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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3156 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1497 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 294)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.288
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1176-2322 - ISSN (Online) 1754-2103
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [335 journals]
  • The Effects of Leg Length Discrepancy on Stability and Kinematics-Kinetics
           Deviations: A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Various studies have examined body posture stability, including postural sway and associated biomechanical parameters, to assess the severity effects of leg length discrepancy (LLD). However, various viewpoints have been articulated on the results of these studies because of certain drawbacks in the comprehensive analysis of the effect of variations in LLD magnitude. Therefore, this systematic review was performed to help focus on the current findings to help identify which biomechanical parameters are most relevant, commonly used, and able to distinguish and/or have specific clinical relevance to the effect of variations in LLD magnitude during static (standing) and dynamic (walking) conditions. Several electronic databases containing studies from the year 1983 to 2016 (Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed, PMC, and ProQuest) were obtained in our literature search. The search process yielded 22 published articles that fulfilled our criteria. We found most of the published data that we analyzed to be inconsistent, and very little data was obtained on the correlation between LLD severity and changes in body posture stability during standing and walking. However, the results of the present review study are in line with previous observational studies, which describe asymmetry in the lower limbs corresponding to biomechanical parameters such as gait kinematics, kinetics, and other parameters described during static (standing) postural balance. In future investigations, we believe that it might be useful to use and exploit other balance-related factors that may potentially influence body posture stability.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Feasibility of Neurorehabilitation Using a Hybrid Assistive Limb for
           Patients Who Underwent Spine Surgery

    • Abstract: Recent studies of robotic rehabilitation have demonstrated its efficacy for neurological disorders. However, few studies have used the Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL) during the early postoperative stage of spine disorders. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HAL treatment during the early postoperative period for spine disorder patients. We retrospectively identified patients who underwent spine surgery and who could complete HAL treatment. We evaluated the 10-m walking test (10MWT), the modified Gait Abnormality Rating Scale (GARS-M), Barthel Index (BI), and the walking index for spinal cord injury II (WISCI II) score results before and after robotic rehabilitation. Clinical outcomes were compared after treatment. We included nine patients with various spine problems. After HAL treatment, the speed during the 10MWT significantly improved from 64.1 ± 16.0 to 74.8 ± 10.8 m/min, and the walking cadence decreased from 102.7 ± 17.6 to 92.7 ± 10.9 steps/min. The BI score also improved from 83.3 ± 16.0 to 95.6 ± 5.8, and the WISCI II score improved from 19.7 ± 0.5 to 20.0 ± 0.0. Furthermore, the total GARS-M score improved from 6.0 ± 5.7 to 2.3 ± 3.3. The maximum angles of the trunk swing were improved from 2.2 ± 1.9 to 1.2 ± 0.9 degrees. Neurorehabilitation therapy using HAL for spinal surgery patients was considered feasible following spine surgery.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Influence of a Soft Robotic Suit on Metabolic Cost in Long-Distance Level
           and Inclined Walking

    • Abstract: Metabolic cost during walking is positively linked to exercise intensity. For a walking assistive device, one of the major aims should be the maximization of wearers’ metabolic benefits for different walking situations. Toward this goal, this paper experimentally evaluates the influence of an authors’ soft robotic suit, which has been developed to assist hip flexion for energy-efficient walking of elderly persons in daily life activities, on metabolic cost reduction in the long-distance level and inclined walking. Experiment results show that, for a 79-year-old healthy male subject, the robotic suit significantly reduced metabolic cost in the condition of the robotic suit worn and powered on compared with the condition of worn but powered off.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jul 2018 08:45:51 +000
       
  • Pathological Voice Source Analysis System Using a Flow Waveform-Matched
           Biomechanical Model

    • Abstract: Voice production occurs through vocal cord and vibration coupled to glottal airflow. Vocal cord lesions affect the vocal system and lead to voice disorders. In this paper, a pathological voice source analysis system is designed. This study integrates nonlinear dynamics with an optimized asymmetric two-mass model to explore nonlinear characteristics of vocal cord vibration, and changes in acoustic parameters, such as fundamental frequency, caused by distinct subglottal pressure and varying degrees of vocal cord paralysis are analyzed. Various samples of sustained vowel /a/ of normal and pathological voices were extracted from MEEI (Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary) database. A fitting procedure combining genetic particle swarm optimization and a quasi-Newton method was developed to optimize the biomechanical model parameters and match the targeted voice source. Experimental results validate the applicability of the proposed model to reproduce vocal cord vibration with high accuracy, and show that paralyzed vocal cord increases the model coupling stiffness.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Dynamic Balance Gait for Walking Assistance Exoskeleton

    • Abstract: Purpose. Powered lower-limb exoskeleton has gained considerable interests, since it can help patients with spinal cord injury(SCI) to stand and walk again. Providing walking assistance with SCI patients, most exoskeletons are designed to follow predefined gait trajectories, which makes the patient walk unnaturally and feels uncomfortable. Furthermore, exoskeletons with predefined gait trajectories cannot always maintain balance walking especially when encountering disturbances. Design/Methodology/Approach. This paper proposed a novel gait planning approach, which aims to provide reliable and balance gait during walking assistance. In this approach, we model the exoskeleton and patient together as a linear inverted pendulum (LIP) and obtain the patients intention through orbital energy diagram. To achieve dynamic gait planning of exoskeleton, the dynamic movement primitive (DMP) is utilized to model the gait trajectory. Meanwhile, the parameters of DMP are updated dynamically during one step, which aims to improve the ability of counteracting external disturbance. Findings. The proposed approach is validated in a human-exoskeleton simulation platform, and the experimental results show the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed approach. Originality/Value. We decomposed the issue of obtain dynamic balance gait into three parts: (1) based on the sensory information of exoskeleton, the intention estimator is designed to estimate the intention of taking a step; (2) at the beginning of each step, the discrete gait planner utilized the obtained gait parameters such as step length and step duration and generate the trajectory of swing foot based on ; (3) during walking process, continuous gait regulator is utilized to adjust the gait generated by discrete gait planner to counteract disturbance.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Transition versus Continuous Slope Walking: Adaptation to Change Center of
           Mass Velocity in Young Men

    • Abstract: During continuous uphill walking (UW) or downhill walking, human locomotion is modified to counteract the gravitational force, aiding or impeding the body’s forward momentum, respectively. This study aimed at investigating the center of mass (COM) and center of pressure (COP) velocities and their relative distance during the transition from uphill to downhill walking (UDW) to determine whether locomotor adjustments differ between UDW and UW. Fourteen participants walked on a triangular slope and a continuous upslope of 15°. The kinematics and COPs were obtained using a force plate and a motion capture system. The vertical velocity of the COM in the propulsion phase, the horizontal distance between the COM and COP at initial contact, and the duration of the subphases significantly differed between UDW and UW (all ). Compared with the results of UW, longer durations and the deeper downward moving COM in the propulsion phase were observed during UDW (all ). Additionally, a shorter horizontal distance between the COM and COP at initial contact was associated with a slower vertical COM velocity in the propulsion phase during UDW. The reduced velocity is likely a gait alteration to decrease the forward momentum of the body during UDW.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Biomimetic Actuation and Artificial Muscle

    • PubDate: Thu, 14 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Comparison of Modular Control during Smash Shot between Advanced and
           Beginner Badminton Players

    • Abstract: This study investigated muscle synergy during smash shot in badminton and compared synergies of advanced players (more than 7 years experience) and beginner players (less than 3 years experience). The dominant hand of all players was the right side. Muscle activities were recorded on both sides of the rectus abdominis, external oblique (EO), internal oblique/transversus abdominis (IO/TrA), and erector spinae. Additionally, the right side of the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, and flexor digitorum profundus muscle activities were recorded. All data was obtained using surface electromyography. Synergy was extracted from electromyography signals using nonnegative matrix factorization. Extracted synergies in each group were compared using scalar product (SP) which is the similarity index. As a result, two synergies were extracted in the beginner players and three synergies were extracted in advanced players. Beginner and advanced players had one synergy in common (SP = 0.86) that was mainly on the left side of the EO. It activated in the early stroke and had a role of side bending from the left to hit the shuttlecock at a higher point. Another synergy that had coactivation of the IO/TrA and forearm muscles at impact was extracted only for advanced players and it may enhance the smash shot performance in badminton.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Automated Techniques for the Interpretation of Fetal Abnormalities: A
           Review

    • Abstract: Ultrasound (US) image segmentation methods, focusing on techniques developed for fetal biometric parameters and nuchal translucency, are briefly reviewed. Ultrasound medical images can easily identify the fetus using segmentation techniques and calculate fetal parameters. It can timely find the fetal abnormality so that necessary action can be taken by the pregnant woman. Firstly, a detailed literature has been offered on fetal biometric parameters and nuchal translucency to highlight the investigation approaches with a degree of validation in diverse clinical domains. Then, a categorization of the bibliographic assessment of recent research effort in the segmentation field of ultrasound 2D fetal images has been presented. The fetal images of high-risk pregnant women have been taken into the routine and continuous monitoring of fetal parameters. These parameters are used for detection of fetal weight, fetal growth, gestational age, and any possible abnormality detection.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Jun 2018 08:03:05 +000
       
  • The Influence of Backpack Weight and Hip Belt Tension on Movement and
           Loading in the Pelvis and Lower Limbs during Walking

    • Abstract: The introduction of hip belts to backpacks has caused a shift of loading from the spine to the hips with reported improvements in musculoskeletal comfort. Yet the effects of different hip belt tensions on gait biomechanics remain largely unknown. The goal of this study was to assess the influence of backpack weight and hip belt tension on gait biomechanics. Data from optical motion capture and ground reaction forces (GRF) during walking were acquired in nine healthy male subjects (age 28.0 ± 3.9 years). Six configurations of a commercial backpack were analyzed, that is, 15 kg, 20 kg, and 25 kg loading with 30 N and 120 N hip belt tension. Joint ranges of motion (ROM), peak GRF, and joint moments during gait were analyzed for significant differences by repeated measures of ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc comparison. Increased loading led to a significant reduction of knee flexion-extension ROM as well as pelvis rotational ROM. No statistically significant effect of hip belt tension magnitudes on gait dynamics was found at any backpack weight, yet there was a trend of increased pelvis ROM in the transverse plane with higher hip belt tension at 25 kg loading. Further research is needed to elucidate the optimum hip belt tension magnitudes for different loading weights to reduce the risks of injury especially with higher loading.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Biomimicry and Bioinspiration as Tools for the Design of Innovative
           Materials and Systems

    • PubDate: Wed, 06 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Vision System-Based Design and Assessment of a Novel Shoulder Joint
           Mechanism for an Enhanced Workspace Upper Limb Exoskeleton

    • Abstract: Exoskeletons arise as the common ground between robotics and biomechanics, where rehabilitation is the main field in which these two disciplines find cohesion. One of the most relevant challenges in upper limb exoskeleton design relies in the high complexity of the human shoulder, where current devices implement elaborate systems only to emulate the drifting center of rotation of the shoulder joint. This paper proposes the use of 3D scanning vision technologies to ease the design process and its implementation on a variety of subjects, while a motion tracking system based on vision technologies is applied to assess the exoskeleton reachable workspace compared with an asymptomatic subject. Furthermore, the anatomic fitting index is proposed, which compares the anatomic workspace of the user with the exoskeleton workspace and provides insight into its features. This work proposes an exoskeleton architecture that considers the clavicle motion over the coronal plane whose workspace is determined by substituting the direct kinematics model with the dimensional parameters of the user. Simulations and numerical examples are used to validate the analytical results and to conciliate the experimental results provided by the vision tracking system.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A New Skeleton Model and the Motion Rhythm Analysis for Human Shoulder
           Complex Oriented to Rehabilitation Robotics

    • Abstract: Rehabilitation robotics has become a widely accepted method to deal with the training of people with motor dysfunction. In robotics medium training, shoulder repeated exercise training has been proven beneficial for improving motion ability of human limbs. An important and difficult paradigm for motor function rehabilitation training is the movement rhythm on the shoulder, which is not a single joint but complex and ingenious combination of bones, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. The most robots for rehabilitation were designed previously considering simplified biomechanical models only, which led to misalignment between robots and human shoulder. Current biomechanical models were merely developed for rehabilitation robotics design. This paper proposes a new hybrid spatial model based on joint geometry constraints to describe the movement of the shoulder skeletal system and establish the position analysis equation of the model by a homogeneous coordinate transformation matrix and vector method, which can be used to calculate the kinematics of human-robot integrated system. The shoulder rhythm, the most remarkable particularity in shoulder complex kinematics and important reference for shoulder training strategy using robotics, is described and analyzed via the proposed skeleton model by three independent variables in this paper. This method greatly simplifies the complexity of the shoulder movement description and provides an important reference for the training strategy making of upper limb rehabilitation via robotics.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Using a Module-Based Analysis Framework for Investigating Muscle
           Coordination during Walking in Individuals Poststroke: A Literature Review
           and Synthesis

    • Abstract: Factorization methods quantitatively group electromyographic signals from several muscles during dynamic tasks into multiple modules where each module consists of muscles that are coactive during the movement. Module-based analyses may provide an analytical framework for testing theories of poststroke motor control recovery based on one’s ability to move independently from mass flexion-extension muscle group coactivation. Such a framework may be useful for understanding the causality between underlying neural impairments, biomechanical function, and walking performance in individuals poststroke. Our aim is to synthesize current evidence regarding the relationships between modules, gait mechanics, and rehabilitation in individuals poststroke. We synthesized eleven studies that performed module-based analyses during walking tasks for individuals poststroke. Modules were primarily identified by nonnegative matrix factorization, and fewer modules correlated with poor walking performance on biomechanical and clinical measures. Fewer modules indicated reduced ability to control individual muscle timing during paretic leg stance. There was evidence that rehabilitation can lead to the use of more and/or better-timed modules. While future work will need to establish the ability of modules to identify impairment mechanisms, they appear to offer a promising analytical approach for evaluating motor control.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Effect of Task Failure on Intermuscular Coherence Measures in Synergistic
           Muscles

    • Abstract: The term “task failure” describes the point when a person is not able to maintain the level of force required by a task. As task failure approaches, the corticospinal command to the muscles increases to maintain the required level of force in the face of a decreased mechanical efficacy. Nevertheless, most motor tasks require the synergistic recruitment of several muscles. How this recruitment is affected by approaching task failure is still not clear. The increase in the corticospinal drive could be due to an increase in synergistic recruitment or to overlapping commands sent to the muscles individually. Herein, we investigated these possibilities by combining intermuscular coherence and synergy analysis on signals recorded from three muscles of the quadriceps during dynamic leg extension tasks. We employed muscle synergy analysis to investigate changes in the coactivation of the muscles. Three different measures of coherence were used. Pooled coherence was used to estimate the command synchronous to all three muscles, pairwise coherence the command shared across muscle pairs and residual coherence the command peculiar to each couple of muscles. Our analysis highlights an overall decrease in synergistic command at task failure and an intensification of the contribution of the nonsynergistic shared command.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Assessing User Transparency with Muscle Synergies during
           Exoskeleton-Assisted Movements: A Pilot Study on the LIGHTarm Device for
           Neurorehabilitation

    • Abstract: Exoskeleton devices for upper limb neurorehabilitation are one of the most exploited solutions for the recovery of lost motor functions. By providing weight support, passively compensated exoskeletons allow patients to experience upper limb training. Transparency is a desirable feature of exoskeletons that describes how the device alters free movements or interferes with spontaneous muscle patterns. A pilot study on healthy subjects was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of assessing transparency in the framework of muscle synergies. For such purpose, the LIGHTarm exoskeleton prototype was used. LIGHTarm provides gravity support to the upper limb during the execution of movements in the tridimensional workspace. Surface electromyography was acquired during the execution of three daily life movements (reaching, hand-to-mouth, and hand-to-nape) in three different conditions: free movement, exoskeleton-assisted (without gravity compensation), and exoskeleton-assisted (with gravity compensation) on healthy people. Preliminary results suggest that the muscle synergy framework may provide valuable assessment of user transparency and weight support features of devices aimed at rehabilitation.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Numerical Analysis of Occupant Head Injuries in Impacts with Dump Truck
           Panel

    • Abstract: The human head will inevitably impact on the panel causing injury due to the inertia during dump truck collisions or emergency braking. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze the effects of panel design parameters on occupant head injuries via simulations using finite element (FE) models of a human head and a dump truck cockpit. Special focus was applied to understand how panel type (soft and hard), elastic modulus of the filling and frame, and the fixing distance for the soft panel could affect head injuries in head-to-panel impacts under different impact conditions (impact speed and location). Simulation results show that a soft panel is beneficial for head protection in impacts with the truck instrument panel, and a soft panel using a lower filling elastic modulus, lower frame elastic modulus, and longer fixing distance is helpful for head injury prevention. The findings also indicate that the head peak acceleration and maximum skull stress are more sensitive to the fixing distance and elastic modulus of frame than elastic modulus of the filling of the panel. Moreover, these trends are not affected by changing the impact speed and impact location. The findings of this study suggest that a safer panel design for head injury prevention should firstly have a long fixing distance and then followed by using softer filling and frame materials.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • C-Arm Image-Based Surgical Path Planning Method for Distal Locking of
           Intramedullary Nails

    • Abstract: Due to the curvature of the bone marrow cavity, the intramedullary nail used in long bone fracture fixation can be deformed, causing displacement of the locking holes. In this study, an algorithm using only one C-arm image to determine the center positions and axial directions of locking holes was developed for drilling guidance. Based on conventional method that the axial direction of locking hole would be identified when locking hole contour is presented as a circle, the proposed method can locate the circle contour centroid by using one C-arm image including two elliptical contours. Then the two distal locking holes’ axial direction and centers would be determined. Three experiments were conducted to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm, which are (1) computer simulation, (2) use of real intramedullary nails, and (3) actual drilling test with the bone model. The experimental results showed that the average error of the axial direction and center position were 0.62 ± 0.6°, 0.73 ± 0.53 mm (simulation) and 3.16 ± 1.36°, 1.10 ± 0.50 mm (actual nail), respectively. The last ten drilling test sets were completed successfully (with an average duration of 48 seconds). Based on the experimental results, the proposed algorithm was feasible for clinic applications.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Review on Biomechanics of Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Materials for
           Reconstruction

    • Abstract: The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the six ligaments in the human knee joint that provides stability during articulations. It is relatively prone to acute and chronic injuries as compared to other ligaments. Repair and self-healing of an injured anterior cruciate ligament are time-consuming processes. For personnel resuming an active sports life, surgical repair or replacement is essential. Untreated anterior cruciate ligament tear results frequently in osteoarthritis. Therefore, understanding of the biomechanics of injury and properties of the native ligament is crucial. An abridged summary of the prominent literature with a focus on key topics on kinematics and kinetics of the knee joint and various loads acting on the anterior cruciate ligament as a function of flexion angle is presented here with an emphasis on the gaps. Briefly, we also review mechanical characterization composition and anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament as well as graft materials used for replacement/reconstruction surgeries. The key conclusions of this review are as follows: (a) the highest shear forces on the anterior cruciate ligament occur during hyperextension/low flexion angles of the knee joint; (b) the characterization of the anterior cruciate ligament at variable strain rates is critical to model a viscoelastic behavior; however, studies on human anterior cruciate ligament on variable strain rates are yet to be reported; (c) a significant disparity on maximum stress/strain pattern of the anterior cruciate ligament was observed in the earlier works; (d) nearly all synthetic grafts have been recalled from the market; and (e) bridge-enhanced repair developed by Murray is a promising technique for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, currently in clinical trials. It is important to note that full extension of the knee is not feasible in the case of most animals and hence the loading pattern of human ACL is different from animal models. Many of the published reviews on the ACL focus largely on animal ACL than human ACL. Further, this review article summarizes the issues with autografts and synthetic grafts used so far. Autografts (patellar tendon and hamstring tendon) remains the gold standard as nearly all synthetic grafts introduced for clinical use have been withdrawn from the market. The mechanical strength during the ligamentization of autografts is also highlighted in this work.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Experimental Study of Thoracoabdominal Injuries Suffered from
           Caudocephalad Impacts Using Pigs

    • Abstract: To know the caudocephalad impact- (CCI-) induced injuries more clearly, 21 adult minipigs, randomly divided into three groups: control group (), group I (), and group II (), were used to perform the CCI experiments on a modified deceleration sled. Configured impact velocity was 0 m/s in the control group, 8 m/s in group I, and 11 m/s in group II. The kinematics and mechanical responses of the subjects were recorded and investigated. The functional change examination and the autopsies were carried out, with which the injuries were evaluated from the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and the Injury Severity Score (ISS). The subjects in group I and group II experienced the caudocephalad loading at the peak pelvic accelerations of 108.92 ± 58.87 g and 139.13 g ± 78.54 g, with the peak abdomen pressures, 41.24 ± 16.89 kPa and 63.61 ± 65.83 kPa, respectively. The injuries of the spleen, lung, heart, and spine were detected frequently among the tested subjects. The maximal AIS (MAIS) of chest injuries was 4 in group I and 5 in group II, while both the MAIS of abdomen injuries in group I and group II were 5. The ISS in group II was 52.71 ± 6.13, significantly higher than in group I, 26.67 ± 5.02 (). The thoracoabdomen CCI injuries and the mechanical response addressed presently may be useful to conduct both the prevention studies against military or civilian injuries.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Kinematic Decoupling Analysis and Design of a Biomimetic Robotic Elbow
           Joint

    • Abstract: The research of a biomimetic robotic manipulator is based on the flexible characteristics of the human upper limb joint, and a biomimetic robotic elbow joint plays a very significant role in the kinematic control of the biomimetic robotic manipulator. Most robotic elbow joints encountered today have a common disadvantage of bad neutrality, low rotational capability, and poor biomimetics. To overcome some difficulties, this paper presents a novel biomimetic robotic elbow joint. The structural model of the elbow joint is described, and the position equation is solved. Secondly, the kinematic equation of the elbow joint is established, the kinematic decoupling performance evaluation index of the elbow joint is defined, the kinematic decoupling characteristics of the elbow joint are analyzed, and the kinematic decoupling performance map in the workspace is drawn. Thirdly, using the spatial model theory, the structural parameters of the elbow joint are optimized, the structural parameters are selected by the Monte Carlo method, and the novel biomimetic robotic elbow joint is designed. The analysis results showing the kinematic decoupling performance of the elbow joint are symmetrical and the kinematic decoupling performance decreases with the increase of the angle, and there is a good kinematic decoupling in the workspace of about 35% in the vicinity of the initial position. When the structural parameters of the elbow joint are , , and , the elbow joint has a very good kinematic decoupling. This paper can lay a foundation for further analysis and research of the biomimetic robotic elbow joint.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 May 2018 07:17:12 +000
       
  • The Influence of Neck Muscle Activation on Head and Neck Injuries of
           Occupants in Frontal Impacts

    • Abstract: The aim of the present paper was to study the influence of neck muscle activation on head and neck injuries of vehicle occupants in frontal impacts. A mixed dummy-human finite element model was developed to simulate a frontal impact. The head-neck part of a Hybrid III dummy model was replaced by a well-validated head-neck FE model with passive and active muscle characteristics. The mixed dummy-human FE model was validated by 15 G frontal volunteer tests conducted in the Naval Biodynamics Laboratory. The effects of neck muscle activation on the head dynamic responses and neck injuries of occupants in three frontal impact intensities, low speed (10 km/h), medium speed (30 km/h), and high speed (50 km/h), were studied. The results showed that the mixed dummy-human FE model has good biofidelity. The activation of neck muscles can not only lower the head resultant acceleration under different impact intensities and the head angular acceleration in medium- and high-speed impacts, thereby reducing the risks of head injury, but also protect the neck from injury in low-speed impacts.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Tissue Anisotropy Modeling Using Soft Composite Materials

    • Abstract: Soft tissues in general exhibit anisotropic mechanical behavior, which varies in three dimensions based on the location of the tissue in the body. In the past, there have been few attempts to numerically model tissue anisotropy using composite-based formulations (involving fibers embedded within a matrix material). However, so far, tissue anisotropy has not been modeled experimentally. In the current work, novel elastomer-based soft composite materials were developed in the form of experimental test coupons, to model the macroscopic anisotropy in tissue mechanical properties. A soft elastomer matrix was fabricated, and fibers made of a stiffer elastomer material were embedded within the matrix material to generate the test coupons. The coupons were tested on a mechanical testing machine, and the resulting stress-versus-stretch responses were studied. The fiber volume fraction (FVF), fiber spacing, and orientations were varied to estimate the changes in the mechanical responses. The mechanical behavior of the soft composites was characterized using hyperelastic material models such as Mooney-Rivlin’s, Humphrey’s, and Veronda-Westmann’s model and also compared with the anisotropic mechanical behavior of the human skin, pelvic tissues, and brain tissues. This work lays the foundation for the experimental modelling of tissue anisotropy, which combined with microscopic studies on tissues can lead to refinements in the simulation of localized fiber distribution and orientations, and enable the development of biofidelic anisotropic tissue phantom materials for various tissue engineering and testing applications.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Analysis of the Mechanical Properties of the Human Tympanic Membrane and
           Its Influence on the Dynamic Behaviour of the Human Hearing System

    • Abstract: The difficulty to estimate the mechanical properties of the tympanic membrane (TM) is a limitation to understand the sound transmission mechanism. In this paper, based on finite element calculations, the sensitivity of the human hearing system to these properties is evaluated. The parameters that define the bending stiffness properties of the membrane have been studied, specifically two key parameters: Young’s modulus of the tympanic membrane and the thickness of the eardrum. Additionally, it has been completed with the evaluation of the presence of an initial prestrain inside the TM. Modal analysis is used to study the qualitative characteristics of the TM comparing with vibration patterns obtained by holography. Higher-order modes are shown as a tool to identify these properties. The results show that different combinations of elastic properties and prestrain provide similar responses. The presence of prestrain at the membrane adds more uncertainty, and it is pointed out as a source for the lack of agreement of some previous TM elastic modulus estimations.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Modulations of Foot and Ankle Frontal Kinematics for Breaking and
           Propulsive Movement Characteristics during Side-Step Cutting with Varying
           Midsole Thicknesses

    • Abstract: This study is aimed at determining the effects of midsole thickness on movement characteristic during side cutting movement. Fifteen athletes performed side-step cutting while wearing shoes with varying midsole thicknesses. Temporal-spatial and ground reaction force variables as well as foot and ankle frontal kinematics were used to describe breaking and propulsive movement characteristics and modulation strategies. Regardless of midsole thickness, temporal-spatial variables and breaking and propulsive force during side cutting were statistically unchanged. Significantly greater peaks of ankle inversion and plantarflexion with a thicker sole and greater midtarsal pronation with a thinner sole were observed. Current results demonstrated that hypotheses formed solely based on material testing were insufficient to understand the adaptations in human movement because of the redundancy of the neuromusculoskeletal system. Participants were able to maintain temporal-spatial performance during side cutting while wearing shoes with midsoles of varying thicknesses. Increased pronation for a thinner sole might help reduce the force of impact but might be associated with an increased risk of excessive stress on soft tissue. Increased peak of ankle inversion and plantarflexion for a thicker sole may be unfavorable for the stability of ankle joint. Information provided in human movement testing is crucial for understanding factors associated with movement characteristics and injury and should be considered in the future development of shoe design.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Comparison of Initialization Techniques for the Accurate Extraction of
           Muscle Synergies from Myoelectric Signals via Nonnegative Matrix
           Factorization

    • Abstract: The main goal of this work was to assess the performance of different initializations of matrix factorization algorithms for an accurate identification of muscle synergies. Currently, nonnegative matrix factorization (NNMF) is the most commonly used method to identify muscle synergies. However, it has been shown that NNMF performance might be affected by different kinds of initialization. The present study aims at optimizing the traditional NNMF initialization for data with partial or complete temporal dependencies. For this purpose, three different initializations are used: random, SVD-based, and sparse. NNMF was used to identify muscle synergies from simulated data as well as from experimental surface EMG signals. Simulated data were generated from synthetic independent and dependent synergy vectors (i.e., shared muscle components), whose activation coefficients were corrupted by simulating controlled degrees of correlation. Similarly, EMG data were artificially modified, making the extracted activation coefficients temporally dependent. By measuring the quality of identification of the original synergies underlying the data, it was possible to compare the performance of different initialization techniques. Simulation results demonstrate that sparse initialization performs significantly better than all other kinds of initialization in reconstructing muscle synergies, regardless of the correlation level in the data.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Computing Method to Determine the Performance of an Ionic Liquid Gel
           Soft Actuator

    • Abstract: A new type of soft actuator material—an ionic liquid gel (ILG) that consists of BMIMBF4, HEMA, DEAP, and ZrO2—is polymerized into a gel state under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. In this paper, we first propose that the ILG conforms to the assumptions of hyperelastic theory and that the Mooney-Rivlin model can be used to study the properties of the ILG. Under the five-parameter and nine-parameter Mooney-Rivlin models, the formulas for the calculation of the uniaxial tensile stress, plane uniform tensile stress, and 3D directional stress are deduced. The five-parameter and nine-parameter Mooney-Rivlin models of the ILG with a ZrO2 content of 3 wt% were obtained by uniaxial tensile testing, and the parameters are denoted as c10, c01, c20, c11, and c02 and c10, c01, c20, c11, c02, c30, c21, c12, and c03, respectively. Through the analysis and comparison of the uniaxial tensile stress between the calculated and experimental data, the error between the stress data calculated from the five-parameter Mooney-Rivlin model and the experimental data is less than 0.51%, and the error between the stress data calculated from the nine-parameter Mooney-Rivlin model and the experimental data is no more than 8.87%. Hence, our work presents a feasible and credible formula for the calculation of the stress of the ILG. This work opens a new path to assess the performance of a soft actuator composed of an ILG and will contribute to the optimized design of soft robots.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • On Laterally Perturbed Human Stance: Experiment, Model, and Control

    • Abstract: Understanding human balance is a key issue in many research areas. One goal is to suggest analytical models for the human balance. Specifically, we are interested in the stability of a subject when a lateral perturbation is being applied. Therefore, we conducted an experiment, laterally perturbing five subjects on a mobile platform. We observed that the recorded motion is divided into two parts. The legs act together as a first, the head-arms-trunk segment as a second rigid body with pelvis, and the ankle as hinge joints. Hence, we suggest using a planar double-inverted pendulum model for the analysis. We try to reproduce the human reaction utilizing torque control, applied at the ankle and pelvis. The fitting was realized by least square and nonlinear unconstrained optimization on training sets. Our model is not only able to fit to the human reaction, but also to predict it on test sets. We were able to extract and review key features of balance, like torque coupling and delays as outcomes of the aforementioned optimization process. Furthermore, the delays are well within the ranges typically for such compensatory motions, composed of reflex and higher level motor control.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Study of Drag Reduction on Ships Inspired by Simplified Shark Skin
           Imitation

    • Abstract: The skin of a fast swimming shark reveals riblet structures that help reduce the shark’s skin friction drag, enhancing its efficiency and speed while moving in the water. Inspired by the structure of the shark skin denticles, our team has carried out a study as an effort in improving the hydrodynamic design of marine vessels through hull design modification which was inspired by this riblet structure of shark skin denticle. Our study covers on macroscaled design modification. This is an attempt to propose an alternative for a better economical and practical modification to obtain a more optimum cruising characteristics for marine vessels. The models used for this study are constructed using computer-aided design (CAD) software, and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are then carried out to predict the effectiveness of the hydrodynamic effects of the biomimetic shark skins on those models. Interestingly, the numerical calculated results obtained show that the presence of biomimetic shark skin implemented on the vessels give about 3.75% reduction of drag coefficient as well as reducing up to 3.89% in drag force experienced by the vessels. Theoretically, as force drag can be reduced, it can lead to a more efficient vessel with a better cruising speed. This will give better impact to shipping or marine industries around the world. However, it can be suggested that an experimental procedure is best to be conducted to verify the numerical result that has been obtained for further improvement on this research.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Systematic Review on Muscle Synergies: From Building Blocks of Motor
           Behavior to a Neurorehabilitation Tool

    • Abstract: The central nervous system (CNS) is believed to utilize specific predefined modules, called muscle synergies (MS), to accomplish a motor task. Yet questions persist about how the CNS combines these primitives in different ways to suit the task conditions. The MS hypothesis has been a subject of debate as to whether they originate from neural origins or nonneural constraints. In this review article, we present three aspects related to the MS hypothesis: (1) the experimental and computational evidence in support of the existence of MS, (2) algorithmic approaches for extracting them from surface electromyography (EMG) signals, and (3) the possible role of MS as a neurorehabilitation tool. We note that recent advances in computational neuroscience have utilized the MS hypothesis in motor control and learning. Prospective advances in clinical, medical, and engineering sciences and in fields such as robotics and rehabilitation stand to benefit from a more thorough understanding of MS.
      PubDate: Sun, 22 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
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