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BIOLOGY (1533 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access  
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 323)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
acta ethologica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.769
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1437-9546 - ISSN (Online) 0873-9749
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Food choice and feeding on carrion in two African mongoose species in an
           urban environment
    • Authors: Nadine Elizabeth Cronk; Neville Pillay
      Pages: 127 - 136
      Abstract: Urbanisation negatively affects many species, yet small carnivores may flourish in urban spaces because of accessible resources and a reduction of predators. Food choices of urban carnivores might be influenced by the availability and abundance of anthropogenic food resources and the co-existence of competing species. We studied the food selection and feeding on carrion of the yellow mongoose (Cynictis penicillata) and slender mongoose (Galerella sanguinea) in a small urban reserve in South Africa. In cafeteria-style food choice tests, both species preferred meat and insects over bread, dog kibble, chicken eggs, and plants; however, yellow mongoose in a more urbanised area preferred bread to insects. Yellow mongoose had a shorter latency to approach and consume provided food compared to slender mongoose. At carrion-baited stations, slender mongoose were more prevalent at carcasses and displayed aggression and competitive exclusion of yellow mongoose. Slender mongoose fed more on carcasses during the colder months than warmer months when they fed on available insects around and on carcasses. The greater consumption of anthropogenic items by yellow mongoose and the preference by slender mongoose for feeding on carcasses provide evidence of possible resource partitioning, which may aid in the co-existence of these sympatric herpestids in urban areas.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-018-0291-x
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 2 (2018)
  • Zebrafish “personality” influences sensitivity to magnetic
    • Authors: Alessandro Cresci; Rosario De Rosa; Silvia Fraissinet; Martina Scanu; Nathan F. Putman; Claudio Agnisola
      Abstract: How animals integrate different sensory information for orientation is a complex process involving interactions between a variety of internal and external factors. Due to this complexity, each component of a suite of factors is typically studied in isolation. Here, we examine how an internal factor (personality of fish) influences the response of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to the magnetic field, while swimming in a flow chamber. Our previous work demonstrated that the orientation to the water current (rheotaxis) of zebrafish individuals is influenced by variations of the magnetic field only when fish are part of a shoal. In this study, we evaluated the rheotactic behavior of 20 fish, grouped in shoals of “proactive” or “reactive” individuals, under magnetic fields of different directions. We found that the magnetic field influenced at which water speed rheotaxis was elicited in zebrafish with “reactive” personality, but not in those with “proactive” personality. These results suggest that fish personality influences response to or weighing of sensory inputs and provides some insight on the variation in behavioral responses to environmental stimuli in both laboratory and natural settings.
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-018-0292-9
  • Potentially infanticidal behavior in the Amazon river dolphin ( Inia
           geoffrensis )
    • Authors: Mark T. Bowler; Brian M. Griffiths; Michael P. Gilmore; Andrew Wingfield; Maribel Recharte
      Abstract: Infanticide by males is a phenomenon common in species in which the reproductive output of large numbers of females can be monopolized by a small number of males. It is thought to increase a male’s fitness, at the expense of the fitness of the infant’s parents, by bringing females into season more quickly. Infanticide by males has been recorded in just three cetacean species. We report aggressive behavior suggestive of infanticide in a fourth, the Amazon river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis). We observed and photographed a series of attacks on a neonate Amazon river dolphin by a large male, with apparent protective behavior by the mother. Although infanticide was not confirmed, the forceful, aggressive behaviors were highly suggestive of infanticidal behavior and represent another important data point for comparative studies of infanticide in mammals. Amazon river dolphins may have a polygynous, polyandrous, or promiscuous mating system, the latter two of which are not the norm in species in which the reproductive output of large numbers of females are monopolized by a small number of males. However, sexual dimorphism, high rates of aggression by males, socio-sexual object-carrying displays by males, and a long interbirth interval suggest that successful male Amazon river dolphins may be able to monopolize a large proportion of mating opportunities, and it is plausible that male dolphins can improve their reproductive success by bringing females into estrous sooner by killing the offspring of other males.
      PubDate: 2018-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-018-0290-y
  • Variation in Guiana dolphin parental care according to calf age class
    • Authors: Clarissa R. Teixeira; Caio N. Louzada; Andreas L. S. Meyer; Emygdio L. A. Monteiro-Filho
      Abstract: An extended period of parental care is fundamental for survival of cetacean offspring. Although qualitative descriptions of parental care and mother-calf spatial relationships are available for several species, studies using a quantitative approach throughout development of offspring are scarce. Here, we analyzed how strategies of parental care occur during the ontogeny of the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, in the Cananéia estuarine system, São Paulo, Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that both the strategy and frequency of parental care vary according to the development of the offspring and assessed whether such changes are associated with the life stage of the calves. The frequency of parental care did not decrease according to the age of the calves. However, parental care strategies directed at infants were more diversified than those directed at neonates and juveniles. Increasing maternal-calf separation can expose older calves to new and risky situations and may demand different strategies of care. We conclude that there is a shift in the strategy adopted by the S. guianensis mothers according to the requirements of each age class, with parental care being dispensed until calves become fully independent.
      PubDate: 2018-03-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-018-0289-4
  • Capture of large prey and feeding priority in the cooperative
           pseudoscorpion Paratemnoides nidificator
    • Authors: Everton Tizo-Pedroso; Kleber Del-Claro
      Abstract: The social pseudoscorpion Paratemnoides nidificator is a common species in the Brazilian tropical savannah (Cerrado), where colonies are found under the bark of trees. In this environment, colonies hunt for large insects, subduing them by cooperative effort. Small insects are offered as food to nymphs, but large prey tends to be shared by colony members. We investigated the cooperative capture of large prey (Scarabaeidae beetles) by colonies of P. nidificator. During this process, some adults are involved in the immobilization and killing of prey. However, other adults stay as profiteers and do not offer help to subdue the prey. After prey immobilization, pseudoscorpions perform a hierarchical food share in which the attackers begin sucking the prey. These individuals favor the nymphs, offering them the prey and protection during feeding. Profiteer individuals are the last to feed on the carcass. In P. nidificator, obligatory parental care probably favors the evolution of behavioral strategies that prioritize the feeding of juveniles. This mechanism can provide better-quality food for the attackers but offers food to all colony members.
      PubDate: 2018-03-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-018-0288-5
  • When more is less: the negative effect of European rabbit release upon
           local warren occupancy
    • Authors: Leire Ruiz-Aizpurua; Francisco S. Tortosa
      Abstract: European rabbit translocation is an extended practice in Spain, France, and Portugal, for both conservation and hunting purposes. Some of these translocations are carried out with the aim of reinforcing existing rabbit populations. In these cases, some of the new rabbits are released into warrens already occupied by resident conspecifics. This could have a negative impact upon both the released and the resident individuals owing to the “dear enemy” effect and the territoriality of the resident rabbits. In this study, we evaluated the effect of rabbit release into occupied warrens, in small areas populated by low-density resident rabbit populations. We observed negative effects at two different levels: the number of active entrances per recipient warren and the number of active warrens per reinforced plot, in addition to a general lack of increase in rabbit abundance in the area and, therefore, the failure of the reinforcement actions. Our results strongly suggest that the release of European rabbits into warrens occupied by resident rabbits is contraindicated if the objective is to recover rabbit populations in the area.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-018-0286-7
  • Time matters. Locomotor behavior of Lacerta viridis and Lacerta agilis in
           an open field maze
    • Authors: Adriana Pačuta; Anamarija Žagar; Božena Kočíková; Viktória Majláthová; Andrei Daniel Mihalca; Igor Majláth
      Abstract: Locomotor performance provides one of the key pieces of information regarding whole-organism function. Experiments encompassing behavioral data commonly endeavor to measure parameters such as burst speed, latency time, distance traveled, and other aspects of locomotion. Behavioral experiments can uncover an immense range of information, from the individual, interspecific, and intraspecific levels up to correlations with ecological factors and parameters from the ecosystem. Here, we explored the locomotor behavior of two lizard species, Lacerta viridis and Lacerta agilis, in an open field test (OFT). The main aim was to reveal changes in locomotion over time. Although we observed no time-related variation in L. agilis, we discovered significant changes in locomotor behavior over the course of the experiment in Lacerta viridis. Measured behavioral traits (resting time, total distance traveled, mean speed) showed significant changes across time in L. viridis, thus indicating the importance of time as a factor when conducting behavioral experiments. Moreover, we observed that in 10-min experimental session, the individuals have undergone different stages from freezing behavior, exploration, to habituation.
      PubDate: 2018-02-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-018-0287-6
  • Predatory specialization in the wasp Sphex ingens for the capture of
    • Authors: Carlos Alberto dos Santos Souza; Jarbas Marçal Queiroz; Mauro Sergio Cruz Souza Lima; Jonas Pederassi
      Abstract: Sphex ingens is one of 30 species in the family Sphecidae that occur in the state of Rio de Janeiro. However, details of the behavior and sexual selection of natural populations of this wasp species have only recently been unveiled. In addition, the knowledge of its ecology is still poor. This is the first study on the feeding behavior interactions between S. ingens and prey captured to feed its larvae. Paralyzed prey were collected manually at the sites of wasp nests on Aventureiro Beach, Ilha Grande, Brazil during the provisioning activity of marked female S. ingens. All prey were preserved, their sex and sexual maturity were determined, and they were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. The body mass and size of the prey and female wasps were measured. Sphex ingens females captured only Pleminia vicina and Meroncidius sp. The body masses of wasps and katydids were positively correlated. The body mass of captured katydids was significantly dependent on the wasp’s wing length. Most of the prey were adult females, but the differences did not confirm possible preferences, as those values can be related to differences in the distribution and fluctuation in the population density of prey species and to the individual foraging strategies of female wasps. However, the predisposition to predatory specialization exhibited by S. ingens populations in Ilha Grande and elsewhere suggests that this interaction can be an important source of mortality for populations of pseudophylline katydid species.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-018-0283-x
  • Is tadpole coloration adaptive against bird predation'
    • Authors: Ana Sofia B. Gontijo; Juan Espanha; Paula C. Eterovick
      Abstract: Birds are visually oriented predators, and some are known or supposed to prey upon tadpoles. Neotropical tadpoles exhibit several colorations that could potentially improve survivorship through camouflage, aposematism, or mimetism. In this study, we tested tadpoles of two hylid species for protective effects of their colorations, one potentially aposematic (Bokermannohyla martinsi) and another (Ololygon machadoi) previously hypothesized as disruptive and/or mimetic to a naucorid insect (Limnocoris porphyros). We conducted in situ and ex situ experiments and observed that the uniformly black B. martinsi tadpoles were more intensely preyed upon by birds than those of O. machadoi, regardless of background color, which may have happened because the disruptive coloration of O. machadoi hampered its detection. Alternatively, the duration of the experiments may have been too short for birds to learn about a possible toxicity of B. martinsi tadpoles, which are more active and thus more visible. Birds that had a previous experience with L. porphyros tended to attack tadpoles of O. machadoi less than naive birds. On the other hand, we did not observe any change in predation levels upon B. martinsi tadpoles whether presented to birds before or after L. porphyros. Our results indicate that the predation by birds, although apparently occasional, is likely to be influenced by tadpole coloration.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-018-0285-8
  • Testosterone and intrasexual competition in men: is there any relation
           with digit ratio (2D:4D)'
    • Authors: Javier I. Borráz-León; Ana Lilia Cerda-Molina; Damee Choi; Lilian Mayagoitia-Novales
      Abstract: Digit ratio 2D:4D is a sexually dimorphic characteristic and it is believed that this difference is related to high levels of prenatal testosterone and circulating testosterone in men. High levels of testosterone are also associated with traits related to competitiveness. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relation between intrasexual competition and 2D:4D in men. One hundred thirteen college men answered a questionnaire to measure their scores of intrasexual competition and donated a saliva sample to measure their testosterone levels; finally, the finger length from both hands was measured. It was found a positive correlation between testosterone levels and intrasexual competition scores, and a negative correlation between testosterone levels and left 2D:4D. Finally, we did not find a significant association between digit ratios 2D:4D and intrasexual competition scores. Our study shows that men with higher testosterone levels also have higher intrasexual competition scores and lower values of left digit ratio 2D:4D. Further studies will have to take into account fluctuations in testosterone over the time to observe if the relation between competitiveness scores and digit ratios 2D:4D becomes significant.
      PubDate: 2018-01-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-018-0284-9
  • Differences in the pattern of turn alternation between juveniles and
           adults of Armadillo officinalis Dumèril, 1816 (Isopoda, Oniscidea) in
           response to substrate-borne vibrations
    • Authors: S. Cividini; G. Montesanto
      Abstract: In this study, we focused on the relationship existing between the phenomenon of alternating turns and substrate-borne vibrations in woodlice, utilizing Armadillo officinalis as an experimental behavioral model. A T-maze with multiple exits was used to collect information on the pattern of turn alternation in (i) adult individuals of A. officinalis exposed and (ii) non-exposed to micro-vibrations, and (iii) juveniles of A. officinalis exposed to micro-vibrations. Turn alternation was assessed as the number of times that an animal turned on the opposite side in the T-maze. Our best model pointed out a statistically significant increased expected number of alternating turns for both groups of adult individuals, non-exposed and exposed to micro-vibrations, compared to exposed juveniles. Adults of A. officinalis seem to be very reactive to substrate-borne vibrations, unlike juveniles. This reactivity might be related to a defense mechanism developed as an evolutionary adaptation to the xeric environment, increasing progressively from the juvenile condition until the adult state. This feature might also fit into a complex network of inter- and intraspecific communication mediated by substrate-borne vibrations, like in insects.
      PubDate: 2018-01-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-018-0282-y
  • Nest-dismantling behavior of yellow-bellied prinia in mainland and island
    • Authors: Longwu Wang; Shun-Jen Cheng; Yu-Cheng Hsu; Wei Liang
      Abstract: Nest-dismantling behavior in birds is considered a fitness-maximizing adaptive behavior. Here, we compared nest-dismantling behavior and associated predation rates and nest characteristics in yellow-bellied prinia (Prinia flaviventris) on mainland China and the island of Taiwan during the breeding season from 2010 to 2014. Our results indicated that the proportion of individuals showing nest-dismantling behavior was higher on the island than on the mainland (29.3 vs. 0.8%). Nest-dismantling behavior was most frequent at the peak of the breeding season and mainly involved removing the upper halves of the nests and reusing the materials to construct new nests. The time taken to dismantle old nests and use the materials to build new ones was shorter than the time needed to build completely new nests. Nest predation, fidelity to the nest site, distance between old and new nests, and the costs of searching for nest materials could influence nest-dismantling behavior. Our results suggested that saving time and energy searching for new nest materials was the primary motivation behind nest-dismantling behavior in yellow-bellied prinia.
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0281-4
  • Territory size as a main driver of male-mating success in an Amazonian
           nurse frog ( Allobates paleovarzensis , Dendrobatoidea)
    • Authors: Sulamita Marques Correia da Rocha; Albertina Pimentel Lima; Igor Luis Kaefer
      Abstract: In polygamous mating systems, it is most often males that compete for the opposite sex, using strategies to provide access to as many females as possible. Females, on the other hand, constitute the sex that exerts the choice and so require a means of accessing the quality of a potential partner in comparison to its competitors. A common challenge in sexual selection studies is to identify the most relevant trait for mating success, since many are correlated with each other. In addition, little is known about how the female accesses the aspects related to male quality. In this context, we tested the role of different male characteristics on mating success in a natural environment using the Amazonian frog Allobates paleovarzensis as a model. A multiple linear regression model showed a positive relationship between territory size and number of male matings, while calling persistence was slightly related to the mating success. We did not detect a relation of the number of matings with the distance to the nearest body of water nor with male body size. Additionally, we observed that territory size was not related to calling persistence, but had a positive relation with the duration of the couple’s courting process. Thus, we conclude that: (1) territory size is the main determinant of male-mating success, and this is not correlated with the other attributes tested; and (2) females access the size of the males’ territory through the courting process that precedes oviposition.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0280-5
  • Agonistic behavior between introduced beaver ( Castor canadensis ) and
           endemic culpeo fox ( Pseudalopex culpaeus lycoides ) in Tierra del Fuego
           Island and implications
    • Authors: Tamara A. Tadich; Andrés J. Novaro; Pablo Kunzle; Mauricio Chacón; Miguel Barrientos; Cristóbal Briceño
      Abstract: Over the last 70 years, introduced beavers (Castor canadensis) have been successful in establishing and modifying the landscape of southernmost Patagonia. Habitat availability and lack of large carnivorous predators have contributed to this success. The Fuegian culpeo fox (Pseudalopex culpaeus lycoides) is an endangered subspecies and the largest native predator found in Tierra del Fuego Island. The predatory behavior of a culpeo towards a beaver was studied by analyzing a video footage recovered by tourists, and consumption of beaver was documented with camera traps. An ethogram of the predatory behavior sequence was developed and true durations and percentage of time allocated to each behavior were analyzed. The “capture” and “watch” behaviors had the highest durations within the predatory sequence (61.83 and 42.61 s, respectively), while “rest” was the most frequent maintenance behavior observed (93.82 s). The culpeo may provide the only natural population control for beavers, although up to date, there is no evidence to confirm this ecological role. Based upon photos from camera traps, we confirm the occurrence of fox feeding on beavers. This is the first description of the stages of the interaction between a Fuegian culpeo fox and a North American beaver under natural conditions. We discuss the ecological implications of this interaction.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0278-z
  • Are right- and left-handedness relevant as general categories in a
           non-industrialized country'
    • Authors: Winati Nurhayu; Sarah Nila; Michel Raymond; Bambang Suryobroto
      Abstract: Whether right- and left-handedness are defined as a function of individual tasks or represent general categories across tasks has been long debated. However, the literature on handedness primarily concerns industrialized societies in which manual work has been extensively automated, and the majority of individuals in those countries do not use their arms and hands intensively for highly specialized tasks on an everyday basis. Thus, the question remains whether results from those countries regarding handedness are transferable to countries where the majority of individuals are still exploiting their lateralized skills. Here, we sampled 506 individuals from 143 locations on the islands of Flores and Adonara, Indonesia, to assess their hand preference for and hand performance on several tasks in order to evaluate, in a non-industrialized country, the level of manual specialization and the relevance of right- or left-handedness as general categories. Generalized-declared handedness was consistent with task-declared handedness across 10 specific tasks and with a measure of strength and a measure of skilfulness, suggesting that general handedness is a valid concept. This hand specialization for tasks is discussed in the context of intense and daily tool use in this agricultural society.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0279-y
  • Predator recognition and differential behavioural responses of adult wood
           warblers Phylloscopus sibilatrix
    • Authors: Marta Maziarz; Charlotte Piggott; Malcolm Burgess
      Abstract: Birds often engage in nest defence against predators to improve breeding success, but defence efficiency requires the capability to assess the threat level posed by potential predators. For species with low breeding-site tenacity, which may encounter varying occurrence and density of predators in different areas, threat recognition could be compromised due to naivety, and so predator recognition may focus on broad key features to diminish the risk of misidentification. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by recording behavioural reactions of the nomadic wood warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix to objects reflecting various levels of threat: least weasel and Eurasian jay taxidermy mounts, an inanimate object and an empty display mount. To assess actual nest predators, we used remote cameras to record predation events at wood warbler nests. As in other studies in Western Europe, Eurasian jay was found to be the main nest predator, with occasional predation by least weasel. The reaction of adult warblers to the models was generally to remain silent and on nests during the incubation stage presumably due to the need to maintain efficient nest camouflage and concealment. During the nestling stage, behavioural responses of adult warblers, calling and suspended feeding of young, showed the strongest effects from the jay taxidermy mount, moderate to the weasel and weakest to the inanimate object and empty mount. As the reaction of wood warblers reflected the degree of genuine threat posed by the predators depicted by the models, we conclude that predator recognition may be present in this species.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0275-2
  • Effect of female group size on harem male roosting behavior of the Indian
           short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx
    • Authors: Valliyappan Mahandran; Chinnaperamanoor Madhappan Murugan; Parthasarathy Thiruchenthil Nathan
      Abstract: Mate guarding has been known to incur costs and cause constraints for harem males in many polygynous species. However, the effect of female group size on the harem male’s time budget in bats has received very limited attention. The Indian short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx, exhibits resource defense polygyny, in which tent roosting males construct tents and defend multiple female bats. We studied the effect of female group size on three aspects of harem male behavior: social grooming by reciprocal licking, tent maintenance, and tent guarding in the mast tree Polyalthia longifolia. In the process of reciprocal licking, all the bats in the harem were drenched in saliva before emergence, and this activity was positively and significantly correlated with female group size. Once females departed for foraging, harem males remained in their respective tents at night-time between intermittent foraging bouts and engaged in tent maintenance and tent guarding. Time invested by harem male bats in tent maintenance and tent guarding were positively and significantly correlated with female group size. Harem males extended their presence in tent by utilizing tents as feeding roosts. Female group size also influenced the emergence time of harem male bats, where males with largest group emerged later than did the smallest group. Likewise, harem male with the smallest group had more time available for foraging than the male with the largest group. Findings of this study suggest that having a larger harem may indeed be costly for the males by reducing their foraging time.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0276-1
  • Socio-genetic correlates of unbiased sex dispersal in a population of
           black capuchin monkeys ( Sapajus nigritus )
    • Authors: Marcos Tokuda; Milene M. Martins; Patrícia Izar
      Abstract: Most social mammal species exhibit male-biased dispersal. Sex bias in dispersal leads to a higher degree of relatedness among individuals of the philopatric sex, thus an atypical dispersal pattern might lead to deviations in the typical within-group kinship structure. Kinship, in turn, influences patterns of social interactions, as widely evident by kin-biased behaviors. We investigated the link between dispersal, relatedness structure, and sociopositive interactions established by adult females of black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus) living in a population that experiences female dispersal, an unusual pattern for capuchin monkeys. The study was conducted in Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho (PECB), within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We addressed dispersal and relatedness patterns by genotyping 20 adults of 3 groups across 9 microsatellite loci. We also sampled the monkeys’ behavior and compared spatial association frequencies and rates of grooming among same- and opposite-sex dyads. There was no difference between males and females in genetic parameters; both males and females show low coefficients of relatedness indicating that neither sex is consistently philopatric. The mean pairwise coefficient of relatedness for co-resident females was not higher than that for co-resident males. Compared to other populations of capuchin monkeys, female bond was weak, as evident by lower spatial association frequencies, reduced rates of grooming and lack of correlation between coefficients of relatedness and measures of dyadic sociopositive interactions. Our findings thus confirm that female dispersal is a habitual process in the capuchin population of PECB, and that, as expected, dispersal by females strongly influences the relatedness structure of the population as well as the affiliative relationships among female groupmates.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0277-0
  • Effects of social isolation on growth, stress response, and immunity of
    • Authors: Mohammad Navid Forsatkar; Omid Safari; Cristiano Boiti
      Abstract: Stressful housing conditions like social isolation have been shown to profoundly affect the physiology and health of various organisms which is rarely addressed in fish species. In the present study, we used a shoaling species, zebrafish, to investigate the stress reactivity of grouped and individually housed fish. We also hypothesized if isolation is a stressful condition may disrupt growth performance and innate immune response of individuals. To this end, fish were housed individually (social isolated treatment) or in groups of five fish (control treatment) for 60 days. Growth indices of fish were not affected by social isolation. Sixty-day social isolation did insignificant effect on baseline cortisol levels of specimens; however, individually housed zebrafish showed lower plasma cortisol to chasing stress than the control grouped fish. On the contrary, exposure to predator caused higher cortisol levels in social isolated fish. Serum lysozyme activity of isolated individuals was significantly lower than control fish, but activity of serum complement remained unchanged. Our results represent evidences that zebrafish experienced social isolation showed broad changes in physiological and immunological functions which may affect the quality of life.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0270-7
  • Behavioural and life history responses to predation risk by common frog
           tadpoles exposed to two predators during ontogeny
    • Authors: Andrea Gazzola; Alessandro Balestrieri; Michele Ghitti; Daniele Paganelli; Paolo Galeotti
      Abstract: The presence of predators can induce changes in both the morphology and behaviour of Anuran larvae, affecting both their size and developmental stage at metamorphosis and, consequently, the fitness of adult individuals. Tadpoles have been shown to be capable of finely tuning their defensive responses according to the actual risk perceived, which is expected to vary according to the prey-to-predator size ratio. In this study, we exposed common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles (Gosner stages 28–30), for a period of 2 weeks, to the non-lethal presence of dragonfly larvae (Anax imperator) and backswimmers (Notonecta glauca). In such a narrow window of time, we expected behavioural responses to be similar for both predators and exposure to predation risk to have negligible effects on tadpole development and weight. Overall, tadpoles increased hiding behaviour and were less active when predators were present in the experimental mesocosms, but behavioural responses were constrained to the early phase of the ontogeny and were no longer used when tadpoles reached a threshold size. Developmental rate slightly slowed down for predator treatments in comparison to controls, possibly as a consequence of energetic investment in unrecorded morphological defences. Although variation in laboratory conditions and protocols makes it hard to compare the results of different experiments, our results contribute to verify the consistency of behavioural responses in Anuran larvae.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0266-3
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