for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2995 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (235 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (107 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1424 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (46 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (216 journals)
    - BOTANY (220 journals)
    - CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (28 journals)
    - ENTOMOLOGY (63 journals)
    - GENETICS (162 journals)
    - MICROBIOLOGY (255 journals)
    - MICROSCOPY (10 journals)
    - ORNITHOLOGY (25 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (70 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (134 journals)

BIOLOGY (1424 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Advances in Antiviral Drug Design
  [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1075-8593
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • List of Contributors
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 5



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Status Presens of Antiviral Drugs And Strategies: Part I: DNA Viruses and
           Retroviruses
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 5

      More than 40 compounds have been formally licensed for clinical use as antiviral drugs, and half of these are used for the treatment of HIV infections. The others have been approved for the therapy of herpesvirus (HSV, VZV, CMV), hepadnavirus (HBV), hepacivirus (HCV) and myxovirus (influenza, RSV) infections. New compounds are in clinical development or under preclinical evaluation, and, again, half of these are targeting HIV infections. Yet, quite a number of important viral pathogens (i.e. HPV, HCV, hemorrhagic fever viruses) remain in need of effective and/or improved antiviral therapies.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Status presens of antiviral drugs and strategies: Part II: RNA VIRUSES
           (EXCEPT RETROVIRUSES)
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 5

      More than 40 compounds have been formally licensed for clinical use as antiviral drugs, and half of these are used for the treatment of HIV infections. The others have been approved for the therapy of herpesvirus (HSV, VZV, CMV), hepadnavirus (HBV), hepacivirus (HCV) and myxovirus (influenza, RSV) infections. New compounds are in clinical development or under preclinical evaluation, and, again, half of these are targeting HIV infections. Yet, quite a number of important viral pathogens (i.e. HPV, HCV, hemorrhagic fever viruses) remain in need of effective and/or improved antiviral therapies.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Methylenecyclopropane Analogues of Nucleosides as Anti-herpes Agents
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 5

      The current status of methylenecyclopropane analogues of nucleosides has been reviewed including synthetic methodology for the first- and second-generation analogues, antiviral activity with emphasis on β- and γ-herpesviruses, structure-activity relationships and mechanism of action. Fluoromethylenecyclopropanes, nucleotide analogues and phenyl phosphoralaninate (PPA) pronucleotides are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of broad spectrum, orally active
           analogs of cidofovir and other acyclic nucleoside phosphonates
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 5



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • CCR5 antagonists for the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 5



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • The medicinal chemistry of the DATA and DAPY series of HIV-1
           non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 5

      This contribution presents an historical account of the medicinal chemistry of the DATA (diaryltriazine) and DAPY (diarylpyrimidine) series of inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (NNRTIs). The history extends over a period of more than 18 years, starting from 1987, and is still ongoing. The authors attempt to describe the often tortuous and unpredictable route that led from the virological screening of compounds, over serendipitous chemistry, X-ray crystallography, molecular modelling, animal pharmacokinetics, biochemistry and physical chemistry to the design and further development of highly potent anti-HIV compounds, three of which are now in advanced stages of clinical studies. The emphasis in this historical account is on the medicinal chemistry that led to the DATA and DAPY series of NNRTIs.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • List of Contributors
    • Abstract: 2003
      Publication year: 2003
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • New Anti-HIV Agents in Preclinical or Clinical Development
    • Abstract: 2003
      Publication year: 2003
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 4

      Virtually all the compounds that are currently used (or have been the subject of advanced clinical trials) for the treatment of HIV infections, belong to one of the following classes: (i) nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs): i.e., zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir, emtricitabine and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs) (i.e., tenofovir disoproxil fumarate); (ii) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs): i.e., nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz, emivirine; and (iii) protease inhibitors (PIs): i.e., saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir and lopinavir. In addition to the reverse transcriptase and protease reaction, various other events in the HIV replicative cycle can be considered as potential targets for chemotherapeutic intervention: (i) viral adsorption, through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 (polysulfates, polysulfonates, polycarboxylates, polyoxometalates, polynucleotides, and negatively charged albumins); (ii) viral entry, through blockade of the viral coreceptors CXCR4 (i.e., bicyclam (AMD3100) derivatives) and CCR5 (i.e., TAK-779 derivatives); (iii) virus-cell fusion, through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein gp41 (T-20, T-1249); (iv) viral assembly and disassembly, through NCp7 zinc finger-targeted agents (2,2′-dithiobisbenzamides (DIBAs), azadicarbonamide (ADA)); (v) proviral DNA integration, through integrase inhibitors such as 4-aryl-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid derivatives; (vi) viral mRNA transcription, through inhibitors of the transcription (transactivation) process (flavopiridol, fluoroquinolones). Also, various new NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs have been developed that possess, respectively: (i) improved metabolic characteristics (i.e., phosphoramidate and cyclosaligenyl pronucleotides by-passing the first phosphorylation step of the NRTIs), (ii) increased activity (“second” generation NNRTIs (i.e., TMC-125, DPC-083)) against those HIV strains that are resistant to the “first” generation NNRTIs, or (iii), as in the case of PIs, a different, modified peptidic (i.e., azapeptidic (atazanavir)) or non-peptidic scaffold (i.e., cyclic urea (mozenavir), 4-hydroxy-2-pyrone (tipranavir)). Non-peptidic PIs may be expected to inhibit HIV mutant strains that have become resistant to peptidomimetic PIs.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus integration
    • Abstract: 2003
      Publication year: 2003
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Non-peptidic protease inhibitors (NPPIs): Tipranavir
    • Abstract: 2003
      Publication year: 2003
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Design of Neuraminidase Inhibitors as Anti-Influenza Virus Agents
    • Abstract: 2003
      Publication year: 2003
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Six-membered Carbocyclic Nucleosides
    • Abstract: 2003
      Publication year: 2003
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • cycloSal-Pronucleotides—Design of the Concept, Chemistry, and
           Antiviral Activity
    • Abstract: 2003
      Publication year: 2003
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • List of contributors
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • From d-to l-nucleoside analogs as antiviral agents
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Orally bioavailable acyclic nucleoside phosphonate prodrugs: Adefovir
           dipivoxil and bis(POC)PMPA
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • HEPT: From an investigation of lithiation of nucleosides towards a
           rational design of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors of
           HIV-1
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Sialidase inhibitors as anti-influenza drugs
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Bicyclam derivatives as HIV inhibitors
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • List of contributors
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Antisense oligonucleotides as antiviral agents
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Design and synthesis of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors as
           broad-spectrum antiviral agents
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Carbocyclic nucleosides
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Comments on nucleotide delivery forms
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Discovery and design of HIV protease inhibitors as drugs for treatment of
           aids
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 2

      The protease encoded within the pol gene of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is essential for maturation of the newly budded virion to an infectious viral particle. For this reason, inhibitors of the HIV protease have been developed as possible drugs for treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition associated with HIV infection. The viral protease is a paradigm for rational drug design. It is a member of a well-characterized mechanistic set of proteases, the aspartyl enzymes, and therefore much is known by inference regarding its structure and mechanism. Yet, it is also unique among all known proteases in having a dimeric structure, and accordingly, it offers a selective target for drugs in humans. The monomeric units, identical, 99-residue polypeptides, each contribute symmetrically to the catalytic site, and the enzyme is a C 2-symmetric dimer. At the time of this writing, hundreds of structures have been solved crystallographically for the HIV-1 protease, both alone and in complexes with a wide spectrum of inhibitors, so the enzyme ranks among the best understood in terms of both structure and mechanism. The protease is also unique in its specificity, being able to hydrolyze almost any peptide bond, given an optimal distribution of amino acids in P4 through P4′, and accessibility to the bond in question. This specificity has been the basis for early development of protease inhibitors with noncleavable transition state inserts replacing the scissile bond pair. However, if an HIV protease inhibitor is to be successful as a drug for treatment of AIDS, it must not only be potent in blocking enzyme activity, but it must satisfy the usual criteria that define a useful therapeutic agent. The last 5 years have witnessed a transition from peptide-like inhibitors that are generally marginal as drugs because of poor solubility and/or bioavailability, to smaller, nonpeptide, organic molecules with enhanced pharmacokinetic properties. The process of protease inhibitor development has encompassed everything from serendipitous, classical screening approaches to de novo design. The latter achievement has been possible through an iterative cycle of crystallographic analysis, computer-assisted refinement and prediction, organic synthesis, and biological assays. In fact, this whole process of discovery of drugs designed to target the HIV protease represents a powerful alliance among numerous disciplines, including virology, biochemistry, molecular biology, X-ray crystallography, computer modeling, medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, and applied medicine. This chapter focuses on this process, highlighting those protease inhibitors that have been brought forward for clinical trials, and providing some early results in the clinics. Some discussion is also included of mutations in the protease, which have been documented in viral strains that show resistance to protease inhibitor drugs.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.196.69.175
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016