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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3041 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1442 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 287)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover acta ethologica
  [SJR: 0.465]   [H-I: 23]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1437-9546 - ISSN (Online) 0873-9749
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Predatory specialization in the wasp Sphex ingens for the capture of
           katydids
    • Authors: Carlos Alberto dos Santos Souza; Jarbas Marçal Queiroz; Mauro Sergio Cruz Souza Lima; Jonas Pederassi
      Abstract: Sphex ingens is one of 30 species in the family Sphecidae that occur in the state of Rio de Janeiro. However, details of the behavior and sexual selection of natural populations of this wasp species have only recently been unveiled. In addition, the knowledge of its ecology is still poor. This is the first study on the feeding behavior interactions between S. ingens and prey captured to feed its larvae. Paralyzed prey were collected manually at the sites of wasp nests on Aventureiro Beach, Ilha Grande, Brazil during the provisioning activity of marked female S. ingens. All prey were preserved, their sex and sexual maturity were determined, and they were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. The body mass and size of the prey and female wasps were measured. Sphex ingens females captured only Pleminia vicina and Meroncidius sp. The body masses of wasps and katydids were positively correlated. The body mass of captured katydids was significantly dependent on the wasp’s wing length. Most of the prey were adult females, but the differences did not confirm possible preferences, as those values can be related to differences in the distribution and fluctuation in the population density of prey species and to the individual foraging strategies of female wasps. However, the predisposition to predatory specialization exhibited by S. ingens populations in Ilha Grande and elsewhere suggests that this interaction can be an important source of mortality for populations of pseudophylline katydid species.
      PubDate: 2018-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-018-0283-x
       
  • Is tadpole coloration adaptive against bird predation'
    • Authors: Ana Sofia B. Gontijo; Juan Espanha; Paula C. Eterovick
      Abstract: Birds are visually oriented predators, and some are known or supposed to prey upon tadpoles. Neotropical tadpoles exhibit several colorations that could potentially improve survivorship through camouflage, aposematism, or mimetism. In this study, we tested tadpoles of two hylid species for protective effects of their colorations, one potentially aposematic (Bokermannohyla martinsi) and another (Ololygon machadoi) previously hypothesized as disruptive and/or mimetic to a naucorid insect (Limnocoris porphyros). We conducted in situ and ex situ experiments and observed that the uniformly black B. martinsi tadpoles were more intensely preyed upon by birds than those of O. machadoi, regardless of background color, which may have happened because the disruptive coloration of O. machadoi hampered its detection. Alternatively, the duration of the experiments may have been too short for birds to learn about a possible toxicity of B. martinsi tadpoles, which are more active and thus more visible. Birds that had a previous experience with L. porphyros tended to attack tadpoles of O. machadoi less than naive birds. On the other hand, we did not observe any change in predation levels upon B. martinsi tadpoles whether presented to birds before or after L. porphyros. Our results indicate that the predation by birds, although apparently occasional, is likely to be influenced by tadpole coloration.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-018-0285-8
       
  • Testosterone and intrasexual competition in men: is there any relation
           with digit ratio (2D:4D)'
    • Authors: Javier I. Borráz-León; Ana Lilia Cerda-Molina; Damee Choi; Lilian Mayagoitia-Novales
      Abstract: Digit ratio 2D:4D is a sexually dimorphic characteristic and it is believed that this difference is related to high levels of prenatal testosterone and circulating testosterone in men. High levels of testosterone are also associated with traits related to competitiveness. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relation between intrasexual competition and 2D:4D in men. One hundred thirteen college men answered a questionnaire to measure their scores of intrasexual competition and donated a saliva sample to measure their testosterone levels; finally, the finger length from both hands was measured. It was found a positive correlation between testosterone levels and intrasexual competition scores, and a negative correlation between testosterone levels and left 2D:4D. Finally, we did not find a significant association between digit ratios 2D:4D and intrasexual competition scores. Our study shows that men with higher testosterone levels also have higher intrasexual competition scores and lower values of left digit ratio 2D:4D. Further studies will have to take into account fluctuations in testosterone over the time to observe if the relation between competitiveness scores and digit ratios 2D:4D becomes significant.
      PubDate: 2018-01-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-018-0284-9
       
  • Differences in the pattern of turn alternation between juveniles and
           adults of Armadillo officinalis Dumèril, 1816 (Isopoda, Oniscidea) in
           response to substrate-borne vibrations
    • Authors: S. Cividini; G. Montesanto
      Abstract: In this study, we focused on the relationship existing between the phenomenon of alternating turns and substrate-borne vibrations in woodlice, utilizing Armadillo officinalis as an experimental behavioral model. A T-maze with multiple exits was used to collect information on the pattern of turn alternation in (i) adult individuals of A. officinalis exposed and (ii) non-exposed to micro-vibrations, and (iii) juveniles of A. officinalis exposed to micro-vibrations. Turn alternation was assessed as the number of times that an animal turned on the opposite side in the T-maze. Our best model pointed out a statistically significant increased expected number of alternating turns for both groups of adult individuals, non-exposed and exposed to micro-vibrations, compared to exposed juveniles. Adults of A. officinalis seem to be very reactive to substrate-borne vibrations, unlike juveniles. This reactivity might be related to a defense mechanism developed as an evolutionary adaptation to the xeric environment, increasing progressively from the juvenile condition until the adult state. This feature might also fit into a complex network of inter- and intraspecific communication mediated by substrate-borne vibrations, like in insects.
      PubDate: 2018-01-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-018-0282-y
       
  • Advertisement call variation and individual acoustic distinctiveness in
           the explosive breeding toad Peltophryne cataulaciceps (Anura: Bufonidae)
    • Authors: Roberto Alonso Bosch; Ariel Rodríguez; Maike Hernández Quinta
      Pages: 197 - 205
      Abstract: In this contribution, we offer new information about the advertisement call of Peltophryne cataulaciceps, an endemic toad species from Cuba and the smallest bufonid from the West Indies. We measured seven acoustic properties from 17 males and analyzed the variability at the within-individual and between-individual levels, using coefficients of variation, type II ANOVAs, and multivariate analysis. Dominant frequency was distinctly less variable within individuals than the rest of the acoustic properties; call rise time showed the highest variability. Variability between individuals was higher for pulse rate, call duration, and dominant frequency, and the CVb/CVw ratios showed that these acoustic properties are more reliable for individual distinctiveness. Discriminant function analyses assigned 54.1% of the calls to the correct individual, and this classification success increased when smaller groups of individuals were considered in the analysis. Results are compared with studies addressing individual acoustic distinctiveness in anurans. We support that the patterns of advertisement call variation within and among co-occurring males differ among explosive and prolonged breeding species/populations, but additional case studies including other explosive breeding species are needed.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0261-8
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Nightly calling patterns in a Neotropical gladiator frog
    • Authors: Tailise Marques Dias; Cynthia P. A. Prado; Rogério Pereira Bastos
      Pages: 207 - 214
      Abstract: In anurans, vocalization is the primary communication form and acoustic parameters are influenced by climatic conditions, but also by social contexts. We investigated calling site use and within-individual variation of acoustic parameters throughout the night in the gladiator-frog Hypsiboas goianus. We expected that large males would call closer to the water and at higher perches to avoid dehydration and maximize sound propagation. Furthermore, we tested the prediction that males would emit more aggressive calls early in the night and more advertisement calls late at night. Male size was not correlated with either distance from the water or perch height. However, as expected, males of H. goianus adopted a calling strategy that consisted of emitting more aggressive calls early in the night and more advertisement calls later in the night. Furthermore, repetition rate and interval between notes of the aggressive calls and repetition rate of the advertisement calls showed within-individual variation throughout the night that agreed with our expectations. The calling strategy of H. goianus is probably related to the establishment of calling sites early in the night and an investment in female attraction in the middle of the night when males’ aggressive interactions have faded away, or due to habituation increasing the males’ aggressive thresholds. This is the first study investigating within-individual patterns of acoustic parameters of calls throughout the night for anurans.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0263-6
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Chemical sex recognition in the harvestman Discocyrtus prospicuus
           (Arachnida: Opiliones)
    • Authors: Nathália S. Fernandes; Estefanía Stanley; Fernando G. Costa; Carlos A. Toscano-Gadea; Rodrigo H. Willemart
      Pages: 215 - 221
      Abstract: Several arachnid species use chemicals to detect sexual partners. In harvestmen, there are evidences that chemicals may play a role in intraspecific communication. Using the behavior of Discocyrtus prospicuus (Holmberg 1876), whose males expose the penis to females before they engage in mating posture, we tested if males detect females by contact chemoreception (chemicals left on the substrate) and if males detect females by olfaction. First, we exposed males to three experimental groups, where males had to choose between two substrates: female chemicals/blank control; male chemicals/blank control; female/male chemicals. Then, we gave males access to volatiles of males, females, and control simultaneously. We predicted that males would expose the penis when approaching volatiles and chemicals deposited on the substrate by females. We also tested if males spent more time close to the source of female volatiles and on the substrate with female chemicals and if males tapped the substrate with female chemicals for more time than the others. Finally, we put males and females together to observe if males would expose the penis upon touching the female’s cuticle. Most of our predictions were not supported, though males did tap for more time when exposed to female cues instead of male cues and exposed the penis in 70% of the observations when interacting with the female but only after touching her. Our data does not support olfaction as a way to detect females and corroborate the idea that contact chemicals, either on the substrate or on female’s cuticle, play an important role in the detection and recognition of the opposite sex. This is the first evidence in harvestmen that males may react differently to female/male chemicals.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0264-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Nest-dismantling behavior of yellow-bellied prinia in mainland and island
           populations
    • Authors: Longwu Wang; Shun-Jen Cheng; Yu-Cheng Hsu; Wei Liang
      Abstract: Nest-dismantling behavior in birds is considered a fitness-maximizing adaptive behavior. Here, we compared nest-dismantling behavior and associated predation rates and nest characteristics in yellow-bellied prinia (Prinia flaviventris) on mainland China and the island of Taiwan during the breeding season from 2010 to 2014. Our results indicated that the proportion of individuals showing nest-dismantling behavior was higher on the island than on the mainland (29.3 vs. 0.8%). Nest-dismantling behavior was most frequent at the peak of the breeding season and mainly involved removing the upper halves of the nests and reusing the materials to construct new nests. The time taken to dismantle old nests and use the materials to build new ones was shorter than the time needed to build completely new nests. Nest predation, fidelity to the nest site, distance between old and new nests, and the costs of searching for nest materials could influence nest-dismantling behavior. Our results suggested that saving time and energy searching for new nest materials was the primary motivation behind nest-dismantling behavior in yellow-bellied prinia.
      PubDate: 2017-12-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0281-4
       
  • Territory size as a main driver of male-mating success in an Amazonian
           nurse frog ( Allobates paleovarzensis , Dendrobatoidea)
    • Authors: Sulamita Marques Correia da Rocha; Albertina Pimentel Lima; Igor Luis Kaefer
      Abstract: In polygamous mating systems, it is most often males that compete for the opposite sex, using strategies to provide access to as many females as possible. Females, on the other hand, constitute the sex that exerts the choice and so require a means of accessing the quality of a potential partner in comparison to its competitors. A common challenge in sexual selection studies is to identify the most relevant trait for mating success, since many are correlated with each other. In addition, little is known about how the female accesses the aspects related to male quality. In this context, we tested the role of different male characteristics on mating success in a natural environment using the Amazonian frog Allobates paleovarzensis as a model. A multiple linear regression model showed a positive relationship between territory size and number of male matings, while calling persistence was slightly related to the mating success. We did not detect a relation of the number of matings with the distance to the nearest body of water nor with male body size. Additionally, we observed that territory size was not related to calling persistence, but had a positive relation with the duration of the couple’s courting process. Thus, we conclude that: (1) territory size is the main determinant of male-mating success, and this is not correlated with the other attributes tested; and (2) females access the size of the males’ territory through the courting process that precedes oviposition.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0280-5
       
  • Agonistic behavior between introduced beaver ( Castor canadensis ) and
           endemic culpeo fox ( Pseudalopex culpaeus lycoides ) in Tierra del Fuego
           Island and implications
    • Authors: Tamara A. Tadich; Andrés J. Novaro; Pablo Kunzle; Mauricio Chacón; Miguel Barrientos; Cristóbal Briceño
      Abstract: Over the last 70 years, introduced beavers (Castor canadensis) have been successful in establishing and modifying the landscape of southernmost Patagonia. Habitat availability and lack of large carnivorous predators have contributed to this success. The Fuegian culpeo fox (Pseudalopex culpaeus lycoides) is an endangered subspecies and the largest native predator found in Tierra del Fuego Island. The predatory behavior of a culpeo towards a beaver was studied by analyzing a video footage recovered by tourists, and consumption of beaver was documented with camera traps. An ethogram of the predatory behavior sequence was developed and true durations and percentage of time allocated to each behavior were analyzed. The “capture” and “watch” behaviors had the highest durations within the predatory sequence (61.83 and 42.61 s, respectively), while “rest” was the most frequent maintenance behavior observed (93.82 s). The culpeo may provide the only natural population control for beavers, although up to date, there is no evidence to confirm this ecological role. Based upon photos from camera traps, we confirm the occurrence of fox feeding on beavers. This is the first description of the stages of the interaction between a Fuegian culpeo fox and a North American beaver under natural conditions. We discuss the ecological implications of this interaction.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0278-z
       
  • Are right- and left-handedness relevant as general categories in a
           non-industrialized country'
    • Authors: Winati Nurhayu; Sarah Nila; Michel Raymond; Bambang Suryobroto
      Abstract: Whether right- and left-handedness are defined as a function of individual tasks or represent general categories across tasks has been long debated. However, the literature on handedness primarily concerns industrialized societies in which manual work has been extensively automated, and the majority of individuals in those countries do not use their arms and hands intensively for highly specialized tasks on an everyday basis. Thus, the question remains whether results from those countries regarding handedness are transferable to countries where the majority of individuals are still exploiting their lateralized skills. Here, we sampled 506 individuals from 143 locations on the islands of Flores and Adonara, Indonesia, to assess their hand preference for and hand performance on several tasks in order to evaluate, in a non-industrialized country, the level of manual specialization and the relevance of right- or left-handedness as general categories. Generalized-declared handedness was consistent with task-declared handedness across 10 specific tasks and with a measure of strength and a measure of skilfulness, suggesting that general handedness is a valid concept. This hand specialization for tasks is discussed in the context of intense and daily tool use in this agricultural society.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0279-y
       
  • Predator recognition and differential behavioural responses of adult wood
           warblers Phylloscopus sibilatrix
    • Authors: Marta Maziarz; Charlotte Piggott; Malcolm Burgess
      Abstract: Birds often engage in nest defence against predators to improve breeding success, but defence efficiency requires the capability to assess the threat level posed by potential predators. For species with low breeding-site tenacity, which may encounter varying occurrence and density of predators in different areas, threat recognition could be compromised due to naivety, and so predator recognition may focus on broad key features to diminish the risk of misidentification. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by recording behavioural reactions of the nomadic wood warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix to objects reflecting various levels of threat: least weasel and Eurasian jay taxidermy mounts, an inanimate object and an empty display mount. To assess actual nest predators, we used remote cameras to record predation events at wood warbler nests. As in other studies in Western Europe, Eurasian jay was found to be the main nest predator, with occasional predation by least weasel. The reaction of adult warblers to the models was generally to remain silent and on nests during the incubation stage presumably due to the need to maintain efficient nest camouflage and concealment. During the nestling stage, behavioural responses of adult warblers, calling and suspended feeding of young, showed the strongest effects from the jay taxidermy mount, moderate to the weasel and weakest to the inanimate object and empty mount. As the reaction of wood warblers reflected the degree of genuine threat posed by the predators depicted by the models, we conclude that predator recognition may be present in this species.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0275-2
       
  • Effect of female group size on harem male roosting behavior of the Indian
           short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx
    • Authors: Valliyappan Mahandran; Chinnaperamanoor Madhappan Murugan; Parthasarathy Thiruchenthil Nathan
      Abstract: Mate guarding has been known to incur costs and cause constraints for harem males in many polygynous species. However, the effect of female group size on the harem male’s time budget in bats has received very limited attention. The Indian short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx, exhibits resource defense polygyny, in which tent roosting males construct tents and defend multiple female bats. We studied the effect of female group size on three aspects of harem male behavior: social grooming by reciprocal licking, tent maintenance, and tent guarding in the mast tree Polyalthia longifolia. In the process of reciprocal licking, all the bats in the harem were drenched in saliva before emergence, and this activity was positively and significantly correlated with female group size. Once females departed for foraging, harem males remained in their respective tents at night-time between intermittent foraging bouts and engaged in tent maintenance and tent guarding. Time invested by harem male bats in tent maintenance and tent guarding were positively and significantly correlated with female group size. Harem males extended their presence in tent by utilizing tents as feeding roosts. Female group size also influenced the emergence time of harem male bats, where males with largest group emerged later than did the smallest group. Likewise, harem male with the smallest group had more time available for foraging than the male with the largest group. Findings of this study suggest that having a larger harem may indeed be costly for the males by reducing their foraging time.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0276-1
       
  • Socio-genetic correlates of unbiased sex dispersal in a population of
           black capuchin monkeys ( Sapajus nigritus )
    • Authors: Marcos Tokuda; Milene M. Martins; Patrícia Izar
      Abstract: Most social mammal species exhibit male-biased dispersal. Sex bias in dispersal leads to a higher degree of relatedness among individuals of the philopatric sex, thus an atypical dispersal pattern might lead to deviations in the typical within-group kinship structure. Kinship, in turn, influences patterns of social interactions, as widely evident by kin-biased behaviors. We investigated the link between dispersal, relatedness structure, and sociopositive interactions established by adult females of black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus) living in a population that experiences female dispersal, an unusual pattern for capuchin monkeys. The study was conducted in Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho (PECB), within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We addressed dispersal and relatedness patterns by genotyping 20 adults of 3 groups across 9 microsatellite loci. We also sampled the monkeys’ behavior and compared spatial association frequencies and rates of grooming among same- and opposite-sex dyads. There was no difference between males and females in genetic parameters; both males and females show low coefficients of relatedness indicating that neither sex is consistently philopatric. The mean pairwise coefficient of relatedness for co-resident females was not higher than that for co-resident males. Compared to other populations of capuchin monkeys, female bond was weak, as evident by lower spatial association frequencies, reduced rates of grooming and lack of correlation between coefficients of relatedness and measures of dyadic sociopositive interactions. Our findings thus confirm that female dispersal is a habitual process in the capuchin population of PECB, and that, as expected, dispersal by females strongly influences the relatedness structure of the population as well as the affiliative relationships among female groupmates.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0277-0
       
  • Threat level influences the use of venom in a scorpion species, Tityus
           stigmurus (Scorpiones, Buthidae)
    • Authors: André F.A. Lira; Adriana B. Santos; Nathália A. Silva; René D. Martins
      Abstract: Venom demands high metabolic costs of the organisms that produce it because it is comprised of a complex mixture of various toxins. Due to this high cost, venomous animals modulate the amount or type of venom used depending on factors such as size of prey or intensity of predation threat. This paper shows that Tityus stigmurus, a prevalent scorpion species in the urban environment in the Northeast of Brazil, modulates its venom in response to different levels of stimuli. Sixty animals were collected in Vitória de Santo Antão, Pernambuco. The animals were subjected to either high or low levels of threats. During the tests, the animals were gently touched five times on the mesosoma with forceps at an interval of 5 s (high threat) or 5 min (low threat). The response varied significantly between intensity levels, with the animals exposed to low threat stinging in 70% of the observations and releasing a clear venom. In contrast, individuals subjected to a high level of threat stung in 83% of the observations and released a milky venom. Our results suggest that T. stigmurus reacts differently depending on the stimulus level. When the threat was considered high, the animal reacted more aggressively. Our results support the assumption that milky venom is only used when the animal is highly stressed because this venom represents higher metabolic costs than the production of clear venom.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0274-3
       
  • The advertising display of double-crested cormorants varies with
           microhabitat and time of the season in a tree-nesting colony
    • Authors: Meagan J. Mc Rae; Mahdis Azadbakhsh; Gail S. Fraser
      Abstract: Male double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) perform advertising displays at potential nest locations at spring breeding grounds to attract females. Yet, there is no research on how the frequency of this behaviour changes over time or its association with habitat features. Studies of this behavioural display may provide insight into how birds choose areas for nesting, an important issue given the environmental and societal impacts of dense colonies of cormorants. Advertising behaviour was observed in trees throughout the 2014 nesting season, at six different sampling stations, using both scan sampling (for temporal changes in display frequency) and focal sampling (for temporal changes in four microhabitat variables: tree health, height in tree, nest density and presence of a nest). Advertising data (scans N = 484 birds; focal samples N = 827 birds) were divided into pre-incubation, incubation and chicks-present categories using a breeding chronology dataset. The number of cormorants advertising varied temporally and spatially. Using scan data in a marginal model, we found that the number of cormorants advertising was highest at the beginning of the season (peaking at week 3) and lowest once chicks were present. The GLM (focal data) showed that most cormorants advertised without nests especially past the second week of the season. The model also indicated that cormorants advertised in low nest density trees from pre- to mid-incubation. Contrary to our predictions based on colony expansion over the season, we did not observe an interaction of tree health*time or station*time, which suggests that the advertising display revealed a nest site selection process that was not visible at the population level.
      PubDate: 2017-07-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0272-5
       
  • Does emotional state influence motor lateralization in California sea
           lions ( Zalophus californianus )'
    • Authors: Sophie Le Ray; Manon Le Gal; Fabienne Delfour
      Abstract: Motor lateralization is a behavioural asymmetry between the left and the right side of an individual due to hemispheric specialization. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body and the left hemisphere the right side. The right hemisphere processes negative emotions such as fear and frustration, and on the contrary, the left hemisphere processes positive emotions such as happiness. This study, conducted at Parc Asterix Delphinarium (Plailly, France), tested the influence of supposedly positive, negative and neutral emotional situations on four California sea lions’ (Zalophus californianus) motor lateralization while performing a known exercise, here climbing on a stool. Latency between the caretakers’ command and the animals’ response was recorded. The results showed an interindividual variability in the effect of the supposed emotional situations on their motor lateralization and their response latency. The nature and the strength of this effect require deeper investigation by further studies, on a larger number of individuals and contexts.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0273-4
       
  • Effects of social isolation on growth, stress response, and immunity of
           zebrafish
    • Authors: Mohammad Navid Forsatkar; Omid Safari; Cristiano Boiti
      Abstract: Stressful housing conditions like social isolation have been shown to profoundly affect the physiology and health of various organisms which is rarely addressed in fish species. In the present study, we used a shoaling species, zebrafish, to investigate the stress reactivity of grouped and individually housed fish. We also hypothesized if isolation is a stressful condition may disrupt growth performance and innate immune response of individuals. To this end, fish were housed individually (social isolated treatment) or in groups of five fish (control treatment) for 60 days. Growth indices of fish were not affected by social isolation. Sixty-day social isolation did insignificant effect on baseline cortisol levels of specimens; however, individually housed zebrafish showed lower plasma cortisol to chasing stress than the control grouped fish. On the contrary, exposure to predator caused higher cortisol levels in social isolated fish. Serum lysozyme activity of isolated individuals was significantly lower than control fish, but activity of serum complement remained unchanged. Our results represent evidences that zebrafish experienced social isolation showed broad changes in physiological and immunological functions which may affect the quality of life.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0270-7
       
  • Pregnant pipefish with a simple brooding surface loose less weight when
           carrying heavier eggs: evidence of compensation for low oocyte
           quality'
    • Authors: B. Miranda; N. Vieira; Nuno Monteiro
      Abstract: The evolutionary radiation of syngnathids has been accompanied by a diversification of structures involved in parental care, from a hypothetical ancestral presenting a simple brooding structure. The architectural simplicity of Nerophis male brooding structures led to the hypothesis that the relationship between father and developing embryos was feeble, unlike that observed in syngnathids with brood pouches. Here, we show that males loose considerable weight during pregnancy, especially so when egg weight is low. These results highlight the possibility of a compensatory mechanism and help justify why males in the wild tend to select large and colourful females, which are more fecund and able to produce larger eggs. Together with available information on the mating system, we also discuss some of the interplaying reasons behind the observed sex role reversal and high sexual dimorphism in the worm pipefish.
      PubDate: 2017-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0268-1
       
  • Behavioural and life history responses to predation risk by common frog
           tadpoles exposed to two predators during ontogeny
    • Authors: Andrea Gazzola; Alessandro Balestrieri; Michele Ghitti; Daniele Paganelli; Paolo Galeotti
      Abstract: The presence of predators can induce changes in both the morphology and behaviour of Anuran larvae, affecting both their size and developmental stage at metamorphosis and, consequently, the fitness of adult individuals. Tadpoles have been shown to be capable of finely tuning their defensive responses according to the actual risk perceived, which is expected to vary according to the prey-to-predator size ratio. In this study, we exposed common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles (Gosner stages 28–30), for a period of 2 weeks, to the non-lethal presence of dragonfly larvae (Anax imperator) and backswimmers (Notonecta glauca). In such a narrow window of time, we expected behavioural responses to be similar for both predators and exposure to predation risk to have negligible effects on tadpole development and weight. Overall, tadpoles increased hiding behaviour and were less active when predators were present in the experimental mesocosms, but behavioural responses were constrained to the early phase of the ontogeny and were no longer used when tadpoles reached a threshold size. Developmental rate slightly slowed down for predator treatments in comparison to controls, possibly as a consequence of energetic investment in unrecorded morphological defences. Although variation in laboratory conditions and protocols makes it hard to compare the results of different experiments, our results contribute to verify the consistency of behavioural responses in Anuran larvae.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10211-017-0266-3
       
 
 
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