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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2982 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1420 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 233)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Advances in Developmental Biology
  [11 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1574-3349
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Heart Development in Drosophila
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 18

      The Drosophila heart is a simple linear heart tube that is reminiscent of the primitive tubular heart found in early vertebrate embryos. The evolutionary conservation of the Drosophila heart and powerful genetic tools for analyzing gene functions and interactions make Drosophila a unique system to study the molecular mechanisms of development governing cardiac specification and differentiation. The use of Drosophila as a model system has recently been extended to study genes involved in cardiac aging and function. In this chapter, we summarize the current knowledge and recent findings in Drosophila cardiac specification and differentiation, as well as touch on new research on heart physiology and aspects of aging. The potential of using Drosophila as a model system to identify genetic loci contributing to polygenic cardiac disorders is to be discussed.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Morphogenesis of the Vertebrate Heart
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 18

      The adult four‐chambered heart of higher vertebrates functions as a sophisticated pump, driving a pulmonary and a systemic circulation that have been separated during evolution. During cardiac development, assemblage of all the different components that make this structure functional is achieved by complex morphogenetic processes that we are just beginning to appreciate. Starting as two cardiac progenitor fields residing in the mesodermal layer of the embryonic disc, the heart begins to shape when these heart fields fuse and fold to form the heart tube. Subsequently, myocardial components are added to both poles of this tube and formation of the functional components of the adult heart, such as the chambers and the cardiac conduction system, is initiated. The molecular and cellular processes that control these morphogenetic processes are emerging and involve multiple gene programs controlled by conserved transcriptional regulators, such as T‐box factors, Nkx2–5, and GATA4. In this chapter, we will highlight the morphological changes that the developing heart undergoes before the mature four‐chambered heart emerges. Furthermore, we will take a closer look at recent progress that has been made in deciphering the molecular pathways underlying these processes.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Heart Development and T‐box Transcription Factors: Lessons from
           Avian Embryos
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 18

      Members of the T‐box (Tbx) family of transcription factors have diverse regulatory functions in the developing heart and are associated with several human genetic syndromes that include cardiac malformations. Studies in chicken embryos and other animal model systems have been used to define T‐box gene regulatory networks important for heart formation with parallels in limb outgrowth and patterning. In the heart, T‐box gene regulatory networks function in early cardiac lineage diversification and morphogenesis as well as in valvuloseptal development and conduction system maturation. These regulatory networks include inductive interactions with developmentally important signaling pathways and regulation of downstream target gene expression in complexes with other cardiac transcription factors. An additional feature of cardiac T‐box gene networks is complex regulatory relationships among multiple T‐box genes expressed in a given cell type. The focus of this chapter is T‐box family members and the regulatory networks that control diverse aspects of heart development with particular emphasis on experimental embryological approaches in the chicken model system.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Transcriptional Control of Cardiac Boundary Formation
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 18

      The heart is the first organ to form during embryogenesis and its function is critical for the viability of the mammalian embryo. As development proceeds, the early heart tube is remodeled by the addition of new structures with discrete boundaries. Each of these boundaries contributes to physical and functional compartments in the mature heart and serves to ensure proper unidirectional blood flow and rhythmic contraction. The establishment and maintenance of each of these boundaries is controlled by an evolutionary‐conserved network of signaling pathways and transcription factors that function combinatorially to specify distinct divisions within the heart. This chapter focuses on the transcription factors that are involved in the establishment and maintenance of functional boundaries and distinct identities within the heart. The combinatorial interactions between cell‐restricted and ubiquitous transcription factors in the establishment of atrial and ventricular restricted expression patterns are highlighted. In addition, numerous genes and transgenes exhibit expression that is restricted to either the right ventricle and outflow tract or the left ventricle and atria. This unique division is discussed in the context of the recent discovery that two distinct cardiac progenitor populations, the first and second heart fields (FHF and SHF), reside in the mesoderm and contribute to the heart. A transcriptional network for the SHF and its derivatives in the right ventricle and outflow tract is proposed. Finally, distinctions in the regulation of gene expression in primary myocardium versus chamber or working myocardium are discussed.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Signaling Pathways in Embryonic Heart Induction
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 18

      It is well established that the heart has only a limited ability to repair damage caused by heart disease. However, the observation that human embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiate into beating cardiomyocytes raises the possibility that these cells may be used to regenerate damaged cardiac tissue. Unfortunately, limited progress has been made in developing protocols for the efficient differentiation of human ES cells into ventricular cardiomyocytes. Studies in various animal models have provided significant insights into the signaling molecules that are necessary for heart induction, making it clear that both the spatial and temporal activation and suppression of defined signaling pathways are critical for the development of the myocardial cells in both embryos and ES cell cultures. We propose that there are at least four distinct steps that lead to the development of cardiac lineages in the embryo, namely: (1) establishment of organizing centers, (2) mesendoderm induction, (3) establishment of cardiac precursors, and (4) terminal differentiation of beating cardiomyocytes. Here, we provide a description of each stage, the signaling pathways that dominate each stage and present evidence that those signaling pathways also govern cardiac differentiation in ES cell models. Further identification of soluble growth factors and signaling cascades that promote heart formation is of great importance for an improved understanding of cardiac development and function and may reveal new paradigms for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Islet1 Progenitors in Developing and Postnatal Heart
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 18

      The LIM‐homeodomain transcription factor Islet1 (Isl1) is a marker of pluripotential undifferentiated cardiovascular progenitors that will give rise to myocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells within the heart and the vasculature. During development, Isl1 is actively expressed in cardiac progenitors prior to their differentiation. Isl1 function is also required for normal heart development, as Isl1 mutant hearts are completely lacking the outflow tract, right ventricle, and have severely reduced atrial tissue. Isl1 is expressed both in cardiogenic mesoderm and in endoderm, the latter a tissue that is required for heart induction. It will also be important to understand tissue‐specific roles for Isl1 in this context. The early expression of Isl1 within multipotential cardiac progenitors and its essential role in heart development suggest that understanding factors that are both upstream and downstream of Isl1 will give critical insights into genetic pathways required for specification of distinct cardiovascular lineages and for normal heart development.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Role of microRNAs in Cardiovascular Biology
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 18

      Remarkable advances in cardiac developmental biology over the last decade have revealed elegant networks of signaling and transcriptional cascades that regulate cardiomyocyte commitment and organogenesis. Differentiation is often reinforced via positive and negative feedback loops that serve to irreversibly control sequential cell fate decisions. As pluripotent cells become progressively specialized, it may be equally important to promote specific gene programs and also suppress unwanted pathways to allow cell type‐specific protein expression. This is likely accomplished in part by differential transcription, but recent reports suggest that this process is also regulated at the level of translation. microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as endogenous and widely used mediators of translational repression and likely influence most important cellular processes. Here, we will review the emerging role of miRNAs in translational regulation during cardiac development and disease and consider the potentially broad impact of this rapidly evolving field on cardiovascular research.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Divergent Roles of Hedgehog and Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling in
           Left–Right Development
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 18

      Left–right (LR) patterning of the vertebrate embryo regulates heart, gut, and brain development. Three transient signaling centers in the embryo contribute to LR patterning: ciliated cells in the node/organizer/shield, the floorplate and notochord in the embryonic midline, and the lateral plate mesoderm. A cassette of asymmetrically expressed genes in the left lateral plate mesoderm is evolutionarily conserved and upstream of organ asymmetry. This cassette includes members of the TGF‐β signaling pathway family (Nodal and Lefty) and the transcription factor Pitx2. Here, we review two other signaling pathways hedgehog and fibroblast growth factor, which have been implicated in LR patterning but appear to have divergent roles in distinct classes of vertebrates.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Development of the Conduction System: Picking up the Pace
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 18

      The cardiac conduction system initiates and maintains electrical activity that must pass through every cell of the heart to trigger contraction. How are these “specialized” cells differentiated from working cardiomyocytes' The question is simple, the story complex, and the answers remain elusive. Discrepancies between morphological studies and functional data leave genetics and molecular biology to fill the gaps in our understanding. In this chapter, we travel the path from the early gross anatomy discoveries to high‐resolution optical mapping studies, focusing on the latest work from both murine and avian systems. We speculate on the future direction of investigation into conduction system development and highlight the clinical significance of this work.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Transcriptional Control of the Cardiac Conduction System
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 18

      Cardiovascular disease, often claiming lives through arrhythmias, is a major cause of mortality in western societies. The cardiac conduction system (CCS) is responsible for the initiation, coordination, and synchronization of the heartbeat. CCS dysfunction, which can result from improper embryonic heart development, directly leads to arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Research from the past century has culminated in our current extensive yet incomplete understanding of CCS morphology, function, molecular signature, and regulatory cues governing its formation. In combination with a growing number of molecular markers and sensitive functional assays, mouse models of CCS development, continue to be instrumental in the unraveling of this dynamic process while highlighting the importance of transcriptional control.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Genetic Dissection of Hematopoiesis Using Drosophila as a Model System
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 18

      Investigations into the developmental origins of blood cells have indicated that the genes and molecular pathways controlling hematopoiesis are highly conserved among metazoans. In this chapter we summarize the progress in understanding how the molecular mechanisms regulating Drosophila blood development compare with analogous processes in vertebrates. In both Drosophila and vertebrates, the ontogenetic origins of cardiovascular cells and blood cells are closely related. In Drosophila, there is in vivo evidence for the presence of hemangioblast‐like cells. Furthermore, there are significant similarities between the molecular mechanisms regulating the development of the lymph gland, the Drosophila hematopoietic organ, and the formation of the mammalian AGM region. Other aspects are also shared, including the sequential maturation of progenitor cell types, the presence of multipotent or stem cell progenitors, and a requirement for a niche interaction to maintain these progenitors. During their development, Drosophila blood cells utilize an array of conserved signaling pathways and transcriptional regulators to mediate cell fate specification and differentiation. The power of Drosophila as a model system is well established and our understanding of hematopoiesis, in both normal and aberrant contexts, will surely illuminate similar mechanisms in vertebrate systems, including humans.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Vascular Development in the Zebrafish
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 18

      The zebrafish has proven to be a powerful model organism for studying how the stereotypic and evolutionarily conserved vascular network is established during vertebrate development. The combination of genetic and experimental tools with high‐resolution imaging has allowed rapid progress in our understanding of both the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the specification of endothelial progenitors as well as the differentiation and patterning of blood vessels into arterial‐venous networks. Continued studies of vascular development in zebrafish promise to yield new insights into the developmental mechanisms regulating lymphangiogenesis and will undoubtedly reveal new information about the role of the endothelium in the patterning of various tissues. In this chapter, we discuss recent advances in vascular biology that have been achieved through use of the zebrafish.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Development and Function of the Epicardium
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 18

      The epicardium is the outermost layer of the heart and it is formed by mesothelial cells that derive from a transient structure of precursor cells (the proepicardium). Proepicardial cells migrate over the postlooped heart, followed by migration of committed endothelial and smooth muscle precursors from the proepicardium through the subepicardial matrix where the coronary arteries develop. Epicardial cells undergo epithelial–mesenchymal transition to become coronary vascular smooth muscle, perivascular fibroblasts, and intermyocardial fibroblasts. The origin of coronary endothelial cells is still under debate. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on epicardial development with special emphasis on the cellular processes and genetic networks that regulate coronary arteriogenesis and myocardial growth.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Genetics of Transcription Factor Mutations
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 18

      Congenital heart disease (CHD) is an important form of cardiovascular disease in the young, which is characterized by malformations of the cardiovascular system discovered at or near the time of birth. Mutations in genes coding for transcription factors have been associated with CHD demonstrating that transcription factors play a critical role in many aspects of cardiac development. In the postgenomic era, a variety of approaches including family‐based linkage studies, cytogenetic studies, association studies, and mutation analysis of candidate genes are available for use in human genetic studies. Such approaches have been used to identify seven genes encoding transcription factors (FOG2, GATA4, NKX2.5, TBX1, TBX5, TFAP2B, and ZIC3) implicating mutations in transcription factors as a significant cause of CHD. Identification of transcription factor mutations has been useful to the clinician for diagnosis, disease classification, genetic counseling, and population screening. At the same time, human transcription factor mutations and their corresponding phenotypes have informed developmental biologists and biochemists of transcription factor function. In this chapter, we describe the genetic approaches used to identify the causative genes for CHD and assess the genotype–phenotype correlations of transcription factor mutations.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Human Genetics of Congenital Heart Disease
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 18

      Human cardiovascular abnormalities occur with an incidence of approximately 1 in 100 live births, representing an estimated 25% of all congenital malformations. These cardiovascular defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and these disorders are a leading cause of death in the first year of life. Hence, the costs related to congenital cardiovascular disease and the tragic consequences to families are immense. Despite the importance of these disorders, as well as the relative frequency of recurrence in family members, relatively little was known regarding the etiologies and mechanisms causing these diseases until the past 10–15 years. In this chapter, we will explore the current understanding of the development and genetic causes of congenital cardiovascular disease. Knowledge has been gained over the past decade or more using molecular genetics and animal modeling studies and these advances in the understanding of valve disorders, septal defects, and diseases of the great vessels will be outlined.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Contributors to Volume 18
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 18



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Wnt/β‐catenin‐mediated transcriptional regulation
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 17

      Many Wnts act by stabilizing β‐catenin and promoting its nuclear localization, where it can influence gene expression by associating with DNA‐binding proteins. The best understood of these transcription factors are members of the TCF/LEF1 (TCF) family, which recognize specific DNA sequences via a high mobility group (HMG) domain. There is strong support for a model where TCFs repress target gene expression in the absence of Wnt signaling, through recruitment of corepressors. Upon Wnt stimulation, high levels of nuclear β‐catenin bind to TCF and promote a switch to transcriptional activation. This is achieved by the recruitment of transcriptional coactivators and the subsequent modification of the chromatin surrounding Wnt regulated enhancers (WREs). While invertebrate TCFs can both repress and activate transcription of Wnt targets, genetic evidence in vertebrate systems suggests that these activities may have become separated among specific TCFs. In addition, recent findings demonstrate that β‐catenin/TCF complex can also directly repress some Wnt target genes and β‐catenin can also regulate transcription independently of TCFs, by associating with other DNA‐ binding proteins. Wnt‐signaling components previously thought to act only in the cytoplasm or as nuclear shuttles for β‐catenin have been found to associate directly with WREs. This added complexity to the already elaborate model of Wnt‐mediated transcriptional regulation may help account for the extraordinary diversity of transcriptional responses to the Wnt/β‐catenin pathway.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Wnt signaling and the establishment of cell polarity
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 17

      Wnt signaling involves multiple mediators and molecular targets functions to regulate cell division, polarity, shape, motility, and fate. In addition to the best‐studied regulation of gene expression by the Wnt/β‐catenin or canonical pathway, Wnt proteins signal via Frizzled and Disheveled to regulate epithelial cell polarity, asymmetric cell divisions, and cell movements by noncanonical pathways. These include the planar cell polarity pathway in the fly wing and a similar pathway that controls convergent extension movements in vertebrates and mammalian cochlear cell polarization. Although historically cell polarity decisions have been associated exclusively with the noncanonical pathways, there is an emerging role for β‐catenin‐dependent Wnt signaling in cell polarization. This chapter discusses multiple targets of Wnt pathways implicated in cell polarity regulation during embryonic development and the relationship between canonical and noncanonical Wnt pathways.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Wnt signaling in C. elegans: New insights into the regulation of POP‐1/
           TCF‐mediated activation and repression
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 17

      The Wnt‐signaling pathway is one of the key regulators of metazoan development. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, Wnt signaling controls developmental processes such as cell fate specification, cell migration, and cell polarity. C. elegans utilizes conserved Wnt/β‐catenin as well as novel signaling pathways to mediate Wnt signaling. In this chapter, I will give an overview of the different Wnt‐signaling mechanisms in C. elegans. I will focus on interesting new results showing how transcriptional activation by the TCF/LEF‐1 transcription factor POP‐1 is regulated.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • The Wnt‐signaling pathways in mammalian patterning and morphogenesis
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 17

      Together with the fibroblast growth factor (FGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)‐β, and Hedgehog pathways, the Wnt pathway is one of the four major signaling pathways that are involved in almost every aspect of embryogenesis. Using the mouse as a model organism, research over the last decade has revealed numerous roles of the Wnt pathway in mammalian development. In this chapter, we focus on some of the recent advances in our understanding of how Wnt signaling, through collaboration with other pathways, regulates gastrulation and organogenesis, including neural patterning, heart development, hematopoiesis, and the formation of liver, limb, skin, kidney, lung, and gastrointestinal tract. We also discuss the important function of the novel noncanonical Wnt pathway in polarity establishment and morphogenesis, a process through which a tissue or embryo acquires its final shape. Interestingly, the canonical and noncanonical Wnt pathways share a number of critical components, raising the possibility that patterning and morphogenesis may be intimately linked.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Cell migration under control of Wnt‐signaling in the vertebrate
           embryo
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 17

      During embryonic development, cell fate specification and morphogenetic movements are tightly controlled by a network of signaling cascades. Among these, Wnt‐signaling historically has predominantly been associated with cell fate decisions, however, during the last years evidence is accumulating that Wnt‐signaling pathways also play an essential role in cell migration as part of morphogenetic processes. Wnt signals control and coordinate cell polarity and proper formation of lamellipodia and filopodia in a large number of morphogenetic movements, including gastrulation, neural crest migration, and eye field formation. More recently, Wnt ligands and Wnt antagonists have been reported to function as cell guidance molecules, for example, in the migration of the anterior visceral endoderm of mouse embryos and in axon pathfinding during establishment of retinotectal projection. In this chapter, we aim to provide an overview of Wnt‐regulated cell migration processes, the different downstream signaling pathways and the newly identified receptors and coreceptors involved in Wnt‐stimulated signal transduction. Deciphering the growing complexity of the Wnt‐signaling network and its multiple roles will be the challenge of the next future.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Multiple roles for Wnt signaling in the development of the vertebrate
           neural crest
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 17

      The neural crest is a cell type unique to vertebrates that gives rise to a diverse set of derivatives essential to the vertebrate body plan. The formation and subsequent diversification of neural crest cells is a complex multistep process dependent on the reiterative use of multiple intracellular‐signaling pathways. Notable among these is the Wnt‐signaling pathway, which plays prominent roles at multiple stages of neural crest development.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Wnt pathways in angiogenesis
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 17

      Analysis of Wnt‐ or Frizzled‐deficient mice provides genetic evidence that angiogenesis is dependent on Wnt signaling. This evidence involves Wnt2, 4, and 7b, Frizzled 4 and 5, Wnt coreceptor low‐density‐lipoprotein receptor‐related protein 5 (LRP5), and Norrin, a non‐Wnt ligand for Frizzled 4. In addition, known Wnt‐signal modulators, such as secreted Frizzled related proteins (sFRP), can regulate angiogenesis. In the past few years, genetic disorders involving Frizzled 4, Norrin, and LRP5 have been linked to pathological phenotypes in angiogenesis in both mice and humans. Human hereditary disorders of the eye, such as familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) and Norrie disease (ND), are related to aberrant Wnt signaling in pathological retinal angiogenesis. Growing evidence in vitro has also linked Wnts and Wnt cascade components with regulation of angiogenesis. Canonical Wnt signaling can modulate endothelial cell function in vitro, promoting proliferation, survival, and migration of endothelial cells. Known angiogenic factors, like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and interleukin‐8, are direct downstream targets of Wnt signaling and may function in Wnt‐mediated angiogenesis. It is now clear that Wnts and Frizzled function in angiogenesis. Future work will help establish the relative contribution of Wnt signaling to the developing vasculature and pathological angiogenesis.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • List of Contributors Volume 17
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 17



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Developmental roles of the thyroid hormone receptor α and β
           genes
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • PPARs in fetal and early postnatal development
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Regulation of murine embryonic patterning and morphogenesis by retinoic
           acid signaling
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Molecular mediators of retinoic acid signaling during development
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Hindbrain development and retinoids
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Retinoid receptors in vertebral patterning
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Mouse embryocarcinoma F9 cells and retinoic acid: A model to study the
           molecular mechanisms of endodermal differentiation
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • The Ftz‐F1 family: Orphan nuclear receptors regulated by novel
           protein–protein interactions
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Role of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter‐transcription factor I in
           the development of nervous system
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Retinoid‐related orphan receptors (RORs): Roles in cellular
           differentiation and development
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Hairless: A nuclear receptor corepressor essential for skin function
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Nuclear receptor transcriptional coactivators in development and
           metabolism
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Contributors to Volume 16
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 16



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
  • Type IV collagen: A network for development, differentiation, and disease
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Advances in Developmental Biology, Volume 15



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:19Z
       
 
 
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