Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3491 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1673 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biologica Venezuelica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Scientiae Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biosystems     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de Biología     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Research & Review in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Arabian Journal of Scientific Research / المجلة العربية للبحث العلمي     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arctic     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bacterial Empire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
BIO-SITE : Biologi dan Sains Terapan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BIODIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bioethica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Biological Invasions
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.514
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 24  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-1464 - ISSN (Online) 1387-3547
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Correction to: The effects of invasive grass on seedling recruitment of
           native Atriplex polycarpa (Torr.) S. Watson (Chenopodiaceae) shrubs in the
           San Joaquin Valley of California
    • Abstract: The article The effects of invasive grass on seedling recruitment of native Atriplex polycarpa (Torr.) S. Watson (Chenopodiaceae) shrubs in the San Joaquin Valley of California, written by Mitchell L. Coleman and R. Brandon Pratt, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s Internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 20 February 2019 with open access.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
  • Patterns of genetic variation reflect multiple introductions and
           pre-admixture sources of common ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia ) in
    • Abstract: Abstract Ambrosia artemisiifolia is native to North America but has become a worldwide invasive weed. It was introduced to China more than 80 years ago and has spread into 20 provinces since then. To assess the population structure of A. artemisiifolia in China and whether this invasion involved a single event or multiple events, we investigated patterns of genetic variation for three chloroplast DNA intergenic spacer regions, a nrITS region and five microsatellite loci. Our dataset consists of 370 individuals from 19 sites throughout China. We compared their cpDNA-haplotypes to those published for native North American populations. The distribution of cpDNA-haplotypes indicates that A. artemisiifolia was introduced to China multiple times from different source regions. The numbers of alleles in Chinese populations were not significantly lower than in native populations. Both nrITS-haplotypes and microsatellite alleles showed that there was no evidence for a genetic bottleneck. Four populations were genetically well separated from the other 15 populations. However, the absence of isolation by distance, and the low levels of genetic differentiation and gene flow among the other 15 population suggest that most populations in China come from pre-admixed populations. To find the exact source regions of the Chinese populations, more samples from the native region and other invaded regions will be necessary. Nevertheless, our study provides important insights into the genetic background of A. artemisiifolia invasion in China.
      PubDate: 2019-03-22
  • Effects of the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and the scale insect
           Pulvinariella mesembryanthemi on the ice plant Carpobrotus edulis from
           native and non-native areas: evaluation of the biocontrol potential
    • Abstract: Abstract Carpobrotus edulis is a highly invasive plant in coastal temperate areas worldwide. In a preliminary attempt at biological control, we evaluated the potential use of the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and the insect Pulvinariella mesembryanthemi as biocontrol agents. We carried out a greenhouse-experiment to evaluate the effects of both agents, separately and together, on short-term (physiological) and long-term (survival, growth, biomass) estimators of plant performance. We compared the susceptibility to both agents in plants originating from native and non-native areas. The fungus had immediate and negative, but short-lasting effects on chlorophyll content and photosynthetic-radiation use efficiency. No significant effects on plant survival, growth and biomass were observed after 1 year. Infestation with the insect increased photosynthetic performance and decreased the root/aerial biomass ratio of the plants, suggesting a counteractive response to insect feeding. After 5 months, the reflectance parameters were negatively affected. Only half of the infested plants survived for a year, and the growth and biomass were lower in the surviving plants than in untreated plants. In half of the surviving plants, the most heavily-infested parts died. The insect-infested plants were usually infected by mould. The number of insects per plant was lower in native populations and when both biocontrol agents were used together. Nevertheless, no long-term synergistic/additive effects of the insect and fungus were observed, and the susceptibility of native and introduced plants was not different. Therefore, use of the insect seems to be the best strategy for controlling C. edulis, as it decreases plant growth and increases mortality and stress susceptibility.
      PubDate: 2019-03-20
  • Can citizen science data guide the surveillance of invasive plants' A
           model-based test with Acacia trees in Portugal
    • Abstract: Abstract With the rapid expansion of invasive alien plants (IAPs), accurate and timely distribution data is increasingly critical to successful management. However, it is not easy for researchers/technicians to obtain data for all IAPs and territories. In this context, data collected by Citizen Science Platforms can be a useful tool, complementing professional data. We hypothesize that combining IAP data collected by citizens and data collected by researchers can improve the accuracy of species distribution models (SDMs) and optimize surveillance efforts. To test this, we gathered data from a Citizen Science Platform ( and from researchers on three invasive Acacia species widespread in Portugal and generated three different datasets: researchers, citizens, and researchers plus citizens. We modelled the potential distribution of the species using an ensemble approach (biomod2 R package) to test the effect of the different datasets on the resulting model accuracy, the selected environmental drivers of species distribution and the predicted spatial distribution. All SDMs obtained very high accuracy, with the highest values being obtained in the models trained with researchers’ data. Nevertheless, models trained with citizen data vastly increased the predicted spatial distribution in all cases. The spatial projections of the three models were further compared and ranked to identify the areas of highest surveillance priority for each species, i.e., areas with high agreement between the models but where occurrence data is lacking. These results can be used to guide future surveillance efforts both for citizens and researchers.
      PubDate: 2019-03-20
  • Invasive coqui frogs are associated with differences in mongoose and rat
           abundances and diets in Hawaii
    • Abstract: Abstract With the increasing rate of species being introduced to areas outside of their native ranges, non-natives are likely to interact in ways that influence each other’s populations. The high densities of invasive coqui frogs (Eleutherodactylus coqui) in Hawaii have been hypothesized to increase non-native mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) and rat (Rattus spp.) abundances, and in turn increase bird nest depredation rates. We compared the relative abundances of rats and mongooses and artificial bird nest predation rates at 12 sites that had plots with similar habitat invaded and not invaded by coqui frogs across the island of Hawaii. We interpret our results considering mongoose and rat stomach analyses and camera trap data collected to monitor coqui scavengers. We found that coqui presence was associated with 30% greater mongoose abundance and 17% lower Pacific rat (R. exulans) abundance. Based on our diet analyses and scavenging data, both mongooses and rats consume coquis, but mongooses were the most important consumers of coquis, which may have contributed to their increase in coqui plots. We speculate that coquis are competing with rats for invertebrate prey due to reduced Pacific rat abundance and greater amounts of fruit in rat stomachs collected in coqui-invaded compared to uninvaded plots. We did not observe any difference in bird nest predation rates in coqui-invaded and uninvaded plots. Our results suggest that the coqui invasion may increase or decrease non-native mammal populations, and non-native amphibians may serve as both novel prey and competitors to non-native mammals.
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
  • Evidence for a shift in defence driving the invasion success of Acacia
           longifolia in Australia
    • Abstract: Abstract The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) outlines the most widely tested and accepted invasion mechanism. Within the ERH there are two hypotheses, the evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis (EICA) and the shift in defence hypothesis (SDH), which describe how this mechanism may work. To our knowledge these two hypotheses are yet to be comprehensively tested in a single study. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test them for three Acacia species (A. cyclops, A. longifolia and A. saligna) that have become highly invasive in their introduced ranges. We grew these species in a controlled glasshouse experiment from seed collected from multiple populations in their native and introduced ranges in Australia. We then measured their growth (proxy for competitive ability) as well as their qualitative (terpenes) and quantitative (phenolics) defences. We found that A. longifolia plants grown from introduced range seed produced more biomass (marginally non-significant) and terpenes and less phenolics than their native range counterparts, providing strong evidence for the SDH. In contrast, there was no difference in growth or chemical defences for A. cyclops and A. saligna between ranges. This may be because these two species were introduced to eastern Australia ~ 50 years prior to A. longifolia being introduced to western Australia, giving more chance for natural enemies to adapt to them in their introduced range. If this is true, we can conclude that A. longifolia currently poses the greatest invasion risk of our Acacia study species and therefore warrants the closest management attention.
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
  • Extremes of forest–urban gradient offer some refuge for alien orchid
    • Abstract: Abstract Urbanization decreases the abundance of native species, which may enable exotics to experience enemy release in urban areas, enhancing their invasive capacity. The invasive autogamous orchid, Spathoglottis plicata, acquires some biotic resistance in Puerto Rico from a native orchid weevil specialist, Stethobaris polita. The distribution of S. polita along an urbanization gradient may affect the distribution of S. plicata and its future spread. To determine the effect of land cover on both species and the impact of S. polita on the spread of S. plicata, we modeled the distribution of the interaction between the two species and additionally assessed weevil abundance and the damage they do in different land cover types and localities. Land cover was the most important predictor of distribution for both species. S. plicata occurs in forests, pastures, and urban areas; however, S. polita is largely absent from urban areas, including urban forests, and along rivers within wet forests. This distribution likely reflects the dispersal ability of S. plicata, in addition to potential human intervention, and the inability of S. polita to penetrate or become established within the urban matrix. Thus, within the invasive range of S. plicata in Puerto Rico, geographical heterogeneity in acquired interactions is expected to result in higher seed production within areas of enemy release. The orchid is likely to spread more rapidly in urban forests, as well as along forest rivers, where S. polita is sparse.
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
  • Adaptive downsizing in the piscivorous cyprinid fish, Opsariichthys
           uncirostris , facilitates rapid establishment after introduction to a
           small-scale habitat in Japan
    • Abstract: Abstract The three-lips (Opsariichthys uncirostris) is a piscivorous cyprinid fish native to the Biwa Lake, central Japan. A recent unintentional introduction of the species has led to its invasion of a novel, small-scale habitat (the Futatsu River) composed of a few riverine stretches connected by irrigation ditches. Comparative observations of fish samples from both habitats provide evidence of disparities in the fish’s size at maturity between the two habitats, with fish in the Futatsu River reaching maturity at smaller body sizes. Achieving a large body size at maturation requires a larger habitat offering a sufficient supply of food. Principle component analysis of body-surface morphometric characteristics revealed that the two populations show differences in both their body shape and growth rates. In the Futatsu River, the growth rates of upper jaw length, lower jaw length, eye diameter, predorsal length, and tail length were accelerated, while the growth rates of head depth, body depth, and tail depth were decelerated, leading to the acquisition of a distinctly slender body. It is plausible that small-scale habitats with less abundant food supplies favor sexual maturation at smaller body sizes and that slender bodies improve swimming performance, thus making such disproportional downsizing a consequence of adaptation to a novel environment. Whether this change is due to phenotypic plasticity or rapid evolution remains unknown.
      PubDate: 2019-03-18
  • Biocontrol in Australia: Can a carp herpesvirus (CyHV-3) deliver safe and
           effective ecological restoration'
    • Abstract: Abstract The Australian Government is considering Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) for biocontrol of invasive common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). We review the evidence-base for its potential ecological risks, benefits and effectiveness. Lower carp abundance may boost native fish biomass and improve water clarity, but there is little evidence available to suggest that the virus, alone or used in combination with other methods, can deliver effective or safe biocontrol. Further, the virus may already be present in Australia. Overseas, the virus has caused sporadic and localized mortalities of carp in lakes and rivers, but has generally had no long-term measurable effect on wild carp or native fish populations. The temperature range of disease (18–28 °C), unknown co-factors causing outbreaks, and predictable re-colonization and recruitment boom of immune and virus-resistant carp, following a biocontrol release, remain formidable and unmitigated barriers to success. CyHV-3 infection trials on Australian biota have unexplained high mortality rates of recreationally-important and threatened fishes, and the role of asymptomatic carriers remains uncertain. Finally, Australia has national and international obligations to ensure that there are no perverse outcomes from biocontrol actions. Despite political pressure, there is no environmental justification to rush the release of this virus. To achieve the Government goals of restoring native biodiversity we advocate that key uncertainties, risks and efficacy barriers first need to be addressed. It is only then that viral biocontrol could be considered a viable tool to complement broader ecological restoration strategies for Australia’s waterways.
      PubDate: 2019-03-18
  • Facilitation of management plan development via spatial classification of
           areas invaded by alien invasive plant
    • Abstract: Abstract Propagule supply and habitat suitability strongly influence the success of invasive alien plants. Thus, an invaded area is likely to have an adequate propagule supply, a suitable habitat, or both for species persistence. Based on this idea, we classified invaded areas into four categories as follows but with establishment still occurring in some cases: Class 1, adequate propagule supply and habitat suitability; Class 2, adequate propagule supply but limited habitat suitability; Class 3, limited propagule supply and adequate habitat suitability; and Class 4, mid- to low-level propagule supply and habitat suitability. We propose a framework for the classification of invaded areas into these four classes and present a case study in which this framework was applied. Classifying target areas in this manner could facilitate more efficient and practical management planning, thereby saving time and resources. We selected the alien shrub Leucaena leucocephala L. (Fabaceae) as a model species, which has invaded the Nakodo-jima Island in the Ogasawara Archipelago of Japan. We developed a species distribution model by incorporating proxy variables for propagule supply and habitat suitability as well as submodels for propagule supply or habitat suitability. Using these submodels, we estimated the levels of propagule supply and habitat suitability in each, and classified the current distribution range appropriately. Using these classifications, land managers could set priorities to concentrate their efforts to efficiently control target species.
      PubDate: 2019-03-16
  • Invasive lumbricid earthworms in northeastern North American forests and
           consequences for leaf-litter fauna
    • Abstract: Abstract Colonization of North America by exotic earthworms has been implicated in undesirable changes in soil structure, nutrient cycling, and biodiversity. Invasion by putative European earthworms has a long history in northeastern North America. Partly for this reason, factors that may be continuing to facilitate expansion of earthworm distributions and the consequences of earthworm spread in the Northeast get relatively little attention. We sampled earthworms and environmental attributes at 85 sites in central New York. We additionally sampled leaf-litter fauna at 25 of these sites. We detected no earthworms at 27 of 71 forested sites (38%). Forested sites without detectable earthworm populations were farther from the nearest road and had soils of lower pH than forested sites with earthworms. Proximity of the nearest road was strongly associated with earthworm diversity and abundance, and earthworm biomass was highest in low, moist areas. We found a strong, negative relationship between the biomass of earthworms and abundance of invertebrates in the litter layer. This association was likely mediated by the abundance of organic litter, which was lower at sites with high biomass of earthworms. Sites with only the putative native Bimastos (Dendrodrilus) rubidus had a high mass of leaf litter and large numbers of leaf litter animals despite high densities of this species. We believe that there is potential for further expansion of European earthworm taxa in the Northeast and strong evidence for negative consequences of this expansion. Additional regulations on activities that promote introduction may be necessary.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
  • A case of fallacy in scientific discourse'
    • PubDate: 2019-03-14
  • A response to “Media representation of hemlock woolly adelgid management
           risks: a case study of science communication and invasive species
           control,” published in biological invasions online on September 18, 2018
    • PubDate: 2019-03-13
  • A needle in a haystack: a multigene TaqMan assay for the detection of
           Asian gypsy moths in bulk pheromone trap samples
    • Abstract: Abstract The Asian gypsy moth (AGM) is considered a very serious invasive threat in North America. For this reason, it is subjected to a bio-surveillance program that includes an extensive network of pheromone traps. For regulatory purposes, the term “AGM” designates a group of Asian Lymantria species and subspecies, comprising two L. dispar subspecies (L. d. asiatica and L. d. japonica), and three closely related species (L. umbrosa, L. albescens and L. postalba). These moths are attracted to the same pheromone as the European gypsy moth (EGM), L. dispar dispar, which is already established in North America and typically makes up the bulk of moths caught in gypsy moth pheromone traps. These different Lymantria taxa are difficult to distinguish from one another using morphological characters alone. Here, we designed a TaqMan triplex assay capable of detecting AGM in bulk pheromone trap samples. The assay targets SNPs found in three different mitochondrial genes. Using a DNA dilution series, we show that the assay can detect AGM taxa at AGM:EGM dilution ratios ≥ 1:1000. The assay was validated using batch DNA extractions of moth legs tested at a 1:100 AGM:EGM leg ratio, a proportion that is around the operational limit for a single pheromone trap. The assay provided correct identification for all AGM taxa tested. An experiment examining the integrity of DNA extracted from gypsy moths left in pheromone traps under field conditions for up to 4 months indicated that DNA quality remains sufficient, during that period, for the present assay to remain accurate.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
  • Abundance, distribution and spread of the invasive Asian toad Duttaphrynus
           melanostictus in eastern Madagascar
    • Abstract: Abstract The Asian toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus, was accidentally introduced to Toamasina (eastern Madagascar) around 2010, and since then has spread at a substantial rate across a larger area. This study documents the expansion of the invasive range of this species, calculates the invasion spread rate, and provides estimates of toad abundance and habitat preferences. Updates of the distribution range revealed a fivefold increase of the invaded area over 3 years, and a doubling of the rate of spread, showing a shift of the invasion towards the North-West, most probably because of the absence of ecological barriers. We used N-mixture models to estimate toad abundance on the basis of repeated count data of six areas in Toamasina and its surrounding countryside. Toad distribution shows heterogeneous density across the distribution range, with an average abundance of 184 toads ha−1 (95% CI 132–263). The toad’s abundance was highest in sites with the presence of organic waste, and was negatively related to the density of road networks in the proximity of study sites. The rapid expansion of the Asian toad in the Toamasina region suggests that this toad is an increasing threat for Madagascar. We propose immediate management actions that could limit the spread of alien toads in this megadiverse country.
      PubDate: 2019-03-02
  • Identification of Bighead Carp and Silver Carp early-life environments and
           inferring Lock and Dam 19 passage in the Upper Mississippi River: insights
           from otolith chemistry
    • Abstract: Abstract Knowledge of environments used during early life history and movement patterns of Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and Silver Carp (H. molitrix), collectively termed bigheaded carps, in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) would be valuable for informing control measures to limit further population expansion and impacts of these species. Lock and Dam 19 (LD19) is a high-head dam on the UMR that delineates downriver areas where bigheaded carps are well established from upriver pools where these species are less abundant and evidence of reproduction and recruitment are limited. Principal natal environments supporting recruitment of emerging bigheaded carp populations in the UMR are unknown. The objectives of this study were to (1) infer environments occupied during early-life stages by bigheaded carps collected in UMR Pools 19–21 during 2013–2014 using otolith microchemistry and stable isotope analyses, and (2) use early-life environment assignments and capture location to identify individuals that passed through LD19. Differences in multivariate water chemistry signatures (Sr:Ca, Ba:Ca and δ18O) among the UMR, its tributaries, and the Missouri and Middle Mississippi rivers enabled development of a classification model for inferring early-life environment of bigheaded carps. Multiple sources of recruits, including from tributaries, have contributed to upriver expansion of bigheaded carps in the UMR. Sustainable control of bigheaded carps upstream of LD19 will likely require efforts to control local recruitment and immigration from downriver. The frequency of bigheaded carps collected in Pool 19 that were downstream of LD19 during early life suggests that bigheaded carps upstream of LD19 still predominantly consisted of immigrants from downriver during 2013–2014. Otolith chemistry provides an approach for assessing the extent to which changes in abundance of bigheaded carps upstream of LD19 are associated with local recruitment or immigration from downriver.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Invasion dynamics: interactions between the European Green Crab Carcinus
           maenas and the Asian Shore Crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus
    • Abstract: Abstract As ecosystems are increasingly inhabited by multiple invasive species, interactions among exotic species have the potential to negatively impact native communities and habitats, often in counterintuitive ways. In rocky intertidal habitats along southern New England, the recently introduced Asian Shore Crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, has been implicated in the displacement of the more established invasive European Green Crab, Carcinus maenas. We coupled faunal sampling with two field experiments to examine whether H. sanguineus is also displacing C. maenas in the Gulf of Maine. First, we investigated natural recruitment of the two species across an elevation gradient, using cage exclusion units to manipulate predator access. Excluding H. sanguineus adults significantly increased the density of C. maenas recruits, but not conspecific recruit density. Next, to simulate the transition that occurred from pre-invasion to the establishment of H. sanguineus, we conducted a predator inclusion experiment manipulating the density of adult H. sanguineus to examine the effects on C. maenas and conspecific recruit densities. In contrast to the previous experiment, we found that the density of H. sanguineus included in cages negatively affected conspecific recruit density but had no effect on C. maenas recruit density. We hypothesize that juxtaposing results from the two experiments may be a consequence of the considerably greater abundance of C. maenas recruits relative to H. sanguineus recruits during the first experiment. Our work highlights the importance of considering the multitude of factors that influence competitive and intraguild predation interactions, including density-dependent effects, ontogeny and life history characteristics.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Global spread of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica
    • Abstract: Abstract Most people consider cockroaches to be quintessential urban pests, even though very few of the 5000 cockroach species live in urban areas. The German cockroach is the most widespread and common cockroach in urban areas, however how this invasive species has spread globally is poorly understood. We reviewed the published and grey literatures, and museum data, to document the spread of the German cockroach, and how it may have interacted with other urban cockroach species. We found that the German cockroach likely originated from South Asia, was introduced into Europe no later than the 18th century, from where it invaded worldwide. The spread of the German cockroach was facilitated by the improvement of transportation technologies, especially from colonial trading, and indoor heating in cooler climates. Studies of population genetics have found that once introduced into a new location, the German cockroach spread rapidly through local expansion, and this could be within single (large, multiple-story) buildings. This local expansion resulted in displacement of other urban cockroach species, likely due to their small size requiring fewer resources, shorter generation times and so faster evolution, especially for pesticide resistance. These findings may help to identify new pest management methods. Future research could use genetic tools at larger scales to map distribution routes across the globe and interaction with pesticides and the evolution of resistance.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • A review of impact assessment protocols of non-native plants
    • Abstract: Abstract Impact assessment protocols (i.e. scoring systems) for non-native species have been developed and implemented relatively recently, driven by an increasing demand for desk study approaches to screen and classify non-native species, considering their environmental and socio-economic impacts. While a number of impact assessment protocols have been developed, there are no clear guidelines to help researchers, environmental practitioners and policy-makers understand their differences, uses and limitations, and to ultimately assist in the choice of protocol and practical implementation. In this review, we compare the main structure of 26 impact assessment protocols used for non-native plants. We describe these protocols in terms of the impact types that they include, the way in which impacts are categorized and ranked, how uncertainty is considered, and how the overall score is calculated. In general, environmental impacts are included more often than socio-economic impacts. Impacts are rated by estimates of the intensity, extent, persistence and reversibility of the impact. Uncertainty is mainly estimated by the availability and quality of the scientific information, but also by the agreement and relevance of the available evidence on impacts beyond the region in which the impact is assessed (including the assessment of climatic similarity with other invaded areas). The final impact score is usually calculated as the sum of scores, the maximum score achieved across all impact types, or a rule-based aggregation of impacts in order to provide a final rank of the non-native species. We finally indicate issues related with transparency, redundancy, clarity, friendliness, scope, scaling, reproducibility and flexibility as key challenges for impact assessment improvement.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
  • Home and away and home again: discovery of a native reproductive strategy
           of the globally invading sea anemone Diadumene lineata (Verrill, 1869) in
           a satellite population
    • Abstract: Abstract Reproductive strategies, whether sexual or asexual, are critical aspects of introduction success and spread for non-indigenous species. The Western Pacific Diadumene lineata (Verrill, 1869), the world’s most widely distributed sea anemone due to numerous introductions, is believed to reproduce only by asexual means outside of its home range. Over the past 100 years, no populations with both males and females have been reported to co-occur outside of its native Japan. We report the first discovery of sympatric reproductive male (sperm-bearing) and female (egg-bearing) D. lineata in Coos Bay, Oregon, USA, confirmed by histological analysis. Given that only single gender introduced populations have been reported elsewhere, the presence of both genders in this US Pacific Northwest bay may be linked to high and continuous propagule pressure resulting from a history of intensive lumber and timber shipping directly between Japan and Coos Bay. Novel modern-day introductions of this species, in which reproductive traits previously only associated with native populations are manifested, could influence the future invasion success and spread of this species.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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