for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2996 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (235 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (107 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1424 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (46 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (218 journals)
    - BOTANY (220 journals)
    - CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (28 journals)
    - ENTOMOLOGY (63 journals)
    - GENETICS (162 journals)
    - MICROBIOLOGY (255 journals)
    - MICROSCOPY (10 journals)
    - ORNITHOLOGY (25 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (70 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (133 journals)

BIOLOGY (1424 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversidad Colombia     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 306)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Biology Methods and Protocols     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover acta ethologica
  [SJR: 0.465]   [H-I: 23]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1437-9546 - ISSN (Online) 0873-9749
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Advertisement call variation and individual acoustic distinctiveness in
           the explosive breeding toad Peltophryne cataulaciceps (Anura: Bufonidae)
    • Authors: Roberto Alonso Bosch; Ariel Rodríguez; Maike Hernández Quinta
      Pages: 197 - 205
      Abstract: Abstract In this contribution, we offer new information about the advertisement call of Peltophryne cataulaciceps, an endemic toad species from Cuba and the smallest bufonid from the West Indies. We measured seven acoustic properties from 17 males and analyzed the variability at the within-individual and between-individual levels, using coefficients of variation, type II ANOVAs, and multivariate analysis. Dominant frequency was distinctly less variable within individuals than the rest of the acoustic properties; call rise time showed the highest variability. Variability between individuals was higher for pulse rate, call duration, and dominant frequency, and the CVb/CVw ratios showed that these acoustic properties are more reliable for individual distinctiveness. Discriminant function analyses assigned 54.1% of the calls to the correct individual, and this classification success increased when smaller groups of individuals were considered in the analysis. Results are compared with studies addressing individual acoustic distinctiveness in anurans. We support that the patterns of advertisement call variation within and among co-occurring males differ among explosive and prolonged breeding species/populations, but additional case studies including other explosive breeding species are needed.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0261-8
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Nightly calling patterns in a Neotropical gladiator frog
    • Authors: Tailise Marques Dias; Cynthia P. A. Prado; Rogério Pereira Bastos
      Pages: 207 - 214
      Abstract: Abstract In anurans, vocalization is the primary communication form and acoustic parameters are influenced by climatic conditions, but also by social contexts. We investigated calling site use and within-individual variation of acoustic parameters throughout the night in the gladiator-frog Hypsiboas goianus. We expected that large males would call closer to the water and at higher perches to avoid dehydration and maximize sound propagation. Furthermore, we tested the prediction that males would emit more aggressive calls early in the night and more advertisement calls late at night. Male size was not correlated with either distance from the water or perch height. However, as expected, males of H. goianus adopted a calling strategy that consisted of emitting more aggressive calls early in the night and more advertisement calls later in the night. Furthermore, repetition rate and interval between notes of the aggressive calls and repetition rate of the advertisement calls showed within-individual variation throughout the night that agreed with our expectations. The calling strategy of H. goianus is probably related to the establishment of calling sites early in the night and an investment in female attraction in the middle of the night when males’ aggressive interactions have faded away, or due to habituation increasing the males’ aggressive thresholds. This is the first study investigating within-individual patterns of acoustic parameters of calls throughout the night for anurans.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0263-6
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Chemical sex recognition in the harvestman Discocyrtus prospicuus
           (Arachnida: Opiliones)
    • Authors: Nathália S. Fernandes; Estefanía Stanley; Fernando G. Costa; Carlos A. Toscano-Gadea; Rodrigo H. Willemart
      Pages: 215 - 221
      Abstract: Abstract Several arachnid species use chemicals to detect sexual partners. In harvestmen, there are evidences that chemicals may play a role in intraspecific communication. Using the behavior of Discocyrtus prospicuus (Holmberg 1876), whose males expose the penis to females before they engage in mating posture, we tested if males detect females by contact chemoreception (chemicals left on the substrate) and if males detect females by olfaction. First, we exposed males to three experimental groups, where males had to choose between two substrates: female chemicals/blank control; male chemicals/blank control; female/male chemicals. Then, we gave males access to volatiles of males, females, and control simultaneously. We predicted that males would expose the penis when approaching volatiles and chemicals deposited on the substrate by females. We also tested if males spent more time close to the source of female volatiles and on the substrate with female chemicals and if males tapped the substrate with female chemicals for more time than the others. Finally, we put males and females together to observe if males would expose the penis upon touching the female’s cuticle. Most of our predictions were not supported, though males did tap for more time when exposed to female cues instead of male cues and exposed the penis in 70% of the observations when interacting with the female but only after touching her. Our data does not support olfaction as a way to detect females and corroborate the idea that contact chemicals, either on the substrate or on female’s cuticle, play an important role in the detection and recognition of the opposite sex. This is the first evidence in harvestmen that males may react differently to female/male chemicals.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0264-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Immune challenge of female great tits at nests affects provisioning and
           body conditions of their offspring
    • Authors: Emilia Grzędzicka
      Pages: 223 - 233
      Abstract: Abstract The trade-off between animal’s parental reproductive effort and survival is still poorly understood. Parental allocation between the workload during breeding attempts and the parents’ own body conditions can be assessed through the offspring quality. Here, I questioned whether the immune responsiveness of female great tits may be considered as a mediator of this trade-off. Specifically, I tested whether (1) the parental reproductive effort decreases, (2) the food composition provided to chicks changes, and (3) whether the nestling immunocompetence and body mass decrease after experimental immunisation. Two populations of great tit Parus major occupying nest boxes were studied in Niepołomice Forest and Krzyszkowice Forest (Southern Poland) in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Three days after hatching, half of the females were challenged with sheep red blood cells (SRBC), while other females were injected with phosphate-buffered saline PBS (control). Six days later, food provided by the parents was collected from nestlings. After another 2 days, the offspring’s body mass was measured and wing web swelling in response to an additional phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) injection. In both years, immunocompetence and in 2012 also body mass in the offspring of SRBC-immunised mothers were lower than in control nestlings, indicating a cost of mounting the immune response in the female. Six days after the start of the female treatment, the number of caterpillars and the volume of food items provided by parents to chicks were higher, whereas the number of spiders was lower in nests with SRBC treatment than in control ones. This might be explained by compensational parental feeding after recovery from the inflammation of a female. Thus, the trade-off between parental effort and survival of parents is mediated by the costs incurred for their immunity and can be assessed by the amount and quality of food provided to the nestlings and the offspring condition.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0265-4
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Predator recognition and differential behavioural responses of adult wood
           warblers Phylloscopus sibilatrix
    • Authors: Marta Maziarz; Charlotte Piggott; Malcolm Burgess
      Abstract: Abstract Birds often engage in nest defence against predators to improve breeding success, but defence efficiency requires the capability to assess the threat level posed by potential predators. For species with low breeding-site tenacity, which may encounter varying occurrence and density of predators in different areas, threat recognition could be compromised due to naivety, and so predator recognition may focus on broad key features to diminish the risk of misidentification. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by recording behavioural reactions of the nomadic wood warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix to objects reflecting various levels of threat: least weasel and Eurasian jay taxidermy mounts, an inanimate object and an empty display mount. To assess actual nest predators, we used remote cameras to record predation events at wood warbler nests. As in other studies in Western Europe, Eurasian jay was found to be the main nest predator, with occasional predation by least weasel. The reaction of adult warblers to the models was generally to remain silent and on nests during the incubation stage presumably due to the need to maintain efficient nest camouflage and concealment. During the nestling stage, behavioural responses of adult warblers, calling and suspended feeding of young, showed the strongest effects from the jay taxidermy mount, moderate to the weasel and weakest to the inanimate object and empty mount. As the reaction of wood warblers reflected the degree of genuine threat posed by the predators depicted by the models, we conclude that predator recognition may be present in this species.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0275-2
       
  • Effect of female group size on harem male roosting behavior of the Indian
           short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx
    • Authors: Valliyappan Mahandran; Chinnaperamanoor Madhappan Murugan; Parthasarathy Thiruchenthil Nathan
      Abstract: Abstract Mate guarding has been known to incur costs and cause constraints for harem males in many polygynous species. However, the effect of female group size on the harem male’s time budget in bats has received very limited attention. The Indian short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx, exhibits resource defense polygyny, in which tent roosting males construct tents and defend multiple female bats. We studied the effect of female group size on three aspects of harem male behavior: social grooming by reciprocal licking, tent maintenance, and tent guarding in the mast tree Polyalthia longifolia. In the process of reciprocal licking, all the bats in the harem were drenched in saliva before emergence, and this activity was positively and significantly correlated with female group size. Once females departed for foraging, harem males remained in their respective tents at night-time between intermittent foraging bouts and engaged in tent maintenance and tent guarding. Time invested by harem male bats in tent maintenance and tent guarding were positively and significantly correlated with female group size. Harem males extended their presence in tent by utilizing tents as feeding roosts. Female group size also influenced the emergence time of harem male bats, where males with largest group emerged later than did the smallest group. Likewise, harem male with the smallest group had more time available for foraging than the male with the largest group. Findings of this study suggest that having a larger harem may indeed be costly for the males by reducing their foraging time.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0276-1
       
  • Socio-genetic correlates of unbiased sex dispersal in a population of
           black capuchin monkeys ( Sapajus nigritus )
    • Authors: Marcos Tokuda; Milene M. Martins; Patrícia Izar
      Abstract: Abstract Most social mammal species exhibit male-biased dispersal. Sex bias in dispersal leads to a higher degree of relatedness among individuals of the philopatric sex, thus an atypical dispersal pattern might lead to deviations in the typical within-group kinship structure. Kinship, in turn, influences patterns of social interactions, as widely evident by kin-biased behaviors. We investigated the link between dispersal, relatedness structure, and sociopositive interactions established by adult females of black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus) living in a population that experiences female dispersal, an unusual pattern for capuchin monkeys. The study was conducted in Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho (PECB), within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We addressed dispersal and relatedness patterns by genotyping 20 adults of 3 groups across 9 microsatellite loci. We also sampled the monkeys’ behavior and compared spatial association frequencies and rates of grooming among same- and opposite-sex dyads. There was no difference between males and females in genetic parameters; both males and females show low coefficients of relatedness indicating that neither sex is consistently philopatric. The mean pairwise coefficient of relatedness for co-resident females was not higher than that for co-resident males. Compared to other populations of capuchin monkeys, female bond was weak, as evident by lower spatial association frequencies, reduced rates of grooming and lack of correlation between coefficients of relatedness and measures of dyadic sociopositive interactions. Our findings thus confirm that female dispersal is a habitual process in the capuchin population of PECB, and that, as expected, dispersal by females strongly influences the relatedness structure of the population as well as the affiliative relationships among female groupmates.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0277-0
       
  • Reproductive synchrony in a temperate damselfish, Chromis limbata
    • Authors: Betty J.L. Laglbauer; Pedro Afonso; Anick Donnay; Ricardo S. Santos; Jorge Fontes
      Abstract: Abstract Synchronous reproduction has been reported in many tropical damselfishes, and it appears that temperature is the main driver of synchrony at these latitudes. However, reproductive synchrony and its relation to temperature is less well understood in temperate damselfish. The endemic Azores chromis (Chromis limbata) was chosen as a study species to address this topic. First, an ethogram of the reproductive behaviour and embryo development of the Azores chromis is provided. Then, are investigated (1) the reproductive dynamics at the colonial and inter-colonial levels, (2) how these are affected by temperature, and (3) the relation between reproductive dynamics and the social organization of temperate damselfish. In the Azores chromis, reproduction was cyclic with a high periodicity of 7.2 ± 0.63 days on average. Embryo development was synchronous within colonies towards the beginning and the end of incubation, but not at intermediate stages of development. Colonies that were closer were more synchronized than those located further apart, despite contrasting temperature and depth profiles. Embryo size differences were also greater between colonies that were further apart, and embryos tended to grow larger in warmer water. A literature review revealed that reproductive synchrony was common in colonial breeding damselfish species. Although these results suggest that within the breeding season, the timing and length of reproductive cycles cannot be explained by temperature alone, the observed changes in embryo size raise concern about the effects of changing oceanic conditions on this species.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0269-0
       
  • Threat level influences the use of venom in a scorpion species, Tityus
           stigmurus (Scorpiones, Buthidae)
    • Authors: André F.A. Lira; Adriana B. Santos; Nathália A. Silva; René D. Martins
      Abstract: Abstract Venom demands high metabolic costs of the organisms that produce it because it is comprised of a complex mixture of various toxins. Due to this high cost, venomous animals modulate the amount or type of venom used depending on factors such as size of prey or intensity of predation threat. This paper shows that Tityus stigmurus, a prevalent scorpion species in the urban environment in the Northeast of Brazil, modulates its venom in response to different levels of stimuli. Sixty animals were collected in Vitória de Santo Antão, Pernambuco. The animals were subjected to either high or low levels of threats. During the tests, the animals were gently touched five times on the mesosoma with forceps at an interval of 5 s (high threat) or 5 min (low threat). The response varied significantly between intensity levels, with the animals exposed to low threat stinging in 70% of the observations and releasing a clear venom. In contrast, individuals subjected to a high level of threat stung in 83% of the observations and released a milky venom. Our results suggest that T. stigmurus reacts differently depending on the stimulus level. When the threat was considered high, the animal reacted more aggressively. Our results support the assumption that milky venom is only used when the animal is highly stressed because this venom represents higher metabolic costs than the production of clear venom.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0274-3
       
  • The advertising display of double-crested cormorants varies with
           microhabitat and time of the season in a tree-nesting colony
    • Authors: Meagan J. Mc Rae; Mahdis Azadbakhsh; Gail S. Fraser
      Abstract: Abstract Male double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) perform advertising displays at potential nest locations at spring breeding grounds to attract females. Yet, there is no research on how the frequency of this behaviour changes over time or its association with habitat features. Studies of this behavioural display may provide insight into how birds choose areas for nesting, an important issue given the environmental and societal impacts of dense colonies of cormorants. Advertising behaviour was observed in trees throughout the 2014 nesting season, at six different sampling stations, using both scan sampling (for temporal changes in display frequency) and focal sampling (for temporal changes in four microhabitat variables: tree health, height in tree, nest density and presence of a nest). Advertising data (scans N = 484 birds; focal samples N = 827 birds) were divided into pre-incubation, incubation and chicks-present categories using a breeding chronology dataset. The number of cormorants advertising varied temporally and spatially. Using scan data in a marginal model, we found that the number of cormorants advertising was highest at the beginning of the season (peaking at week 3) and lowest once chicks were present. The GLM (focal data) showed that most cormorants advertised without nests especially past the second week of the season. The model also indicated that cormorants advertised in low nest density trees from pre- to mid-incubation. Contrary to our predictions based on colony expansion over the season, we did not observe an interaction of tree health*time or station*time, which suggests that the advertising display revealed a nest site selection process that was not visible at the population level.
      PubDate: 2017-07-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0272-5
       
  • Does emotional state influence motor lateralization in California sea
           lions ( Zalophus californianus )'
    • Authors: Sophie Le Ray; Manon Le Gal; Fabienne Delfour
      Abstract: Abstract Motor lateralization is a behavioural asymmetry between the left and the right side of an individual due to hemispheric specialization. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body and the left hemisphere the right side. The right hemisphere processes negative emotions such as fear and frustration, and on the contrary, the left hemisphere processes positive emotions such as happiness. This study, conducted at Parc Asterix Delphinarium (Plailly, France), tested the influence of supposedly positive, negative and neutral emotional situations on four California sea lions’ (Zalophus californianus) motor lateralization while performing a known exercise, here climbing on a stool. Latency between the caretakers’ command and the animals’ response was recorded. The results showed an interindividual variability in the effect of the supposed emotional situations on their motor lateralization and their response latency. The nature and the strength of this effect require deeper investigation by further studies, on a larger number of individuals and contexts.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0273-4
       
  • Social organization and endocrine profiles of Australoheros facetus , an
           exotic freshwater fish in southern Portugal
    • Authors: Flávia Baduy; Pedro M. Guerreiro; Adelino V. Canário; João L. Saraiva
      Abstract: Abstract Australoheros facetus is a neotropical cichlid and an exotic species in the Guadiana and Odelouca basins (Southern Portugal). In this research, we aimed to characterize the main behavioural patterns and circulating hormones, 17β-estradiol (E2) for females, and testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and cortisol for both sexes, during the formation of social groups, a crucial step in the life-history of A. facetus. A pair-breeding strategy with territorial behaviour and aggressive interactions was found, with a positive correlation between dominance and size for both sexes. There were no significant differences between non-territorial and territorial individuals in the baseline levels of hormones, but 11KT was higher in males when they became territorial, as E2 for territorial females, while there was no clear pattern for testosterone. In contrast, cortisol was higher in non-territorial males and correlated negatively with social dominance. These results suggest that size is the main driver for social dominance and that formation of stable hierarchies result in higher circulating 11KT and lowers stress in territorial males. Related to A. facetus’ behaviour, aggressiveness and biparental care may be an advantage during the invasion process of A. facetus, facilitating colonization of new habitats.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0271-6
       
  • Effects of social isolation on growth, stress response, and immunity of
           zebrafish
    • Authors: Mohammad Navid Forsatkar; Omid Safari; Cristiano Boiti
      Abstract: Abstract Stressful housing conditions like social isolation have been shown to profoundly affect the physiology and health of various organisms which is rarely addressed in fish species. In the present study, we used a shoaling species, zebrafish, to investigate the stress reactivity of grouped and individually housed fish. We also hypothesized if isolation is a stressful condition may disrupt growth performance and innate immune response of individuals. To this end, fish were housed individually (social isolated treatment) or in groups of five fish (control treatment) for 60 days. Growth indices of fish were not affected by social isolation. Sixty-day social isolation did insignificant effect on baseline cortisol levels of specimens; however, individually housed zebrafish showed lower plasma cortisol to chasing stress than the control grouped fish. On the contrary, exposure to predator caused higher cortisol levels in social isolated fish. Serum lysozyme activity of isolated individuals was significantly lower than control fish, but activity of serum complement remained unchanged. Our results represent evidences that zebrafish experienced social isolation showed broad changes in physiological and immunological functions which may affect the quality of life.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0270-7
       
  • Ethological and phenotypic divergence in insular fire salamanders: diurnal
           activity mediated by predation'
    • Authors: Guillermo Velo-Antón; Adolfo Cordero-Rivera
      Abstract: Abstract Phenotypic divergence can occur through both local adaptations and phenotypic plasticity in response to particular environmental pressures. Holocene land-bridge islands harbor recent isolated populations that offer an excellent natural framework to study the microevolutionary processes involved in rapid or ongoing phenotypic shifts. Two insular populations (Ons and San Martiño) of Salamandra salamandra in NW Iberian Peninsula exemplify these phenotypic shifts with a rapid evolutionary transition in reproductive mode and genetic differentiation since their isolation ca. 8000 years ago. We evaluate parallel phenotypic changes in body size and behavior. In particular, we (1) collected observational fieldwork data during diurnal and nocturnal transects in both islands for over a decade (2004–2016); (2) investigated the climatic conditions associated to fire salamanders’ activity; (3) compared physical condition between insular and mainland populations; and (4) used plasticine models and camera trapping to identify potential predators that might cause the observed diurnal activity in San Martiño Island. Our 13-year-long study shows that salamanders from San Martiño show mainly diurnal activity and are significantly smaller than salamanders from Ons and nearby continental populations. Overall, we present an exceptional case of behavior and phenotypic differentiation of an insular population of fire salamanders and suggest that this unusual behavior in the small population of San Martiño might be triggered by a response to predator pressure exerted by a dense population of Rattus rattus.
      PubDate: 2017-07-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0267-2
       
  • Pregnant pipefish with a simple brooding surface loose less weight when
           carrying heavier eggs: evidence of compensation for low oocyte
           quality'
    • Authors: B. Miranda; N. Vieira; Nuno Monteiro
      Abstract: Abstract The evolutionary radiation of syngnathids has been accompanied by a diversification of structures involved in parental care, from a hypothetical ancestral presenting a simple brooding structure. The architectural simplicity of Nerophis male brooding structures led to the hypothesis that the relationship between father and developing embryos was feeble, unlike that observed in syngnathids with brood pouches. Here, we show that males loose considerable weight during pregnancy, especially so when egg weight is low. These results highlight the possibility of a compensatory mechanism and help justify why males in the wild tend to select large and colourful females, which are more fecund and able to produce larger eggs. Together with available information on the mating system, we also discuss some of the interplaying reasons behind the observed sex role reversal and high sexual dimorphism in the worm pipefish.
      PubDate: 2017-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0268-1
       
  • Behavioural and life history responses to predation risk by common frog
           tadpoles exposed to two predators during ontogeny
    • Authors: Andrea Gazzola; Alessandro Balestrieri; Michele Ghitti; Daniele Paganelli; Paolo Galeotti
      Abstract: Abstract The presence of predators can induce changes in both the morphology and behaviour of Anuran larvae, affecting both their size and developmental stage at metamorphosis and, consequently, the fitness of adult individuals. Tadpoles have been shown to be capable of finely tuning their defensive responses according to the actual risk perceived, which is expected to vary according to the prey-to-predator size ratio. In this study, we exposed common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles (Gosner stages 28–30), for a period of 2 weeks, to the non-lethal presence of dragonfly larvae (Anax imperator) and backswimmers (Notonecta glauca). In such a narrow window of time, we expected behavioural responses to be similar for both predators and exposure to predation risk to have negligible effects on tadpole development and weight. Overall, tadpoles increased hiding behaviour and were less active when predators were present in the experimental mesocosms, but behavioural responses were constrained to the early phase of the ontogeny and were no longer used when tadpoles reached a threshold size. Developmental rate slightly slowed down for predator treatments in comparison to controls, possibly as a consequence of energetic investment in unrecorded morphological defences. Although variation in laboratory conditions and protocols makes it hard to compare the results of different experiments, our results contribute to verify the consistency of behavioural responses in Anuran larvae.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0266-3
       
  • Effects of size, caudal autotomy, and predator kairomones on the foraging
           behavior of Allegheny Mountain dusky salamanders ( Desmognathus
           ochrophaeus )
    • Authors: Emilia A. R. Gildemeister; Wesley I. Payette; Aaron M. Sullivan
      Abstract: Abstract Prey must balance the conflicting demands of foraging and defensive behavior. Foraging under the threat of predation may be further complicated among species that engage in caudal autotomy, the loss of a portion of the tail at preformed breakage planes, because the tail may serve as an important energy storage organ and contribute to motility, culminating in a trade-off between foraging and predator avoidance. As a result of the advantages conferred by the presence of a tail, individuals that have recently undergone autotomy may be more motivated to forage despite elevated levels of threat indicated by predator kairomones. We used a full factorial design to evaluate the combined effects of body size, exposure to predator kairomones, and experience with autotomy on the latency to strike at Drosophila prey, number of strikes, and prey captured per strike by Allegheny Mountain dusky salamanders (Desmognathus ochrophaeus). In our study, caudal autotomy was the only significant main effect and influenced both the latency to attack prey and the number of strikes attempted. In terms of latency to attack prey, there was a significant interaction between body size and autotomy such that “small” salamanders (≤3.2 cm SVL) without tails delayed their foraging behavior. In terms of the number of strikes toward prey, there was a significant interaction between autotomy and exposure to predator kairomones such that individuals with intact tails exhibited a greater number of strikes, with the exception of the “large” (>3.2 cm SVL) salamanders, which performed fewer strikes when exposed to the snake kairomones. There was no significant effect on foraging efficiency, although the trend in the data suggests that autotomized individuals forage more efficiently. This study was designed to evaluate the confluence of factors related to size, caudal autotomy, and exposure to stimuli from predators and hints at the magnitude of caudal autotomy on antipredator decision-making. Our data suggest that despite the importance of tail tissue for energy storage, locomotion, and mating, salamanders without tails are cautious when foraging under elevated risk.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0259-2
       
  • Song frequency correlates with latitude and individual body size in the
           cicada Mogannia formosana Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadidae)
    • Authors: Bao-Sen Shieh; Shih-Hsiung Liang; Chen-Yu Liao; Yuh-Wen Chiu
      Abstract: Abstract Analyses of acoustic variation between and within populations can help to clarify the evolution and diversification of cicada calling songs. In this study, we analyzed the acoustic variation in the calling song of Mogannia formosana within Taiwan and between Taiwan and Green Island to assess the effects of geographic locations. Furthermore, chorusing males in the Green Island population were recorded and collected from the same habitat site during the same time period to investigate the relationship between individual body size and the acoustic features of calling songs. Among populations of M. formosana, we found that most of the acoustic variation in M. formosana calling songs was associated with frequency parameters, in which six frequency parameters changed significantly with latitude on the island of Taiwan. In contrast, temporal parameters, which were associated with principal components corresponding to less acoustic variation than that of the first principal component, were also found to be significant among populations but did not show consistent trends of difference with latitude. However, the geographically isolated Green Island population exhibited the lowest number of short echemes in segment B, which is the diagnostic structure employed to separate M. formosana from other M. species. This finding suggests that the temporal pattern of segment B in the calling songs of M. formosana might be important for both population differentiation and interspecific recognition. In a chorus of the Green Island population, the sound frequency of the last short echeme was found to be significantly correlated with individual body size. The possible role played by sexual selection in shaping sound frequency as a result of its reliable association with body size was discussed. We suggest that, in comparison with temporal elements, the frequency elements of segment B in calling songs of M. formosana in chorus can serve as a more reliable indicator of body size for female mate choice.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0258-3
       
  • Waste of leaf-cutting ants: disposal, nest structure, and abiotic soil
           factors around internal waste chambers
    • Authors: Sandra S. Verza; Eduardo A. Diniz; Mara F. Chiarelli; Rosilda M. Mussury; Odair C. Bueno
      Abstract: Abstract Leaf-cutting ants produce large quantities of waste that harbor bacteria and fungi that are harmful to the colony. To be protected from these pathogens, the workers of Atta species present a sophisticated organization to manage harmful material, which can be deposited outside the nest or in internal chambers. However, little is known about the behavior of Acromyrmex species in handling and disposal of waste. Due to some observations, we assume that the same species of Acromyrmex can deposit waste outside the nest and into internal chambers and raise the following question: what determines the occurrence of internal waste chambers in Acromyrmex? To address this question, we verified whether nest depth influences the waste-chamber occurrence. We also verified the nest structure and the abiotic factors of soil beside each waste-chamber: pH and water content of the soil. For this, eight nests were excavated for Acromyrmex balzani and Acromyrmex rugosus rugosus. We verified that not only can the same leaf-cutting ant species deposit debris both outside and inside the nest but also the same nest can present internal chambers and external waste deposit. The soil beside the waste chamber always presented an acidic pH, while the humidity varied widely. Our results showed that the nest depth was highly correlated with the depth of the waste chamber (p = 0.0003) and probably has some influence on waste disposal. The characteristics of the nest and the role of depth in the choice of waste chamber location are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0255-6
       
  • A novel strategy to escape a poor habitat: red-necked grebes transfer
           flightless young to other ponds
    • Authors: Janusz Kloskowski; Karolina Frączek
      Abstract: Abstract Animals confronted with the threat of the death of their offspring may exhibit unusual and risk-prone behaviours. Grebes (Podicipediformes) are water birds which cannot effectively walk, thus unfledged young are assumed to be unable to depart from their natal ponds by land. We provide evidence that red-necked grebes Podiceps grisegena, breeding on ponds with scarce food resources, transferred their flightless young (2–4 weeks old) to other, unconnected ponds by land or air. Although a large proportion of breeding grebes in the study area nested on food-poor fish ponds acting as ecological traps, where they suffered significant brood losses, brood movements to new ponds accounted for only 3.3% of such breeding attempts. The infrequency of this strategy may be explained by the lack of suitable territories in close proximity and the high risk of predation or fatal injury. The means of chick transfer remains unclear; the chicks may have followed or been carried by parents shuffling across the pond levees; alternatively, parents may have carried the young on their backs in flight. Our findings indicate that red-necked grebes assess the current level of resources available for chicks and may adopt novel and risky strategies to escape total brood failure.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0254-7
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.80.180.248
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016