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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2992 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1423 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 297)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover acta ethologica
  [SJR: 0.465]   [H-I: 23]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1437-9546 - ISSN (Online) 0873-9749
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Computer-manipulated stimuli as a research tool in Mozambique tilapia
           Oreochromis mossambicus
    • Authors: Marie A. Wackermannova; Pavel Horky; M. Clara P. Amorim; Paulo J. Fonseca
      Pages: 85 - 94
      Abstract: Multimodal communication is essential in social interactions in cichlid fish, including conspecifics’ recognition, agonistic interactions and courtship behaviour. Computer-manipulated image stimuli and sound playback offer powerful tools to assess the relative relevance of visual and acoustic stimuli in fish behavioural studies, but these techniques require validation for each taxon. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus responds to computer-manipulated visual stimuli and acoustic playback. Six experiments were conducted: computer animation playback, video playback, interaction with a mirror, presentation of a live male in a jar alone and combined with courting sound playback or with white noise playback. Individual agonistic interactions (lateral displays, up and down swimming, butting) and courting behaviours (tilting leading, digging) were tallied for each experiment. Our results suggest that non-interactive computer-manipulated visual stimuli is not a suitable tool in behavioural research with Mozambique tilapia. In contrast, interaction with a live male in a jar seems to remain the best visual research instrument inducing significant strong behavioural responses. Although none or only a few agonistic interactions were observed towards video playbacks or computer animations, such interactions significantly increased towards a male in jar and were modulated by courtship sound playback, suggesting the additional relevance of sound playback as a tool in behavioural research with Mozambique tilapia, including the study of multimodal signalling.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0252-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Thorough investigation of epileptic behavioral characterization of
           caffeine in adult zebrafishes in correlation with drug brain concentration
           
    • Authors: Surendra Vada; Divakar Goli; Uday Raj Sharma; Anirbandeep Bose; Sabayasachi Mandal
      Pages: 95 - 105
      Abstract: Our present research aimed to perform a detailed behavioral characterization of caffeine-induced seizure activity in zebrafish. Epileptic activity was observed by immersing individuals in different concentrations of caffeine solution at 250, 350, and 500 mg/l, respectively. Higher concentrations of caffeine rapidly induced intense behavioral activity resembling tonic seizures. Lower concentrations resulted in behavior that was less intense but sustained for longer periods. Significant attenuation of seizure severity was observed in zebrafish pretreated with the barbiturate phenobarbitone. Finally, brain caffeine levels were measured using HPLC-UV methodology in fish immersed in different concentrations of caffeine. Brain caffeine levels increased with higher concentrations of caffeine treatment; however, they were not significantly altered by pretreatment with phenobarbitone.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0250-y
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Social organization and endocrine profiles of Australoheros facetus , an
           exotic freshwater fish in southern Portugal
    • Authors: Flávia Baduy; Pedro M. Guerreiro; Adelino V. Canário; João L. Saraiva
      Abstract: Australoheros facetus is a neotropical cichlid and an exotic species in the Guadiana and Odelouca basins (Southern Portugal). In this research, we aimed to characterize the main behavioural patterns and circulating hormones, 17β-estradiol (E2) for females, and testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and cortisol for both sexes, during the formation of social groups, a crucial step in the life-history of A. facetus. A pair-breeding strategy with territorial behaviour and aggressive interactions was found, with a positive correlation between dominance and size for both sexes. There were no significant differences between non-territorial and territorial individuals in the baseline levels of hormones, but 11KT was higher in males when they became territorial, as E2 for territorial females, while there was no clear pattern for testosterone. In contrast, cortisol was higher in non-territorial males and correlated negatively with social dominance. These results suggest that size is the main driver for social dominance and that formation of stable hierarchies result in higher circulating 11KT and lowers stress in territorial males. Related to A. facetus’ behaviour, aggressiveness and biparental care may be an advantage during the invasion process of A. facetus, facilitating colonization of new habitats.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0271-6
       
  • Effects of social isolation on growth, stress response, and immunity of
           zebrafish
    • Authors: Mohammad Navid Forsatkar; Omid Safari; Cristiano Boiti
      Abstract: Stressful housing conditions like social isolation have been shown to profoundly affect the physiology and health of various organisms which is rarely addressed in fish species. In the present study, we used a shoaling species, zebrafish, to investigate the stress reactivity of grouped and individually housed fish. We also hypothesized if isolation is a stressful condition may disrupt growth performance and innate immune response of individuals. To this end, fish were housed individually (social isolated treatment) or in groups of five fish (control treatment) for 60 days. Growth indices of fish were not affected by social isolation. Sixty-day social isolation did insignificant effect on baseline cortisol levels of specimens; however, individually housed zebrafish showed lower plasma cortisol to chasing stress than the control grouped fish. On the contrary, exposure to predator caused higher cortisol levels in social isolated fish. Serum lysozyme activity of isolated individuals was significantly lower than control fish, but activity of serum complement remained unchanged. Our results represent evidences that zebrafish experienced social isolation showed broad changes in physiological and immunological functions which may affect the quality of life.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0270-7
       
  • Ethological and phenotypic divergence in insular fire salamanders: diurnal
           activity mediated by predation'
    • Authors: Guillermo Velo-Antón; Adolfo Cordero-Rivera
      Abstract: Phenotypic divergence can occur through both local adaptations and phenotypic plasticity in response to particular environmental pressures. Holocene land-bridge islands harbor recent isolated populations that offer an excellent natural framework to study the microevolutionary processes involved in rapid or ongoing phenotypic shifts. Two insular populations (Ons and San Martiño) of Salamandra salamandra in NW Iberian Peninsula exemplify these phenotypic shifts with a rapid evolutionary transition in reproductive mode and genetic differentiation since their isolation ca. 8000 years ago. We evaluate parallel phenotypic changes in body size and behavior. In particular, we (1) collected observational fieldwork data during diurnal and nocturnal transects in both islands for over a decade (2004–2016); (2) investigated the climatic conditions associated to fire salamanders’ activity; (3) compared physical condition between insular and mainland populations; and (4) used plasticine models and camera trapping to identify potential predators that might cause the observed diurnal activity in San Martiño Island. Our 13-year-long study shows that salamanders from San Martiño show mainly diurnal activity and are significantly smaller than salamanders from Ons and nearby continental populations. Overall, we present an exceptional case of behavior and phenotypic differentiation of an insular population of fire salamanders and suggest that this unusual behavior in the small population of San Martiño might be triggered by a response to predator pressure exerted by a dense population of Rattus rattus.
      PubDate: 2017-07-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0267-2
       
  • Pregnant pipefish with a simple brooding surface loose less weight when
           carrying heavier eggs: evidence of compensation for low oocyte
           quality'
    • Authors: B. Miranda; N. Vieira; Nuno Monteiro
      Abstract: The evolutionary radiation of syngnathids has been accompanied by a diversification of structures involved in parental care, from a hypothetical ancestral presenting a simple brooding structure. The architectural simplicity of Nerophis male brooding structures led to the hypothesis that the relationship between father and developing embryos was feeble, unlike that observed in syngnathids with brood pouches. Here, we show that males loose considerable weight during pregnancy, especially so when egg weight is low. These results highlight the possibility of a compensatory mechanism and help justify why males in the wild tend to select large and colourful females, which are more fecund and able to produce larger eggs. Together with available information on the mating system, we also discuss some of the interplaying reasons behind the observed sex role reversal and high sexual dimorphism in the worm pipefish.
      PubDate: 2017-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0268-1
       
  • Behavioural and life history responses to predation risk by common frog
           tadpoles exposed to two predators during ontogeny
    • Authors: Andrea Gazzola; Alessandro Balestrieri; Michele Ghitti; Daniele Paganelli; Paolo Galeotti
      Abstract: The presence of predators can induce changes in both the morphology and behaviour of Anuran larvae, affecting both their size and developmental stage at metamorphosis and, consequently, the fitness of adult individuals. Tadpoles have been shown to be capable of finely tuning their defensive responses according to the actual risk perceived, which is expected to vary according to the prey-to-predator size ratio. In this study, we exposed common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles (Gosner stages 28–30), for a period of 2 weeks, to the non-lethal presence of dragonfly larvae (Anax imperator) and backswimmers (Notonecta glauca). In such a narrow window of time, we expected behavioural responses to be similar for both predators and exposure to predation risk to have negligible effects on tadpole development and weight. Overall, tadpoles increased hiding behaviour and were less active when predators were present in the experimental mesocosms, but behavioural responses were constrained to the early phase of the ontogeny and were no longer used when tadpoles reached a threshold size. Developmental rate slightly slowed down for predator treatments in comparison to controls, possibly as a consequence of energetic investment in unrecorded morphological defences. Although variation in laboratory conditions and protocols makes it hard to compare the results of different experiments, our results contribute to verify the consistency of behavioural responses in Anuran larvae.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0266-3
       
  • Immune challenge of female great tits at nests affects provisioning and
           body conditions of their offspring
    • Authors: Emilia Grzędzicka
      Abstract: The trade-off between animal’s parental reproductive effort and survival is still poorly understood. Parental allocation between the workload during breeding attempts and the parents’ own body conditions can be assessed through the offspring quality. Here, I questioned whether the immune responsiveness of female great tits may be considered as a mediator of this trade-off. Specifically, I tested whether (1) the parental reproductive effort decreases, (2) the food composition provided to chicks changes, and (3) whether the nestling immunocompetence and body mass decrease after experimental immunisation. Two populations of great tit Parus major occupying nest boxes were studied in Niepołomice Forest and Krzyszkowice Forest (Southern Poland) in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Three days after hatching, half of the females were challenged with sheep red blood cells (SRBC), while other females were injected with phosphate-buffered saline PBS (control). Six days later, food provided by the parents was collected from nestlings. After another 2 days, the offspring’s body mass was measured and wing web swelling in response to an additional phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) injection. In both years, immunocompetence and in 2012 also body mass in the offspring of SRBC-immunised mothers were lower than in control nestlings, indicating a cost of mounting the immune response in the female. Six days after the start of the female treatment, the number of caterpillars and the volume of food items provided by parents to chicks were higher, whereas the number of spiders was lower in nests with SRBC treatment than in control ones. This might be explained by compensational parental feeding after recovery from the inflammation of a female. Thus, the trade-off between parental effort and survival of parents is mediated by the costs incurred for their immunity and can be assessed by the amount and quality of food provided to the nestlings and the offspring condition.
      PubDate: 2017-05-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0265-4
       
  • Chemical sex recognition in the harvestman Discocyrtus prospicuus
           (Arachnida: Opiliones)
    • Authors: Nathália S. Fernandes; Estefanía Stanley; Fernando G. Costa; Carlos A. Toscano-Gadea; Rodrigo H. Willemart
      Abstract: Several arachnid species use chemicals to detect sexual partners. In harvestmen, there are evidences that chemicals may play a role in intraspecific communication. Using the behavior of Discocyrtus prospicuus (Holmberg 1876), whose males expose the penis to females before they engage in mating posture, we tested if males detect females by contact chemoreception (chemicals left on the substrate) and if males detect females by olfaction. First, we exposed males to three experimental groups, where males had to choose between two substrates: female chemicals/blank control; male chemicals/blank control; female/male chemicals. Then, we gave males access to volatiles of males, females, and control simultaneously. We predicted that males would expose the penis when approaching volatiles and chemicals deposited on the substrate by females. We also tested if males spent more time close to the source of female volatiles and on the substrate with female chemicals and if males tapped the substrate with female chemicals for more time than the others. Finally, we put males and females together to observe if males would expose the penis upon touching the female’s cuticle. Most of our predictions were not supported, though males did tap for more time when exposed to female cues instead of male cues and exposed the penis in 70% of the observations when interacting with the female but only after touching her. Our data does not support olfaction as a way to detect females and corroborate the idea that contact chemicals, either on the substrate or on female’s cuticle, play an important role in the detection and recognition of the opposite sex. This is the first evidence in harvestmen that males may react differently to female/male chemicals.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0264-5
       
  • Nightly calling patterns in a Neotropical gladiator frog
    • Authors: Tailise Marques Dias; Cynthia P. A. Prado; Rogério Pereira Bastos
      Abstract: In anurans, vocalization is the primary communication form and acoustic parameters are influenced by climatic conditions, but also by social contexts. We investigated calling site use and within-individual variation of acoustic parameters throughout the night in the gladiator-frog Hypsiboas goianus. We expected that large males would call closer to the water and at higher perches to avoid dehydration and maximize sound propagation. Furthermore, we tested the prediction that males would emit more aggressive calls early in the night and more advertisement calls late at night. Male size was not correlated with either distance from the water or perch height. However, as expected, males of H. goianus adopted a calling strategy that consisted of emitting more aggressive calls early in the night and more advertisement calls later in the night. Furthermore, repetition rate and interval between notes of the aggressive calls and repetition rate of the advertisement calls showed within-individual variation throughout the night that agreed with our expectations. The calling strategy of H. goianus is probably related to the establishment of calling sites early in the night and an investment in female attraction in the middle of the night when males’ aggressive interactions have faded away, or due to habituation increasing the males’ aggressive thresholds. This is the first study investigating within-individual patterns of acoustic parameters of calls throughout the night for anurans.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0263-6
       
  • Synchrony during aggression in adult male Atlantic spotted dolphins
           (Stenella frontalis)
    • Authors: Alyson J. Myers; Denise L. Herzing; David F. Bjorklund
      Abstract: Synchrony among Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) is crucial for successfully overcoming bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) during interspecies aggression (Cusick and Herzing 2014). The present study examined synchrony in adult Atlantic spotted dolphins during aggressive encounters with bottlenose dolphins. Across group size, aggressive behaviors increased preceding synchrony, peaked during synchrony, and decreased dramatically after synchrony. Although smaller groups (< 10 dolphins) became synchronous more frequently than larger groups (> 10 dolphins), larger groups remained synchronous longer; however, smaller groups exhibited greater aggressive behaviors during synchrony, suggesting that additional aggressive behaviors may be necessary to compensate for the smaller group size, whereas larger groups may be able to rely on synchrony with less aggression. Disorganized squawk bouts synchronized as physical synchrony began, but only if coupled with escalating aggression.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0262-7
       
  • Studying hunting behaviour in the striped field mouse using data
           compression
    • Abstract: We compare predatory behaviour towards a mobile insect in three species of small mammals: the granivorous striped field mouse, the insectivorous common shrew and the Norway rat (a generalist). The striped field mouse displays a surprisingly efficient hunting stereotype. We apply the data compression method (Ryabko et al. Theory Comput Syst 52:133–147, 2013) to compare the complexity of hunting behavioural patterns and to evaluate the flexibility of stereotypes and their succinctness. Norway rats demonstrated the highest level of complexity of hunting behaviour, with the highest proportion of ‘auxiliary’ and ‘noise’ elements and relatively low proportion of ‘key’ elements in their behaviours. The predominance of ‘key’ elements resulted in similarly low levels of complexity of hunting stereotypes in striped field mice and shrews. The similarity between hunting stereotypes of the insectivorous shrew and the granivorous striped field mouse enables us to argue about evolutionary roots of hunting behaviour in small mammals. We show that this method is a useful tool for comparing ethograms as ‘biological texts’.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0260-9
       
  • Effects of size, caudal autotomy, and predator kairomones on the foraging
           behavior of Allegheny Mountain dusky salamanders ( Desmognathus
           ochrophaeus )
    • Authors: Emilia A. R. Gildemeister; Wesley I. Payette; Aaron M. Sullivan
      Abstract: Prey must balance the conflicting demands of foraging and defensive behavior. Foraging under the threat of predation may be further complicated among species that engage in caudal autotomy, the loss of a portion of the tail at preformed breakage planes, because the tail may serve as an important energy storage organ and contribute to motility, culminating in a trade-off between foraging and predator avoidance. As a result of the advantages conferred by the presence of a tail, individuals that have recently undergone autotomy may be more motivated to forage despite elevated levels of threat indicated by predator kairomones. We used a full factorial design to evaluate the combined effects of body size, exposure to predator kairomones, and experience with autotomy on the latency to strike at Drosophila prey, number of strikes, and prey captured per strike by Allegheny Mountain dusky salamanders (Desmognathus ochrophaeus). In our study, caudal autotomy was the only significant main effect and influenced both the latency to attack prey and the number of strikes attempted. In terms of latency to attack prey, there was a significant interaction between body size and autotomy such that “small” salamanders (≤3.2 cm SVL) without tails delayed their foraging behavior. In terms of the number of strikes toward prey, there was a significant interaction between autotomy and exposure to predator kairomones such that individuals with intact tails exhibited a greater number of strikes, with the exception of the “large” (>3.2 cm SVL) salamanders, which performed fewer strikes when exposed to the snake kairomones. There was no significant effect on foraging efficiency, although the trend in the data suggests that autotomized individuals forage more efficiently. This study was designed to evaluate the confluence of factors related to size, caudal autotomy, and exposure to stimuli from predators and hints at the magnitude of caudal autotomy on antipredator decision-making. Our data suggest that despite the importance of tail tissue for energy storage, locomotion, and mating, salamanders without tails are cautious when foraging under elevated risk.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0259-2
       
  • Song frequency correlates with latitude and individual body size in the
           cicada Mogannia formosana Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadidae)
    • Authors: Bao-Sen Shieh; Shih-Hsiung Liang; Chen-Yu Liao; Yuh-Wen Chiu
      Abstract: Analyses of acoustic variation between and within populations can help to clarify the evolution and diversification of cicada calling songs. In this study, we analyzed the acoustic variation in the calling song of Mogannia formosana within Taiwan and between Taiwan and Green Island to assess the effects of geographic locations. Furthermore, chorusing males in the Green Island population were recorded and collected from the same habitat site during the same time period to investigate the relationship between individual body size and the acoustic features of calling songs. Among populations of M. formosana, we found that most of the acoustic variation in M. formosana calling songs was associated with frequency parameters, in which six frequency parameters changed significantly with latitude on the island of Taiwan. In contrast, temporal parameters, which were associated with principal components corresponding to less acoustic variation than that of the first principal component, were also found to be significant among populations but did not show consistent trends of difference with latitude. However, the geographically isolated Green Island population exhibited the lowest number of short echemes in segment B, which is the diagnostic structure employed to separate M. formosana from other M. species. This finding suggests that the temporal pattern of segment B in the calling songs of M. formosana might be important for both population differentiation and interspecific recognition. In a chorus of the Green Island population, the sound frequency of the last short echeme was found to be significantly correlated with individual body size. The possible role played by sexual selection in shaping sound frequency as a result of its reliable association with body size was discussed. We suggest that, in comparison with temporal elements, the frequency elements of segment B in calling songs of M. formosana in chorus can serve as a more reliable indicator of body size for female mate choice.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0258-3
       
  • Song duration mediates responses of territory owner in a songbird species
           with a small song repertoire
    • Authors: Tomasz S. Osiejuk; Aleksandra Jakubowska
      Abstract: Song is a sexually selected trait that is involved in mate attraction and territory defence in birds. Songs may convey information about different male quality components. They are flexible in terms of frequency, amplitude, and duration. Although changes in song duration are common, the function of this behaviour has been studied less strongly. It is known that song duration changes within a singing bout and may provide information about aggressive motivation. We tested whether the elongation and shortening of songs affects the responses of territorial ortolan bunting males to neighbour song playback. If changing song duration signals level of aggressiveness, then songs differing solely in duration may elicit behavioural responses of different strength. We performed two tests with different males assigned to two experimental groups and measured approaching and vocal response. In Experiment 1, we tested 18 males, which responded to the playbacks of elongated and normal (control) neighbour songs. In Experiment 2, we tested 17 males, which responded to the playbacks of shortened and normal (control) neighbour songs. Males responded significantly stronger to longer songs in both experiments as measured by the approach variable. Vocal response was not affected by treatment, but it was affected by the order of playback presentation. Our results indicate that song duration might be used for signalling current aggressive motivation during close interactions with rivals.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0257-4
       
  • Waste of leaf-cutting ants: disposal, nest structure, and abiotic soil
           factors around internal waste chambers
    • Authors: Sandra S. Verza; Eduardo A. Diniz; Mara F. Chiarelli; Rosilda M. Mussury; Odair C. Bueno
      Abstract: Leaf-cutting ants produce large quantities of waste that harbor bacteria and fungi that are harmful to the colony. To be protected from these pathogens, the workers of Atta species present a sophisticated organization to manage harmful material, which can be deposited outside the nest or in internal chambers. However, little is known about the behavior of Acromyrmex species in handling and disposal of waste. Due to some observations, we assume that the same species of Acromyrmex can deposit waste outside the nest and into internal chambers and raise the following question: what determines the occurrence of internal waste chambers in Acromyrmex? To address this question, we verified whether nest depth influences the waste-chamber occurrence. We also verified the nest structure and the abiotic factors of soil beside each waste-chamber: pH and water content of the soil. For this, eight nests were excavated for Acromyrmex balzani and Acromyrmex rugosus rugosus. We verified that not only can the same leaf-cutting ant species deposit debris both outside and inside the nest but also the same nest can present internal chambers and external waste deposit. The soil beside the waste chamber always presented an acidic pH, while the humidity varied widely. Our results showed that the nest depth was highly correlated with the depth of the waste chamber (p = 0.0003) and probably has some influence on waste disposal. The characteristics of the nest and the role of depth in the choice of waste chamber location are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0255-6
       
  • The defensive behavioral patterns of captive white-lipped and collared
           peccary (Mammalia, Tayassuidae): an approach for conservation of the
           species
    • Authors: Selene S. C. Nogueira; Aline M Reis; Stefane G. Marsaro; José M. B. Duarte; Viviana Moreto; Stella G. C. Lima; Thaise S. O. Costa; Sérgio L G Nogueira-Filho
      Abstract: Defensive behavioral patterns in response to human-induced rapid environmental change can affect animals’ fitness and may play a role in species conservation status. To test this hypothesis, we compared the risk assessment and defensive behavioral responses of captive white-lipped peccary (WLP; Tayassu pecari) and collared peccary (CP; Pecari tajacu), which retain different conservation status; WLP are considered vulnerable and CP of least concern. We used an adapted paradigm of the mouse defense test battery (MDTB) comprising four consecutive tests. Two of these tests simulated a novel environment, while the other two stimulated the expression of defensive behavioral patterns. Besides differences in risk assessment and defensive threat/attack behavioral patterns between species, we compared flight initiation distance, flight speed, and plasma glucocorticoid concentrations. When facing a novel environment and risk challenges from humans’ predator-like cues, the white-lipped peccary showed more exploratory and defensive threat/attack behavioral patterns, shorter flight initiation distances, and lower flight speeds, whereas the collared peccaries showed more cautious and retreat patterns, longer flight initiation distances, and higher flight speeds. There were also correlations between physiological and behavioral parameters. We confirmed our hypothesis that the collared peccary’s cautiousness may help to prevent a decrease in its population, while the white-lipped peccary’s exploratory and confrontational behavioral patterns in overhunted areas, together with other simultaneous factors as forest fragmentation, might contribute to placing this species in the vulnerable category.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0256-5
       
  • Bivalve or gastropod? Using profitability estimates to predict prey
           choice by P. clarkii
    • Authors: Vera Gonçalves; Francesca Gherardi; Rui Rebelo
      Abstract: Recently, a highly invasive alien species, the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, has colonized Italian aquatic ecosystems that had been previously colonized by another highly invasive alien species—the North American crayfish Procambarus clarkii. This was the first time and world region where these two species met. To evaluate the relative importance of their interactions, we studied prey selection according to its length, as well as prey choice by P. clarkii preying on D. polymorpha in the presence and absence of alternative prey—the freshwater snail Physella acuta. We followed an optimability-based approach, by first estimating the most profitable length of each mollusc and then by conducting a prey choice experiment, on which both species were provided simultaneously to a crayfish with different size combinations. Prey selection was dependent on prey length, handling time and crayfish length for both molluscs. According to our profitability estimates, snails should be more profitable than mussels in the length range 7–10 mm, while for lengths over 11.0 mm, mussels should be more profitable. The results of the prey choice experiment indicated that D. polymorpha length, P. acuta length, and the difference in profitability between the offered individuals were all relevant for the choice of one species over the other by P. clarkii. However, the overall tendency was the choice of the smallest prey, regardless of species, and the estimates of prey profitability were not useful to predict prey choice. Our study shows that D. polymorpha represents a novel prey resource for P. clarkii, even in the presence of an alternative prey, and that zebra mussels may be a preferred prey, especially small-sized individuals (5–10 mm).
      PubDate: 2017-02-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0251-x
       
  • A novel strategy to escape a poor habitat: red-necked grebes transfer
           flightless young to other ponds
    • Authors: Janusz Kloskowski; Karolina Frączek
      Abstract: Animals confronted with the threat of the death of their offspring may exhibit unusual and risk-prone behaviours. Grebes (Podicipediformes) are water birds which cannot effectively walk, thus unfledged young are assumed to be unable to depart from their natal ponds by land. We provide evidence that red-necked grebes Podiceps grisegena, breeding on ponds with scarce food resources, transferred their flightless young (2–4 weeks old) to other, unconnected ponds by land or air. Although a large proportion of breeding grebes in the study area nested on food-poor fish ponds acting as ecological traps, where they suffered significant brood losses, brood movements to new ponds accounted for only 3.3% of such breeding attempts. The infrequency of this strategy may be explained by the lack of suitable territories in close proximity and the high risk of predation or fatal injury. The means of chick transfer remains unclear; the chicks may have followed or been carried by parents shuffling across the pond levees; alternatively, parents may have carried the young on their backs in flight. Our findings indicate that red-necked grebes assess the current level of resources available for chicks and may adopt novel and risky strategies to escape total brood failure.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0254-7
       
  • Distraction display of the southernmost subspecies of the Golden-crowned
           Warbler Basileuterus culicivorus azarae (Aves: Parulidae) and a need for
           more detailed documentation of paratreptic behaviours
    • Authors: Paul Smith
      Abstract: Distraction displays or paratreptic behaviours are nest protection behaviours designed to lead predators away from an active nest. The reason for the widespread presence of terrestrial distraction displays in the largely arboreal Parulidae has been the subject of much debate, and a terrestrial or semi-terrestrial ancestor has been postulated to explain it. Recent phylogenetic analyses provide some support for this theory, but distraction displays in the Parulidae remain poorly documented and are often inaccurately and abruptly dismissed with misapplied terms such as “injury-feigning”. An observation of distraction display in the southern azarae subspecies of the widespread Neotropical species, Golden-crowned Warbler Basileuterus culicivorus, showed that such behaviours are far more complex and multi-faceted than currently understood. The distraction display of this subspecies exhibits elements of injury-feigning, chick simulation, advertising and, perhaps, eccentric deportment. Given the possible ancestral origins of such behaviours, it is suggested that the careful documentation and description of such behaviours in Parulidae is warranted and that they may potentially assist in shedding light on the evolutionary history of the family.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0253-8
       
 
 
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