring is through citizen science. ‘Citizen science’ is a term that we use in this chapter to describe the diverse approaches that involve people in monitoring in a voluntary capacity, thus including participatory monitoring in which people work collaboratively with scientists in developing monitoring. There is great unrealised potential for citizen science, especially in Asia and Africa. However, to fulfil this potential citizen science will need to meet local needs (for participants, communities and decision makers, including people's own use of the data and their motivations to participate) and support global needs for biodiversity monitoring (including the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets). Activities should be feasible (for participants to provide scientifically rigorous data) and useful (for data users, from local to global scales). We use examples from across the world to demonstrate how monitoring can engage different types of participants, through different technologies, to record different variables according to different sampling approaches. Overall, these examples show how citizen science has the potential to provide a step change in our ability to monitor biodiversity—and hence respond to threats at all scales from local to global.
  • Noninvasive Analysis of the Soil Microbiome: Biomonitoring Strategies
           Using the Volatilome, Community Analysis, and Environmental Data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Advances in Ecological ResearchAuthor(s): Kelly R. Redeker, Leda L. Cai, Alex J. Dumbrell, Alex Bardill, James P.J. Chong, Thorunn Helgason Within soils there are microorganisms that act to break down complex substrates (saprophytes), microorganisms that actively aid nutrient delivery (mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria), and others that hijack the system to their own benefit (parasitic bacteria and fungi). The complex interaction between plants, these microbes, and the soil determines how effectively nutrients will be recycled, with a significant impact on regional productivity and biodiversity. Each microbe plays a role in overall soil function but, despite the critical role they play, soil microbial communities and their functions remain challenging to accurately quantify.The functional behaviour of soils is difficult to quantify, in part due to the effects of disturbance when sampling. This suggests that noninvasive analytical tools are necessary to diagnose current soil function and to predict changes in soil behaviour with changing climate or land use. Microbial communities, the drivers of soil function, are diverse, and their individual metabolisms are often tightly coupled, such that the microbial community in aggregate may be considered to have a “net” metabolism. This net metabolism can be described by the volatile signatures that propagate from the soil into the atmosphere and, by proxy, allowing a noninvasive analysis of the microbial community active in the subsurface.Here, we detail the complexities of the soil volatile metabolism, propose a “fingerprint” strategy to describe this complex community that uses trace gas fluxes combined with environmental data, and describe the promising outcomes from an initial foray using this method.
  • Bioinformatics for Biomonitoring: Species Detection and Diversity
           Estimates Across Next-Generation Sequencing Platforms
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2018Source: Advances in Ecological ResearchAuthor(s): Isaac M.K. Eckert, Joanne E. Littlefair, Guang K. Zhang, Frédéric J.J. Chain, Teresa J. Crease, Melania E. Cristescu As a fast-growing area of technology, sequencing platforms are updated frequently and this rapid technical revolution poses not only great advances but also challenges. To be effective, biomonitoring programmes need to deliver comparable results across research groups and time. Understanding the sources of bias in bioinformatics promotes reliable results that accurately reflect biodiversity. We assembled two mock communities of planktonic organisms to assess the accuracy of species recovery based on sequencing the 18S rRNA V4 region using two NGS platforms, Roche 454 (the platform of choice for early metabarcoding studies), and Illumina MiSeq (employed frequently in recent metabarcoding studies). Our findings suggest that the two platforms have comparable performance on metabarcoding datasets. When singletons (sequences represented by a single read) were excluded from analyses, Illumina MiSeq had a slightly better operational taxonomic unit (OTU) precision score than Roche 454 (calculated as the number of species detected divided by the number of OTUs generated) but only in one bioinformatics workflow (when paired reads were appended, not merged). Roche 454 performed slightly better than Illumina MiSeq in terms of species detection but only when simple mock communities with a single individual per species were analysed. When singleton sequences were included, both platforms detected more than 75% of species with a slightly higher detection achieved by Illumina MiSeq. The OTU clustering of both datasets resulted in a gross overestimation of species richness. This finding suggests that studies employing OTU clustering as a proxy for genetic diversity must carefully perform read processing, such as singleton exclusion, to avoid overestimates. Finally, this study provides insight into technical bioinformatic strategies that should accompany such transitions. In a field such as metabarcoding, where advances in sequencing technology constantly drive the discipline, ensuring the comparability of past and future technologies, and the derived ecological conclusions is important.
  • Using Social Media for Biomonitoring: How Facebook, Twitter, Flickr and
           Other Social Networking Platforms Can Provide Large-Scale Biodiversity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2018Source: Advances in Ecological ResearchAuthor(s): Jon Chamberlain In this chapter, social networking platforms are explored to see whether they can be a useful resource for biomonitoring; more specifically do they contain reliable biodiversity data and to what extent can we extract that information, both by analysing conversation threads and understanding how groups of people solve image classification problems.A corpus of messages was analysed from Facebook containing 39,039 conversation threads. Social network groups that were set up specifically for users to exchange biodiversity information show a high workrate, fast response time, short message lifespan and more in-thread activity and discussion. Image classification tasks posted in these groups get a fast reply, elicit more data from users and are more likely to have the task completed. Users distribute work unevenly (the top 20% of users do 88.4% of the work), following a Zipf distribution.This technology offers researchers a new opportunity to gather biodiversity data; however, it is not without its challenges. Tasks posted in such groups tend to be difficult to solve; however, the resulting labelling quality is very high when compared to experts and to other approaches. Automatic processing in some form for these types of data is essential given the rate of increase of data being added every day to social networking platforms; however, this is a complex problem due to informal language use and access to the data.
  • A Replicated Network Approach to ‘Big Data’ in Ecology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2018Source: Advances in Ecological ResearchAuthor(s): Athen Ma, David A. Bohan, Elsa Canard, Stéphane A.P. Derocles, Clare Gray, Xueke Lu, Sarina Macfadyen, Gustavo Q. Romero, Pavel Kratina Global environmental change is a pressing issue as evidenced by the rise of extreme weather conditions in many parts of the world, threatening the survival of vulnerable species and habitats. Effective monitoring of climatic and anthropogenic impacts is therefore critical to safeguarding ecosystems, and it would allow us to better understand their response to stressors and predict long-term impacts. Ecological networks provide a biomonitoring framework for examining the system-level response and functioning of an ecosystem, but have been, until recently, constrained by limited empirical data due to the laborious nature of their construction. Hence, most experimental designs have been confined to a single network or a small number of replicate networks, resulting in statistical uncertainty, low resolution, limited spatiotemporal scale and oversimplified assumptions.Advances in data sampling and curation methodologies, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) and the Internet ‘Cloud’, have facilitated the emergence of the ‘Big Data’ phenomenon in Ecology, enabling the construction of ecological networks to be carried out effectively and efficiently. This provides to ecologists an excellent opportunity to expand the way they study ecological networks. In particular, highly replicated networks are now within our grasp if new NGS technologies are combined with machine learning to develop network building methods. A replicated network approach will allow temporal and spatial variations embedded in the data to be taken into consideration, overcoming the limitations in the current ‘single network’ approach.We are still at the embryonic stage in exploring replicated networks, and with these new opportunities we also face new challenges. In this chapter, we discuss some of these challenges and highlight potential approaches that will help us build and analyse replicated networks to better understand how complex ecosystems operate, and the services and functioning they provide, paving the way for deciphering ecological big data reliably in the future.
  • Advances in Ecological Research Volume 1–58
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 58Author(s):
  • Chapter Five - Modelling and Projecting the Response of Local Terrestrial
           Biodiversity Worldwide to Land Use and Related Pressures: The PREDICTS
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 58Author(s): Andy Purvis, Tim Newbold, Adriana De Palma, Sara Contu, Samantha L.L. Hill, Katia Sanchez-Ortiz, Helen R.P. Phillips, Lawrence N. Hudson, Igor Lysenko, Luca Börger, Jörn P.W. Scharlemann The PREDICTS project (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) has collated ecological survey data from hundreds of published biodiversity comparisons of sites facing different land-use and related pressures, and used the resulting taxonomically and geographically broad database (abundance and occurrence data for over 50,000 species and over 30,000 sites in nearly 100 countries) to develop global biodiversity models, indicators, and projections. After outlining the science and science-policy gaps that motivated PREDICTS, this review discusses the key design decisions that helped it to achieve its objectives. In particular, we discuss basing models on a large, taxonomically, and geographically representative database, so that they may be applicable to biodiversity more broadly; space-for-time substitution, which allows estimation of pressure-state models without the need for representative time-series data; and collation of raw data rather than statistical results, greatly expanding the range of response variables that can be modelled. The heterogeneity of data in the PREDICTS database has presented a range of modelling challenges: we discuss these with a focus on our implementation of the Biodiversity Intactness Index, an indicator with considerable policy potential but which had not previously been estimated from primary biodiversity data. We then summarise the findings from analyses of how land use and related pressures affect local (α) diversity and spatial turnover (β diversity), and how these effects are mediated by ecological attributes of species. We discuss the relevance of our findings for policy, before ending with some directions of ongoing and possible future research.
  • Chapter Four - Challenges With Inferring How Land-Use Affects Terrestrial
           Biodiversity: Study Design, Time, Space and Synthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 58Author(s): Adriana De Palma, Katia Sanchez-Ortiz, Philip A. Martin, Amy Chadwick, Guillermo Gilbert, Amanda E. Bates, Luca Börger, Sara Contu, Samantha L.L. Hill, Andy Purvis Land use has already reshaped local biodiversity on Earth, with effects expected to increase as human populations continue to grow in both numbers and prosperity. An accurate depiction of the state of biodiversity on our planet, combined with identifying the mechanisms driving local biodiversity change, underpins our ability to predict how different societal priorities and actions will influence biodiversity trajectories. Quantitative syntheses provide a fundamental tool by taking information from multiple sources to identify generalisable patterns. However, syntheses, by definition, combine data sources that have fundamentally different purposes, contexts, designs and sources of error and bias; they may thus provide contradictory results, not because of the biological phenomena of interest, but due instead to combining diverse data. While much attention has been focussed on the use of space-for-time substitution methods to estimate the impact of land-use change on terrestrial biodiversity, we show that the most common study designs all face challenges—either conceptual or logistical—that may lead to faulty inferences and ultimately mislead quantitative syntheses. We outline these study designs along with their advantages and difficulties, and how quantitative syntheses can combine the strengths of each class of design.
  • Chapter Three - Advances in Monitoring and Modelling Climate at
           Ecologically Relevant Scales
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 58Author(s): Isobel Bramer, Barbara J. Anderson, Jonathan Bennie, Andrew J. Bladon, Pieter De Frenne, Deborah Hemming, Ross A. Hill, Michael R. Kearney, Christian Körner, Amanda H. Korstjens, Jonathan Lenoir, Ilya M.D. Maclean, Christopher D. Marsh, Michael D. Morecroft, Ralf Ohlemüller, Helen D. Slater, Andrew J. Suggitt, Florian Zellweger, Phillipa K. Gillingham Most ecological studies of the effects of climate on species are based on average conditions above ground level (measured by meteorological stations) averaged across 100 km2 or larger areas. However, most terrestrial organisms experience conditions in a much smaller area at the ground surface or within vegetation canopies, the climate of which can be very different to large-scale averages. Therefore, to accurately characterise the climatic conditions suitable for species, it is essential to include microclimate information. Microclimates are affected by the shape of the landscape, including the steepness and aspect of slopes, height above sea level, proximity to the sea or inland water, and whether a site is in a valley or at the top of a hill. Plants also modify the conditions found within or below their canopies, with the structure of vegetation playing an important role. The recent increase in the availability of microsensors and remotely sensed data at appropriate resolutions has led some ecologists to begin to include microclimate information within a variety of contexts; however the field can be confusing and intimidating and mistakes are often made along the way. In this chapter, we provide an overview of microclimatic processes and summarise the available methods of measuring and modelling microclimate data for incorporation in ecological research. We highlight pitfalls to avoid emerging novel methods and the limitations of some techniques. We also consider future research directions and opportunities within this emerging field.
  • Chapter Two - Why We Need Sustainable Networks Bridging Countries,
           Disciplines, Cultures and Generations for Aquatic Biomonitoring 2.0: A
           Perspective Derived From the DNAqua-Net COST Action
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 58Author(s): Florian Leese, Agnès Bouchez, Kessy Abarenkov, Florian Altermatt, Ángel Borja, Kat Bruce, Torbjørn Ekrem, Fedor Čiampor, Zuzana Čiamporová-Zaťovičová, Filipe O. Costa, Sofia Duarte, Vasco Elbrecht, Diego Fontaneto, Alain Franc, Matthias F. Geiger, Daniel Hering, Maria Kahlert, Belma Kalamujić Stroil, Martyn Kelly, Emre Keskin Aquatic biomonitoring has become an essential task in Europe and many other regions as a consequence of strong anthropogenic pressures affecting the health of lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater. A typical assessment of the environmental quality status, such as it is required by European but also North American and other legislation, relies on matching the composition of assemblages of organisms identified using morphological criteria present in aquatic ecosystems to those expected in the absence of anthropogenic pressures. Through decade-long and difficult intercalibration exercises among networks of regulators and scientists in European countries, a pragmatic biomonitoring approach was developed and adopted, which now produces invaluable information. Nonetheless, this approach is based on several hundred different protocols, making it susceptible to issues with comparability, scale and resolution. Furthermore, data acquisition is often slow due to a lack of taxonomic experts for many taxa and regions and time-consuming morphological identification of organisms. High-throughput genetic screening methods such as (e)DNA metabarcoding have been proposed as a possible solution to these shortcomings. Such “next-generation biomonitoring”, also termed “biomonitoring 2.0”, has many advantages over the traditional approach in terms of speed, comparability and costs. It also creates the potential to include new bioindicators and thereby further improves the assessment of aquatic ecosystem health. However, several major conceptual and technological challenges still hinder its implementation into legal and regulatory frameworks. Academic scientists sometimes tend to overlook legal or socioeconomic constraints, which regulators have to consider on a regular basis. Moreover, quantification of species abundance or biomass remains a significant bottleneck to releasing the full potential of these approaches. Here, we highlight the main challenges for next-generation aquatic biomonitoring and outline principles and good practices to address these with an emphasis on bridging traditional disciplinary boundaries between academics, regulators, stakeholders and industry.
  • Chapter One - Biomonitoring for the 21st Century: Integrating
           Next-Generation Sequencing Into Ecological Network Analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 58Author(s): Stéphane A.P. Derocles, David A. Bohan, Alex J. Dumbrell, James J.N. Kitson, François Massol, Charlie Pauvert, Manuel Plantegenest, Corinne Vacher, Darren M. Evans Ecological network analysis (ENA) provides a mechanistic framework for describing complex species interactions, quantifying ecosystem services, and examining the impacts of environmental change on ecosystems. In this chapter, we highlight the importance and potential of ENA in future biomonitoring programs, as current biomonitoring indicators (e.g. species richness, population abundances of targeted species) are mostly descriptive and unable to characterize the mechanisms that underpin ecosystem functioning. Measuring the robustness of multilayer networks in the long term is one way of integrating ecological metrics more generally into biomonitoring schemes to better measure biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Ecological networks are nevertheless difficult and labour-intensive to construct using conventional approaches, especially when building multilayer networks in poorly studied ecosystems (i.e. many tropical regions). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides unprecedented opportunities to rapidly build highly resolved species interaction networks across multiple trophic levels, but are yet to be fully exploited. We highlight the impediments to ecologists wishing to build DNA-based ecological networks and discuss some possible solutions. Machine learning and better data sharing between ecologists represent very important areas for advances in NGS-based networks. The future of network ecology is very exciting as all the tools necessary to build highly resolved multilayer networks are now within ecologists reach.
  • Acknowledgements
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 58Author(s):
  • Chapter Six - Mapping Mediterranean Wetlands With Remote Sensing: A
           Good-Looking Map Is Not Always a Good Map
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 58Author(s): Christian Perennou, Anis Guelmami, Marc Paganini, Petra Philipson, Brigitte Poulin, Adrian Strauch, Christian Tottrup, John Truckenbrodt, Ilse R. Geijzendorffer Wetlands are a key habitat within the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot and provide important ecosystem services for human well-being. Remote sensing (RS) has significantly boosted our ability to monitor changes in Mediterranean wetlands, especially in areas where little information is being collected. However, its application to wetlands has sometimes been flawed with uncertainties and unrecognized errors, to a large extent due to the inherent and specific ecological characteristics of Mediterranean wetlands. We present here an overview of the state of the art on RS techniques for mapping and monitoring Mediterranean wetlands, and the remaining challenges: delineating and separating wetland habitat types; mapping water dynamics inside wetlands; and detecting actual wetland trends over time in a context of high, natural variability. The most important lessons learned are that ecologists’ knowledge need to be integrated with RS expertise to achieve a valuable monitoring approach of these ecosystems.
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 58Author(s):
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