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BIOLOGY (1511 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access  
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 308)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.288
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1176-2322 - ISSN (Online) 1754-2103
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Neural Prosthetics:A Review of Empirical vs. Systems Engineering

    • Abstract: Implantable electrical interfaces with the nervous system were first enabled by cardiac pacemaker technology over 50 years ago and have since diverged into almost all of the physiological functions controlled by the nervous system. There have been a few major clinical and commercial successes, many contentious claims, and some outright failures. These tend to be reviewed within each clinical subspecialty, obscuring the many commonalities of neural control, biophysics, interface materials, electronic technologies, and medical device regulation that they share. This review cites a selection of foundational and recent journal articles and reviews for all major applications of neural prosthetic interfaces in clinical use, trials, or development. The hard-won knowledge and experience across all of these fields can now be amalgamated and distilled into more systematic processes for development of clinical products instead of the often empirical (trial and error) approaches to date. These include a frank assessment of a specific clinical problem, the state of its underlying science, the identification of feasible targets, the availability of suitable technologies, and the path to regulatory and reimbursement approval. Increasing commercial interest and investment facilitates this systematic approach, but it also motivates projects and products whose claims are dubious.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Nov 2018 01:20:56 +000
  • Active Impedance Control of Bioinspired Motion Robotic Manipulators: An

    • Abstract: There are two main categories of force control schemes: hybrid position-force control and impedance control. However, the former does not take into account the dynamic interaction between the robot’s end effector and the environment. In contrast, impedance control includes regulation and stabilization of robot motion by creating a mathematical relationship between the interaction forces and the reference trajectories. It involves an energetic pair of a flow and an effort, instead of controlling a single position or a force. A mass-spring-damper impedance filter is generally used for safe interaction purposes. Tuning the parameters of the impedance filter is important and, if an unsuitable strategy is used, this can lead to unstable contact. Humans, however, have exceptionally effective control systems with advanced biological actuators. An individual can manipulate muscle stiffness to comply with the interaction forces. Accordingly, the parameters of the impedance filter should be time varying rather than value constant in order to match human behavior during interaction tasks. Therefore, this paper presents an overview of impedance control strategies including standard and extended control schemes. Standard controllers cover impedance and admittance architectures. Extended control schemes include admittance control with force tracking, variable impedance control, and impedance control of flexible joints. The categories of impedance control and their features and limitations are well introduced. Attention is paid to variable impedance control while considering the possible control schemes, the performance, stability, and the integration of constant compliant elements with the host robot.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Real-Time Evaluation of the Signal Processing of sEMG Used in Limb
           Exoskeleton Rehabilitation System

    • Abstract: As an important branch of medical robotics, a rehabilitation training robot for the hemiplegic upper limbs is a research hotspot of rehabilitation training. Based on the motion relearning program, rehabilitation technology, human anatomy, mechanics, computer science, robotics, and other fields of technology are covered. Based on an sEMG real-time training system for rehabilitation, the exoskeleton robot still has some problems that need to be solved in this field. Most of the existing rehabilitation exoskeleton robotic systems are heavy, and it is difficult to ensure the accuracy and real-time performance of sEMG signals. In this paper, we design a real-time training system for the upper limb exoskeleton robot based on the EMG signal. It has four main characteristics: light weight, portability, high precision, and low delay. This work includes the structure of the rehabilitation robotic system and the method of signal processing of the sEMG. An experiment on the accuracy and time delay of the sEMG signal processing has been done. In the experimental results, the recognition accuracy of the sEMG is 94%, and the average delay time is 300 ms, which meets the accuracy and real-time requirements.
      PubDate: Sun, 14 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Mechanobiological Analysis of Molar Teeth with Carious Lesions through the
           Finite Element Method

    • Abstract: The analysis of the distribution of stress in dental organs is a poorly studied area. That is why computational mechanobiological analysis at the tissue level using the finite element method is very useful to achieve a better understanding of the biomechanics and the behaviour of dental tissues in various pathologies. This knowledge will allow better diagnoses, customize treatment plans, and establish the basis for the development of better restoration materials. In the present work, through the use of high-fidelity biomodels, computational mechanobiological analyses were performed on four molar models affected with four different degrees of caries, which are subjected to masticatory forces. With the analyses performed, it is possible to observe that the masticatory forces that act on the enamel are not transmitted to the dentin and to the bone and periodontal ligament to protect the nerve, as it happens in a healthy dental organ. With the presence of decay, these forces are transmitted partly to the pulp. The reactions to the external loads on the dental organs depend on the advances of the carious lesion that they present, since the distribution of stresses is different in a healthy tooth.
      PubDate: Sun, 14 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Injury Analysis and Prevention in Vehicle Safety

    • PubDate: Thu, 04 Oct 2018 04:50:02 +000
  • Effect of Wing-Wing Interaction on the Propulsive Performance of Two
           Flapping Wings at Biplane Configuration

    • Abstract: The biplane counter-flapping wing is a special type of wing flapping which is inspired from the fish and insect in nature. The propulsive performance is one of the most important considerations for this kind of flapping wing. This paper is aimed at providing a systematic synthesis on the propulsive characteristics of two flapping wings at biplane configuration based on the numerical analysis approach. Firstly, parameters of this special flapping wing are presented. Secondly, the numerical method for simultaneously solving the incompressible flow and counter-flapping motion of the wing is illustrated, and the method is then validated. Thirdly, the effects of phase angle and mean wing spacing on the propulsive characteristics of the biplane counter-flapping wing are analyzed. Finally, the quantification effects of the phase angle and mean wing spacing on the propulsive characteristics of the biplane counter-flapping wing can be obtained. The analysis results in this study will provide useful guidelines to design an effectively propulsive system applying for the flapping micro air or underwater vehicle.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Sep 2018 09:15:14 +000
  • The Effects of Selective Muscle Weakness on Muscle Coordination in the
           Human Arm

    • Abstract: Despite the fundamental importance of muscle coordination in daily life, it is currently unclear how muscle coordination adapts when the musculoskeletal system is perturbed. In this study, we quantified the impact of selective muscle weakness on several metrics of muscle coordination. Seven healthy subjects performed 2D and 3D isometric force target matches, while electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from 13 elbow and shoulder muscles. Subsequently, muscle weakness was induced by a motor point block of brachialis muscle. Postblock subjects repeated the force generation tasks. We quantified muscle coordination pre- and postblock using three metrics: tuning curve preferred direction, tuning curve area, and motor modules analysis via nonnegative matrix factorization. For most muscles, the tuning direction for the 2D protocol was not substantially altered postblock, while tuning areas changed more drastically. Typically, five motor modules were identified from the 3D task, and four motor modules were identified in the 2D task; this result held across both pre- and postblock conditions. The composition of one or two motor modules, ones that involved mainly the activation of shoulder muscles, was altered postblock. Our results demonstrate that selective muscle weakness can induce nonintuitive alternations in muscle coordination in the mechanically redundant human arm.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Sep 2018 06:10:36 +000
  • Design and Evaluation of a Wearable Powered Foot Orthosis with
           Metatarsophalangeal Joint

    • Abstract: The metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints play critical roles in human locomotion. Functional restriction or loss of MTP joints will lead to lower walking speed, poorer walking balance, and more consumed metabolic energy cost compared with normal walking. However, existing foot orthoses are focused on maintaining the movement of the ankle joint, without assisting the MTP joints. In this paper, in order to improve the walking performance of people with lower limb impairments, a wearable powered foot orthosis (WPFO) which has actuated MTP joint is designed and constructed. Preliminary experiments on three nondisabled subjects demonstrated functionality and capabilities of the WPFO to provide correctly timed dorsiflexion and plantar flexion assistance at the MTP joint during walking. These results also suggest that the WPFO could offer promise in certain rehabilitation applications and clinical treatment.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Design and Performance Evaluation of a Wearable Sensing System for
           Lower-Limb Exoskeleton

    • Abstract: Because the target users of the assistive-type lower extremity exoskeletons (ASLEEs) are those who suffer from lower limb disabilities, customized gait is adopted for the control of ASLEEs. However, the customized gait is unable to provide stable motion for variable terrain, for example, flat, uphill, downhill, and soft ground. The purpose of this paper is to realize gait detection and environment feature recognition for AIDER by developing a novel wearable sensing system. The wearable sensing system employs 7 force sensors as a sensing matrix to achieve high accuracy of ground reaction force detection. There is one more IMU sensor that is integrated into the structure to detect the angular velocity. By fusing force and angular velocity data, four typical terrain features can be recognized successfully, and the recognition rate can reach up to 93%.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Sep 2018 06:01:08 +000
  • Muscle Coordination Control for an Asymmetrically Antagonistic-Driven
           Musculoskeletal Robot Using Attractor Selection

    • Abstract: Recently, numerous musculoskeletal robots have been developed to realize the flexibility and dexterity analogous to human beings and animals. However, because the arrangement of many actuators is complex, the design of the control system for the robot is difficult and challenging. We believe that control methods inspired by living things are important in the development of the control systems for musculoskeletal robots. In this study, we propose a muscle coordination control method using attractor selection, a biologically inspired search method, for an antagonistic-driven musculoskeletal robot in which various muscles (monoarticular muscles and a polyarticular muscle) are arranged asymmetrically. First, muscle coordination control models for the musculoskeletal robot are built using virtual antagonistic muscle structures with a virtually symmetric muscle arrangement. Next, the attractor selection is applied to the control model and subsequently applied to the previous control model without muscle coordination to compare the control model’s performance. Finally, position control experiments are conducted, and the effectiveness of the proposed muscle coordination control and the virtual antagonistic muscle structure is evaluated.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Development of a Novel Micro Photoionization Detector for Rapid Volatile
           Organic Compounds Measurement

    • Abstract: The simulation of the gas flow field and electrostatic field in the photoionization detector by COMSOL was conducted based on principle investigation in the present study. Under the guidance of simulation results, structural optimization was carried out to significantly reduce the dead volume of the ionization chamber, and finally, the relationship between offset voltage and collection efficiency was obtained which led to a remarkable increase in the collection efficiency of charged ions in the photoionization detector. Then an ionization chamber with low interference and fast response was developed. Then experiment was performed with toluene as a VOCs gas under the condition of optimal gas flow rate of 50 ml, UV lamp ionization energy of 10.86 eV. The results showed that the ion collection efficiency reached 91% at a bias voltage of 150 V. Moreover, a preferred linearity of 99.99% was obtained, and a ppb level of LOD can be achieved. The determination results well-fitted the relationship between offset voltage and the response value obtained in the simulation.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Sep 2018 08:11:49 +000
  • Usefulness of Magnetoinertial Wearable Devices in Neurorehabilitation of
           Children with Cerebral Palsy

    • Abstract: Background. Despite the increasing use of wearable magnetoinertial measurement units (MIMUs) for gait analysis, the efficacy of MIMU-based assessment for planning rehabilitation has not been adequately documented yet. Methods. The usefulness of a MIMU-based assessment was evaluated comparing the data acquired by three MIMUs located at the pelvis, sternum, and head levels in 12 children with cerebral palsy (CP, age: 2–9 years) and 12 age-matched children with typical development (TD). Gait stability was quantified in terms of acceleration attenuation coefficients from pelvis to head, pelvis to sternum, and sternum to head. Children with CP were randomly divided in two groups: in the first group (CPI), MIMU-based parameters were used by therapists for planning patient-tailored rehabilitation programs, whereas in the second group (CPB), therapists were blind to the MIMU-based assessment results. Both CPI and CPB were tested before and after the relevant neurorehabilitation program. Ad hoc questionnaires were also administered to therapists of the CPI group to assess the degree of usefulness perceived about the information provided by the MIMU-based assessment. Results. Significant differences were found between children with CP and those with TD for the acceleration attenuation coefficient from pelvis to head () and from pelvis to sternum (). After neurorehabilitation, this last parameter increased more in CPI (35%) than in CPB (6%, for the interaction group per time). The results of the questionnaires showed that therapists agreed with the usability (100% judged it as “easy to use”) and usefulness of the MIMU-based assessment in defining patient-oriented interventions (87%). Conclusions. There is a large debate in literature about the efficacy of classical gait analysis that should be enlarged to new technological approaches, such as that based on MIMUs. This study is a first proof of concept about the efficacy of this approach for neurorehabilitation of children with CP.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • A Review of Pediatric Lower Extremity Data for Pedestrian Numerical
           Modeling: Injury Epidemiology, Anatomy, Anthropometry, Structural, and
           Mechanical Properties

    • Abstract: Pedestrian injuries are the fourth leading cause of unintentional injury-related death among children aged 1 to 19. The lower extremity represents the most frequently injured body region in car-to-pedestrian accidents. The goal of this study was to perform a systematic review of the data related to pedestrian lower extremity injuries, anatomy, anthropometry, structural, and mechanical properties, which can be used in the development of new pediatric computational models. The study began with a review of epidemiologic data related to pediatric pedestrian accidents. Anatomy of the child lower extremity and age-related anthropometry data were presented as well. Then, both the mechanical and structural properties of the lower extremity main components (e.g., bones, cartilages, knee ligaments, muscles, tendons, and growth plates) available in literature were summarized. The study concluded with a brief description of current child pedestrian models, which included a discussion about their limitations. We believe that data included in this review study can help in improving the biofidelity of current child models and support the development and validation of new child models used by safety researchers for protection of pediatric population.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • A Study on Influence of Minivan Front-End Design and Impact Velocity on
           Pedestrian Thorax Kinematics and Injury Risk

    • Abstract: Thoracic injuries occur frequently in minivan-to-pedestrian impact accidents and can cause substantial fatalities. The present research work investigates the human thoracic responses and injury risks in minivan-to-pedestrian impacts, when changing the minivan front-end design and the impact velocity, by using computational biomechanics model. We employed three typical types of minivan model of different front-end designs that are quite popular in Chinese market and considered four impact velocities (20, 30, 40, and 50 km/h). The contact time of car to thorax region (CTCTR), thorax impact velocity, chest deformation, and thoracic injury risks were extracted for the investigation. The results indicate that the predicted pedestrian kinematics, injury responses, and thoracic injury risks are strongly affected by the variation of the minivan front-end design and impact velocity. The pedestrian thoracic injury risks increase with the increasing vehicle impact velocity. It is also revealed that the application of the extra front bumper is beneficial for reducing the thoracic injury risk, and a relatively flatter minivan front-end design gives rise to a higher thoracic injury risk. This study is expected to be served as theoretical references for pedestrian protection design of minivans.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Mechanical Design and Assessment of a Low-Cost 7-DOF Prosthetic Arm for
           Shoulder Disarticulation

    • Abstract: This work presents the design of a low-cost prosthetic device for shoulder disarticulation. A proper design of the mechanisms has been addressed to obtain a prototype that presents 7 degrees of freedom. Shoulder movement is achieved by means of a spherical parallel manipulator, elbow movement is performed by a six-bar mechanism, and the wrist movement is implemented by a spherical parallel manipulator. A set of dynamic simulations was performed in order to assess the functionality of the design. The prototype was built using 3D printing techniques and implementing low-cost actuators. An experimental evaluation was carried out to characterize this device. The result of this work is a prototype that weighs 1350 g that is able to perform movements related to activities of daily living.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • An Investigation of Dynamic Responses and Head Injuries of Standing Subway
           Passengers during Collisions

    • Abstract: With the development of the subway and the pressing demand of environmentally friendly transportation, more and more people travel by subway. In recent decades, the issues about passenger passive safety on the train have received extensive attention. In this research, the head injury of a standing passenger in the subway is investigated. Three MADYMO models of the different standing passenger postures, defined as baseline scenarios, are numerically set up. HIC15 values of passengers with different postures are gained by systematic parametric studies. The injury numerical simulation results of various scenarios with different friction coefficients, collision acceleration, standing angle, horizontal handrail height, and ring handrail height are analyzed. Results show that the horizontal handrail provides better protection in the three different standing passenger postures. Different friction coefficients and the standing angle have great impact on the head injuries of passengers in three different scenarios. The handrail height also has some effects on head injury of passengers with different standing postures, so it is necessary to be considered when designing the interior layout of the subway. This study may provide guidance for the safety design of the subway and some advices for standing subway passengers.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Sep 2018 07:31:12 +000
  • Configuration Synthesis and Performance Analysis of Finger Soft Actuator

    • Abstract: Compared with the traditional rigid finger actuator, the soft actuator has the advantages of light weight and good compliance. This type of finger actuator can be used for data acquisition or finger rehabilitation training, and it has broad application prospects. The motion differences between the soft actuator and finger may cause extrusion deformation at the binding point, and the binding forces along nonfunctional direction may reduce drive efficiency. In order to reduce the negative deformation of soft structure and improve comfort, the configuration synthesis and performance analysis of the finger soft actuator were conducted for the present work. The configuration synthesis method for soft actuator was proposed based on the analysis of the physiological structure of the finger, and the soft actuator can make the human-machine closed-loop structure including joints (, 2, 3) meet the requirement of DOF (degrees of freedom). Then the typical feasible configurations were enumerated. The different typical configurations were analyzed and compared based on the establishment of mathematical models and simulation analysis. Results show that the configuration design method is feasible. This study offers a theoretical basis for designing the configuration of finger soft actuator.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Mechanical Testing of a Novel Fastening Device to Improve Scoliosis
           Bracing Biomechanics for Treating Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    • Abstract: Velcro fastening straps are commonly used to secure a scoliosis brace around the upper body and apply corrective forces to the spine. However, strap loosening and tension loss have been reported that reduce spinal correction and treatment efficacy. A novel fastening device, or controlled tension unit (CTU), was designed to overcome these limitations. A scoliosis analog model (SAM) was used to biomechanically compare the CTU fasteners and posterior Velcro straps on a conventional brace (CB) as well as on a modified brace (MB) that included a dynamic cantilever apical pad section. Brace configurations tested were (1) CB with posterior Velcro straps, (2) CB with posterior CTU fasteners, (3) MB with posterior Velcro straps, and (4) MB with posterior CTU fasteners. MB configurations were tested with 0 N, 35.6 N, and 71.2 N CTU fasteners applied across the apical pad flap. Three-dimensional forces and moments were measured at both ends of the SAM. The CTU fasteners provided the same corrective spinal loads as Velcro straps when tensioned to the same level on the CB configuration and can be used as an alternative fastening system. Dynamically loading the apical flap increased the distractive forces applied to the spine without affecting tension in the fastening straps.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Design and Mechanical Analysis of Bionic Foldable Beetle Wings

    • Abstract: In order to improve the flight performance of collapsible aircrafts, a novel mechanism of bionic foldable wings of beetle is designed based on the four-plate mechanism theory. The folding and unfolding movements of the bionic foldable wings are driven by motor and torsion hinges. Based on the D-H method, a kinematic model of wings is established to analyze the dihedral angle of adjacent plates. The folding ratio of an area in different plate creasing angles has been derived and calculated. Utilizing the kinematic and static models produced, as well as considering the folding ratio and output motor torque, the optimal physical parameters of folding wings are obtained. Dynamic models of rigid and flexible wings were established using ADAMS, and a motion simulation was performed. The relationship between dihedral angle and torque during the folding process of both rigid and flexible wings was obtained. The results provide a better understanding of the folding mechanism through the formulation of rigid-flexible wing analysis, as well as demonstrating a novel design of insect-mimicking artificial wings for small aerial vehicles.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Lower Extremity Strength and Range of Motion in High School Cross-Country

    • Abstract: Cross-country running is becoming an increasingly popular sport, with a significant participation noted at the high school level. The aim of this study was to compare gender and bilateral hip extension range of motion and hip and knee extension strength of high school cross-country runners. 31 participants volunteered from a local high school cross-country team (16 males and 15 females). The modified Thomas test was utilized to measure hip extension range of motion bilaterally using a digital inclinometer. In order to measure hip and knee isometric strengths, an isokinetic dynamometer was employed. A mixed model approach revealed a statistically significant difference in peak hip extension strength between genders but not the side. Male athletes demonstrated a 29.2 Nm/kg () greater force production than females during isometric hip extension strength testing. There were no significant differences in peak knee extension isometric strength, hip extension range of motion, and the ratio of peak hip and knee strength between genders and the dominant and nondominant leg. Female cross-country runners should focus on increasing hip extension strength to help maintain hip stability during running. This may be beneficial in decreasing the chances of experiencing patellofemoral pain in long-distance runners.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Study on the Interaction between Soil and the Five-Claw Combination of a
           Mole Using the Discrete Element Method

    • Abstract: A mole is a born digger spending its entire existence digging tunnels. The five claws of a mole’s hand are combinative to cut soil powerfully and efficiently. However, little was known in detail about the interaction between the soil and the five-claw combination. In this study, we simulated the soil cutting process of the five-claw combination using the discrete element method (DEM) as an attempt for the potential design of soil-engaging tools to reduce soil resistance. The five-claw combination moved horizontally in the soil bin. Soil forces (draught and vertical forces) and soil failure (soil rupture distance ratio) were measured at different rake angles and speeds. Results showed that the draught and vertical forces varied nonlinearly as the rake angle increased from 10 to 90°, and both changed linearly with the speed increasing from 1 to 5 m/s. The curve of the soil rupture distance ratio with rake angles could be better described using a quadric function, but the speed had little effect on the soil rupture distance ratio. Notably, the soil rupture distance ratio of the five-claw combination in simulation was on average 19.6% lower than the predicted ratio of simple blades at different rake angles indicating that the five-claw combination could make less soil failure and thereby produce lower soil resistance. Given the draught and vertical forces, the performance of the five-claw combination was optimized at the rake angle of 30°.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Biomechanical Responses and Injury Characteristics of Knee Joints under
           Longitudinal Impacts of Different Velocities

    • Abstract: Background and Objective. Knee joint collision injuries occur frequently in military and civilian scenarios, but there are few studies assessing longitudinal impacts on knee joints. In this study, the mechanical responses and damage characteristics of knee longitudinal collisions were investigated by finite element analysis and human knee impact tests. Materials and methods. Based on a biocollision test plateau, longitudinal impact experiments were performed on 4 human knee joints (2 in the left knee and 2 in the right knee) to measure the impact force and stress response of the bone. And then a finite element model of knee joint was established from the Chinese Visible Human (CVH), with which longitudinal impacts to the knee joint were simulated, in which the stress response was determined. The injury response of the knee joint-sustained longitudinal impacts was analyzed from both the experimental model and finite element analysis. Results. The impact experiments and finite element simulation found that low-speed impact mainly led to medial injuries and high-speed impact led to both medial and lateral injuries. In the knee joint impact experiment, the peak flexion angles were 13.8° ± 1.2, 30.2° ± 5.1, and 92.9° ± 5.45 and the angular velocities were 344.2 ± 30.8 rad/s, 1510.8 ± 252.5 rad/s, and 9290 ± 545 rad/s at impact velocities 2.5 km/h, 5 km/h, and 8 km/h, respectively. When the impact velocity was 8 km/h, 1 knee had a femoral condylar fracture and 3 knees had medial tibial plateau fractures or collapse fractures. The finite element simulation of knee joints found that medial cortical bone stress appeared earlier than the lateral peak and that the medial bone stress concentration was more obvious when the knee was longitudinally impacted. Conclusion. Both the experiment and FE model confirmed that the biomechanical characteristics of the injured femur and medial tibia are likely to be damaged in a longitudinal impact, which is of great significance for the prevention and treatment of longitudinal impact injuries of the knee joint.
      PubDate: Sun, 05 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Effects of the Insertion Type and Depth on the Pedicle Screw Pullout
           Strength: A Finite Element Study

    • Abstract: Purpose. The pedicle screw is a surgical device that has become widely used in spinal fixation and stabilization. Postsurgical complications such as screw loosening due to fatigue loading and screw breakage still need investigations. Clinical parameters such as the screw insertion type and depth, the bone density, and the patient degree of mobility greatly affect the mechanisms of the implant’s failure/success. Methods. The current finite element study focused on the prediction of the pedicle screw pullout strength under various conditions such as insertion type, insertion depth, bone quality, and loading mode. Results. As depicted in this study, the preservation of the pedicle cortex as in the N1 insertion technique greatly enhances the pullout resistance. In addition, the higher the screw-anchoring depth, permitting to gear a maximum number of threads, the better the protection against premature breakouts of pedicle screws. Conclusions. In agreement with experimental data, the type of insertion in which the first screw thread is placed immediately after the preserved pedicle cortex showed the best pullout resistance for both normal and osteoporotic bone.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Jul 2018 08:17:58 +000
  • Magnetostrictive Bioinspired Whisker Sensor Based on Galfenol Composite
           Cantilever Beam Realizing Bidirectional Tactile Perception

    • Abstract: A magnetostrictive bioinspired whisker sensor based on a galfenol/beryllium-bronze/galfenol composite cantilever beam was developed in this work. According to the new design concept, the proposed whisker can output positive and negative voltages under different bending directions. Besides, the proposed whisker sensor can realize the bidirectional distance and microforce perception. Using the classical beam theory, a theoretical model was used to predict the output performance of the whisker. An experimental system was established to test the whisker’s output performance. In the experiment, the designed whisker, compared with a traditional unimorph whisker, displayed an output voltage range of −240 to 240 mV. The parameters were as follows: the distance was 0–22 mm, with the microforce sensing range of 9.8–2744 mN, the average distance was 10.90 mm/mV, and the force sensitivity was 11.4 mN/mV. At last, obstacle perception was applied. The experiment showed that the proposed whisker sensor can realize the bidirection tactile perception in one-dimensional space. The work expands the function of the magnetostrictive bioinspired whisker, acquiring the multi-information for single-sensor system.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Effects of Dental Occlusion on Body Sway, Upper Body Muscle Activity and
           Shooting Performance in Pistol Shooters

    • Abstract: Occlusal splints, to some extent, have been related to reduced body sway in a static position and increased muscle activity in the upper limbs. However, how dental occlusion status affects sports performance remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether occlusal splints that reposition the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) influenced body posture, muscle activity, and performance in 10-meter pistol shooters. Thirteen national-level male shooters (age = 38.8 ± 10.9 yrs) were recruited for this study, and cleared of any cervical pathology. An occlusal splint (OS) and a placebo splint (PS) were fabricated for each of the subjects, with the mandibular and maxillary position verified by an expert dentist, with the aid of an adjustable articulator. Surface electromyography (EMG) was assessed in the upper limb that holds the pistol while the subjects were standing on a force platform. Subjects performed two series of 10 shots for each of the three experimental conditions (OS, PS, N (no splint)) in randomized order, with the mandible in a rest position. Results revealed similar centre of pressure (COP) parameters in all conditions, despite a reduction in the average oscillation area caused by the OS. There were also no significant differences in EMG activity between conditions in the five upper limb muscles monitored. Consistent with this, shooting performance was similar in all conditions, despite a reduction in shot dispersion in subjects using OS. Thus, changes in dental occlusion status induced by OS do not affect body posture, upper limb EMG muscle activity, or shot performance in healthy male pistol shooters.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Design on the Bowden Cable-Driven Upper Limb Soft Exoskeleton

    • Abstract: To assist hemiplegic patients with the activities of daily life, many upper limb soft exoskeletons have been developed. In this paper, we propose the structure of upper limb soft exoskeleton for rehabilitation training based on human biomechanics. The soft driving structure based on Bowden cable is devised. Man-machine interaction force must be considered because it can damage on the joint and lead to arm discomfort. We focus on structural optimization to minimize man-machine interaction force. Human arm model is established to perform motion simulation in ADAMS. To summarize optimality conditions, the movements of elbow are simulated in ADAMS when the number and location of force bearing points are changed. This paper describes the movement of the shoulder skeletal system through a mathematical model based on the Bowden cable transmission and utilizes man-machine contact force sensor to detect human interaction forces for analysis of experimental data. The experimental results show that man-machine interaction force can be reduced when the number of bearing force points is increased and bearing force point is away from the elbow.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Numerical Low-Back Booster Analysis on a 6-Year-Old Infant during a
           Frontal Crash Test

    • Abstract: This work studies descriptively the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) and Chest Severity Index (CSI), with a finite element model of the Hybrid III dummy type, for six-year-old subjects in a frontal vehicular collision, using the low-back booster (LBB) passive safety system. The vehicle seats and the passive safety systems were modelled in CAD (computer aided design) software. Then, the elements were analysed by the finite element method (FEM) in LS-DYNA® software. The boundary conditions were established for each study, according to the regulations established by the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS), following the FMVSS 213 standard. The numerical simulations were performed during an interval of 120 ms and recording results every 1 ms. In order to analyse the efficiency of the system, the restraint performance of the LBB system is compared with the restraint configuration of the vehicle safety belt (VSB) only. The obtained injury criteria with the LBB system shows its ability to protect children in a frontal collision. The analyses allow obtaining the deceleration values to which the dummy head and chest was subjected. Of the studies herein performed, Study I: VSB obtained a HIC36 of 730.4 and CSI of 315.5, while Study II: LBB obtained a HIC36 of 554.3 and CSI of 281.9. The outcome shows that the restraint efficiency of each studied case differs. Used materials, the attachment system of the LBB, and the belt restraint system properly placed over the infant trunk are the main factors reducing the injury criteria rate.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Effects of Leg Length Discrepancy on Stability and Kinematics-Kinetics
           Deviations: A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Various studies have examined body posture stability, including postural sway and associated biomechanical parameters, to assess the severity effects of leg length discrepancy (LLD). However, various viewpoints have been articulated on the results of these studies because of certain drawbacks in the comprehensive analysis of the effect of variations in LLD magnitude. Therefore, this systematic review was performed to help focus on the current findings to help identify which biomechanical parameters are most relevant, commonly used, and able to distinguish and/or have specific clinical relevance to the effect of variations in LLD magnitude during static (standing) and dynamic (walking) conditions. Several electronic databases containing studies from the year 1983 to 2016 (Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed, PMC, and ProQuest) were obtained in our literature search. The search process yielded 22 published articles that fulfilled our criteria. We found most of the published data that we analyzed to be inconsistent, and very little data was obtained on the correlation between LLD severity and changes in body posture stability during standing and walking. However, the results of the present review study are in line with previous observational studies, which describe asymmetry in the lower limbs corresponding to biomechanical parameters such as gait kinematics, kinetics, and other parameters described during static (standing) postural balance. In future investigations, we believe that it might be useful to use and exploit other balance-related factors that may potentially influence body posture stability.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Feasibility of Neurorehabilitation Using a Hybrid Assistive Limb for
           Patients Who Underwent Spine Surgery

    • Abstract: Recent studies of robotic rehabilitation have demonstrated its efficacy for neurological disorders. However, few studies have used the Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL) during the early postoperative stage of spine disorders. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HAL treatment during the early postoperative period for spine disorder patients. We retrospectively identified patients who underwent spine surgery and who could complete HAL treatment. We evaluated the 10-m walking test (10MWT), the modified Gait Abnormality Rating Scale (GARS-M), Barthel Index (BI), and the walking index for spinal cord injury II (WISCI II) score results before and after robotic rehabilitation. Clinical outcomes were compared after treatment. We included nine patients with various spine problems. After HAL treatment, the speed during the 10MWT significantly improved from 64.1 ± 16.0 to 74.8 ± 10.8 m/min, and the walking cadence decreased from 102.7 ± 17.6 to 92.7 ± 10.9 steps/min. The BI score also improved from 83.3 ± 16.0 to 95.6 ± 5.8, and the WISCI II score improved from 19.7 ± 0.5 to 20.0 ± 0.0. Furthermore, the total GARS-M score improved from 6.0 ± 5.7 to 2.3 ± 3.3. The maximum angles of the trunk swing were improved from 2.2 ± 1.9 to 1.2 ± 0.9 degrees. Neurorehabilitation therapy using HAL for spinal surgery patients was considered feasible following spine surgery.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Influence of a Soft Robotic Suit on Metabolic Cost in Long-Distance Level
           and Inclined Walking

    • Abstract: Metabolic cost during walking is positively linked to exercise intensity. For a walking assistive device, one of the major aims should be the maximization of wearers’ metabolic benefits for different walking situations. Toward this goal, this paper experimentally evaluates the influence of an authors’ soft robotic suit, which has been developed to assist hip flexion for energy-efficient walking of elderly persons in daily life activities, on metabolic cost reduction in the long-distance level and inclined walking. Experiment results show that, for a 79-year-old healthy male subject, the robotic suit significantly reduced metabolic cost in the condition of the robotic suit worn and powered on compared with the condition of worn but powered off.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jul 2018 08:45:51 +000
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