Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3447 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (267 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (143 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1643 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (50 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (269 journals)
    - BOTANY (250 journals)
    - CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (32 journals)
    - ENTOMOLOGY (75 journals)
    - GENETICS (171 journals)
    - MICROBIOLOGY (286 journals)
    - MICROSCOPY (12 journals)
    - ORNITHOLOGY (29 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (73 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (147 journals)

BIOLOGY (1643 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biologica Venezuelica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Scientiae Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biosystems     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de Biología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Research & Review in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bacterial Empire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
BIO-SITE : Biologi dan Sains Terapan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BIODIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
acta ethologica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.769
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1437-9546 - ISSN (Online) 0873-9749
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2625 journals]
  • Does acoustic environment modify boldness and related life-history traits
           in field cricket nymphs'
    • Abstract: Abstract Between-individual differences in personality and life-history traits can arise from both genetic and environmental factors, with the latter possibly reflecting contrasting individual experiences during ontogeny. It is yet unclear how the acoustic environment may affect the development of boldness and related life-history traits such as growth rate, maturation age and longevity in species that normally rely on acoustic cues to adjust their behaviours. We studied if long-term exposure of field cricket Gryllus integer nymphs to traffic noise or acoustic conspecific signalling would affect the level or repeatability of boldness or life history traits. An integrative boldness score was statistically significantly repeatable in control and cricket sound groups, but not in the traffic noise group. However, our data did not show any effect of acoustic treatment on individual boldness. Acoustic treatments had no effects on life-history traits, either. Future studies are needed to confirm whether the acoustic environment could affect the development of personality and behavioural consistency.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
       
  • Role of venom quantity in the feeding behavior of Jaguajir rochae
           (Scorpiones: Buthidae)
    • Abstract: Abstract Animal venom is composed of a complex mixture of protein-rich chemicals. Synthesis of animal venom incurs a high metabolic cost and is a prolonged process; consequently, animals use their venom cautiously and economically. Some studies have shown that venomous animals modulate the amount and/or type of venom used depending on certain factors, such as prey size or the intensity of predation threat. Here, we investigated how the quantity of venom that is available for use by the scorpion Jaguajir rochae interferes with its choice of prey. We used two types of prey of contrasting size (small 200–300-mg and large 600–700-mg cockroaches). The results showed that the amount of venom influences the feeding behavior of this species. Most scorpions without venom exhibited a low interest when large prey was present, but frequently attacked small prey. The scorpions also showed a distinct pattern in the time between venom extraction and the initiation of hunting behavior. In conclusion, J. rochae is able to perceive differences between small and large prey and make decisions regarding venom usage, supporting the “venom optimization hypothesis” (or “venom metering hypothesis”), by minimizing the venom use due to it being an energetically expensive resource.
      PubDate: 2019-03-09
       
  • Seasonal pattern of agonistic and marking behaviour of adult and young
           pampas deer ( Ozotoceros bezoarticus ) males
    • Abstract: Abstract Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) is an endangered species form the southern region of South America. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the seasonal changes in agonistic and marking behaviours in adult and young male pampas deer. The study was conducted in two groups of animals: six adult (4 to 6 years old) and six young (1.5 years old) males. Agonistic and marking behaviours were weekly recorded during 1 year. Both followed a seasonal pattern, closely related to the androgen concentration annual pattern and to the antler cycle. The frequency of both types of behaviours increased before or at the beginning of the rut. In general, the age of the males did not modify greatly the pattern of the agonistic behaviours. Adult males marked more frequently than young males, especially with the preorbital gland—a behaviour also used as a visual signal for other males in other deer species—also with a clear seasonal pattern. Overall, we concluded that pampas deer males have a seasonal pattern of agonistic and marking behaviours closely associated with the reproductive seasonal pattern.
      PubDate: 2019-02-26
       
  • Sex/age differences in foraging, vigilance and alertness in a social
           herbivore
    • Abstract: Abstract Antipredator strategies and social factors may influence vigilance behaviour in herbivores. Vigilance can differ between sex/age classes, but information is contradictory in the existing literature. We investigated sex/age differences of vigilance in fallow deer Dama dama, in a Mediterranean area. Females (> 1 year old) showed a lower proportion of time foraging and a greater alertness rate than males (≥ 1 years old). Decrease of vigilance with increasing group size was observed for females and adult males, but not for young and subadult males, suggesting that group-size effects on vigilance were not consistent across individuals of different sex/age classes. Most likely, females tended to reduce the predation risk for their offspring through a comparatively greater duration and frequency of vigilance. Young/subadult males showed a greater alertness than adult males, which may depend on intraspecific competition in larger groups. Both antipredator and social factors could explain sex/age differences of vigilance in fallow deer.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
       
  • Fifty shades of silk: sexual behavior and bridal veil deposition in the
           spider Ctenus longipes
    • Abstract: Abstract Males of some spider species lay silk threads on the female’s body during courtship and/or copulation. There are several hypotheses trying to explain the function of this behavior, known as bridal veil deposition. One of them proposes that bridal veils could occur to immobilize females and prevent sexual cannibalism when females are larger than males, or that they could inhibit female aggressive behavior. Ctenus longipes is a wandering and nocturnal spider that inhabits ravine forests in South America. The aim of this work was to describe in detail courtship and copulatory behaviors in C. longipes and confirm the occurrence of a bridal veil, discussing its possible functions in this species. For that purpose, we exposed 13 virgin male-female pairs at laboratory conditions and recorded courtship, copulation, and post-copulation behaviors. We also measured body and leg size of all individuals to estimate sexual size dimorphism. In all the cases, the male deposited silk on top of the female’s body in the form of a bridal veil, covering the anterior carapace and forelegs. The data did not support the hypothesis that bridal veil deposition is related to sexual cannibalism avoidance because females were not immobilized during mating, larger females did not present longer silk bindings, and we did not observe aggressions in any case. Future studies where males are prevented from producing silk will allow a better understanding of whether or not the veil is involved in avoiding cannibalism in C. longipes.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
       
  • Behavioral response of the endemic Martino’s vole Dinaromys bogdanovi
           (Martino 1922) to environmental complexity
    • Abstract: Abstract The Martino’s vole (Dinaromys bogdanovi) is a rare species that lives in differently structured karst habitats, varying from open rocky plains to deep fissures, mostly residing under boulders and in crevices. Populations of the species are declining, probably due to its strict habitat preferences and competition with the European snow vole. Since the species is difficult to study in the wild, we tested its behavioral response to a differently complex environment and novel object presence in captivity. We exposed 14 individuals to differentially complex setups, from open and unsheltered to rocky with covered tunnels. We measured the effect of the presented setup and season on vole behavior. Analysis showed seasonal differences with higher movement frequency and longer time spent still during the breeding season, and a higher number of attempts due to the lack of vole entry into the experimental terrarium in the non-breeding season. Additionally, movement significantly differentiated between an open and simple setup in comparison to more complex ones, with higher frequencies of moving and peeping and the duration of peeping in the simple setup, indicating restlessness. We also found significant differences between the novel object and control setup. The results of this study could be useful for future assessment of the influence of habitat complexity on mobility in the wild. Moreover, this is the first study on the behavior of this endemic and rare rodent.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
       
  • Living on the edge: thermoregulatory behaviour of South American sea
           lions, Otaria flavescens , at the northern limit of their Atlantic
           distribution
    • Abstract: Abstract Terrestrial reproduction presents a thermoregulatory challenge for marine mammals, especially in a context of global warming. Pinnipeds, especially otariids, differ from other marine mammals in that most reproductive processes occur on land. Rocky rookeries rarely provide thermoregulatory resources (shade, pools and wet sand), so pinnipeds reduce thermal stress through thermoregulatory behaviour such as flipper exposure, flipper movement and maintenance of individual distance. Our objective was to analyse climate correlates of thermoregulatory behaviour of Southern sea lions Otaria flavescens in a colony located at the warmest end of its northern distribution on the Atlantic coast of South America. We conducted summer behavioural observations of juveniles/sub-adult (less than 150 kg) and adult (300 kg) males in the Cabo Polonio rookery, Uruguay. Solar radiation and humidity were positively correlated with thermoregulatory behaviour of sea lions, while ambient temperature had a marginal effect and wind speed had no significant effect. There were no statistically significant differences between age classes in thermoregulation activity. These and previous results on thermoregulatory behaviour of pinnipeds open the possibility that pinnipeds can be limited in abundance or distribution if climate change alters solar radiation in terrestrial rookeries during the breeding season.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
       
  • First experimental evidence that proteins from femoral glands convey
           identity-related information in a lizard
    • Abstract: Abstract Transferring identity-related information (IRI) to conspecifics may give advantage in effectively tuning intraspecific behaviour. Some lizard species use the secretions of specialized epidermal glands (femoral or cloacal) to convey IRI. Those secretions are made of lipids and proteins, the former been suggested to inform about signaller quality, the latter suspected to communicate IRI to conspecifics. Here, we tested the hypothesis that proteins broadcast IRI by analysing the movement patterns of 28 male common wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) under strictly controlled experimental conditions. Lizards were videotaped in plastic terraria where the substrate scent was manipulated by filling it with a solution bearing (i) the proteins extracted from the secretions of the tested lizard (SELF); (ii) the proteins from a never-met donor from other nearby populations (NON-SELF); and (iii) the solvent alone. Lizards showed higher behavioural response to the NON-SELF treatment with respect to both CTRL and SELF ones. Further, protein concentration did not affect behavioural response, suggesting an all-or-nothing effect. Both results agree with the hypothesis that proteins may be used in chemical communication and convey IRI, demonstrating for the first time that they can be used as intraspecific signal.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
       
  • Mating scars among sharks: evidence of coercive mating'
    • Abstract: Abstract On rare occasions, during mating season among sharks, ‘mating scars’ appear on female sharks’ bodies caused by the males holding onto them. The low frequency of sharks bearing such scars indicates that those markers are not part of regular mating efforts. These scars are mostly deeper cuts and punctures, indicating a more forceful motivation such as coercive mating from the male’s side. We discuss scenarios based on mating scars from three Carcharhinid species, describe and explain the arrangement of these bite scars, and consider plausible mating strategies used by males, including coercive mating.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
       
  • Does fluctuating asymmetry of hind legs impose costs on escape speed in
           house crickets ( Acheta domesticus )'
    • Abstract: Abstract Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is often thought to be an indicator of developmental stability—an individual’s ability to resist environmental and genetic stress during development—and thus demonstrates phenotypic quality. Research on the influence of FA on locomotion has often found that high FA in legs and wings impedes locomotor performance. Crickets rely on their six limbs to flee from predators and parasitoids. Hind legs are of particular importance during escape as they contribute to running speed. FA research overwhelmingly focuses on its impact on sexual selection, with little on locomotion and only one study of the impact of FA on invertebrate locomotion. Here, we examined the effect of FA in hind legs on the escape speed of house crickets (Acheta domesticus) and the locomotor costs of hind limb autotomy. Unexpectedly, our findings indicate that FA of hind legs have no influence on the escape speed of either male or female A. domesticus. This is inconsistent with most research conducted on FA and vertebrate locomotion that indicates FA negatively impacts locomotion, but is consistent with the only research examining FA and invertebrate locomotion. Our other findings were more congruent with the literature on other Orthoptera, as body size was found to have an influence on the escape speeds of intact females and those that lost two hind limbs. Whilst our results indicate that FA did not influence locomotion, this may not be the case for other invertebrate taxa where variation in FA may have an important role in natural selection.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
       
  • Flock-mate familiarity affects note composition of chickadee calls
    • Abstract: Abstract Recent theory in animal communication predicts that a group’s communicative complexity is connected to its social complexity. Social complexity has typically been measured using group size as an index, with larger groups thought to be more complex than smaller groups. However, group size alone does not account for other social differences that could influence the diversity of interactions within a group that may influence communication. In this study, we asked if other social factors could influence communicative behavior in groups by testing the influence of group composition in the Carolina chickadees, Poecile carolinensis. We recorded the vocal behavior of four wild-caught captive groups of familiar chickadees (birds caught from the same naturally occurring flock) and four wild-caught captive groups of unfamiliar chickadees (birds caught from all different naturally occurring flocks) and then analyzed vocalizations by assessing the note types birds used in their chickadee calls. Flocks of familiar chickadees used fewer introductory notes, more C notes, and fewer hybrid notes in their calls compared to flocks of unfamiliar chickadees. Communicative complexity, measured by zero- and first-order uncertainty, did not differ between conditions. We conclude that note composition of call, but not call complexity, varies with flock-mate familiarity.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
       
  • Territoriality and agonistic behavior of subterranean Copionodontinae
           catfish (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae) from Brazil
    • Abstract: Abstract Aggressive behavior may increase or decrease in troglobitic fishes, compared to epigean ones. Herein, we present the agonistic behavior repertoire and the causes that determine the dominance of two Brazilian cave catfishes: Glaphyropoma spinosum and putative undescribed Copionodon species. Both belong to Copionodontinae group, a small basal Trichomycteridae subfamily, and coexist in sandstone caves from Chapada Diamantina, northeastern Brazil. The results were compared with those exhibited by an epigean and syntopic species, Copionodon pecten. The fishes were paired and filmed until dominance was established; frequency of attacks was quantified and statistically analyzed. Cave copionodontine is one of the most hostile among subterranean fishes, with high frequency and complexity of aggressive components, including five new behavior components. Determinant factors for establishing dominance are body size, physical strength, and territoriality. Dominance is probably maintained by avoidance behavior by the subordinate and continuous attacks by the dominant. They are highly intolerant to conspecific, which may be a consequence of territoriality or feeding context. Two hypotheses may explain the agonistic behavior of cave species: (1) It is the maintenance of their ancestral behavior, being plesiomorphic in relation to the remaining Trichomycteridae subfamilies, corroborated by phototactic and spontaneous behavior; (2) It is an autapomorphy for Copionodontinae, due to new evolutionary acquisitions. The epigean C. pecten, in contrast, is much less aggressive, and the high tolerance to conspecific and the absence of accentuated territoriality may be explained by the food and/or space abundance in its natural habitats.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
       
  • Non-breeding territoriality and the effect of territory size on aggression
           in the weakly electric fish, Gymnotus omarorum
    • Abstract: Abstract Agonistic behavior involves the displays that arise when conspecifics compete for valuable resources such as territory. After conflict resolution, dominants obtain priority access to the resource while subordinates lose it. We aimed to evaluate how agonistic encounters mediate the acquisition of different sized territories in the weakly electric fish, Gymnotus omarorum, a species that displays a well-documented non-breeding agonistic behavior very unusual among teleosts. When tested in intrasexual and intersexual dyads in small arenas, a sex-independent dominant-subordinate status emerged after highly aggressive contests in which subordinates signaled submission by retreating and emitting submissive electric signals. We staged dyadic agonistic encounters in a large arena, in which the initial interindividual distance resembled the one observed in nature. We observed the emergence of a dominant-subordinate status after longer but milder contests with rare electric signaling of submission. We found the persistence of dominance over time with no outcome reversion. We observed how dominants exclude subordinates from their conquered resource during all the recording time. Although the territorial behavior of Gymnotus has been put forth since pioneer reports, this is the first study to show how agonistic behavior depends on the territory size in this genus. Agonistic encounters of G. omarorum in the small arena resemble the characteristics of violent-like behaviors. The ease of shifting from mild to high levels of aggression due to confinement, together with the use of electrical signaling of submission, makes this species an excellent model to explore new perspectives in territoriality assessment.
      PubDate: 2019-01-22
       
  • Same-sex courtship behaviors in male-biased populations: evidence for the
           mistaken identity hypothesis
    • Abstract: Abstract Same-sex sexual behaviors (SSSB) have been recorded in nearly all major animal groups and are often found in populations with skewed sex ratios (SR). Here, we study the role of sex ratios in the frequency of SSSB to better understand the conditions that give rise to such puzzling behaviors. We observed SSSB in multiple populations of the common fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) after manipulation of sex ratios. We also recorded male responses after being pursued by other males. We found more male-male sexual interactions in male-biased populations and a significant decrease of these behaviors after consecutive days of observation. Males pursued by other males reacted to such encounters. Our results provide support for the mistaken identity hypothesis, in which males are unable to differentiate between sexes at first encounter. With this work, we help elucidate possible social conditions that facilitate the appearance of such intriguing behaviors in nature.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
       
  • Humans do not perceive conspecifics with a greater exposed sclera as more
           trustworthy: a preliminary cross-ethnic study of the function of the
           overexposed human sclera
    • Abstract: Abstract Understanding the adaptive function of the unique morphology of the human eye, in particular its overexposed white sclera, may have profound implications for the fields of evolutionary behavioural science, and specifically the areas of human interaction and social cognition. Existing hypotheses, such as the cooperative eye hypothesis, have attracted a lot of attention but remain untested. Here, we: (i) analysed variation in the visible sclera size in humans from different ethnic backgrounds and (ii) examined whether intraspecific variation of exposed sclera size is related to trust. We used 596 facial photographs of men and women, assessed for perceived trustworthiness, from four different self-declared racial backgrounds. The size of the exposed sclera was measured as the ratio between the width of the exposed eyeball and the diameter of the iris (sclera size index, SSI). The SSI did not differ in the four examined races and was sexually monomorphic except for Whites, where males had a larger SSI than females. In general, the association between the SSI and trustworthiness was statistically insignificant. An inverted U-shaped link was found only in White women, yet the strength of the effect of interaction between sex and race was very small. Our results did not provide evidence for the link between exposed sclera size and trustworthiness. We conclude that further investigation is necessary in order to properly assess the hypotheses relating to the socially relevant functions of overexposed sclera.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
       
  • Cooperative foraging in neotropical pseudoscorpions: effects of prey
           changes on behavioral adjustments of colonies
    • Abstract: Abstract The pseudoscorpion Paratemnoides nidificator is a generalist predator that captures large arthropods that live on tree trunks. Few pseudoscorpions species show some degree of sociality. We investigated how colonies of the pseudoscorpion P. nidificator adjust their cooperative capture behavior under a situation of changing prey types as a simulation of variation in prey availability. We hypothesized that colonies would be more efficient at prey capture under repeated exposure to the same prey, and that the change in the availability of prey would be followed by new behavioral adjustments to adequately exploit the new prey. Eight experimental colonies housed in the laboratory received repetitions of three different ant species as prey. The number of pseudoscorpions attacking the prey, the number of behavioral acts, and the time expended subduing prey were evaluated as measures of prey capture performance, in relation to repetitive exposure to the same prey and also in relation to prey type changes. However, only individuals’ recruitment significantly responded to prey type exposure. Prey capture behavior was heterogeneous among colonies, resulting in highly variable behavioral responses. Colonies showed a tendency toward increasing capture success through repeated prey type exposure. However, 50% of the colonies were unable to capture the new prey type and died of starvation. Although it is a generalist predator, prey capture behavior could depend on different coordination components for subduing and handling large prey. Therefore, changes in prey availability could cause the attenuation of a cooperative relationship in some colonies, making them more prone to failure during capture.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
       
  • Water jet: a simple method for classical conditioning in fish
    • Abstract: Abstract Classical conditioning in animals is a learning procedure involving a biologically relevant stimulus paired with a previously neutral stimulus. In fish, light and sound are frequently used as previously neutral stimuli for conditioning tests. However, in laboratory experiments with replicates, such stimuli may influence the responses of fish in nearby aquariums. Herein, we developed a simple applicable methodology for classical conditioning in fish that prevents this type of influence. We isolated fish in individual aquariums and introduced a water jet that caused localized water movement, followed by the introduction of a food pellet. These procedures were repeated for each fish for 20 days. After 14 days, all fish were conditioned. Moreover, in subsequent probe trials (memory retention tests) conducted within 32 days after conditioning procedures, fish responded accordingly. These findings corroborate the applicability and usefulness of the method tested herein especially under lab conditions. Therefore, we suggest that a simple water jet is a useful and reliable tool for fish conditioning in future studies.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
       
  • European rabbits recognise conspecifics in their predators’ diets
    • Abstract: Abstract Rabbits can successfully avoid their enemies by evaluating the risk of predation. They have various defensive strategies, such as morphological adaptations and behaviours patterns, which enable them to perceive their predators and thus reduce the risk of predation. It is well documented that rabbits recognise the scats of terrestrial predators and avoid those areas in which they are present. However, few studies show whether the prey species can recognise the presence of congeners in carnivores’ scats, which would allow them to identify their predators in a more efficient manner. We have carried out a comparative analysis of the use of space made by rabbits on plots on which a neutral odour (water) or the odours of the ferrets’ scats that had consumed either rabbit or another mammal (beef) were applied. Our results showed a lower number of rabbit pellets on those plots containing predator odours than on the control plots. During the first 6 days after applying the first odour, the number of rabbit pellets was lower on plots on which rabbit had been included in the diet when compared with scats obtained from a beef diet. However, no differences between the two experimental plots were recorded during the third visit (9 days after applying the first odour). Our results suggest that rabbits may be able to detect congeners in their predators’ scats, thus leading them to, in the short term, avoid areas in which their terrestrial predators’ diet is based on conspecifics, probably as the result of them perceiving a higher risk of predation.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
       
  • Do sires and juvenile male mice (C57BL/6) contribute to the rearing of the
           offspring'
    • Abstract: Abstract Copulation and/or cohabitation with a pregnant female facilitate paternal behavior in male mice. However, their contribution to the rearing of the offspring is still not well understood. Our aims were to investigate the behavior of sires toward own or alien pups; the immediate consequences of the presence of fathers on the offspring and the behavior of the mother; and whether the exposure of juvenile males to newborn siblings, in an overlapping litters context, facilitates paternal behavior in C57BL/6 mice. We found that sires behaved paternally toward alien pups at both postpartum days 3 and 7; did not affect the behavior of the mother (e.g., licking and grooming, retrieval behavior, time in the nest, and crouching postures); and reduced the time offspring stayed alone in the nest. The exposure to newborn siblings did not promote paternal behavior in juvenile males. Therefore, sires are more paternal than usually described in the literature for laboratory mice, suggesting a facultative role in the rearing of the offspring. However, juvenile male mice, in contrast to juvenile females, could be adapted to leave the nest earlier without major contribution to the offspring.
      PubDate: 2018-10-01
       
  • Zebrafish “personality” influences sensitivity to magnetic
           fields
    • Authors: Alessandro Cresci; Rosario De Rosa; Silvia Fraissinet; Martina Scanu; Nathan F. Putman; Claudio Agnisola
      Abstract: Abstract How animals integrate different sensory information for orientation is a complex process involving interactions between a variety of internal and external factors. Due to this complexity, each component of a suite of factors is typically studied in isolation. Here, we examine how an internal factor (personality of fish) influences the response of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to the magnetic field, while swimming in a flow chamber. Our previous work demonstrated that the orientation to the water current (rheotaxis) of zebrafish individuals is influenced by variations of the magnetic field only when fish are part of a shoal. In this study, we evaluated the rheotactic behavior of 20 fish, grouped in shoals of “proactive” or “reactive” individuals, under magnetic fields of different directions. We found that the magnetic field influenced at which water speed rheotaxis was elicited in zebrafish with “reactive” personality, but not in those with “proactive” personality. These results suggest that fish personality influences response to or weighing of sensory inputs and provides some insight on the variation in behavioral responses to environmental stimuli in both laboratory and natural settings.
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-018-0292-9
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 3.235.66.217
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-