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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3329 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (255 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (134 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1586 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (49 journals)
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    - ORNITHOLOGY (28 journals)
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    - ZOOLOGY (144 journals)

BIOLOGY (1586 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Biologica Venezuelica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biosystems     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 80)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Research & Review in Biology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 391)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
BioControl
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.813
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-8248 - ISSN (Online) 1386-6141
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2570 journals]
  • Violet light is the most effective wavelength for recruiting the predatory
           bug Nesidiocoris tenuis
    • Abstract: Abstract Nesidiocoris tenuis (Heteroptera: Miridae) is a zoophytophagous mirid bug that is used as a biological control agent for agricultural pests including whiteflies. N. tenuis is mass-reared commercially and can be easily bred on banker plants. However, there are still difficulties in establishing populations on crops. Light illumination is a promising candidate for recruiting N. tenuis to crop plants. In this study, we investigated whether N. tenuis has a particular spectral preference using a six-arm arena equipped with six monochromatic LED lights: UV (365 nm), violet (405 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), orange (590 nm), and red (660 nm). Adult bugs were introduced into the arena, and phototactic behavior was observed. A greater number of male bugs chose violet light, whereas female bugs chose violet and UV light equally. We next examined the effects of violet illumination in a tomato greenhouse. In conventional plots, bugs remained near banker plants, whereas in illuminated plots, bugs immediately dispersed from the plants and became uniformly distributed in the greenhouse. Based on these results, we conclude that violet is a promising wavelength for the recruitment and establishment of N. tenuis on crop plants.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Development of ready-to-use products derived from Bacillus subtilis strain
           CMs026 for plant disease control
    • Abstract: Abstract Bacillus subtilis CMs026 is used for plant disease control. However, use of biocontrol for crops is limited by variable performances of control agents. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a ready-to-use, bacteria-based, highly stable, solid dosage formulation for plant disease control. Incubated broths containing B. subtilis CMs026 were centrifuged and sterilized. Supernatants were mixed with silicon dioxides and dried at 80 °C for 48 h. Agar diffusion test using active antifungal substance, surfactin, as a marker revealed the efficacy of dried broth. Subsequently, products were prepared by mixing dried broths with 6% disintegrant, followed by compaction. The compressed tablets were stable after storage for three months. In vivo experiments against Alternaria brassicicola in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) revealed that the products reduced percent crop loss from 88% to 40%.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Molecular identification of Botryosphaeria dothidea as a fungal associate
           
    • Abstract: Abstract The gall midge, Asphondylia prosopidis Cockerell, is considered a potential biological control agent for invasive mesquite (Prosopis species) populations in South Africa. Asphondylia species induce galls on mesquite plants by inserting an egg into a bud, and also carry conidia of specific fungal associates in their mycangia that are transferred into the galls. However, fungal associates have not been characterized in flower bud galls formed by A. prosopidis on mesquite. It is essential to identify the fungal associates in the galls formed on natural populations of mesquite prior to host specificity testing. In this study, we showed that Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex Fr.) Ces. & De Not. is the fungal associate in the flower bud galls on mesquite induced by A. prosopidis in New Mexico by characterization of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Further, isolates of B. dothidea in A. prosopidis galls formed on mesquite were genetically identical to isolates of B. dothidea carried by other Asphondylia species, particularly on the confamilial Acacia species in South Africa. Our result suggests that A. prosopidis is safe to utilize as a biological control agent for mesquite, if A. prosopidis shows a narrow host range in the pre-release risk assessment, since B. dothidea appears to be ubiquitous. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the association between Asphondylia species and B. dothidea in the United States. We anticipate that A. prosopidis will associate with indigenous B. dothidea in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Assessing the potential of fungi isolated from dieback-affected trees as
           biological control agents for prickly acacia ( Vachellia nilotica subsp.
           indica )
    • Abstract: Abstract Prickly acacia (Vachellia nilotica subsp. indica, Family: Fabaceae) is an invasive woody weed in coastal and semi-arid rangelands of Australia. A prominent dieback event was observed on this species in 2010 in north-western Queensland. A Botryosphaeriaceae fungus, Cophinforma sp., was consistently isolated from symptomatic stem tissues. In preliminary studies, Cophinforma sp. and an isolate of Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae sourced from dieback-affected Parkinsonia aculeata (Family: Fabaceae) were found to be pathogenic to prickly acacia seedlings and juveniles. In this study, we investigated whether typical dieback symptoms could be replicated under glasshouse conditions and in the field following stem inoculations of these two fungi (either singly or in combination). In the glasshouse trial, stem lesions and leaf mortality were observed following stem inoculation by both of the test fungi although it was greatest in the presence of L. pseudotheobromae. However, no effects on plant growth or mortality were observed. In the field trials (located in central and north-western Queensland) both test fungi caused infection, but significant lesions were only induced by L. pseudotheobromae in central Queensland, and no treatment effects on plant growth or survival were observed at either site over the next two years. Prominent decline in plant vigour was observed in north-western Queensland two years after inoculation, but was presumed to be naturally occurring as it affected controls and neighbouring untreated plants equally. The test fungi were reisolated from lesions in both field and glasshouse trials, but were never found in adjacent tissue, suggesting that infection was successfully contained by the plant’s wound response. We found no potential for the tested fungal isolates to be effective biocontrol agents, although future studies should aim to initiate systemic infections.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Natural occurrence of Beauveria spp. in outbreak areas of cockchafers (
           Melolontha spp.) in forest soils from Poland
    • Abstract: Abstract We investigated the occurrence and pathogenicity of Beauveria spp. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) in forest soils in Poland, in outbreak areas of cockchafers (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): Melolontha melolontha L. and M. hippocastani F. We also examined the occurrence of Beauveria in relation to soil pH. Beauveria spp. isolates were characterised at species and genotype levels using ITS and microsatellite markers. Beauveria spp., which were detected at over 80% of sites, were sensitive to pH, preferring neutral or alkaline soils. This suggests that the acidity of forest soils in Poland can affect their efficacy as biological control agents (BCAs). B. brongniartii (Sacc.) Petch as a pathogen of cockchafers occurred at 41% of sites, but often at densities below the threshold values for infection, and it infected only 1.3% of cockchafer grubs. Our results suggest that B. brongniartii genotype isolated from cockchafers in forest soils can potentially expand the pool of BCAs in this environment.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Non-reproductive effects of two parasitoid species on the oriental
           armyworm Mythimna separata on wheat and maize plants
    • Abstract: Abstract Non-reproductive effects of parasitoids on their hosts and their associated mechanisms are poorly known. We carried out laboratory studies to measure non-reproductive mortality (NRM) and reproductive mortality (RM) caused by two different larval parasitoids to the oriental armyworm Mythimna separata (Walker) that fed on either wheat or maize plants. We then examined non-lethal effects of the parasitoids on developmental performances of the surviving hosts on the two plant species. We found that NRM was as high as RM for Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) while lower than RM for Microplitis mediator (Haliday), on both wheat and maize plants. The exposure of the host larvae to either of the two species of parasitoids had non-lethal effects on the surviving hosts on both wheat and maize plants, impairing some of host developmental performances as measured by larval developmental time, larval body weight, pupal duration, pupal body weight, and adult longevity. These non-lethal effects did not vary between the two parasitoid species: they varied somewhat between the two plant species. The results from the present study suggest that different parasitoid species in the same guild can have different levels of non-reproductive effects on the same host, and such effects may vary somewhat across host’s food plant species.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Bio-herbicidal effect of 5-aminoleveulinic acid producing rhizobacteria in
           suppression of Lathyrus aphaca weed growth
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study evaluated the herbicidal potential of rhizospheric bacteria against Lathyrus aphaca L. weed in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) crop. In primary screening, bacterial isolates HMM76, HMM109, HMM116, JMM24 and JMM44 were found to produce aminolevulinic acid ranging from 10.0 to 15.0 µg ml−1 with HMM21, JMM11 and JMM35 producing more than 15 µg ml−1. In secondary screening, ten bacterial isolates i.e., HMM21, HMM57, HMM76, HMM83, HMM109, HMM116, JMM4, JMM24, JMM35 and JMM44 showed a growth retardation effect on the 5th and 10th day after seed germination. Moreover, evaluation of screened bacterial isolates exhibiting different plant growth promoting traits such as indole acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphorus and potassium solubilization, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deamainase enzyme, and antagonistic activity against potential pathogens were used to conduct pot studies and found to cause significant reduction up to 92% in root and shoot dry weight of L. aphaca. The best performing culture, JMM24, was identified as Bacillus flexus by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Therefore, these rhizospheric bacterial isolates could act as a potential candidate for suppression of weed growth under field conditions for their subsequent application as bioherbicide.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Sphaerophoria rueppelli adults change their foraging behavior after mating
           but maintain the same preferences to flower traits
    • Abstract: Abstract Hoverflies can play an important role in aphid biological control. Adult hoverflies depend on pollen and nectar to survive. Therefore the placement of flower resources in agroecosystems is a common method to enhance the populations of these insects. When foraging, hoverflies rely on visual cues to select flowers. We studied the preference of Sphaerophoria rueppelli (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Syrphidae) adults for several flower traits and examined whether mating influenced foraging behavior. We observed that these insects were greatly attracted to bouquets of 12 flat circle-shaped flowers (half white and half yellow). Furthermore, yellow flowers elicited landing more than other colors, regardless of the type of bouquet. With respect to the effect of mating on posterior foraging behavior, virgin individuals showed more movement than gravid ones. Our results shed light on the behavior of adult hoverflies and can be used to improve habitat management practices that seek to promote biological control.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Development of Cercospora leaf spot on Ipomoea weed species for biological
           control
    • Abstract: Abstract Morning glories (Ipomoea spp.) are important weeds in non-burning sugarcane farming in Brazil, and their chemical control has low efficacy due to the straw mulching. The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of epidemiological parameters on the development of Cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora aff. canescens Ellis & G. Martin) on four Ipomoea weed species, as well as on the host range. The results demonstrated that the use of a suspension of 2 × 107 conidia ml−1 on specific host phenological stages (3–5 leaves, open flowers, and with fruit), with a minimum of a 24 h dew period, induces plant defoliation and a higher disease incidence on Ipomoea nil L. (Roth). However, the same disease incidence and defoliation on I. grandifolia (Dammer) O’Donell, I. quamoclit L., and I. hederifolia L. were not achieved. The pathogen was specific to these four Ipomoea species among 18 plant species. These results represent an important step in the development of a mycoherbicide to control morning glories.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Continuous rearing of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus on an
           artificial diet
    • Abstract: Abstract Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is one of the most efficient biological control agents of tetranychid mites and is commercially used in various countries around the world. In this study, four artificial diets were tested as an alternative food source for rearing N. californicus, and life table studies were performed to evaluate the nutritional value of the diets. Further, the performance of N. californicus reared for seven consecutive generations on the artificial diet enriched with Ephestia kuehniella Zeller eggs was assessed. The egg and larval periods of N. californicus did not differ among the natural prey (Tetranychus urticae Koch) and artificial diets, but the developmental times of the nymphal stages were significantly longer on any of the artificial diets than on the natural prey. The total fecundity of N. californicus was reduced when the predator was fed on any of the artificial diets as compared with T. urticae (54.33 eggs per female). Among the artificial diets, fecundity of N. californicus was best on a basic artificial diet enriched with E. kuehniella (AD2) (41.32 eggs per female). Moreover, AD2 did not significantly affect the longevity and reproduction of N. californicus females after long-term rearing on this artificial diet. The predation and reproduction capacities of N. californicus reared on AD2 for up to four generations were significantly reduced when the predator was switched to natural prey on the first day, but generally improved from the second to third day on. In conclusion, artificial diets supplemented with an extract of E. kuehniella eggs (20%) may have potential for use in the mass rearing of N. californicus.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Aphid feeding by lady beetles: higher consumption at higher temperature
    • Abstract: Abstract Many animals are challenged to respond to rising temperature due to climate warming. In this respect, we performed a laboratory experiment to show the influence of rising temperature on the consumption of Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a serious aphid pest, by three common lady beetle species (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). We used climate chambers, representing current temperature and two forecasted warming scenarios of 3 °C and 5 °C. Larval Adalia bipunctata Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and adult A. bipunctata and Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) consumed significantly more aphid biomass at rising temperature. Larvae and adults of all species tested consumed significantly more aphid biomass per body weight, and larval body weight gain of all species was significantly higher at rising temperature. The higher consumption of aphid biomass is likely due to a higher demand for energy of adults, and faster growth of larvae.
      PubDate: 2019-03-21
       
  • Selection of oviposition sites by ground beetles Abaris basistriata and
           Selenophorus seriatoporus for mass rearing purposes
    • Abstract: Abstract The oviposition preferences of Abaris basistriata Chaudoir and Selenophorus seriatoporus Putzeys (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were studied in the laboratory. Tested variables were substrate type (soil, vermiculite, cotton wool, and black gauze) and soil depth (0 to 20 cm) in terms of carabid beetle preference for oviposition. Both carabids preferred soil over the other substrates for oviposition. However, A. basistriata also showed a preference for black gauze. As for oviposition depth, A. basistriata laid eggs at a depth of 12 cm, while S. seriatoporus up to 20 cm. In terms of cost, soil was unprofitable as a substrate, mainly due to a high labor demand for prior preparation. Cotton wool was the substrate with the lowest cost. In conclusion, preference is a key mechanism that has to be understood the rearing ground beetles.
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
       
  • Interference in quorum sensing and virulence of the phytopathogen
           Pseudomonas syringae pv. passiflorae by Bacillus and Variovorax species
    • Abstract: Abstract Pathogenic bacteria often engage in a form of cell-to-cell communication termed quorum sensing (QS) to coordinate the expression of multiple virulence factors. Therefore, interference of QS has potential as a means of controlling bacterial-mediated plant diseases. Accordingly, this study was aimed at: (1) identifying QS signals produced by the phytopathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. passiflorae, and (2) evaluating interference in QS and virulence of the pathogen by putative N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-degrading Bacillus and Variovorax species as a biocontrol strategy. Detection of AHLs using the biosensor strain and high-resolution mass spectroscopy suggested that P. syringae pv. passiflorae produced N-tetradecanoyl homoserine lactone and N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone as quorum-sensing signal molecules. Evaluation of putative AHL-degrading bacteria as biocontrol agents, through a series of inhibition assays (inhibition of motility, biofilm and virulence factors), suggested that bacteria which targets AHLs could be used to control P. syringae pv. passiflorae. We further demonstrated that putative AHL-degrading Bacillus and Variovorax species prevented hypersensitivity in tomato plants by P. syringae pv. passiflorae. Taken together, these results indicated that putative AHL-degrading bacteria were potential biocontrol agents against P. syringae pv. passiflorae and reinforced the idea that disrupting QS and associated virulence factors could be an effective method in controlling plant pathogens.
      PubDate: 2019-03-18
       
  • Leucopis glyphinivora , a potential aphidophagous biocontrol agent'
           
    • Abstract: Abstract The silver fly Leucopis glyphinivora Tanasijtshuk (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) is an aphidophagous predator during its larval stage. Few studies have examined the predation habits of this species for biological control. Larval voracity of L. glyphinivora was measured under laboratory and controlled greenhouse conditions and compared with a commercially available biocontrol agent, Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Laboratory tests were conducted in Petri dishes using Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on potato leaves. In greenhouse tests, predator voracity was evaluated with various plant-aphid treatments. In the laboratory, silver fly larvae consumed 39% more aphids than A. aphidimyza throughout their larval development. In the greenhouse, L. glyphinivora consumed more aphids than A. aphidimyza regardless of treatment. The highest voracities were obtained on tomato and bell pepper infested with M. persicae. No antagonistic predatory effects were observed when predators were used together. This study provides useful insight on L. glyphinoivora as an efficient aphid predator but more research is needed to establish its potential for biological control.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
       
  • Pre-planting inoculation for early establishment of Dicyphus bolivari and
           D. errans on tomatoes
    • Abstract: Abstract Slow establishment and risks of plant damage are major constraints for the use of the predatory mirid bugs that are commercially available for release in greenhouse crops. Therefore, a new interest has turned towards two predatory Dicyphus species (Heteroptera: Miridae) that have been investigated in the past but have not been used commercially in augmentative biological control. We assessed their development duration and survival at temperature and day length of summer and winter conditions and assessed the feasibility of pre-planting predator establishment on plant seedlings under those conditions. Dicyphus bolivari (Lindberg) and D. errans (Wolff) nymphs reached the adult stage in 47.4 (winter conditions) and 18.6 days (summer conditions) and 46.0 (winter) and 16.3 days (summer) respectively. They showed more than 90% survival when provided with food (Ephestia eggs). Provision of food allowed females to lay more eggs and to distribute them more evenly among tomato seedlings. No injuries or other negative effects on tomato seedling development were observed. Nymph development time of the two mirid species studied were slightly higher than other commercial mirid predators. The results show great potential of these predatory bugs, which are now being tested under field conditions.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
       
  • Control of powdery mildew ( Leveillula taurica ) using Trichoderma
           asperellum and Metarhizium anisopliae in different pepper types
    • Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the effectiveness of Trichoderma asperellum (Samuels, Lieckf. & Nirenberg) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn.) Sorokin in controlling pepper powdery mildew. Culture extracts of these fungi inhibited conidial germination in Leveillula taurica (Lév.) G. Arnaud. T. asperellum showed higher chitinolytic activity than that of M. anisopliae. The latter exhibited elevated β-1,3-glucanase activity as compared with that of T. asperellum. In a high-tunnel greenhouse, T. asperellum was more persistent than M. anisopliae. Jalapeño pepper was more vulnerable to powdery mildew than arbol pepper. In the field, the fungi did not control powdery mildew in jalapeño pepper. In arbol pepper, both fungal species reduced disease severity to a level similar to that of a chemical control. T. asperellum and M. anisopliae may be effective in the control of powdery mildew on peppers and could lead to the disuse of pesticides on some but not all types of pepper.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
       
  • Augmentative releases of Trichopria drosophilae for the suppression of
           early season Drosophila suzukii populations
    • Abstract: Abstract Biological control agents may play an important role in regulating Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), particularly after the winter population bottleneck. Here we test the ability of the cosmopolitan pupal parasitoid, Trichopria drosophilae (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae), to reduce early season D. suzukii populations. We performed augmentative releases of the parasitoid during late March–April and carried out extensive monitoring activity on both parasitoid and fly populations. Results clearly showed a mitigation of the D. suzukii population in the treated areas, associated with a higher T. drosophilae parasitism. A 34% reduction in fruit infestation was observed in the unmanaged vegetation surrounding orchards. Accordingly, pest eclosion was significantly lower in the treated area compared to the untreated one. Our results suggest that augmentative release of T. drosophilae can improve pest control of D. suzukii in the unmanaged areas surrounding the crops, thus lowering the severity of pest outbreaks in the orchards.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
       
  • Unravelling the status of partially identified insect biological control
           agents introduced to control insects: an analysis of BIOCAT2010
    • Abstract: Abstract The BIOCAT2010 (corrected) database of introductions of insects used as classical biological control agents (BCAs) against insects was analysed to recognise those introductions which involved a partially identified BCA, e.g. named to genus or family, but not to species. Quality controls made on a selection of these checked whether new taxonomic information in the literature had been missed from the database and this was found to be infrequent. Of 6227 BCA introductions since the 19th century, 686 (11.0%) were not identified to species level, and 74 were only identified to family or order level. Patterns by taxonomic group and countries making the introductions and the overall trend over time are presented. Since the 1990s, partially identified BCAs have been hardly used. Steps to ensure that partially identified BCAs can be identified in future are set out, and suggestions made regarding the scope for retroactive studies to recognise and name partially identified BCAs.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
       
  • Adequacy of Drosophila melanogaster as prey for the development and
           reproduction of Coleomegilla maculata
    • Abstract: Abstract Factitious prey are preferentially used to rear lady beetles in the laboratory in lieu of natural prey with an aim towards facilitating and lowering the cost of producing these predators. We tested the hypothesis that live dipteran larvae of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (factitious prey) meet the nutritional requirements of the coleopteran Coleomegilla maculata and can substitute for its natural aphid prey [Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach)]. The biological cycle of C. maculata was faster and the immature stages suffered a lower rate of mortality when fed D. melanogaster larvae rather than when fed L. erysimi. The factitious prey resulted in improved reproductive attributes for C. maculata, with the exception of fecundity. The N content was the same for both prey types, but the dipteran larvae had a higher C content, water content and C:N ratio than the aphids. The conclusion of this study is that D. melanogaster larvae are adequate factitious prey for the development and reproduction of C. maculata under laboratory conditions.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
       
  • With or without you: stem-galling of a tephritid fly reduces the
           vegetative and reproductive performance of the invasive plant Chromolaena
           odorata (Asteraceae) both alone and in combination with another agent
    • Abstract: Abstract With or without another biological control agent, the specialist folivore Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata, the stem-galling fly Cecidochares connexa reduced the performance of the invasive alien plant, Chromolaena odorata in Ghana. There was a strong significant negative relationship between gall densities of the gall fly and stem height, and the number of stems and flower heads of C. odorata. Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata had very little impact on any C. odorata parameters. However, at sites where both C. connexa and P. pseudoinsulata occurred simultaneously, the performance of C. odorata was significantly reduced when compared with control plants. Increasing densities of both agents had a strong significant negative correlative effect on C. odorata plant parameters. Cecidochares connexa was recorded in all five regions of the country sampled, while P. pseudoinsulata was recorded in four regions. Densities of both agents declined in the dry season, but galls were persistent throughout the study period. This is the first report of the impact of C. connexa on C. odorata in the West African sub-region since its introduction to Cote d’Ivoire in 2003 and it is clear that the agent has a significant impact on C. odorata in Ghana. Further surveys are required to determine the impact of both biological control agents in other parts of the sub-region where they have established.
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
       
 
 
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