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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2982 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1420 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
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Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
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Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
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Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
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Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 231)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Advances in Ecological Research
  [SJR: 3.25]   [H-I: 43]   [39 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2504
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Chapter Six 14 Questions for Invasion in Ecological Networks
    • Authors: J.H. Pantel; D.A. Bohan; V. Calcagno; P. David; P.-F. Duyck; S. Kamenova; N. Loeuille; G. Mollot; T.N. Romanuk; E. Thébault; P. Tixier; F. Massol
      Pages: 293 - 340
      Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 56
      Author(s): J.H. Pantel, D.A. Bohan, V. Calcagno, P. David, P.-F. Duyck, S. Kamenova, N. Loeuille, G. Mollot, T.N. Romanuk, E. Thébault, P. Tixier, F. Massol
      Why do some species successfully invade new environments? Which of these invasive species will alter or even reshape their new environment? The answers to these questions are simultaneously critical and complex. They are critical because invasive species can spectacularly alter their new environment, leading to native species extinctions or loss of important ecosystem functions that fundamentally reduce environmental and societal services. They are complex because invasion success in a novel environment is influenced by various attributes embedded in natural landscapes—biogeographical landscape properties, abiotic environmental characteristics, and the relationship between the invasive species and the resident species present in the new environment. We explore whether a condensed record of the relationships among species, in the form of a network, contains the information needed to understand and predict invasive species success and subsequent impacts. Applying network theory to study invasive species is a relatively novel approach. For this reason, much research will be needed to incorporate existing ecological properties into a network framework and to identify which network features hold the information needed to understand and predict whether or not an invasive species is likely to establish or come to dominate a novel environment. This paper asks and begins to answer the 14 most important questions that biologists must address to integrate network analysis into the study of invasive species. Answering these questions can help ecologists produce a practical monitoring scheme to identify invasive species before they substantially alter native environments or to provide solutions to mitigate their harmful impacts.

      PubDate: 2017-01-20T07:30:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aecr.2016.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 56 (2017)
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 57


      PubDate: 2017-03-16T21:34:13Z
       
  • Advances in Ecological Research Volume 1–57
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 57


      PubDate: 2017-03-16T21:34:13Z
       
  • Invasions of Host-Associated Microbiome Networks
    • Authors: C.L. Murall; J.L. Abbate; M. Puelma Touzel; E. Allen-Vercoe; S. Alizon; R. Froissart; K. McCann
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): C.L. Murall, J.L. Abbate, M. Puelma Touzel, E. Allen-Vercoe, S. Alizon, R. Froissart, K. McCann
      The study of biological invasions of ecological systems has much to offer research on within–host (WH) systems, particularly for understanding infections and developing therapies using biological agents. Thanks to the ground-work established in other fields, such as community ecology and evolutionary biology, and to modern methods of measurement and quantification, the study of microbiomes has quickly become a field at the forefront of modern systems biology. Investigations of host-associated microbiomes (e.g. for studying human health) are often centred on measuring and explaining the structure, functions and stability of these communities. This momentum promises to rapidly advance our understanding of ecological networks and their stability, resilience and resistance to invasions. However, intrinsic properties of host-associated microbiomes that differ from those of free-living systems present challenges to the development of a WH invasion ecology framework. The elucidation of principles underlying the invasibility of WH networks will ultimately help in the development of medical applications and help shape our understanding of human health and disease.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T07:58:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aecr.2016.11.002
       
  • Massively Introduced Managed Species and Their Consequences for
           Plant–Pollinator Interactions
    • Authors: B. Geslin; B. Gauzens; M. Baude; I. Dajoz; C. Fontaine; M. Henry; L. Ropars; O. Rollin; E. Thébault; N.J. Vereecken
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): B. Geslin, B. Gauzens, M. Baude, I. Dajoz, C. Fontaine, M. Henry, L. Ropars, O. Rollin, E. Thébault, N.J. Vereecken
      Since the rise of agriculture, human populations have domesticated plant and animal species to fulfil their needs. With modern agriculture, a limited number of these species has been massively produced over large areas at high local densities. Like invasive species, these Massively Introduced Managed Species (MIMS) integrate local communities and can trigger cascading effects on the structure and functioning of ecosystems. Here, we focus on plant and insect MIMS in the context of plant–pollinator systems. Several crop species such as mass flowering crops (e.g. Brassica napus) and domesticated pollinating insects (e.g. Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris) have been increasingly introduced worldwide and their impact on natural communities is addressed by an increasing number of scientific studies. First, we review the impacts of major insect and plant MIMS on natural communities by identifying how they affect other species through competition (direct and apparent competition) or facilitation (attraction, spillover). Second, we show how MIMS can alter the structure of plant–pollinator networks. We specifically analysed the position of A. mellifera from 63 published plant–pollinator webs to illustrate that MIMS can occupy a central position in the networks, leading to functional consequences. Finally, we present the features of MIMS in sensitive environments ranging from oceanic islands to protected areas, as a basis to discuss the impacts of MIMS in urban context and agrosystems. Through the case study of MIMS in plant–pollinator interactions, we thus provide here a first perspective of the role of MIMS in the functioning of ecosystems.

      PubDate: 2017-01-20T07:30:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aecr.2016.10.007
       
  • Novel and Disrupted Trophic Links Following Invasion in Freshwater
           Ecosystems
    • Authors: M.C. Jackson; R.J. Wasserman; J. Grey; A. Ricciardi; J.T.A. Dick; M.E. Alexander
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): M.C. Jackson, R.J. Wasserman, J. Grey, A. Ricciardi, J.T.A. Dick, M.E. Alexander
      When invasive species become integrated within a food web, they may have numerous direct and indirect impacts on the native community by creating novel trophic links, and modifying or disrupting existing ones. Here we discuss these impacts by drawing on examples from freshwater ecosystems, and argue that future research should quantify changes in such trophic interactions (i.e. the links in a food web), rather than simply focusing on traditional measures of diversity or abundance (i.e. the nodes in a food web). We conceptualise the impacts of invaders on trophic links as either direct consumption, indirect trophic effects (e.g. cascading interactions, competition) or indirect nontrophic effects (e.g. behaviour mediated). We then discuss how invader impacts on trophic links are context-dependent, varying with invader traits (e.g. feeding rates), abiotic variables (e.g. temperature, pH) and the traits of the receiving community (e.g. predators or competitors). Co-occurring invasive species and other environmental stressors, such as climate change, will also influence invader impacts on trophic links. Finally, we discuss the available methods to identify new food web interactions following invasion and to quantify how invasive species disrupt existing feeding links. Methods include direct observations in the field, laboratory trials (e.g. to quantify functional responses) and controlled mesocosm experiments to elucidate impacts on food webs. Field studies which use tracer techniques, such as stable isotope analyses, allow diet characterisation of both invaders and interacting native species in the wild. We conclude that invasive species often drastically alter food webs by creating and disrupting trophic links, and future research should be directed particularly towards disentangling the effects of invaders from other environmental stressors.

      PubDate: 2017-01-20T07:30:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aecr.2016.10.006
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 56


      PubDate: 2017-01-20T07:30:35Z
       
  • Advances in Ecological Research Volume 1–56
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 56


      PubDate: 2017-01-20T07:30:35Z
       
  • Robustness Trade-Offs in Model Food Webs: Invasion Probability Decreases
           While Invasion Consequences Increase With Connectance
    • Authors: T.N. Romanuk; Y. Zhou; F.S. Valdovinos; N.D. Martinez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): T.N. Romanuk, Y. Zhou, F.S. Valdovinos, N.D. Martinez
      The invasion of ecosystems by nonnative species is widely considered the greatest threat to biodiversity after habitat loss. Given limited theoretical and empirical understanding of ecological robustness to such perturbations, we simulated invasions of complex ecological networks by integrating the ‘niche model’ of food web structure and a nonlinear bioenergetic model of population dynamics. Overall, 7958 successful invasions by 100 different invaders in 150 food webs with 15–29 original species (mean 20) and 5–38% connectance (mean 16%) showed that most (61%) communities were robust to invasion in that they experienced no species loss. The distribution of robustness in terms of the fraction of native species that persisted (mean 94%) was skewed with a long tail reaching to values as low as 20%. Loss of a single species occurred less frequently (14% of cases) than ‘extinction cascades’ involving the loss of two or more species (25% of cases). These cascades were often caused by invaders with many prey species and few predator species. While low-connectance webs and webs invaded by omnivores were most likely to lose at least one additional species, high-connectance webs experiencing extinction cascades lost the most species, especially when invaded by secondary consumers. These and earlier simulation results suggest how the structure of invaded communities and the properties of invaders involve trade-offs among robustness and resistance to invasion. For example, high-connectance communities are highly resistant and robust to invasion overall but lose the most species in the relatively few cases when extinctions occur. Low-connectance webs are the least resistant and more often lack robustness but lose the fewest species in the relatively many cases when extinctions occur. Broadly speaking, these findings suggest that high connectance makes food webs rigidly resistant to invasion but more brittle once such rigidity is breached. Low-connectance webs are less rigid while more flexibly suffering fewer extinctions when extinctions occur.

      PubDate: 2017-01-12T14:49:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aecr.2016.11.001
       
  • Impacts of Invasive Species on Food Webs: A Review of Empirical Data
    • Authors: P. David; E. Thébault; O. Anneville; P.-F. Duyck; E. Chapuis; N. Loeuille
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): P. David, E. Thébault, O. Anneville, P.-F. Duyck, E. Chapuis, N. Loeuille
      We review empirical studies on how bioinvasions alter food webs and how a food-web perspective may change their prediction and management. Predation is found to underlie the most spectacular damage in invaded systems, sometimes cascading down to primary producers. Indirect trophic effects (exploitative and apparent competition) also affect native species, but rarely provoke extinctions, while invaders often have positive bottom-up effects on higher trophic levels. As a result of these trophic interactions, and of nontrophic ones such as mutualisms or ecosystem engineering, invasions can profoundly modify the structure of the entire food web. While few studies have been undertaken at this scale, those that have highlight how network properties such as species richness, phenotypic diversity, and functional diversity, limit the likelihood and impacts of invasions by saturating niche space. Vulnerable communities have unsaturated niche space mainly because of evolutionary history in isolation (islands), dispersal limitation, or anthropogenic disturbance. Evolution also modulates the insertion of invaders into a food web. Exotics and natives are evolutionarily new to one another, and invasion tends to retain alien species that happen to have advantage over residents in trophic interactions. Resident species, therefore, often rapidly evolve traits to better tolerate or exploit invaders—a process that may eventually restore more balanced food webs and prevent extinctions. We discuss how network-based principles might guide management policies to better live with invaders, rather than to undertake the daunting (and often illusory) task of eradicating them one by one.

      PubDate: 2017-01-12T14:49:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aecr.2016.10.001
       
  • Invasions Toolkit: Current Methods for Tracking the Spread and Impact of
           Invasive Species
    • Authors: Kamenova T.J.; Bartley Bohan J.R. Boutain R.I. Colautti Domaizon Fontaine
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): S. Kamenova, T.J. Bartley, D. Bohan, J.R. Boutain, R.I. Colautti, I. Domaizon, C. Fontaine, A. Lemainque, I. Le Viol, G. Mollot, M.-E. Perga, V. Ravigné, F. Massol
      Biological invasions exert multiple pervasive effects on ecosystems, potentially disrupting species interactions and global ecological processes. Our ability to successfully predict and manage the ecosystem-level impacts of biological invasions is strongly dependent on our capacity to empirically characterize complex biological interactions and their spatiotemporal dynamics. In this chapter, we argue that the comprehensive integration of multiple complementary tools within the explicit context of ecological networks is essential for providing mechanistic insight into invasion processes and their impact across organizational levels. We provide an overview of traditional (stable isotopes, populations genetics) and emerging (metabarcoding, citizen science) techniques and methods, and their practical implementation in the context of biological invasions. We also present several currently available models and machine-learning approaches that could be used for predicting novel or undocumented interactions, thus allowing a more robust and cost-effective forecast of network and ecosystem stability. Finally, we discuss the importance of methodological advancements on the emergence of scientific and societal challenges for investigating local and global species histories with several skill sets.

      PubDate: 2017-01-04T10:02:59Z
       
  • Parasites and Biological Invasions: Predicting Ecological Alterations at
           Levels From Individual Hosts to Whole Networks
    • Authors: Firmat D.J.; Sheath Pegg Andreou J.R. Britton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): V. Médoc, C. Firmat, D.J. Sheath, J. Pegg, D. Andreou, J.R. Britton
      The network approach is increasingly used by food-web ecologists and ecological parasitologists and has shed light on how parasite–host assemblages are organized, as well as on the role of parasites on the structure and stability of food webs. With accelerating rates of nonnative parasites being introduced around the world, there is an increasing need to predict their ecological impacts and the network approach can be helpful in this regard. There is inherent complexity in parasite invasions as parasites are highly diverse in terms of taxa and life strategies. Furthermore, they may depend on their cointroduced host to successfully overcome some crucial steps in the invasion process. Free-living introduced species often experience enemy release during invasion, which reduces the number of introduced parasites. However, introduced parasites that successfully establish may alter the structure of the recipient network through various mechanisms including parasite spill-over and spill-back, and manipulative and nonmanipulative phenotypic alterations. Despite limited literature on biological invasions in infectious food webs, some outstanding methodological issues and the considerable knowledge gaps that remain, the network approach provides valuable insights on some challenging questions, such as the link between structure and invasibility by parasites. Additional empirical data and theoretical investigations are needed to go further and the predictive power of the network approach will be improved by incorporating weighted methods that are based on trophic data collected using quantitative methods, such as stable isotope analyses.

      PubDate: 2017-01-04T10:02:59Z
       
  • The Effects of Invasive Species on the Decline in Species Richness: A
           Global Meta-Analysis
    • Authors: Mollot J.H.; Pantel T.N. Romanuk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): G. Mollot, J.H. Pantel, T.N. Romanuk
      Biological invasions are one of the most important ecological disturbances that threaten native biodiversity. An expected increase in the rate of species extinction will have major effects on the structure and function of ecosystems worldwide. The goal of our study is to determine which ecological properties mediate the impact of invasive species on biodiversity loss on a global scale using a meta-analysis. We considered the role of properties such as the trophic and taxonomic position of invaders, taxonomic groups of invaded systems, the type of habitats invaded and whether the invasive species is included in a list of the most harmful invasive species for biodiversity loss. We compiled 185 studies that included 253 numerical values of changes of species richness due to species invasion. We investigated the role of trophic and taxonomic parameters of invaders, as well as the role of abiotic parameters of habitat on changes in species richness due to biological invasions. Our results show that plant invaders are highly represented (85% of all invaders studied), especially those belonging to the Poaceae family. For animals, predation seems to be the feeding behaviour associated with the greatest decrease in species richness and this relationship is independent of habitat type, with a 21% decline observed in aquatic habitats and a 27% decline in terrestrial habitats. In invaded communities, birds suffer the greatest decline in species richness (41% decline). Finally, we found that species richness declines in Europe are spatially autocorrelated, suggesting that the consequences of invasive species cannot be understood through local-scale analysis alone.

      PubDate: 2017-01-04T10:02:59Z
       
  • Importance of Microorganisms to Macroorganisms Invasions: Is the Essential
           
    • Authors: L. Amsellem; C. Brouat; O. Duron; S.S. Porter; A. Vilcinskas; B. Facon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): L. Amsellem, C. Brouat, O. Duron, S.S. Porter, A. Vilcinskas, B. Facon
      Microorganisms comprise the majority of earth's biodiversity and are integral to biosphere processes. Biological invasions are no exception to this trend. The success of introduced macroorganisms can be deeply influenced by diverse microorganisms (bacteria, virus, fungus and protozoa) occupying the whole range of species interaction outcomes, from parasitism to obligate mutualism. This large range of interactions, often coupled with complex historical and introduction events, can result in a wide variety of ecological dynamics. In this chapter, we review different situations in which microorganisms affect biological invasions. First, we consider outcomes of microorganism loss during the introduction of alien species. Second, we discuss positive effects of microorganisms on the invasiveness of their exotic hosts. Third, we examine the influence of microorganisms hosted by native species on the success of introduced species. Finally, in an applied perspective, we envisage how microorganisms can be used (i) to better decipher invasion processes and (ii) as biological control agents.

      PubDate: 2017-01-04T10:02:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aecr.2016.10.005
       
  • Island Biogeography of Food Webs
    • Authors: F. Massol; M. Dubart; V. Calcagno; K. Cazelles; C. Jacquet; S. Kéfi; D. Gravel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): F. Massol, M. Dubart, V. Calcagno, K. Cazelles, C. Jacquet, S. Kéfi, D. Gravel
      To understand why and how species invade ecosystems, ecologists have made heavy use of observations of species colonization on islands. The theory of island biogeography, developed in the 1960s by R.H. MacArthur and E.O. Wilson, has had a tremendous impact on how ecologists understand the link between species diversity and characteristics of the habitat such as isolation and size. Recent developments have described how the inclusion of information on trophic interactions can further inform our understanding of island biogeography dynamics. Here, we extend the trophic theory of island biogeography to assess whether certain food web properties on the mainland affect colonization/extinction dynamics of species on islands. Our results highlight that both food web connectance and size on the mainland increase species diversity on islands. We also highlight that more heavily tailed degree distributions in the mainland food web correlate with less frequent but potentially more important extinction cascades on islands. The average shortest path to a basal species on islands follows a hump-shaped curve as a function of realized species richness, with food chains slightly longer than on the mainland at intermediate species richness. More modular mainland webs are also less persistent on islands. We discuss our results in the context of global changes and from the viewpoint of community assembly rules, aiming at pinpointing further theoretical developments needed to make the trophic theory of island biogeography even more useful for fundamental and applied ecology.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T03:16:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aecr.2016.10.004
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 55


      PubDate: 2016-10-10T10:04:32Z
       
  • Chapter Nine Shifting Impacts of Climate Change
    • Authors: L.C. Andresen; Dato J.S. Dukes B.A. Emmett Estiarte Jentsch Niu
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 55
      Author(s): L.C. Andresen, C. Müller, G. de Dato, J.S. Dukes, B.A. Emmett, M. Estiarte, A. Jentsch, G. Kröel-Dulay, A. Lüscher, S. Niu, J. Peñuelas, P.B. Reich, S. Reinsch, R. Ogaya, I.K. Schmidt, M.K. Schneider, M. Sternberg, A. Tietema, K. Zhu, M.C. Bilton
      Field experiments that expose terrestrial ecosystems to climate change factors by manipulations are expensive to maintain, and typically only last a few years. Plant biomass is commonly used to assess responses to climate treatments and to predict climate change impacts. However, response to the treatments might be considerably different between the early years and a decade later. The aim of this data analysis was to develop and apply a method for evaluating changes in plant biomass responses through time, in order to provide a firm basis for discussing how the ‘short-term’ response might differ from the ‘long-term’ response. Across 22 sites situated in the northern hemisphere, which covered three continents, and multiple ecosystems (grasslands, shrublands, moorlands, forests, and deserts), we evaluated biomass datasets from long-term experiments with exposure to elevated CO2 (eCO2), warming, or drought. We developed methods for assessing biomass response patterns to the manipulations using polynomial and linear (piecewise) model analysis and linked the responses to site-specific variables such as temperature and rainfall. Polynomial patterns across sites indicated changes in response direction over time under eCO2, warming, and drought. In addition, five distinct pattern types were confirmed within sites: ‘no response’, ‘delayed response’, ‘directional response’, ‘dampening response’, and ‘altered response’ patterns. We found that biomass response direction was as likely to change over time as it was to be consistent, and therefore suggest that climate manipulation experiments should be carried out over timescales covering both short- and long-term responses, in order to realistically assess future impacts of climate change.

      PubDate: 2016-10-10T10:04:32Z
       
  • Advances in Ecological Research Volume 1–55
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 55


      PubDate: 2016-10-10T10:04:32Z
       
  • Chapter Eleven Effective River Restoration in the 21st Century: From Trial
           and Error to Novel Evidence-Based Approaches
    • Authors: Friberg N.V.; Angelopoulos A.D. Buijse I.G. Cowx Kail T.F. Moe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): N. Friberg, N.V. Angelopoulos, A.D. Buijse, I.G. Cowx, J. Kail, T.F. Moe, H. Moir, M.T. O’Hare, P.F.M. Verdonschot, C. Wolter
      This paper is a comprehensive and updated overview of river restoration and covers all relevant aspects from drivers of restoration, linkages between hydromorphology and biota, the current restoration paradigm, effects of restorations to future directions and ways forward in the way we conduct river restoration. A large part of this paper is based on the outcomes of the REFORM (REstoring rivers FOR effective catchment Management, http://reformrivers.eu/) project that was funded by EU's 7th Framework Programme (2011–15). REFORM included the most comprehensive comparison, to date, of existing river restorations across Europe and their effect on biota, both in relation to preintervention state and project size in terms of river length restored. The REFORM project outcomes are supplemented by an extensive literature review and two case studies to illustrate key points. We conclude that river restorations conducted up until now have had highly variable effects with, on balance, more positives than negatives. The largest positive effects have interestingly been in terrestrial and semiaquatic organism groups, in widening projects, while positive effects on truly aquatic organisms groups are only seen when in-stream measures are applied. The positive responses of biota are primarily seen as increased abundance of organisms with very little indication that overall biodiversity has increased: specific traits rather than mere species number or total abundance have benefited from restoration interventions. This modest success rate can partly be attributed to the fact that the catchment filter is largely ignored; large-scale pressures related to catchment land use or the lack of source populations for the recolonisation of the restored habitats are inadequately considered. The key reason for this shortfall is a lack of clear objective setting and planning processes. Furthermore, we suggest that there has been a focus on form rather than processes and functioning in river restoration, which has truncated the evolution of geomorphic features and any dynamic interaction with biota. Finally, monitoring of restoration outcomes is still rare and often uses inadequate statistical designs and inappropriate biological methods which hamper our ability to detect change.

      PubDate: 2016-10-03T08:34:58Z
       
  • Litter Decomposition as an Indicator of Stream Ecosystem Functioning at
           Local-to-Continental Scales: Insights from the European RivFunction
           Project
    • Authors: Chauvet Ferreira; P.S. Giller B.G. McKie S.D. Tiegs Woodward Elosegi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): E. Chauvet, V. Ferreira, P.S. Giller, B.G. McKie, S.D. Tiegs, G. Woodward, A. Elosegi, M. Dobson, T. Fleituch, M.A.S. Graça, V. Gulis, S. Hladyz, J.O. Lacoursière, A. Lecerf, J. Pozo, E. Preda, M. Riipinen, G. Rîşnoveanu, A. Vadineanu, L.B.-M. Vought, M.O. Gessner
      RivFunction is a pan-European initiative that started in 2002 and was aimed at establishing a novel functional-based approach to assessing the ecological status of rivers. Litter decomposition was chosen as the focal process because it plays a central role in stream ecosystems and is easy to study in the field. Impacts of two stressors that occur across the continent, nutrient pollution and modified riparian vegetation, were examined at >200 paired sites in nine European ecoregions. In response to the former, decomposition was dramatically slowed at both extremes of a 1000-fold nutrient gradient, indicating nutrient limitation in unpolluted sites, highly variable responses across Europe in moderately impacted streams, and inhibition via associated toxic and additional stressors in highly polluted streams. Riparian forest modification by clear cutting or replacement of natural vegetation by plantations (e.g. conifers, eucalyptus) or pasture produced similarly complex responses. Clear effects caused by specific riparian disturbances were observed in regionally focused studies, but general trends across different types of riparian modifications were not apparent, in part possibly because of important indirect effects. Complementary field and laboratory experiments were undertaken to tease apart the mechanistic drivers of the continental scale field bioassays by addressing the influence of litter, fungal and detritivore diversity. These revealed generally weak and context-dependent effects on decomposition, suggesting high levels of redundancy (and hence potential insurance mechanisms that can mitigate a degree of species loss) within the food web. Reduced species richness consistently increased decomposition variability, if not the absolute rate. Further field studies were aimed at identifying important sources of this variability (e.g. litter quality, temporal variability) to help constrain ranges of predicted decomposition rates in different field situations. Thus, although many details still need to be resolved, litter decomposition holds considerable potential in some circumstances to capture impairment of stream ecosystem functioning. For instance, species traits associated with the body size and metabolic capacity of the consumers were often the main driver at local scales, and these were often translated into important determinants of otherwise apparently contingent effects at larger scales. Key insights gained from conducting continental scale studies included resolving the apparent paradox of inconsistent relationships between nutrients and decomposition rates, as the full complex multidimensional picture emerged from the large-scale dataset, of which only seemingly contradictory fragments had been seen previously.

      PubDate: 2016-10-03T08:34:58Z
       
  • The Colne Estuary: A Long-Term Microbial Ecology Observatory
    • Authors: D.B. Nedwell; G.J.C. Underwood T.J. McGenity Whitby A.J. Dumbrell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): D.B. Nedwell, G.J.C. Underwood, T.J. McGenity, C. Whitby, A.J. Dumbrell
      Research spanning over 40 years has examined many aspects of the microbial ecology of the Colne estuary (Essex, United Kingdom) and it is arguably the most comprehensively understood temperate estuary in the Northern hemisphere. The hypernutrified Colne estuary exhibits strong gradients of nutrient concentrations (nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, dissolved organic nitrogen) from river and treated sewage inputs at the top of the estuary, with concentrations decreasing towards the estuary mouth. These strong concentration gradients facilitate the study of the biogeochemical process rates and the microbial communities responsible. Planktonic primary production is at an oligotrophic level because of light limitation in the turbid water, but a mixed water column maintains planktonic photosynthesis despite low light. Dense microphytobenthic biofilms occur throughout the estuary, with high rates of annual primary production typical of NW European nutrient-rich estuaries, but benthic primary production accounts for only a small proportion of the N load to the estuary. Organic matter degradation is focussed in the estuarine sediments, with greatest organic content in the upper estuary, decreasing towards the mouth. Benthic biogeochemical processes, leading to organic mineralisation and element recycling, including O2 uptake, sulphate reduction, methanogenesis, nitrate reduction, denitrification and anammox have all been quantified along the estuary, together with chemolithotrophic nitrification. Benthic denitrification removes a significant proportion of the N load to the estuary. Molecular techniques, including profiling, identification and quantification of 16S rRNA and key functional genes, have provided an understanding of the microbial communities in relation to position and biogeochemical activity. The concentrations and emissions of biological volatile compounds (nitrous oxide, methane, hydrogen sulphide and isoprene) have also been measured, and their ecological significance elucidated. Tidal exchange between the saltmarshes and the main estuary channel shows seasonal variation. When nitrate in tidal water is high in spring, the marsh sediments remove it, but tidally export ammonium and small particles of organic nitrogen to the estuary in summer when nitrogen in coastal water is low. Overall, the saltmarshes show a balanced nitrogen cycle suggestive of a stable climax community, but capable of responding to and removing increased nitrate concentrations in estuarine waters. These data, originating from the long-term study of a single system, are unique and this paper highlights how the Colne estuary microbial ecology observatory has contributed to our understanding of estuarine microbial ecology and biogeochemistry.

      PubDate: 2016-09-22T07:06:55Z
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research, Volume 54


      PubDate: 2016-02-02T06:22:26Z
       
  • The Challenges of Linking Ecosystem Services to Biodiversity: Lessons from
           a Large-Scale Freshwater Study
    • Authors: Isabelle Durance; Michael Bruford Rachel Chalmers Nick Chappell Mike Christie
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): Isabelle Durance, Michael W. Bruford, Rachel Chalmers, Nick A. Chappell, Mike Christie, B. Jack Cosby, David Noble, Steve J. Ormerod, Havard Prosser, Andrew Weightman, Guy Woodward
      There is a growing consensus that inappropriate valuation of the world's ecosystem services has historically led to widespread errors in environmental management, with associated negative social consequences. Freshwater ecosystems are prime examples: when managed appropriately, they provide major services, such as fish production, water supply, nutrient transport, health benefits and recreational value. However, these services are often compromised because they are seldom recognised explicitly in catchment use and planning. Moreover, pressures on river ecosystem services will grow as land use intensifies, water demands increase, and climate change accelerates over the coming decades. Maintaining and protecting river ecosystem services will depend increasingly on understanding the processes that underpin and degrade them, and especially in terms of characterising the roles played by the biota. While the integrity and stability of ecosystem processes tend to increase with biodiversity, how services and biodiversity are related is largely unknown, due to a range of unresolved practical and philosophical issues. We explore some of the key challenges and opportunities that lie in assessing the role of freshwater biodiversity in sustaining ecosystem services, using the recent large interdisciplinary NERC-DURESS project (www.nerc-DURESS.org) as an exemplar case study of wider issues. The conceptual and methodological challenges raised are identified, explored and a range of methods are proposed to quantify how freshwater ecoservices, such as fish production or water quality regulation, depend on river organisms, and how we might identify biodiversity thresholds under which a service is likely to be compromised. We conclude that interdisciplinary, large scale, in situ approaches like these are needed to (i) fully understand how river biodiversity sustains ecosystem services; (ii) help evaluate if, where, and how the ecosystem approach can benefit long-term resource management and (iii) maximise impacts on policy, practice and decision making, which can be especially effective where strong ‘co-production’ partnerships with a broad range of stakeholders are developed and nurtured from a project's outset.

      PubDate: 2016-01-22T04:42:54Z
       
  • Tradeoffs and Compatibilities Among Ecosystem Services: Biological,
           Physical and Economic Drivers of Multifunctionality
    • Authors: Bradley Butterfield; Ashley Camhi Rachel Rubin Christopher Schwalm
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): Bradley J. Butterfield, Ashley L. Camhi, Rachel L. Rubin, Christopher R. Schwalm
      Balancing the joint production of multiple ecosystem services, also referred to as the ‘multifunctionality’ of an ecosystem or landscape, requires understanding of the ecological processes that produce and economic processes that evaluate those services. Here, we review the ecological tradeoffs and compatibilities among ecosystem processes that influence ecosystem multifunctionality with respect to ecosystem services, including variation in functional strategies, constraints on community assembly and direct effects of the abiotic environment. We then review how different valuation methods may alter the magnitude of tradeoffs and compatibilities in monetary terms. Among communities, functional diversity increases ecosystem multifunctionality, but community-average trait values are emerging as important drivers of ecosystem services with greater potential to produce tradeoffs when compared to functional diversity. However, research that links organismal functional strategies to community assembly rules in real, heterogeneous landscapes demonstrate that predictable tradeoffs among species do not consistently scale up to the community level, necessitating further research on trait-based community assembly in order to develop general predictive models of biotic effects on ecosystem multifunctionality. Abiotic factors are frequently incorporated into mapping assessments of multifunctionality, but the emergent tradeoffs and compatibilities in ecosystem services driven by those factors are rarely assessed, despite a number of studies that have demonstrated their clear importance in ecosystem multifunctionality. Finally, while a variety of valuation methods are used to quantify the joint production of ecosystem services, only provisioning services are typically directly valued and assumed to have fixed correlations with other ecosystem services that can lead to inaccurate valuation, and potentially inappropriate prioritisation, of multiple ecosystem services.

      PubDate: 2016-01-22T04:42:54Z
       
  • Protecting an Ecosystem Service: Approaches to Understanding and
           Mitigating Threats to Wild Insect Pollinators
    • Authors: Richard Gill; Katherine C.R. Baldock Mark J.F. Brown James Cresswell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): Richard J. Gill, Katherine C.R. Baldock, Mark J.F. Brown, James E. Cresswell, Lynn V. Dicks, Michelle T. Fountain, Michael P.D. Garratt, Leonie A. Gough, Matt S. Heard, John M. Holland, Jeff Ollerton, Graham N. Stone, Cuong Q. Tang, Adam J. Vanbergen, Alfried P. Vogler, Guy Woodward, Andres N. Arce, Nigel D. Boatman, Richard Brand-Hardy, Tom D. Breeze, Mike Green, Chris M. Hartfield, Rory S. O’Connor, Juliet L. Osborne, James Phillips, Peter B. Sutton, Simon G. Potts
      Insect pollination constitutes an ecosystem service of global importance, providing significant economic and aesthetic benefits as well as cultural value to human society, alongside vital ecological processes in terrestrial ecosystems. It is therefore important to understand how insect pollinator populations and communities respond to rapidly changing environments if we are to maintain healthy and effective pollinator services. This chapter considers the importance of conserving pollinator diversity to maintain a suite of functional traits and provide a diverse set of pollinator services. We explore how we can better understand and mitigate the factors that threaten insect pollinator richness, placing our discussion within the context of populations in predominantly agricultural landscapes in addition to urban environments. We highlight a selection of important evidence gaps, with a number of complementary research steps that can be taken to better understand: (i) the stability of pollinator communities in different landscapes in order to provide diverse pollinator services; (ii) how we can study the drivers of population change to mitigate the effects and support stable sources of pollinator services and (iii) how we can manage habitats in complex landscapes to support insect pollinators and provide sustainable pollinator services for the future. We advocate a collaborative effort to gain higher quality abundance data to understand the stability of pollinator populations and predict future trends. In addition, for effective mitigation strategies to be adopted, researchers need to conduct rigorous field testing of outcomes under different landscape settings, acknowledge the needs of end-users when developing research proposals and consider effective methods of knowledge transfer to ensure effective uptake of actions.

      PubDate: 2016-01-14T03:17:21Z
       
  • Learning Ecological Networks from Next-Generation Sequencing Data
    • Authors: Corinne Vacher; Alireza Tamaddoni-Nezhad; Stefaniya Kamenova; Nathalie Peyrard; Yann Moalic; Régis Sabbadin; Loïc Schwaller; Julien Chiquet; M. Alex Smith; Jessica Vallance; Virgil Fievet; Boris Jakuschkin; David A. Bohan
      Pages: 1 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): Corinne Vacher, Alireza Tamaddoni-Nezhad, Stefaniya Kamenova, Nathalie Peyrard, Yann Moalic, Régis Sabbadin, Loïc Schwaller, Julien Chiquet, M. Alex Smith, Jessica Vallance, Virgil Fievet, Boris Jakuschkin, David A. Bohan
      Species diversity, and the various interactions that occur between species, supports ecosystems functioning and benefit human societies. Monitoring the response of species interactions to human alterations of the environment is thus crucial for preserving ecosystems. Ecological networks are now the standard method for representing and simultaneously analyzing all the interactions between species. However, deciphering such networks requires considerable time and resources to observe and sample the organisms, to identify them at the species level and to characterize their interactions. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques, combined with network learning and modelling, can help alleviate these constraints. They are essential for observing cryptic interactions involving microbial species, as well as short-term interactions such as those between predator and prey. Here, we present three case studies, in which species associations or interactions have been revealed with NGS. We then review several currently available statistical and machine-learning approaches that could be used for reconstructing networks of direct interactions between species, based on the NGS co-occurrence data. Future developments of these methods may allow us to discover and monitor species interactions cost-effectively, under various environmental conditions and within a replicated experimental design framework.

      PubDate: 2016-01-14T03:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aecr.2015.10.004
       
  • The Unique Contribution of Rothamsted to Ecological Research at Large
           Temporal Scales
    • Authors: J. Storkey; A.J. Macdonald; J.R. Bell; I.M. Clark; A.S. Gregory; N.J. Hawkins; P.R. Hirsch; L.C. Todman; A.P. Whitmore
      Pages: 3 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): J. Storkey, A.J. Macdonald, J.R. Bell, I.M. Clark, A.S. Gregory, N.J. Hawkins, P.R. Hirsch, L.C. Todman, A.P. Whitmore
      The Rothamsted Estate in Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, is home to the longest running ecological and agricultural experiments in the world that have generated unique data sets on the assembly and functioning of ecosystems that stretch back more than 170 years. In addition, the Rothamsted Sample Archive contains over 300,000 samples of dried soil, herbage, straw and grain dating back to the start of the first experiments. Additional long-term experiments were set up in the mid-1900s and the systematic sampling of invertebrates at Rothamsted started in 1964, which continues to this day in the form of the Rothamsted Insect Survey. Here, we introduce the resources available at Rothamsted for research on ecological processes that can only be understood using data over long time periods. Rather than cataloguing all the work that has been done using the data, we focus on new advances made in the last decade in areas of environmental monitoring, community ecology, evolutionary biology, ecosystem stability and resilience and microbial ecology. The combination of long-term data sets with archived plant and soil samples together with new analytical techniques mean that the Rothamsted long-term experiments and insect collections continue to be as relevant and valuable to scientists today as when they were originally set up.

      PubDate: 2016-09-22T07:06:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aecr.2016.08.002
       
  • The Visualisation of Ecological Networks, and Their Use as a Tool for
           Engagement, Advocacy and Management
    • Authors: Michael J.O. Pocock; Darren M. Evans; Colin Fontaine; Martin Harvey; Romain Julliard; Órla McLaughlin; Jonathan Silvertown; Alireza Tamaddoni-Nezhad; Piran C.L. White; David A. Bohan
      Pages: 41 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): Michael J.O. Pocock, Darren M. Evans, Colin Fontaine, Martin Harvey, Romain Julliard, Órla McLaughlin, Jonathan Silvertown, Alireza Tamaddoni-Nezhad, Piran C.L. White, David A. Bohan
      Ecological systems comprise of individuals and species interacting with each other and their environment, and these interactions combine to form complex networks. The maintenance of biodiversity and many ecosystem functions depend upon these ecological interactions. Humans, their crops and livestock can also be considered as part of these networks of interactions making network analysis valuable for considering the resilience of ecosystem services, i.e., the benefits we gain from nature. Networks are visually appealing and visualisation can attract attention and inform, both to communicate overall messages and provide comparisons between networks. There are many different approaches and layouts for visualising networks, but there is little research to help guide best practice. Ultimately though, best practice should be to ensure that messages are supported by evidence and clearly communicated with reference to the competence of the audience. Given the appeal of visualisations and the importance of networks in communicating the interdependence of species (including humans), ecological networks and their visualisation can be used to support excellent public engagement and can be used to enhance the value of citizen science, in which people actively contribute to scientific research. Network approaches could also be valuable for engagement with decision-makers and stakeholders, including their application to complex socio-economic systems, especially where co-production of network visualisations could provide evidence-based overviews of data. In summary, ecological networks and their visualisation are an important tool for scientific inquiry, communication and engagement with even greater potential than has currently been realised.

      PubDate: 2016-01-14T03:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aecr.2015.10.006
       
  • How Agricultural Intensification Affects Biodiversity and Ecosystem
           Services
    • Authors: M. Emmerson; M.B. Morales; J.J. Oñate; P. Batáry; F. Berendse; J. Liira; T. Aavik; I. Guerrero; R. Bommarco; S. Eggers; T. Pärt; T. Tscharntke; W. Weisser; L. Clement; J. Bengtsson
      Pages: 43 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): M. Emmerson, M.B. Morales, J.J. Oñate, P. Batáry, F. Berendse, J. Liira, T. Aavik, I. Guerrero, R. Bommarco, S. Eggers, T. Pärt, T. Tscharntke, W. Weisser, L. Clement, J. Bengtsson
      As the world's population continues to grow, the demand for food, fodder, fibre and bioenergy will increase. In Europe, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has driven the intensification of agriculture, promoting the simplification and specialization of agroecosystems through the decline in landscape heterogeneity, the increased use of chemicals per unit area, and the abandonment of less fertile areas. In combination, these processes have eroded the quantity and quality of habitat for many plants and animals, and hence decreased biodiversity and the abundance of species across a hierarchy of trophic levels and spatial scales within Europe. This biodiversity loss has led to profound changes in the functioning of European agroecosystems over the last 50 years. Here, we synthesize the findings from a large-scale pan-European investigation of the combined effects of agricultural intensification on a range of agroecosystem services. These include (1) the persistence of high conservation value species; (2) the level of biological control of agricultural pests and (3) the functional diversity of a number of taxonomic groups, including birds, beetles and arable weeds. The study encompasses a gradient of geography-bioclimate and agricultural intensification that enables the large-scale measurement of ecological impacts of agricultural intensification across European agroecosystems. We provide an overview of the role of the CAP as a driver of agricultural intensification in the European Union, and we demonstrate compelling negative relationships between the application of pesticides and the various components of biodiversity studied on a pan-European scale.

      PubDate: 2016-10-03T08:34:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aecr.2016.08.005
       
  • Unravelling the Impacts of Micropollutants in Aquatic Ecosystems:
           Interdisciplinary Studies at the Interface of Large-Scale Ecology
    • Authors: C. Stamm; K. Räsänen; F.J. Burdon; F. Altermatt; J. Jokela; A. Joss; M. Ackermann; R.I.L. Eggen
      Pages: 183 - 223
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): C. Stamm, K. Räsänen, F.J. Burdon, F. Altermatt, J. Jokela, A. Joss, M. Ackermann, R.I.L. Eggen
      Human-induced environmental changes are causing major shifts in ecosystems around the globe. To support environmental management, scientific research has to infer both general trends and context dependency in these shifts at global and local scales. Combining replicated real-world experiments, which take advantage of implemented mitigation measures or other forms of human impact, with research-led experimental manipulations can provide powerful scientific tools for inferring causal drivers of ecological change and the generality of their effects. Additionally, combining these two approaches can facilitate communication with stakeholders involved in implementing management strategies. We demonstrate such an integrative approach using the case study EcoImpact, which aims at empirically unravelling the impacts of wastewater-born micropollutants on aquatic ecosystems.

      PubDate: 2016-09-22T07:06:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aecr.2016.07.002
       
  • Disentangling the Pathways and Effects of Ecosystem Service Co-Production
    • Authors: Ignacio Palomo; María R. Felipe-Lucia; Elena M. Bennett; Berta Martín-López; Unai Pascual
      Pages: 245 - 283
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): Ignacio Palomo, María R. Felipe-Lucia, Elena M. Bennett, Berta Martín-López, Unai Pascual
      Research on ecosystem services has become a dominant field within environmental management, framing the way in which human–nature relationships are understood and managed. Although ecosystem services are usually defined as ‘the benefits that humans receive from nature’, our work shows that most services are actually co-produced by a mixture of natural capital and various forms of social, human, financial and technological capital. Here, we review how ecosystem services are co-produced, and then we assess how this affects the quantity, quality, trade-offs, resilience and the equity of the distribution of ecosystem services. Then we discuss the implications of co-production for sustainability. Finally, we present some challenges for an adequate consideration of co-production within the assessment of ecosystem services.

      PubDate: 2016-01-14T03:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aecr.2015.09.003
       
  • Locally Extreme Environments as Natural Long-Term Experiments in Ecology
    • Authors: I. Maček; D. Vodnik; H. Pfanz; E. Low-Décarie; A.J. Dumbrell
      Pages: 283 - 323
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): I. Maček, D. Vodnik, H. Pfanz, E. Low-Décarie, A.J. Dumbrell
      Many natural phenomena and ecological processes take place extremely slowly, requiring both long-term observations and experiments to investigate them. An alternative is to investigate natural systems that have long-term and stable environmental conditions that are opposed to those of the surrounding ecosystem. Locally extreme environments provide an example of this, and are a powerful tool for the study of slower ecological and evolutionary processes, allowing the investigation of longer term mechanisms at logistically tractable spatial and temporal scales. These systems can be used to gain insight into adaptation of natural communities and their ecological networks. We present a case study and review the literature investigating biological communities at terrestrial mofettes—natural sites with constant geogenic CO2 exhalations and consequent soil hypoxia. Mofettes are often used as natural analogues to future conditions predicted by current climate change scenarios, as model ecosystems for environmental impact assessments of carbon capture and storage systems and for the investigation of physiological, ecological and evolutionary studies of a range of phylogenetically distinct organisms across spatial scales. The scientific power of locally extreme environments is just starting to be harnessed and these systems are bound to provide growing insight into long-term ecological processes, which will be essential for our capacity to adequately manage ecosystems and predict ecological and evolutionary responses to global change.

      PubDate: 2016-09-22T07:06:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aecr.2016.08.001
       
  • Climate-Driven Range Shifts Within Benthic Habitats Across a Marine
           Biogeographic Transition Zone
    • Authors: N. Mieszkowska; H.E. Sugden
      Pages: 325 - 369
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): N. Mieszkowska, H.E. Sugden
      Anthropogenic climate change is causing unprecedented rapid responses in marine communities, with species across many different taxonomic groups showing faster shifts in biogeographic ranges than in any other ecosystem. Spatial and temporal trends for many marine species are difficult to quantify, however, due to the lack of long-term datasets across complete geographical distributions and the occurrence of small-scale variability from both natural and anthropogenic drivers. Understanding these changes requires a multidisciplinary approach to bring together patterns identified within long-term datasets and the processes driving those patterns using biologically relevant mechanistic information to accurately attribute cause and effect. This must include likely future biological responses, and detection of the underlying mechanisms in order to scale up from the organismal level to determine how communities and ecosystems are likely to respond across a range of future climate change scenarios. Using this multidisciplinary approach will improve the use of robust science to inform the development of fit-for-purpose policy to effectively manage marine environments in this rapidly changing world.

      PubDate: 2016-09-22T07:06:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aecr.2016.08.007
       
  • Cross-Scale Approaches to Forecasting Biogeographic Responses to Climate
           Change
    • Authors: J.L. Torossian; R.L. Kordas; B. Helmuth
      Pages: 371 - 433
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): J.L. Torossian, R.L. Kordas, B. Helmuth
      The emphasis in recent scientific studies has gradually shifted from merely documenting the numerous biological impacts of global climate change to developing predictive tools that help forecast which organisms, ecosystems and locations are most (and least) likely to be affected. This work often focuses on two very different scales of approach: the impacts of environmental change on individual organisms and their physiological vulnerability; and large-scale, biogeographic shifts in patterns of species distributions. While both scales of research are important and potentially informative of one another, with a few key exceptions, biogeographic (large scale) and physiological (small scale) approaches often operate in isolation from one another. There is a general consensus that a better understanding of mechanistic drivers will likely improve our ability to develop a more predictive framework. To this end, experimental and theoretical research has begun to tease apart the complexities of how changes in climate (as reflected in weather) ultimately translate into changes in growth, survival, productivity, species distribution and abundances, and the provision of ecosystem services. Yet, considerable debate still remains over how much detail is required to make effective predictions. Many authors have raised concerns about the implicit assumptions inherent in biological forecasts and while we cannot wait for perfect models before acting, oversimplifications can lead to unintended consequences. Additionally, what makes one forecasting method “good enough” or one approach “better” than another may depend largely on the application to which the predictions are being made. This review explores and summarizes the concerns raised by researchers working on problems at diverse scales and offers suggestions of how cross-scale research can best avoid potential pitfalls while preparing society for the ongoing impacts of climate change.

      PubDate: 2016-10-03T08:34:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aecr.2016.08.003
       
  • Recovery and Nonrecovery of Freshwater Food Webs from the Effects of
           Acidification
    • Authors: C. Gray; A.G. Hildrew; X. Lu; A. Ma; D. McElroy; D. Monteith; E. O’Gorman; E. Shilland; G. Woodward
      Pages: 475 - 534
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): C. Gray, A.G. Hildrew, X. Lu, A. Ma, D. McElroy, D. Monteith, E. O’Gorman, E. Shilland, G. Woodward
      Many previous attempts to understand how ecological networks respond to and recover from environmental stressors have been hindered by poorly resolved and unreplicated food web data. Few studies have assessed how the topological structure of large, replicated collections of food webs recovers from perturbations. We analysed food web data taken from 23 UK freshwaters, sampled repeatedly over 24 years, yielding a collection of 442 stream and lake food webs. Our main goal was to determine the effect of acidity on food web structure and to analyse the way food web structure recovered from the effects of acidity over time. Long-term monotonic reversals of acidification were evident at many of the sites, but the ecological responses were generally far less evident than chemical changes, or absent. Across the acidity gradient, food web linkage density and network efficiency declined with increasing acidity, while node redundancy (i.e. trophic similarity among species within a web) increased. Within individual sites, connectance, linkage density, trophic height, resource vulnerability and network efficiency tended to increase over time as sites recovered from acidification, while consumer generality and node redundancy tended to decrease. There was evidence for a lag in biological recovery, as those sites showing a recovery in both their biology and their chemistry were a nested subset of those which only showed a chemistry trend. These findings support the notion that food web structure is fundamentally altered by acidity, and that inertia within the food web may be hindering biological recovery. This suggestion of lagged recovery highlights the importance of long-term monitoring when assessing the impacts of anthropogenic stressors on the natural world. This temporal dimension, and recognition that species interactions can shape community dynamics, is missing from most national biomonitoring schemes, which often rely on space-for-time proxies.

      PubDate: 2016-09-26T07:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aecr.2016.08.009
       
  • Recommendations for the Next Generation of Global Freshwater Biological
           Monitoring Tools
    • Authors: M.C. Jackson; O.L.F. Weyl; F. Altermatt; I. Durance; N. Friberg; A.J. Dumbrell; J.J. Piggott; S.D. Tiegs; K. Tockner; C.B. Krug; P.W. Leadley; G. Woodward
      Pages: 615 - 636
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Ecological Research
      Author(s): M.C. Jackson, O.L.F. Weyl, F. Altermatt, I. Durance, N. Friberg, A.J. Dumbrell, J.J. Piggott, S.D. Tiegs, K. Tockner, C.B. Krug, P.W. Leadley, G. Woodward
      Biological monitoring has a long history in freshwaters, where much of the pioneering work in this field was developed over a 100 years ago—but few of the traditional monitoring tools provide the global perspective on biodiversity loss and its consequences for ecosystem functioning that are now needed. Rather than forcing existing monitoring paradigms to respond to questions they were never originally designed to address, we need to take a step back and assess the prospects for novel approaches that could be developed and adopted in the future. To resolve some of the issues with indicators currently used to inform policymakers, we highlight new biological monitoring tools that are being used, or could be developed in the near future, which (1) consider less-studied taxonomic groups, (2) are standardised across regions to allow global comparisons, and (3) measure change over multiple time points. The new tools we suggest make use of some of the key technological and logistical advances seen in recent years—including remote sensing, molecular tools, and local-to-global citizen science networks. We recommend that these new indicators should be considered in future assessments of freshwater ecosystem health and contribute to the evidence base for global to regional (and national) assessments of biodiversity and ecosystem services: for example, within the emerging framework of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services.

      PubDate: 2016-09-26T07:39:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aecr.2016.08.008
       
 
 
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