Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3447 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1643 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biologica Venezuelica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Acta Scientiae Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Biosystems     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Quantum Technologies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Adversity and Resilience Science : Journal of Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Anales de Biología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio C – Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Research & Review in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bacterial Empire     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bio-Lectura     Open Access  
BIO-SITE : Biologi dan Sains Terapan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BIODIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.288
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 7  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1176-2322 - ISSN (Online) 1754-2103
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [342 journals]
  • Impact of Different Developmental Instars on Locusta migratoria Jumping

    • Abstract: Ontogenetic locomotion research focuses on the evolution of locomotion behavior in different developmental stages of a species. Unlike vertebrates, ontogenetic locomotion in invertebrates is poorly investigated. Locusts represent an outstanding biological model to study this issue. They are hemimetabolous insects and have similar aspects and behaviors in different instars. This research is aimed at studying the jumping performance of Locusta migratoria over different developmental instars. Jumps of third instar, fourth instar, and adult L. migratoria were recorded through a high-speed camera. Data were analyzed to develop a simplified biomechanical model of the insect: the elastic joint of locust hind legs was simplified as a torsional spring located at the femur-tibiae joint as a semilunar process and based on an energetic approach involving both locomotion and geometrical data. A simplified mathematical model evaluated the performances of each tested jump. Results showed that longer hind leg length, higher elastic parameter, and longer takeoff time synergistically contribute to a greater velocity and energy storing/releasing in adult locusts, if compared to young instars; at the same time, they compensate possible decreases of the acceleration due to the mass increase. This finding also gives insights for advanced bioinspired jumping robot design.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Mar 2020 15:50:02 +000
  • Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic Noise Reduction of Nonpneumatic
           Tire Using Nonsmooth Riblet Surface

    • Abstract: Unlike conventional pneumatic tires, the nonpneumatic tires (NPT) are explosion proof and simple to maintain and provide low rolling resistance. At high vehicle speeds, however, the complex airflow produced by the open flexible-spoke structure of NPT yields high aerodynamic noise, which contributes to sound pollution in the vehicular traffic environment. Inspired by the idea that a nonsmooth riblet structure can affect fluid flow and offer noise reduction, the analyses of the effect of the nonsmooth riblet surface on the aerodynamic noise of an NPT and noise reduction mechanism were presented in this paper. First, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to analyze the surface pressure coefficient characteristics of a smooth flexible-spoke tire rolling at a speed of 80 km/h and subsequently validating the numerical simulation results by comparing them with published test results. Secondly, large eddy simulation (LES) and the Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings (FW-H) method were, respectively, used to determine the transient flow and far-field aerodynamic noise. Then, the mechanism of noise reduction was investigated using a vortex theory. Based on the vortex theory, the positions and strengths of noise sources were determined using the Lamb vector. Finally, according to the fluid boundary layer theory, a nonsmooth riblet surface was arranged on the surface of the spokes, and the influences of the riblet structure parameters, including size, position, and direction, on aerodynamic noise were analyzed. Based on the vortex theory, it was found that the nonsmooth riblet structure can reduce the Lamb vector, suppress the generation of flow vortices, decrease acoustic source strength, and effectively decrease noise up to 5.18 dB using the optimized riblet structure. The study results provide a theoretical basis for the structural design of a new low-noise NPT.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Mar 2020 02:35:00 +000
  • A Systematic Review of Real-Time Medical Simulations with Soft-Tissue
           Deformation: Computational Approaches, Interaction Devices, System
           Architectures, and Clinical Validations

    • Abstract: Simulating deformations of soft tissues is a complex engineering task, and it is even more difficult when facing the constraint between computation speed and system accuracy. However, literature lacks of a holistic review of all necessary aspects (computational approaches, interaction devices, system architectures, and clinical validations) for developing an effective system of soft-tissue simulations. This paper summarizes and analyses recent achievements of resolving these issues to estimate general trends and weakness for future developments. A systematic review process was conducted using the PRISMA protocol with three reliable scientific search engines (ScienceDirect, PubMed, and IEEE). Fifty-five relevant papers were finally selected and included into the review process, and a quality assessment procedure was also performed on them. The computational approaches were categorized into mesh, meshfree, and hybrid approaches. The interaction devices concerned about combination between virtual surgical instruments and force-feedback devices, 3D scanners, biomechanical sensors, human interface devices, 3D viewers, and 2D/3D optical cameras. System architectures were analysed based on the concepts of system execution schemes and system frameworks. In particular, system execution schemes included distribution-based, multithread-based, and multimodel-based executions. System frameworks are grouped into the input and output interaction frameworks, the graphic interaction frameworks, the modelling frameworks, and the hybrid frameworks. Clinical validation procedures are ordered as three levels: geometrical validation, model behavior validation, and user acceptability/safety validation. The present review paper provides useful information to characterize how real-time medical simulation systems with soft-tissue deformations have been developed. By clearly analysing advantages and drawbacks in each system development aspect, this review can be used as a reference guideline for developing systems of soft-tissue simulations.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Feb 2020 14:20:02 +000
  • Study on Behind Helmet Blunt Trauma Caused by High-Speed Bullet

    • Abstract: The mechanism of Behind Helmet Blunt Trauma (BHBT) caused by a high-speed bullet is difficult to understand. At present, there is still a lack of corresponding parameters and test methods to evaluate this damage effectively. The purpose of the current study is therefore to investigate the response of the human skull and brain tissue under the loading of a bullet impacting a bullet-proof helmet, with the effects of impact direction, impact speed, and impactor structure being considered. A human brain finite element model which can accurately reconstruct the anatomical structures of the scalp, skull, brain tissue, etc., and can realistically reflect the biomechanical response of the brain under high impact speed was employed in this study. The responses of Back Face Deformation (BFD), brain displacement, skull stress, and dura mater pressure were extracted from simulations as the parameters reflecting BHBT risk, and the relationships between BHBT and bullet-proof equipment structure and performance were also investigated. The simulation results show that the frontal impact of the skull produces the largest amount of BFD, and when the impact directions are from the side, the skull stress is about twice higher than other directions. As the impact velocity increases, BFD, brain displacement, skull stress, and dura mater pressure increase. The brain damage caused by different structural bullet bodies is different under the condition of the same kinetic energy. The skull stress caused by the handgun bullet is the largest. The findings indicate that when a bullet impacts on the bullet-proof helmet, it has a higher probability of causing brain displacement and intracranial high pressure. The research results can provide a reference value for helmet optimization design and antielasticity evaluation and provide the theoretical basis for protection and rescue.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Feb 2020 05:50:05 +000
  • Analysis of Human Behavior for Robot Design and Control

    • PubDate: Tue, 04 Feb 2020 10:20:01 +000
  • An Intelligent Gesture Classification Model for Domestic Wheelchair
           Navigation with Gesture Variance Compensation

    • Abstract: Elderly and disabled population is rapidly increasing. It is important to uplift their living standards by improving the confidence towards daily activities. Navigation is an important task, most elderly and disabled people need assistance with. Replacing human assistance with an intelligent system which is capable of assisting human navigation via wheelchair systems is an effective solution. Hand gestures are often used in navigation systems. However, those systems do not possess the capability to accurately identify gesture variances. Therefore, this paper proposes a method to create an intelligent gesture classification system with a gesture model which was built based on human studies for every essential motion in domestic navigation with hand gesture variance compensation capability. Experiments have been carried out to evaluate user remembering and recalling capability and adaptability towards the gesture model. Dynamic Gesture Identification Module (DGIM), Static Gesture Identification Module (SGIM), and Gesture Clarifier (GC) have been introduced in order to identify gesture commands. The proposed system was analyzed for system accuracy and precision using results of the experiments conducted with human users. Accuracy of the intelligent system was determined with the use of confusion matrix. Further, those results were analyzed using Cohen’s kappa analysis in which overall accuracy, misclassification rate, precision, and Cohen’s kappa values were calculated.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jan 2020 01:20:02 +000
  • Design of a Mechatronics Model of Urinary Bladder and Realization and
           Evaluation of Its Prototype

    • Abstract: Annually, there are many bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) with urinary diversion worldwide. Until 2019, intestinal cystoplasty is still the gold standard for bladder replacement, but this therapy is always associated with severe complications. An ideal bladder substitute without using intestinal tissue remains a challenge today. In this work, an artificial mechatronics bladder (AMB) as a brand new bladder replacement approach is developed. We studied the main physiological function characteristics of a natural urinary bladder from teaching books and relevant papers. According to these characteristics, we completed an overall design of AMB and made a prototype in lab. The prototype successfully realized the functions of a natural bladder in vitro. It can expand to store urine in real time when urine is flowing into it. It can send a urination alarm when it is fully filled and can void urine automatically after receiving remote control signals. According to relevant papers and our test experience, if the prototype could be smaller and lighter and manufactured with good biocompatibility materials such as PTFE, we think it is possible for AMB to be implanted in an animal’s body, and we deduce AMB could realize the functions of a natural urinary bladder in vivo. After thorough validation from animal testing, we hope AMB can be a good clinical option for bladder removal patients in the future.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Dec 2019 09:50:04 +000
  • Analysis of Spiders’ Joint Kinematics and Driving Modes under
           Different Ground Conditions

    • Abstract: Although the hydraulic transmission system in spider legs is well known, the spider’s mechanism of locomotion during different terrain conditions still need to be explored further. In this study, spider locomotion was observed in detail on three pavement test platforms: horizontal hard pavement, horizontal soft pavement, and sloped soft pavement. The movement characteristics and joint kinematics of Grammostola rosea legs were captured by high-speed cameras and Simi Motion 3D tracking software. These observations showed that the gait pattern was basically consistent with an alternating tetrapod gait; however, the pattern observed on the sloped soft pavement was slightly different from that of the two horizontal pavements. In particular, the duty factor of the spiders was 0.683 when walking on the horizontal hard pavement, 0.668 on the horizontal soft pavement, and 0.630 on the sloped soft pavement. The duty factor was greater than 60% in all three pavement environments, which was minimal when walking on the sloped soft pavement. This pattern showed that spiders might have superior stability when walking, but their stability decreased in the sloped soft pavement environment. The ranges of joint angles through the spiders’ gait cycles in every pavement environment were also analysed and compared. The findings showed that the hydraulically driven femur-patella and tibia-metatarsal joint angles varied widely, which confirmed that hydraulically driven joints had major functions and obvious effects on the walking process. The kinematic patterns identified in this study provide improved understanding of the hydraulic transmission mechanisms, the factors that affect motion stability, and the design of biomimetic systems.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Dec 2019 09:35:06 +000
  • Aerodynamic Performance of a Passive Pitching Model on Bionic Flapping
           Wing Micro Air Vehicles

    • Abstract: Reducing weight and increasing lift have been an important goal of using flapping wing micro air vehicles (FWMAVs). However, FWMAVs with mechanisms to limit the angle of attack (α) artificially by active force cannot meet specific requirements. This study applies a bioinspired model that passively imitates insects’ pitching wings to resolve this problem. In this bionic passive pitching model, the wing root is equivalent to a torsional spring. α obtained by solving the coupled dynamic equation is similar to that of insects and exhibits a unique characteristic with two oscillated peaks during the middle of the upstroke/downstroke under the interaction of aerodynamic, torsional, and inertial moments. Excess rigidity or flexibility deteriorates the aerodynamic force and efficiency of the passive pitching wing. With appropriate torsional stiffness, passive pitching can maintain a high efficiency while enhancing the average lift by 10% than active pitching. This observation corresponds to a clear enhancement in instantaneous force and a more concentrated leading edge vortex. This phenomenon can be attributed to a vorticity moment whose component in the lift direction grows at a rapid speed. A novel bionic control strategy of this model is also proposed. Similar to the rest angle in insects, the rest angle of the model is adjusted to generate a yaw moment around the wing root without losing lift, which can assist to change the attitude and trajectory of a FWMAV during flight. These findings may guide us to deal with various conditions and requirements of FWMAV designs and applications.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Dec 2019 09:35:03 +000
  • Expression of Concern: Experimental Study of Thoracoabdominal Injuries
           Suffered from Caudocephalad Impacts Using Pigs

    • PubDate: Sun, 15 Dec 2019 12:35:02 +000
  • Biomechanical Evaluation and Strength Test of 3D-Printed Foot Orthoses

    • Abstract: Foot orthoses (FOs) are commonly used as interventions for individuals with flatfoot. Advances in technologies such as three-dimensional (3D) scanning and 3D printing have facilitated the fabrication of custom FOs. However, few studies have been conducted on the mechanical properties and biomechanical effects of 3D-printed FOs. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the mechanical properties of 3D-printed FOs and determine their biomechanical effects in individuals with flexible flatfoot. During mechanical testing, a total of 18 FO samples with three orientations (0°, 45°, and 90°) were fabricated and tested. The maximum compressive load and stiffness were calculated. During a motion capture experiment, 12 individuals with flatfoot were enrolled, and the 3D-printed FOs were used as interventions. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected during walking by using an optical motion capture system. A one-way analysis of variance was performed to compare the mechanical parameters among the three build orientations. A paired -test was conducted to compare the biomechanical variables under two conditions: walking in standard shoes (Shoe) and walking in shoes embedded with FOs (Shoe+FO). The results indicated that the 45° build orientation produced the strongest FOs. In addition, the maximum ankle evertor and external rotator moments under the Shoe+FO condition were significantly reduced by 35% and 16%, respectively, but the maximum ankle plantar flexor moments increased by 3%, compared with the Shoe condition. No significant difference in ground reaction force was observed between the two conditions. This study demonstrated that 3D-printed FOs could alter the ankle joint moments during gait.
      PubDate: Sat, 07 Dec 2019 03:05:03 +000
  • Hierarchical Task-Parameterized Learning from Demonstration for
           Collaborative Object Movement

    • Abstract: Learning from demonstration (LfD) enables a robot to emulate natural human movement instead of merely executing preprogrammed behaviors. This article presents a hierarchical LfD structure of task-parameterized models for object movement tasks, which are ubiquitous in everyday life and could benefit from robotic support. Our approach uses the task-parameterized Gaussian mixture model (TP-GMM) algorithm to encode sets of demonstrations in separate models that each correspond to a different task situation. The robot then maximizes its expected performance in a new situation by either selecting a good existing model or requesting new demonstrations. Compared to a standard implementation that encodes all demonstrations together for all test situations, the proposed approach offers four advantages. First, a simply defined distance function can be used to estimate test performance by calculating the similarity between a test situation and the existing models. Second, the proposed approach can improve generalization, e.g., better satisfying the demonstrated task constraints and speeding up task execution. Third, because the hierarchical structure encodes each demonstrated situation individually, a wider range of task situations can be modeled in the same framework without deteriorating performance. Last, adding or removing demonstrations incurs low computational load, and thus, the robot’s skill library can be built incrementally. We first instantiate the proposed approach in a simulated task to validate these advantages. We then show that the advantages transfer to real hardware for a task where naive participants collaborated with a Willow Garage PR2 robot to move a handheld object. For most tested scenarios, our hierarchical method achieved significantly better task performance and subjective ratings than both a passive model with only gravity compensation and a single TP-GMM encoding all demonstrations.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Dec 2019 10:05:07 +000
  • Strain Distribution Evaluation of Rat Tibia under Axial Compressive Load
           by Combining Strain Gauge Measurement and Finite Element Analysis

    • Abstract: This study is aimed at providing an effective method for determining strain-load relationship and at quantifying the strain distribution within the whole tibia under axial compressive load on rats. Rat tibial models with axial compressive load were designed. Strains in three directions (0°, 45°, and 90°) at the proximal shaft of the tibia were measured by using a strain gauge rosette, which was used to calculate the maximum and minimum principal strains. Moreover, the strain at the midshaft of the tibia was measured by a single-element strain gauge. The slopes of the strain-load curves with different peak loads were calculated to assess the stability of the strain gauge measurement. Mechanical environment in the whole tibia by the axial compressive load was quantified using finite element analysis (FEA) based on microcomputed tomography images. The von Mises elastic strain distributions of the whole tibiae were evaluated. Slopes of the strain-load curves showed no significant differences among different peak loads (ANOVA; ), indicating that the strain-load relationship obtained from the strain gauge measurement was reasonable and stable. The FEA results corresponded to the experimental results with an error smaller than 15% (paired Student’s -test, ), signifying that the FEA can simulate the experiment reasonably. FEA results showed that the von Mises elastic strain was the lowest in the middle and gradually increased to both sides along the lateral direction, with the maximal von Mises elastic strain being observed on the posterior side under the distal tibiofibular synostosis. The method of strain gauge measurements and FEA used in this study can provide a feasible way to obtain the mechanical environment of the tibiae under axial compressive load on the rats and serve as a reference for further exploring the mechanical response of the bone by axial compressive load.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Dec 2019 13:30:06 +000
  • A New Method of Evaluating the Symmetry of Movement Used to Assess the
           Gait of Patients after Unilateral Total Hip Replacement

    • Abstract: Purpose. We propose a new concept of symmetry, the symmetry function, as a continuous function of the percentage of differences between sides of body movement and normalised throughout the whole range of motion. The method is used to assess the dynamical symmetry of gait of patients after unilateral total hip replacement (asymmetric group) and healthy people (symmetric group) and also to reveal discrepancies between normal and abnormal movement patterns. Methods. The gait of twelve male patients ( y), six weeks after unilateral total hip replacement (uTHR), was analysed against the gait of thirteen healthy men ( y). The speed of healthy men was matched to the speed of the patients. Comparison of the affected limb in uTHR patients with the healthy limb of able-bodied men was carried out on the basis of the highest symmetry values in the sagittal plane. Results. In uTHR patients, the symmetry function provides information on the symmetry of movements in the whole range of motion in contrast to symmetry indices which are calculated for selected parameters or peak values. Research revealed average asymmetric discrepancies for pelvic tilt up to 250% for the entire gait cycle with a peak of approx. 400% at the end of the loading response and terminal swing phases. Asymmetry of gait observed in other joints was below 200% of the mean range of motion. Conclusions. Regions of the greatest asymmetry in pathological movements are usually different from the region of the greatest range of motion. Therefore, it is insufficient to measure symmetry only for selected regions during motion. The symmetry function is a simple method which can complement other robust methods in time series data evaluation and interpretation.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Dec 2019 13:05:14 +000
  • Design Analysis and Experimental Study of Robotic Chair for Proton Heavy
           Ion Radiotherapy

    • Abstract: Proton heavy ion radiotherapy is widely used and currently represents the most advanced radiotherapy technology. However, at present, proton heavy ion radiotherapy chairs in fixed beam radiotherapy rooms do not have a head and neck positioning function. This paper presents a novel design for a proton heavy ion radiotherapy chair with a head and neck positioning device. The design of the posture adjustment mechanism and the head and neck positioning device of the treatment chair is based on U-TRIZ theory and ergonomics, respectively. A positive kinematic analysis of the posture adjusting mechanism was carried out, as well as a workspace analysis of the head and neck positioning device. Finally, positioning error experiment and ergonomic evaluation were performed on a prototype of the head and neck positioning device. The proposed design of the treatment chair satisfies the requirements for posture adjustment and achieves the head and neck positioning function. The experimental results also provide a basis for further optimization of the design.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Dec 2019 13:05:12 +000
  • Influence of Preservation of Normal Knee Contact Stress on Other
           Compartments with respect to the Tibial Insert Design for Unicompartmental
           Knee Arthroplasty

    • Abstract: Recent advances in imaging technology and additive manufacturing have led to the introduction of customized unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) that can potentially improve functional performance due to customized geometries, including customized sagittal and coronal curvature and enhanced bone preservation. The purpose of this study involved evaluating the biomechanical effect of the tibial insert design on the customized medial UKA using computer simulations. We developed sagittal and coronal curvatures in a native knee mimetic femoral component design. We utilized three types of tibial insert design: flat, anatomy mimetic, and conforming design. We evaluated contact stress on the tibial insert and other compartments, including the lateral meniscus and articular cartilage, under gait and squat loading conditions. For the conforming UKA design, the tibial insert and lateral meniscus exhibited the lowest contact stress under stance phase gait cycle. However, for the conforming UKA design, the tibial insert and lateral meniscus exhibited the highest contact stress under swing phase gait cycle. For the flat UKA design, the articular cartilage exhibited the lowest contact stress under gait and squat loading conditions. The anatomy mimetic UKA design exhibited the most normal-like contact stress on the other compartments under gait and squat loading conditions. The results reveal the importance of conformity between the femoral component and the tibial insert in the customized UKA. Based on the results on the femoral component as well as the tibial insert in the customized UKA, the anatomy mimetic design preserves normal knee joint biomechanics and thus may prevent progressive osteoarthritis of the other knee compartments.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Nov 2019 07:05:05 +000
  • Human Gait Analysis Metric for Gait Retraining

    • Abstract: The combined gait asymmetry metric (CGAM) provides a method to synthesize human gait motion. The metric is weighted to balance each parameter’s effect by normalizing the data so all parameters are more equally weighted. It is designed to combine spatial, temporal, kinematic, and kinetic gait parameter asymmetries. It can also combine subsets of the different gait parameters to provide a more thorough analysis. The single number quantifying gait could assist robotic rehabilitation methods to optimize the resulting gait patterns. CGAM will help define quantitative thresholds for achievable balanced overall gait asymmetry. The study presented here compares the combined gait parameters with clinical measures such as timed up and go (TUG), six-minute walk test (6MWT), and gait velocity. The comparisons are made on gait data collected on individuals with stroke before and after twelve sessions of rehabilitation. Step length, step time, and swing time showed a strong correlation to CGAM, but the double limb support asymmetry has nearly no correlation with CGAM and ground reaction force asymmetry has a weak correlation. The CGAM scores were moderately correlated with TUG and strongly correlated to 6MWT and gait velocity.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Nov 2019 00:09:17 +000
  • Cushion Mechanism of Goat Hoof Bulb Tissues

    • Abstract: The hoof bulb sections of white goats were observed via scanning electron microscopy and stereomicroscopy in order to explore the cushion mechanism in the bulb tissue microstructures of hoofed animals. The hoof bulbs consisted of multilayer tissues, including an epidermal layer, a dermal layer, and subcutaneous tissues from outside to inside. A bionic model based on hoof bulb tissue composite structures was built with a normal model as the control. The microcosmic mechanics of the bulb tissues was analyzed via the finite element method. Simulations showed that when the bionic model was impacted by the top plates at the speed of 1-10 m/s, stress was concentrated in the epidermal layer and uniformly distributed in the dermal layer and dermal papillae, which effectively reduced the impact onto the ground. The cornified epidermal layer can resist the instant impact onto the ground, while the dermal papillae embedded in the dermal layer can store, release, and dissipate the impulsive energy, and the three parts synergically act in the cushion.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Nov 2019 13:05:09 +000
  • Conceptual Design and Computational Modeling Analysis of a Single-Leg
           System of a Quadruped Bionic Horse Robot Driven by a Cam-Linkage Mechanism

    • Abstract: In this study, the configuration of a bionic horse robot for equine-assisted therapy is presented. A single-leg system with two degrees of freedom (DOFs) is driven by a cam-linkage mechanism, and it can adjust the span and height of the leg end-point trajectory. After a brief introduction on the quadruped bionic horse robot, the structure and working principle of a single-leg system are discussed in detail. Kinematic analysis of a single-leg system is conducted, and the relationships between the structural parameters and leg trajectory are obtained. On this basis, the pressure angle characteristics of the cam-linkage mechanism are studied, and the leg end-point trajectories of the robot are obtained for several inclination angles controlled by the rotation of the motor for the stride length adjusting. The closed-loop vector method is used for the kinematic analysis, and the motion analysis system is developed in MATLAB software. The motion analysis results are verified by a three-dimensional simulation model developed in Solidworks software. The presented research on the configuration, kinematic modeling, and pressure angle characteristics of the bionic horse robot lays the foundation for subsequent research on the practical application of the proposed bionic horse robot.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Nov 2019 16:05:09 +000
  • Regional Elastic Properties of the Achilles Tendon Is Heterogeneously
           Influenced by Individual Muscle of the Gastrocnemius

    • Abstract: Background. Anatomical studies and the mechanical property studies showed that there is a strong correlation between Achilles tendon (AT) elasticity and individual gastrocnemius muscle (the medial head of gastrocnemius (MG) and the lateral head of gastrocnemius (LG)) elasticity. Limited ankle dorsiflexion range of motion has been correlated with decreased flexibility of the MG/LG/AT complex. However, no studies have been conducted to examine the exact correlation between the Achilles tendon and the individual muscle of the gastrocnemius. Purposes. The purposes of the present study were (1) to evaluate intra- and interoperator reliabilities of elastic property measurements in the gastrocnemius muscle-Achilles tendon complex by using the shear wave elastography (SWE) and (2) to examine the correlation between the regional elastic properties of the AT and the individual muscle of the gastrocnemius. Methods. Twenty healthy subjects (mean age: 22.50 (3.02) years) were recruited in this study. The elastic properties of the AT and the individual muscle of the gastrocnemius were quantified using the SWE. Findings. The SWE has comparatively high reliability in quantifying the elastic properties of the muscle-tendon range from good to excellent. The intraoperator ICC of the gastrocnemius muscle-Achilles tendon complex was 0.77 to 0.95, while the interoperator ICC was 0.76 to 0.94. The minimal detectable change (MDC) of the muscle was 1.72 kPa, while the AT was 32.90 kPa. A significant correlation was found between the elastic modulus of AT and the elastic modulus of the MG ( and at the relaxing position and and at the neutral position). Conclusions. The SWE has the potential to assess localized changes in muscle-tendon elastic properties, provide more intuitive relations between elastic properties of the muscle tendon and function, and evaluate the therapeutic effect of the muscle tendon. A significant correlation between the AT and the MG was found, and it may provide a new treatment idea (targeted to the tight muscle heads) for the clinical setting to treat subjects with AT disorders.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Nov 2019 00:09:07 +000
  • Experimental Study on Drag Reduction Characteristics of Bionic Earthworm
           Self-Lubrication Surface

    • Abstract: In the present study, a coupling bionic method is used to study the drag reduction characteristics of corrugated surface with lubrication. In order to test the drag reduction features, bionic specimen was prepared inspired by earthworm surface and lubrication. Based on the reverse engineering method, nonsmooth curve of earthworm surface was extracted and the bionic corrugated sample was designed, and the position of lubrication hole was established by experimental testing. The lubricating drag reduction performance, the influence of normal pressure, the forward velocity, and the flow rate of lubricating fluid on the forward resistance of the bionic specimens were analyzed through a single factor test by using the self-developed test equipment. The model between the forward resistance and the three factors was established through the ternary quadratic regression test. The results show that the drag reduction effect is obvious, the drag reduction rate is 22.65% to 34.89%, and the forward resistance decreases with the increase of the forward velocity, increases with the increase of the normal pressure, and decreases first and then becomes stable with the increase of flow rate of lubricating fluid. There are secondary effects on forward resistance by the three factors, and the influencing order is as follows: normal pressure>flow rate of lubricating fluid>forward velocity.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Oct 2019 15:05:11 +000
  • Kinematic Parameters for Tracking Patient Progress during Upper Limb
           Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation: An Observational Study on Subacute Stroke

    • Abstract: Background. Upper limb robot-assisted therapy (RT) provides intensive, repetitive, and task-specific treatment, and its efficacy for stroke survivors is well established in literature. Biomechanical data from robotic devices has been widely employed for patient’s assessment, but rarely it has been analysed for tracking patient progress during RT. The goal of this retrospective study is to analyse built-in kinematic data registered by a planar end-effector robot for assessing the time course of motor recovery and patient’s workspace exploration skills. A comparison of subjects having mild and severe motor impairment has been also conducted. For that purpose, kinematic data recorded by a planar end-effector robot have been processed for investigating how motor performance in executing point-to-point trajectories with different directions changes during RT. Methods. Observational retrospective study of 68 subacute stroke patients who conducted 20 daily sessions of upper limb RT with the InMotion 2.0 (Bionik Laboratories, USA): planar point-to-point reaching tasks with an “assist as needed” strategy. The following kinematic parameters (KPs) were computed for each subject and for each point-to-point trajectory executed during RT: movement accuracy, movement speed, number of peak speed, and task completion time. The Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used with clinical outcomes. the Friedman test and post hoc Conover’s test (Bonferroni’s correction) were applied to KPs. A secondary data analysis has been conducted by comparing patients having different severities of motor impairment. The level of significance was set at value < 0.05. Results. At the RT onset, the movements were less accurate and smoothed, and showed higher times of execution than those executed at the end of treatment. The analysis of the time course of KPs highlighted that RT seems to improve the motor function mainly in the first sessions of treatment: most KPs show significant intersession differences during the first 5/10 sessions. Afterwards, no further significant variations occurred. The ability to perform movements away from the body and from the hemiparetic side remains more challenging. The results obtained from the data stratification show significant differences between subjects with mild and severe motor impairment. Conclusion. Significant improvements in motor performance were registered during the time course of upper limb RT in subacute stroke patients. The outcomes depend on movement direction and motor impairment and pave the way to optimize healthcare resources and to design patient-tailored rehabilitative protocols.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Oct 2019 12:05:09 +000
  • Measurement and Analysis of Gait Pattern during Stair Walk for Improvement
           of Robotic Locomotion Rehabilitation System

    • Abstract: Background. Robotic locomotion rehabilitation systems have been used for gait training in patients who have had a stroke. Most commercialized systems allow patients to perform simple exercises such as balancing or level walking, but an additional function such as stair-walk training is required to provide a wide range of recovery cycle rehabilitation. In this study, we analyzed stair-gait patterns and applied the result to a robotic rehabilitation system that can provide a vertical motion of footplates. Methods. To obtain applicable data for the robotic system with vertically movable footplates, stair-walk action was measured using an optical marker-based motion capture system. The spatial position data of joints during stair walking was obtained from six healthy adults who participated in the experiment. The measured marker data were converted into joint kinematic data by using an algorithm that included resampling and normalization. The spatial position data are represented as angular trajectories and the relative displacement of each joint on the anatomical sagittal plane and movements of hip joints on the anatomical transverse plane. Results. The average range of motion (ROM) of each joint was estimated as () at the hip, at the knee, and at the ankle during ascent and as at the hip, at the knee, and at the ankle during descent. Additionally, we attempted to create a more natural stair-gait pattern by analyzing the movement of the hip on the anatomical transverse plane. The hip movements were estimated to within and for hip translation and to within and for hip rotation during stair ascent and stair descent, respectively. Conclusions. Based on the results, standard patterns of stair ascent and stair descent were derived and applied to a lower-limb rehabilitation robot with vertically movable footplates. The relative trajectory from the experiment ascertained that the function of stair walking in the robotic system properly worked within a normal ROM.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Oct 2019 06:05:01 +000
  • Bioimaging Innovations in Bionics and Biomechanics

    • PubDate: Mon, 14 Oct 2019 04:05:01 +000
  • Effect of Common Pavements on Interjoint Coordination of Walking with and
           without Robotic Exoskeleton

    • Abstract: Background. The analysis and comprehension of the coordination control of a human gait on common grounds benefit the development of robotic exoskeleton for motor recovery. Objective. This study investigated whether the common grounds effect the interjoint coordination of healthy participants with/without exoskeletons in walking. Methods. The knee-ankle coordination and hip-knee coordination of 8 healthy participants in a sagittal plane were measured on five kinds of pavements (tiled, carpet, wooden, concrete, and pebbled) with/without exoskeletons, using the continuous relative phase (CRP). The root mean square of CRP (CRPRMS) over each phase of the gait cycle is used to analyze the magnitude of dephasing between joints, and the standard deviation of CRP (CRPSD) in the full gait cycle is used to assess the variability of coordination patterns between joints. Results. The CRPHip-Knee/RMS of the carpet pavement with exoskeleton is different from that of other pavements (except the tiled pavement) in the midstance phase. The CRPHip-Knee/RMS on the pebble pavement without exoskeleton is less than that on the other pavements in all phases. The CRPHip-Knee/SD of the pebble pavement without exoskeleton is smaller than that of other pavements. The CRPKnee-Ankle/SD with/without exoskeleton is similar across all pavements. Conclusion. The compressive capacity of the pavement and the unevenness of the pavement are important factors that influence interjoint coordination, which can be used as key control elements of gait to adapt different pavements for robotic exoskeleton. Novelty. We provide a basis of parameter change of kinematics on different common grounds for the design and optimization of robotic exoskeleton for motor recovery.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Oct 2019 06:05:04 +000
  • Bioinspired Implementation and Assessment of a Remote-Controlled Robot

    • Abstract: Daily activities are characterized by an increasing interaction with smart machines that present a certain level of autonomy. However, the intelligence of such electronic devices is not always transparent for the end user. This study is aimed at assessing the quality of the remote control of a mobile robot whether the artefact exhibits a human-like behavior or not. The bioinspired behavior implemented in the robot is the well-described two-thirds power law. The performance of participants who teleoperate the semiautonomous vehicle implementing the biological law is compared to a manual and nonbiological mode of control. The results show that the time required to complete the path and the number of collisions with obstacles are significantly lower in the biological condition than in the two other conditions. Also, the highest percentage of occurrences of curvilinear or smooth trajectories are obtained when the steering is assisted by an integration of the power law in the robot’s way of working. This advanced analysis of the performance based on the naturalness of the movement kinematics provides a refined evaluation of the quality of the Human-Machine Interaction (HMI). This finding is consistent with the hypothesis of a relationship between the power law and jerk minimization. In addition, the outcome of this study supports the theory of a CNS origin of the power law. The discussion addresses the implications of the anthropocentric approach to enhance the HMI.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Sep 2019 14:15:00 +000
  • Numerical Analysis of a Dental Zirconium Restoration and the Stresses That
           Occur in Dental Tissues

    • Abstract: When it is about restorative dental materials, aesthetics is traditionally preferred. This has led to the selection of materials very visually similar to the enamel, but unfortunately, their mechanical properties are not similar. This often translates into disadvantages than advantages. In the present work, a comparison is made of the stresses that occur during dental occlusion (dental bit) in a healthy dental organ and those that are generated in a dental organ with a dental zirconium restoration. Numerical simulation was carried out by means of the Finite Element Method, in computational biomodels, from Cone-Beam Tomography, to obtain the stresses generated during dental occlusion. It was found that the normal and von Mises stresses generated are substantially greater in the molar with restoration compared to those produced in the healthy molar. In addition, the normal function of the enamel and dentin to disperse these stresses to prevent them from reaching the pulp is altered. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the indiscriminate use of this restoration material and consider other aspects, in addition to aesthetics and biocompatibility for the choice of restorative materials such as biomechanical compatibility.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Sep 2019 13:05:24 +000
  • Gait Characteristics of Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy during
           Inclined Treadmill Walking under a Virtual Reality Environment

    • Abstract: Objective. To investigate gait characteristics in children with spastic cerebral palsy during inclined treadmill walking under a virtual reality environment. Methods. Ten spastic cerebral palsy (CP) children and ten typically developing (TD) children were asked to walk at their comfortable speed on a treadmill at a ground level and 10° inclined. Three-dimensional kinematic data and ground reaction force data were captured in a computer-assisted rehabilitation environment system. Kinetic parameters and dynamic balance parameters were calculated using a standard biomechanical approach. Results. During uphill walking, both groups decreased walking speed and stride length and increased peak pelvis tilt, ankle dorsiflexion, and hip flexion. Compared with TD children, CP children had decreased walking speed and stride length, decreased peak hip abduction moment, increased stance phase percentage, increased peak ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexion, and increased peak hip extension moment. The peak trunk rotation angle, ankle angle at initial contact, and stride length showed a significant interaction effect. Conclusions. CP children showed similar adjustments for most gait parameters during uphill walking as TD children. With a lower walking speed, CP children could maintain similar dynamic balance as TD children. Uphill walking magnifies the existing abnormal gait patterns of the cerebral palsy children. We suggest that during a treadmill training with an inclination, the walking speed should be carefully controlled in the case of improving peak joint loading too much.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Aug 2019 08:05:10 +000
  • Contributions of Limb Joints to Energy Absorption during Landing in Cats

    • Abstract: There is a high risk of serious injury to the lower limbs in a human drop landing. However, cats are able to jump from the same heights without any sign of injury, which is attributed to the excellent performance of their limbs in attenuating the impact forces. The bionic study of the falling cat landing may therefore contribute to improve the landing-shock absorbing ability of lower limbs in humans. However, the contributions of cat limb joints to energy absorption remain unknown. Accordingly, a motion capture system and plantar pressure measurement platform were used to measure the joint angles and vertical ground reaction forces of jumping cats, respectively. Based on the inverse dynamics, the joint angular velocities, moments, powers, and work from different landing heights were calculated to expound the synergistic mechanism and the dominant muscle groups of cat limb joints. The results show that the buffering durations of the forelimbs exhibit no significant difference with increasing height while the hindlimbs play a greater role than the forelimbs in absorbing energy when jumping from a higher platform. Furthermore, the joint angles and angular velocities exhibit similar variations, indicating that a generalized motor program can be adopted to activate limb joints for different landing heights. Additionally, the elbow and hip are recognized as major contributors to energy absorption during landing. This experimental study can accordingly provide biological inspiration for new approaches to prevent human lower limb injuries.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Aug 2019 07:05:10 +000
  • Modelling Cell Origami via a Tensegrity Model of the Cytoskeleton in
           Adherent Cells

    • Abstract: Cell origami has been widely used in the field of three-dimensional (3D) cell-populated microstructures due to their multiple advantages, including high biocompatibility, the lack of special requirements for substrate materials, and the lack of damage to cells. A 3D finite element method (FEM) model of an adherent cell based on the tensegrity structure is constructed to describe cell origami by using the principle of the origami folding technique and cell traction forces. Adherent cell models contain a cytoskeleton (CSK), which is primarily composed of microtubules (MTs), microfilaments (MFs), intermediate filaments (IFs), and a nucleoskeleton (NSK), which is mainly made up of the nuclear lamina and chromatin. The microplate is assumed to be an isotropic linear-elastic solid material with a flexible joint that is connected to the cell tensegrity structure model by spring elements representing focal adhesion complexes (FACs). To investigate the effects of the degree of complexity of the tensegrity structure and NSK on the folding angle of the microplate, four models are established in the study. The results demonstrate that the inclusion of the NSK can increase the folding angle of the microplate, indicating that the cell is closer to its physiological environment, while increased complexity can reduce the folding angle of the microplate since the folding angle is depended on the cell types. The proposed adherent cell FEM models are validated by comparisons with reported results. These findings can provide theoretical guidance for the application of biotechnology and the analysis of 3D structures of cells and have profound implications for the self-assembly of cell-based microscale medical devices.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Aug 2019 00:07:17 +000
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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