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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3104 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1470 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 291)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
  [SJR: 0.23]   [H-I: 13]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1176-2322 - ISSN (Online) 1754-2103
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [292 journals]
  • CMM-Based Volumetric Assessment Methodology for Polyethylene Tibial Knee
           Inserts in Total Knee Replacement

    • Abstract: Total knee replacement is a common surgical procedure in orthopaedics. Accurate volumetric wear assessment of the polyethylene knee inserts has been an essential subject for improving the longevity. A new CMM-based methodology was presented to determine volumetric material loss based on curve surface fitting without prewear data, CAD model, or original design of drawings. Both computational and experimental simulated volume removal tests were run to validate the methodology by comparing with the gravimetric measurements. The volume and linear wear of the tibial inserts were calculated using the presented method based on the coordinates acquired by the CMM. The results indicate that the methodology is adequate for clinically retrieved tibial inserts where no prewear data are provided. This technique can also be used for biotribological study of other polyethylene components, since wear and damage can be assessed visually and volumetrically.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 07:17:24 +000
       
  • Numerical Analysis of Masticatory Forces on a Lower First Molar
           considering the Contact between Dental Tissues

    • Abstract: The aim of the present work is to identify the reactions of the dental organs to the different forces that occur during chewing and the transcendence of the union and contact maintained by the dental tissues. The study used a lower first molar biomodel with a real morphology and morphometry and consisting of the three dental tissues (enamel, dentin, and pulp) each with its mechanical properties. In it, two simulations were carried out, as would the process of chewing a food. One of the simulations considers the contact between the enamel and the dentin, and the other does not take it into account. The results obtained differ significantly between the simulations that consider contact and those that do not, establishing the importance of taking this contact into account. In this way, the theories that establish horizontal and lateral occlusion forces are present during the functional chewing process which are viable to be correct. The case studies carried out present not only the reasons for the failure of enamel but also the failure of the restoration materials used. This reflection will allow the development of more adequate materials, mechanical design of prostheses, implants, and treatment.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 06:28:34 +000
       
  • Injury Source and Correlation Analysis of Riders in Car-Electric Bicycle
           Accidents

    • Abstract: The knowledge about the injury source and correlation of riders in car-electric bicycle accident will be helpful in the cross validation of traces and vehicle safety design. In order to know more information about such kind of knowledge, 57 true car-electric bicycle accidents were reconstructed by PC-Crash and then data on injury information of riders were collected directly from the reconstructed cases. These collected data were validated by some existing research results firstly, and then 4 abnormal cases were deleted according to the statistical method. Finally, conclusions can be obtained according to the data obtained from the remaining 53 cases. Direct injuries of the head and right leg are from the road pavement upon low speed; the source laws of indirect head injuries are not obvious. Upon intermediate and high speed, the injuries of the above parts are from automobiles. Injuries of the left leg, femur, and right knee are from automobiles; left knee injuries are from automobiles, the road pavement and automobiles, respectively, upon low, intermediate, and high speed. The source laws of indirect torso injuries are not obvious upon intermediate and low speed, which are from automobiles upon high speed, while direct torso injuries are from the road pavement. And there is no high correlation between all parts of the injury of riders. The largest correlation coefficient was the head-left femur and left femur-right femur, which was 0.647, followed by the head-right femur (0.638) and head-torso which was 0.617.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Investigation of the Effect of Neck Muscle Active Force on Whiplash Injury
           of the Cervical Spine

    • Abstract: The objective of the present study is to investigate the influence of neck muscle activation on whiplash neck injury of the occupants of a passenger vehicle under different severities of frontal and rear-end impact collisions. The finite element (FE) model has been used as a versatile tool to simulate and understand the whiplash injury mechanism for occupant injury prevention. However, whiplash injuries and injury mechanisms have rarely been investigated in connection with neck active muscle forces, which restricts the complete reappearance and understanding of the injury mechanism. In this manuscript, a mixed FE human model in a sitting posture with an active head-neck was developed. The response of the cervical spine under frontal and rear-end collision conditions was then studied using the FE model with and without neck muscle activation. The effect of the neck muscle activation on the whiplash injury was studied based on the results of the FE simulations. The results indicated that the neck active force influenced the head-neck dynamic response and whiplash injury during a collision, especially in a low-speed collision.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Differences in Nanostructure and Hydrophobicity of Cicada (Cryptotympana
           atrata) Forewing Surface with the Distribution of Precipitation

    • Abstract: Although the cicada wing has a variety of functions and the nanostructure and surface properties of many species have been extensively investigated, there are no reports investigating diversity of nanostructures and wetting properties within a single species collected at locations with different rainfall conditions. In this study, the hydrophobicity and nanostructure dimensions of the forewing surface of Cryptotympana atrata were measured, based on specimens collected from 12 distributions with varying precipitation averages in China and Japan. The relationships among hydrophobicity, nanostructures, and precipitation were analyzed, and the adaption of hydrophobic nanostructures under different wet environments is discussed. The precipitation of locations in the years the samples of C. atrata were collected only has an effect on the diameter and spacing of wing surface nanostructure, and the multiple years of precipitation may have an influence on the basic diameter and spacing, as well as the height of protrusions. The rougher the wing surface, the stronger the hydrophobicity which was observed from samples taken where the rainfall conditions of the collection years are high. To our knowledge, this is one special example providing evidence of hydrophobic nanostructures found on a biological surface of a single species which shows adaption for specific wet environments.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Feasibility of Muscle Synergy Outcomes in Clinics, Robotics, and Sports: A
           Systematic Review

    • Abstract: In the last years, several studies have been focused on understanding how the central nervous system controls muscles to perform a specific motor task. Although it still remains an open question, muscle synergies have come to be an appealing theory to explain the modular organization of the central nervous system. Even though the neural encoding of muscle synergies remains controversial, a large number of papers demonstrated that muscle synergies are robust across different tested conditions, which are within a day, between days, within a single subject, and between subjects that have similar demographic characteristics. Thus, muscle synergy theory has been largely used in several research fields, such as clinics, robotics, and sports. The present systematical review aims at providing an overview on the applications of muscle synergy theory in clinics, robotics, and sports; in particular, the review is focused on the papers that provide tangible information for (i) diagnosis or pathology assessment in clinics, (ii) robot-control design in robotics, and (iii) athletes’ performance assessment or training guidelines in sports.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Muscle Coactivation during Stability Exercises in Rhythmic Gymnastics: A
           Two-Case Study

    • Abstract: Balance exercises in rhythmic gymnastics are performed on tiptoes, which causes overload of foot joints. This study aimed to evaluate the engagement of muscles stabilizing ankle and knee joints in balance exercises and determine exercises which may lead to ankle and knee joint injuries. It was hypothesized that long-term training has an influence on balance control and efficient use of muscles in their stabilizing function. Two rhythmic gymnasts (8 and 21 years old) performed balances on tiptoes (side split with hand support, ring with hand support) and on a flat foot (back split without hand support exercise). Surface electromyography, ground reaction forces, and kinematic parameters of movement were measured. The measuring systems applied were synchronized with the BTS SMART system. The results show the necessity to limit balance exercises on tiptoes in children because gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) activity significantly exceeds their activity. Ankle joint stabilizing activity of GM and GL muscles in the younger gymnast was more important than in the older one. Performing this exercise, the younger gymnast distributed load on the anterior side of the foot while the older one did so on its posterior. Gymnastics coaches should be advised to exclude ring with hand support exercise from the training of young gymnasts.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Effects of Spine Motion on Foot Slip in Quadruped Bounding

    • Abstract: Translation and bend of the spine in the sagittal plane during high-speed quadruped running were investigated. The effect of the two spine motions on slip between the foot and the ground was also explored. First, three simplified sagittal plane models of quadruped mammals were studied in symmetric bounding. The first model’s trunk allowed no relative motion, the second model allowed only trunk bend, and the third model allowed both bend and translation. Next, torque was introduced to equivalently replace spine motion and the possibility of foot slip of the three models was analyzed theoretically. The results indicate that the third model has the least possibility of slip. This conclusion was further confirmed by simulation experiments. Finally, the conclusion was verified by the reductive model crawling robot.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Mar 2018 08:07:44 +000
       
  • Numerical Investigation on Head and Brain Injuries Caused by Windshield
           Impact on Riders Using Electric Self-Balancing Scooters

    • Abstract: To investigate head-brain injuries caused by windshield impact on riders using electric self-balancing scooters (ESS). Numerical vehicle ESS crash scenarios are constructed by combining the finite element (FE) vehicle model and multibody scooter/rider models. Impact kinematic postures of the head-windshield contact under various impact conditions are captured. Then, the processes during head-windshield contact are reconstructed using validated FE head/laminated windshield models to assess the severity of brain injury caused by the head-windshield contact. Governing factors, such as vehicle speed, ESS speed, and the initial orientation of ESS rider, have nontrivial influences over the severity of a rider’s brain injuries. Results also show positive correlations between vehicle speed and head-windshield impact speeds (linear and angular). Meanwhile, the time of head-windshield contact happens earlier when the vehicle speed is faster. According to the intensive study, windshield-head contact speed (linear and angular), impact location on the windshield, and head collision area are found to be direct factors on ESS riders’ brain injuries during an impact. The von Mises stress and shear stress rise when relative contact speed of head-windshield increases. Brain injury indices vary widely when the head impacting the windshield from center to the edge or impacting with different areas.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Mar 2018 07:17:07 +000
       
  • Active Tube-Shaped Actuator with Embedded Square Rod-Shaped Ionic
           Polymer-Metal Composites for Robotic-Assisted Manipulation

    • Abstract: This paper reports a new technique involving the design, fabrication, and characterization of an ionic polymer-metal composite- (IPMC-) embedded active tube, which can achieve multidegree-of-freedom (MODF) bending motions desirable in many applications, such as a manipulator and an active catheter. However, traditional strip-type IPMC actuators are limited in only being able to generate 1-dimensional bending motion. So, in this paper, we try to develop an approach which involves molding or integrating rod-shaped IPMC actuators into a soft silicone rubber structure to create an active tube. We modified the Nafion solution casting method and developed a complete sequence of a fabrication process for rod-shaped IPMCs with square cross sections and four insulated electrodes on the surface. The silicone gel was cured at a suitable temperature to form a flexible tube using molds fabricated by 3D printing technology. By applying differential voltages to the four electrodes of each IPMC rod-shaped actuator, MDOF bending motions of the active tube can be generated. Experimental results show that such IPMC-embedded tube designs can be used for developing robotic-assisted manipulation.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Development of a New Intelligent Joystick for People with Reduced Mobility

    • Abstract: Despite the diversity of electric wheelchairs, many people with physical limitations and seniors have difficulty using their standard joystick. As a result, they cannot meet their needs or ensure safe travel. Recent assistive technologies can help to give them autonomy and independence. This work deals with the real-time implementation of an artificial intelligence device to overcome these problems. Following a review of the literature from previous work, we present the methodology and process for implementing our intelligent control system on an electric wheelchair. The system is based on a neural algorithm that overcomes problems with standard joystick maneuvers such as the inability to move correctly in one direction. However, this implies the need for an appropriate methodology to map the position of the joystick handle. Experiments on a real wheelchair are carried out with real patients of the Mohamed Kassab National Institute Orthopedic, Physical and Functional Rehabilitation Hospital of Tunis. The proposed intelligent system gives good results compared to the use of a standard joystick.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Mar 2018 07:52:38 +000
       
  • The Effects of Curtain Airbag on Occupant Kinematics and Injury Index in
           Rollover Crash

    • Abstract: Background. Occupant injuries in rollover crashes are associated with vehicle structural performance, as well as the restraint system design. For a better understanding of the occupant kinematics and injury index in certain rollover crash, it is essential to carry out dynamic vehicle rollover simulation with dummy included. Objective. This study focused on effects of curtain airbag (CAB) parameters on occupant kinematics and injury indexes in a rollover crash. Besides, optimized parameters of the CAB were proposed for the purpose of decreasing the occupant injuries in such rollover scenario. Method and Material. The vehicle motion from the physical test was introduced as the input for the numerical simulation, and the 50% Hybrid III dummy model from the MADYMO database was imported into a simulation model. The restraint system, including a validated CAB module, was introduced for occupant kinematics simulation and injury evaluation. TTF setting, maximum inflator pressure, and protection area of the CAB were analysed. Results. After introducing the curtain airbag, the maximum head acceleration was reduced from 91.60 g to 49.52 g, and the neck Mx and neck Fz were reduced significantly. Among these CAB parameters, the TTF setting had the largest effect on the head acceleration which could reduce 8.6 g furthermore after optimization. The neck Fz was decreased from 3766.48 N to 2571.77 N after optimization of CAB protection area. Conclusions. Avoiding hard contact is critical for the occupant protection in the rollover crashes. The simulation results indicated that occupant kinematics and certain injury indexes were improved with the help of CAB in such rollover scenario. Appropriate TTF setting and inflator selection could benefit occupant kinematics and injury indexes. Besides, it was advised to optimize the curtain airbag thickness around the head contact area to improve head and neck injury indexes.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Development and Validation of an Age-Specific Lower Extremity Finite
           Element Model for Simulating Pedestrian Accidents

    • Abstract: The objective of the present study is to develop an age-specific lower extremity finite element model for pedestrian accident simulation. Finite element (FE) models have been used as a versatile tool to simulate and understand the pedestrian injury mechanisms and assess injury risk during crashes. However, current computational models only represent certain ages in the population, the age spectrum of the pedestrian victims is very large, and the geometry of anatomical structures and material property of the lower extremities changes with age for adults, which could affect the injury tolerance, especially in at-risk populations such as the elderly. The effects of age on the material mechanical property of bone and soft tissues of the lower extremities as well as the geometry of the long bone were studied. Then an existing 50th percentile male pedestrian lower extremity model was rebuilt to depict lower extremity morphology for 30- to 70-year-old (YO) individuals. A series of PMHS tests were simulated to validate the biofidelity and stability of the created age-specific models and evaluate the lower extremity response. The development of age-specific lower extremity models will lead to an improved understanding of the pedestrian lower extremity injury mechanisms and injury risk prediction for the whole population in vehicle-pedestrian collision accidents.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Mar 2018 04:07:18 +000
       
  • A Study of the Effect of the Front-End Styling of Sport Utility Vehicles
           on Pedestrian Head Injuries

    • Abstract: Background. The number of sport utility vehicles (SUVs) on China market is continuously increasing. It is necessary to investigate the relationships between the front-end styling features of SUVs and head injuries at the styling design stage for improving the pedestrian protection performance and product development efficiency. Methods. Styling feature parameters were extracted from the SUV side contour line. And simplified finite element models were established based on the 78 SUV side contour lines. Pedestrian headform impact simulations were performed and validated. The head injury criterion of 15 ms (HIC15) at four wrap-around distances was obtained. A multiple linear regression analysis method was employed to describe the relationships between the styling feature parameters and the HIC15 at each impact point. Results. The relationship between the selected styling features and the HIC15 showed reasonable correlations, and the regression models and the selected independent variables showed statistical significance. Conclusions. The regression equations obtained by multiple linear regression can be used to assess the performance of SUV styling in protecting pedestrians’ heads and provide styling designers with technical guidance regarding their artistic creations.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:22:11 +000
       
  • Towards Subject-Specific Strength Training Design through Predictive Use
           of Musculoskeletal Models

    • Abstract: Lower extremity dysfunction is often associated with hip muscle strength deficiencies. Detailed knowledge of the muscle forces generated in the hip under specific external loading conditions enables specific structures to be trained. The aim of this study was to find the most effective movement type and loading direction to enable the training of specific parts of the hip muscles using a standing posture and a pulley system. In a novel approach to release the predictive power of musculoskeletal modelling techniques based on inverse dynamics, flexion/extension and ab-/adduction movements were virtually created. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, three hip orientations and an external loading force that was systematically rotated around the body were simulated using a state-of-the art OpenSim model in order to establish ideal designs for training of the anterior and posterior parts of the M. gluteus medius (GM). The external force direction as well as the hip orientation greatly influenced the muscle forces in the different parts of the GM. No setting was found for simultaneous training of the anterior and posterior parts with a muscle force higher than 50% of the maximum. Importantly, this study has demonstrated the use of musculoskeletal models as an approach to predict muscle force variations for different strength and rehabilitation exercise variations.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Mar 2018 07:06:42 +000
       
  • Relationship between Asymmetry of Gait and Muscle Torque in Patients after
           Unilateral Transfemoral Amputation

    • Abstract: Many studies have shown that unilateral transfemoral amputation involves asymmetric gait. Transfemoral amputation leads to muscle atrophy in a tight stump resulting in asymmetry in muscle torque between the amputated and intact limb. This research is aimed at verifying if a relationship between torque values of hip joint flexors and extensors and gait asymmetry in patients with TFA exists. Fourteen adult subjects with unilateral TFA took part in the experiment. Gait symmetry was evaluated based on the ground reaction force (GRF). Measurements of muscle torque of hip flexors and extensors were taken with a Biodex System. All measurements were taken under isokinetic (60°/s and 120°/s) and isometric conditions. The symmetry index of vertical GRF components was from 7.5 to 11.5%, and anterio-posterior GRF from 6.2 to 9.3%. The symmetry index for muscle torque was from 24.3 to 44% for flexors, from 39 to 50.5% for extensors, and from 28.6 to 50% in the flexor/extensor ratio. Gait asymmetry correlated with muscle torque in hip joint extensors. Therapy which enhances muscle torque may be an effective form of patient therapy. The patient needs to undergo evaluation of their muscle strength and have the therapy programme adjusted to their level of muscle torque deficit.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Evaluation of Different Restoration Combinations Used in the Reattachment
           of Fractured Teeth: A Finite Element Analysis

    • Abstract: Objective. The purpose of this study was to test different restoration combinations used for constructing fractured endodontically treated incisors by reattaching their fractured fragments. Methods. Seven types of 3-D FEM mathematical root canal-filled models were generated, simulating cases of (OB) reattaching fractured fragments; (CrPL) reattaching fractured fragments + ceramic palatinal laminate; (CmPL) reattaching fractured fragments + composite palatinal laminate; (CM) reattaching fractured fragments + coronal 1/3 of the root was filled using core material; (BP) reattaching fractured fragments + glass fiber post; (CP) composite resin restoration + glass fiber post; and (OC) composite resin restoration. A 100-N static oblique force was applied to the simulated teeth with 135° on the node at 2 mm above the cingulum to analyze the stress distribution at the tooth. Results. For enamel tissue, the highest stress values were observed in model BP, and the lowest stress values were observed in model CmPL. For dentine tissue, the highest stress concentrations were observed around the fracture line for all models. Conclusions. Reattachment of fractured fragments by bonding may be preferred as a restoration option for endodontically treated incisors; also, palatinal laminate decreases the stress values at tooth tissues, especially at the enamel and the fracture line.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Mar 2018 06:23:40 +000
       
  • Biomimetic Beetle-Inspired Flapping Air Vehicle Actuated by Ionic
           Polymer-Metal Composite Actuator

    • Abstract: During the last decades, the ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) received much attention because of its potential capabilities, such as large displacement and flexible bending actuation. In this paper, a biomimetic flapping air vehicle was proposed by combining the superiority of ionic polymer metal composite with the bionic beetle flapping principle. The blocking force was compared between casted IPMC and IPMC. The flapping state of the wing was investigated and the maximum displacement and flapping angle were measured. The flapping displacement under different voltage and frequency was tested. The flapping displacement of the wing and the support reaction force were measured under different frequency by experiments. The experimental results indicate that the high voltage and low frequency would get large flapping displacement.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Research on Biomimetic Models and Nanomechanical Behaviour of Membranous
           Wings of Chinese Bee Apis cerana cerana Fabricius

    • Abstract: The structures combining the veins and membranes of membranous wings of the Chinese bee Apis cerana cerana Fabricius into a whole have excellent load-resisting capacity. The membranous wings of Chinese bees were taken as research objects and the mechanical properties of a biomimetic model of membranous wings as targets. In order to understand and learn from the biosystem and then make technical innovation, the membranous wings of Chinese bees were simulated and analysed with reverse engineering and finite element method. The deformations and stress states of the finite element model of membranous wings were researched under the concentrated force, uniform load, and torque. It was found that the whole model deforms evenly and there are no unusual deformations arising. The displacements and deformations are small and transform uniformly. It was indicated that the veins and membranes combine well into a whole to transmit loads effectively, which illustrates the membranous wings of Chinese bees having excellent integral mechanical behaviour and structure stiffness. The realization of structure models of the membranous wings of Chinese bees and analysis of the relativity of structures and performances or functions will provide an inspiration for designing biomimetic thin-film materials with superior load-bearing capacity.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Passive Cushiony Biomechanics of Head Protection in Falling Geckos

    • Abstract: Gekko geckos are capable to crawl on the steep even on upside-down surfaces. Such movement, especially at great altitude, puts them at high risks of incidentally dropping down and inevitable body or head impactions, though they may trigger air-righting reaction (ARR) to attenuate the landing shocks. However, the air-righting ability (ARA) in Gekko geckos is not fully developed. The implementation of ARR in some geckos is quite slow; and for those without tails, the ARR is even unobservable. Since ARA is compromised in Gekko geckos, there must be some other mechanisms responsible for protecting them from head injuries during falls. In this study, we looked into a Gekko gecko’s brain to study its internal environment and structure, using the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. The results showed that the brain parenchyma was fully surrounded by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the skull. A succulent characteristic was presented, which meant the intracalvarium was significantly occupied by the CSF, up to 45% in volume. Then a simplified three-dimensional finite element model was built, and a dynamic simulation was conducted to evaluate the mechanical property of this succulent characteristic during the head impactions. These implied the succulent characteristic may play certain roles on the self-protection in case of head impaction, which is adaptable to the Gekko gecko’s locomotion and behavior.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Human Hand Motion Analysis during Different Eating Activities

    • Abstract: The focus of this research is to analyse both human hand motion and force, during eating, with respect to differing food characteristics and cutlery (including a fork and a spoon). A glove consisting of bend and force sensors has been used to capture the motion and contact force exerted by fingers during different eating activities. The Pearson correlation coefficient has been used to show that a significant linear relationship exists between the bending motion of the fingers and the forces exerted during eating. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests are performed to establish whether the motion and force exerted by the fingers while eating is influenced by the different food characteristics and cutlery. The middle finger motion showed the least positive correlation with index fingertip and thumb-tip force, irrespective of the food characteristics and cutlery used. The ANOVA and t-test results revealed that bending motion of the index finger and thumb varies with respect to differing food characteristics and the type of cutlery used (fork/spoon), whereas the bending motion of the middle finger remains unaffected. Additionally, the contact forces exerted by the thumb tip and index fingertip remain unaffected with respect to differing food types and cutlery used.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Computer-Assisted Optimization of the Acetabular Rotation in
           Periacetabular Osteotomy Using Patient’s Anatomy-Specific Finite Element
           Analysis

    • Abstract: Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is a complex surgical procedure to restore acetabular coverage in the dysplastic hip, and the amount of acetabular rotation during PAO plays a key role. Using computational simulations, this study assessed the optimal direction and amount of the acetabular rotation in three dimensions for a patient undergoing PAO. Anatomy-specific finite element (FE) models of the hip were constructed based on clinical CT images. The calculated acetabular rotation during PAO were 9.7°, 18°, and 4.3° in sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes, respectively. Based on the actual acetabular rotations, twelve postoperative FE models were generated. An optimal position was found by gradually varying the amount of the acetabular rotations in each anatomical plane. The coronal plane was found to be the principal rotational plane, which showed the strongest effects on joint contact pressure compared to other planes. It is suggested that rotation in the coronal plane of the osteotomized acetabulum is one of the primary surgical parameters to achieve the optimal clinical outcome for a given patient.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Geometric Modeling of Cellular Materials for Additive Manufacturing in
           Biomedical Field: A Review

    • Abstract: Advances in additive manufacturing technologies facilitate the fabrication of cellular materials that have tailored functional characteristics. The application of solid freeform fabrication techniques is especially exploited in designing scaffolds for tissue engineering. In this review, firstly, a classification of cellular materials from a geometric point of view is proposed; then, the main approaches on geometric modeling of cellular materials are discussed. Finally, an investigation on porous scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing technologies is pointed out. Perspectives in geometric modeling of scaffolds for tissue engineering are also proposed.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Feb 2018 01:42:29 +000
       
  • Design of a Conceptual Bumper Energy Absorber Coupling Pedestrian Safety
           and Low-Speed Impact Requirements

    • Abstract: The car front bumper system needs to meet the requirements of both pedestrian safety and low-speed impact which are somewhat contradicting. This study aims to design a new kind of modular self-adaptive energy absorber of the front bumper system which can balance the two performances. The X-shaped energy-absorbing structure was proposed which can enhance the energy absorption capacity during impact by changing its deformation mode based on the amount of external collision energy. Then, finite element simulations with a realistic vehicle bumper system are performed to demonstrate its crashworthiness in comparison with the traditional foam energy absorber, which presents a significant improvement of the two performances. Furthermore, the structural parameters of the X-shaped energy-absorbing structure including thickness (tu), side arc radius (R), and clamping boost beam thickness (tb) are analyzed using a full factorial method, and a multiobjective optimization is implemented regarding evaluation indexes of both pedestrian safety and low-speed impact. The optimal parameters are then verified, and the feasibility of the optimal results is confirmed. In conclusion, the new X-shaped energy absorber can meet both pedestrian safety and low-speed impact requirements well by altering the main deformation modes according to different impact energy levels.
      PubDate: Sun, 14 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Innovative Design and Performance Evaluation of Bionic Imprinting Toothed
           Wheel

    • Abstract: A highly efficient soil-burrowing dung beetle possesses an intricate outer contour curve on its foreleg end-tooth. This study was carried out based on evidence that this special outer contour curve has the potential of reducing soil penetration resistance and could enhance soil-burrowing efficiency. A toothed wheel is a typical agricultural implement for soil imprinting, to increase its working efficiency; the approach of the bionic geometrical structure was utilized to optimize the innovative shape of imprinting toothed wheel. Characteristics in the dung beetle’s foreleg end-tooth were extracted and studied by the edge detection technique. Then, this special outer contour curve was modeled by a nine-order polynomial function and used for the innovative design of imprinting the tooth’s cutting edge. Both the conventional and bionic teeth were manufactured, and traction tests in a soil bin were conducted. Taking required draft force and volume of imprinted microbasin as the evaluating indexes, operating efficiency and quality of different toothed wheels were compared and investigated. Results indicate that compared with the conventional toothed wheel, a bionic toothed wheel possesses a better forward resistance reduction property against soil and, meanwhile, can enhance the quality of soil imprinting by increasing the volume of the created micro-basin.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Analysis of the Impact of Configuration of the Stabilisation System for
           Femoral Diaphyseal Fractures on the State of Stresses and Displacements

    • Abstract: Introduction. The treatment of femoral diaphyseal fractures by intramedullary nailing has become a common procedure in orthopaedic surgery. The purpose of this numerical simulation was to present how the changes in configuration of the stabilisation system can affect the stress and displacement state in the bone tissue and implanted device. Material and Methods. The numerical comparison of the stabilisation variants for the type 32-A2 femoral diaphyseal fracture (according to the AO classification) performed by using the Charfix2 (ChM®) anatomical nail locked in a number of chosen ways. The displacement and the stress distributions both in the bone and implant were obtained and analysed by computational simulation. Results. In all models, there was the same characteristic distribution, which shows there were minimal rotational movements of the bone around the anatomical axis. In all cases, stress concentrations were generated in the nail material in the area of the fracture gap. Conclusions. The obtained results indicate that there is a visible advantage to one-plane distal stabilisation in the reduction of stresses regardless of the type of proximal stabilisation. The results of calculations indicate that the use of proximal stabilisation with a neck screw reduces the possibility of damage to the implant.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Low-Dimensional Motor Control Representations in Throwing Motions

    • Abstract: In this study, we identified a low-dimensional representation of control mechanisms in throwing motions from a variety of subjects and target distances. The control representation was identified at the kinematic level in task and joint spaces, respectively, and at the muscle activation level using the theory of muscle synergies. Representative features of throwing motions in all of these spaces were chosen to be investigated. Features were extracted using factorization and clustering techniques from the muscle data of unexperienced subjects (with different morphologies and physical conditions) during a series of throwing tasks. Two synergy extraction methods were tested to assess their consistency. For the task features, the degrees of freedom (DoF), and the muscles under study, the results can be summarized as (1) a control representation across subjects consisting of only two synergies at the activation level and of representative features in the task and joint spaces, (2) a reduction of control redundancy (since the number of synergies are less than the number of actions to be controlled), (3) links between the synergies triggering intensity and the throwing distance, and finally (4) consistency of the extraction methods. Such results are useful to better represent mechanisms hidden behind such dynamical motions and could offer a promising control representation for synthesizing motions with muscle-driven characters.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Validation of Material Algorithms for Femur Remodelling Using Medical
           Image Data

    • Abstract: The aim of this study is the utilization of human medical CT images to quantitatively evaluate two sorts of “error-driven” material algorithms, that is, the isotropic and orthotropic algorithms, for bone remodelling. The bone remodelling simulations were implemented by a combination of the finite element (FE) method and the material algorithms, in which the bone material properties and element axes are determined by both loading amplitudes and daily cycles with different weight factor. The simulation results showed that both algorithms produced realistic distribution in bone amount, when compared with the standard from CT data. Moreover, the simulated L-T ratios (the ratio of longitude modulus to transverse modulus) by the orthotropic algorithm were close to the reported results. This study suggests a role for “error-driven” algorithm in bone material prediction in abnormal mechanical environment and holds promise for optimizing implant design as well as developing countermeasures against bone loss due to weightlessness. Furthermore, the quantified methods used in this study can enhance bone remodelling model by optimizing model parameters to gap the discrepancy between the simulation and real data.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Efficacy of Palatal Applications on Fracture Resistance of Reattached
           Maxillary Central Incisors: An In Vitro Study

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different palatal applications on fracture strength of the fractured anterior tooth. Sixty caries-free human maxillary incisors were used. Endodontic treatments of the teeth were performed. Then, the teeth were divided randomly into five groups (). Crowns of all teeth in groups A–D were cut with diamond discs at a fixed distance of 3 mm from the incisal margin in a plane normal to the buccal surface. In all groups, coronal fragments were reattached to the remaining teeth by bonding with hybrid composite resin. After then, the teeth were restored to the following; group A, bonding and palatal laminate; group B, bonding and creation of a vertical groove; group C, bonding and creation of two slot grooves; group D, bonding only; and group E, intact tooth. It was lesser in group B than in groups C and E ( and , resp.) and lesser in group D than in groups A, C, and E (, , and , resp.). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that methods employing palatinal laminate and small grooves are clinically feasible for the reattachment of tooth fragments to incisors.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Experimental Investigation of Aerodynamics of Feather-Covered Flapping
           Wing

    • Abstract: Avian flight has an outstanding performance than the manmade flapping wing MAVs. Considering that the feather is light and strong, a new type of the flapping wing was designed and made, whose skeleton is carbon fiber rods and covered by goose feathers as the skin. Its aerodynamics is tested by experiments and can be compared with conventional artificial flapping wings made of carbon fiber rods as the skeleton and polyester membrane as the skin. The results showed that the feathered wing could generate more lift than the membrane wing in the same flapping kinematics because the feathered wing can have slots between feathers in an upstroke process, which can mainly reduce the negative lift. At the same time, the power consumption also decreased significantly, due to the decrease in the fluctuating range of the periodic lift curve, which reduced the offset consumption of lift. At the same time, the thrusts generated by the feather wing and the membrane wing are similar with each other, which increases with the increase of flapping frequency. In general, the aerodynamic performances of the feather wing are superior to that of the membrane wings.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
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