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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3036 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1440 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales : The Journal of Silesian Museum in Opava     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annales UMCS, Biologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Artificial Photosynthesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversity : Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Biodiversity and Natural History     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 285)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biological Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access  
Biological Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Biological Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biological Research     Open Access  
Biological Rhythm Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biological Trace Element Research     Hybrid Journal  
Biologicals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biologics: Targets & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologie Aujourd'hui     Full-text available via subscription  
Biologie in Unserer Zeit (Biuz)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biologija     Open Access  
Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biology Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Bulletin Reviews     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
  [SJR: 0.23]   [H-I: 13]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1176-2322 - ISSN (Online) 1754-2103
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [269 journals]
  • Human Hand Motion Analysis during Different Eating Activities

    • Abstract: The focus of this research is to analyse both human hand motion and force, during eating, with respect to differing food characteristics and cutlery (including a fork and a spoon). A glove consisting of bend and force sensors has been used to capture the motion and contact force exerted by fingers during different eating activities. The Pearson correlation coefficient has been used to show that a significant linear relationship exists between the bending motion of the fingers and the forces exerted during eating. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests are performed to establish whether the motion and force exerted by the fingers while eating is influenced by the different food characteristics and cutlery. The middle finger motion showed the least positive correlation with index fingertip and thumb-tip force, irrespective of the food characteristics and cutlery used. The ANOVA and t-test results revealed that bending motion of the index finger and thumb varies with respect to differing food characteristics and the type of cutlery used (fork/spoon), whereas the bending motion of the middle finger remains unaffected. Additionally, the contact forces exerted by the thumb tip and index fingertip remain unaffected with respect to differing food types and cutlery used.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Computer-Assisted Optimization of the Acetabular Rotation in
           Periacetabular Osteotomy Using Patient’s Anatomy-Specific Finite Element
           Analysis

    • Abstract: Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is a complex surgical procedure to restore acetabular coverage in the dysplastic hip, and the amount of acetabular rotation during PAO plays a key role. Using computational simulations, this study assessed the optimal direction and amount of the acetabular rotation in three dimensions for a patient undergoing PAO. Anatomy-specific finite element (FE) models of the hip were constructed based on clinical CT images. The calculated acetabular rotation during PAO were 9.7°, 18°, and 4.3° in sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes, respectively. Based on the actual acetabular rotations, twelve postoperative FE models were generated. An optimal position was found by gradually varying the amount of the acetabular rotations in each anatomical plane. The coronal plane was found to be the principal rotational plane, which showed the strongest effects on joint contact pressure compared to other planes. It is suggested that rotation in the coronal plane of the osteotomized acetabulum is one of the primary surgical parameters to achieve the optimal clinical outcome for a given patient.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Geometric Modeling of Cellular Materials for Additive Manufacturing in
           Biomedical Field: A Review

    • Abstract: Advances in additive manufacturing technologies facilitate the fabrication of cellular materials that have tailored functional characteristics. The application of solid freeform fabrication techniques is especially exploited in designing scaffolds for tissue engineering. In this review, firstly, a classification of cellular materials from a geometric point of view is proposed; then, the main approaches on geometric modeling of cellular materials are discussed. Finally, an investigation on porous scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing technologies is pointed out. Perspectives in geometric modeling of scaffolds for tissue engineering are also proposed.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Feb 2018 01:42:29 +000
       
  • Design of a Conceptual Bumper Energy Absorber Coupling Pedestrian Safety
           and Low-Speed Impact Requirements

    • Abstract: The car front bumper system needs to meet the requirements of both pedestrian safety and low-speed impact which are somewhat contradicting. This study aims to design a new kind of modular self-adaptive energy absorber of the front bumper system which can balance the two performances. The X-shaped energy-absorbing structure was proposed which can enhance the energy absorption capacity during impact by changing its deformation mode based on the amount of external collision energy. Then, finite element simulations with a realistic vehicle bumper system are performed to demonstrate its crashworthiness in comparison with the traditional foam energy absorber, which presents a significant improvement of the two performances. Furthermore, the structural parameters of the X-shaped energy-absorbing structure including thickness (tu), side arc radius (R), and clamping boost beam thickness (tb) are analyzed using a full factorial method, and a multiobjective optimization is implemented regarding evaluation indexes of both pedestrian safety and low-speed impact. The optimal parameters are then verified, and the feasibility of the optimal results is confirmed. In conclusion, the new X-shaped energy absorber can meet both pedestrian safety and low-speed impact requirements well by altering the main deformation modes according to different impact energy levels.
      PubDate: Sun, 14 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Innovative Design and Performance Evaluation of Bionic Imprinting Toothed
           Wheel

    • Abstract: A highly efficient soil-burrowing dung beetle possesses an intricate outer contour curve on its foreleg end-tooth. This study was carried out based on evidence that this special outer contour curve has the potential of reducing soil penetration resistance and could enhance soil-burrowing efficiency. A toothed wheel is a typical agricultural implement for soil imprinting, to increase its working efficiency; the approach of the bionic geometrical structure was utilized to optimize the innovative shape of imprinting toothed wheel. Characteristics in the dung beetle’s foreleg end-tooth were extracted and studied by the edge detection technique. Then, this special outer contour curve was modeled by a nine-order polynomial function and used for the innovative design of imprinting the tooth’s cutting edge. Both the conventional and bionic teeth were manufactured, and traction tests in a soil bin were conducted. Taking required draft force and volume of imprinted microbasin as the evaluating indexes, operating efficiency and quality of different toothed wheels were compared and investigated. Results indicate that compared with the conventional toothed wheel, a bionic toothed wheel possesses a better forward resistance reduction property against soil and, meanwhile, can enhance the quality of soil imprinting by increasing the volume of the created micro-basin.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Analysis of the Impact of Configuration of the Stabilisation System for
           Femoral Diaphyseal Fractures on the State of Stresses and Displacements

    • Abstract: Introduction. The treatment of femoral diaphyseal fractures by intramedullary nailing has become a common procedure in orthopaedic surgery. The purpose of this numerical simulation was to present how the changes in configuration of the stabilisation system can affect the stress and displacement state in the bone tissue and implanted device. Material and Methods. The numerical comparison of the stabilisation variants for the type 32-A2 femoral diaphyseal fracture (according to the AO classification) performed by using the Charfix2 (ChM®) anatomical nail locked in a number of chosen ways. The displacement and the stress distributions both in the bone and implant were obtained and analysed by computational simulation. Results. In all models, there was the same characteristic distribution, which shows there were minimal rotational movements of the bone around the anatomical axis. In all cases, stress concentrations were generated in the nail material in the area of the fracture gap. Conclusions. The obtained results indicate that there is a visible advantage to one-plane distal stabilisation in the reduction of stresses regardless of the type of proximal stabilisation. The results of calculations indicate that the use of proximal stabilisation with a neck screw reduces the possibility of damage to the implant.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Low-Dimensional Motor Control Representations in Throwing Motions

    • Abstract: In this study, we identified a low-dimensional representation of control mechanisms in throwing motions from a variety of subjects and target distances. The control representation was identified at the kinematic level in task and joint spaces, respectively, and at the muscle activation level using the theory of muscle synergies. Representative features of throwing motions in all of these spaces were chosen to be investigated. Features were extracted using factorization and clustering techniques from the muscle data of unexperienced subjects (with different morphologies and physical conditions) during a series of throwing tasks. Two synergy extraction methods were tested to assess their consistency. For the task features, the degrees of freedom (DoF), and the muscles under study, the results can be summarized as (1) a control representation across subjects consisting of only two synergies at the activation level and of representative features in the task and joint spaces, (2) a reduction of control redundancy (since the number of synergies are less than the number of actions to be controlled), (3) links between the synergies triggering intensity and the throwing distance, and finally (4) consistency of the extraction methods. Such results are useful to better represent mechanisms hidden behind such dynamical motions and could offer a promising control representation for synthesizing motions with muscle-driven characters.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Validation of Material Algorithms for Femur Remodelling Using Medical
           Image Data

    • Abstract: The aim of this study is the utilization of human medical CT images to quantitatively evaluate two sorts of “error-driven” material algorithms, that is, the isotropic and orthotropic algorithms, for bone remodelling. The bone remodelling simulations were implemented by a combination of the finite element (FE) method and the material algorithms, in which the bone material properties and element axes are determined by both loading amplitudes and daily cycles with different weight factor. The simulation results showed that both algorithms produced realistic distribution in bone amount, when compared with the standard from CT data. Moreover, the simulated L-T ratios (the ratio of longitude modulus to transverse modulus) by the orthotropic algorithm were close to the reported results. This study suggests a role for “error-driven” algorithm in bone material prediction in abnormal mechanical environment and holds promise for optimizing implant design as well as developing countermeasures against bone loss due to weightlessness. Furthermore, the quantified methods used in this study can enhance bone remodelling model by optimizing model parameters to gap the discrepancy between the simulation and real data.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Efficacy of Palatal Applications on Fracture Resistance of Reattached
           Maxillary Central Incisors: An In Vitro Study

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different palatal applications on fracture strength of the fractured anterior tooth. Sixty caries-free human maxillary incisors were used. Endodontic treatments of the teeth were performed. Then, the teeth were divided randomly into five groups (). Crowns of all teeth in groups A–D were cut with diamond discs at a fixed distance of 3 mm from the incisal margin in a plane normal to the buccal surface. In all groups, coronal fragments were reattached to the remaining teeth by bonding with hybrid composite resin. After then, the teeth were restored to the following; group A, bonding and palatal laminate; group B, bonding and creation of a vertical groove; group C, bonding and creation of two slot grooves; group D, bonding only; and group E, intact tooth. It was lesser in group B than in groups C and E ( and , resp.) and lesser in group D than in groups A, C, and E (, , and , resp.). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that methods employing palatinal laminate and small grooves are clinically feasible for the reattachment of tooth fragments to incisors.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Experimental Investigation of Aerodynamics of Feather-Covered Flapping
           Wing

    • Abstract: Avian flight has an outstanding performance than the manmade flapping wing MAVs. Considering that the feather is light and strong, a new type of the flapping wing was designed and made, whose skeleton is carbon fiber rods and covered by goose feathers as the skin. Its aerodynamics is tested by experiments and can be compared with conventional artificial flapping wings made of carbon fiber rods as the skeleton and polyester membrane as the skin. The results showed that the feathered wing could generate more lift than the membrane wing in the same flapping kinematics because the feathered wing can have slots between feathers in an upstroke process, which can mainly reduce the negative lift. At the same time, the power consumption also decreased significantly, due to the decrease in the fluctuating range of the periodic lift curve, which reduced the offset consumption of lift. At the same time, the thrusts generated by the feather wing and the membrane wing are similar with each other, which increases with the increase of flapping frequency. In general, the aerodynamic performances of the feather wing are superior to that of the membrane wings.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Additive Manufacturing Techniques for the Reconstruction of 3D Fetal Faces

    • Abstract: This paper deals with additive manufacturing techniques for the creation of 3D fetal face models starting from routine 3D ultrasound data. In particular, two distinct themes are addressed. First, a method for processing and building 3D models based on the use of medical image processing techniques is proposed. Second, the preliminary results of a questionnaire distributed to future parents consider the use of these reconstructions both from an emotional and an affective point of view. In particular, the study focuses on the enhancement of the perception of maternity or paternity and the improvement in the relationship between parents and physicians in case of fetal malformations, in particular facial or cleft lip diseases.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Dec 2017 07:27:14 +000
       
  • Cell Colonization Ability of a Commercialized Large Porous Alveolar
           Scaffold

    • Abstract: The use of filling biomaterials or tissue-engineered large bone implant-coupling biocompatible materials and human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells seems to be a promising approach to treat critical-sized bone defects. However, the cellular seeding onto and into large porous scaffolds still remains challenging since this process highly depends on the porous microstructure. Indeed, the cells may mainly colonize the periphery of the scaffold, leaving its volume almost free of cells. In this study, we carry out an in vitro study to analyze the ability of a commercialized scaffold to be in vivo colonized by cells. We investigate the influence of various physical parameters on the seeding efficiency of a perfusion seeding protocol using large manufactured bone substitutes. The present study shows that the velocity of the perfusion fluid and the initial cell density seem to impact the seeding results and to have a negative effect on the cellular viability, whereas the duration of the fluid perfusion and the nature of the flow (steady versus pulsed) did not show any influence on either the fraction of seeded cells or the cellular viability rate. However, the cellular repartition after seeding remains highly heterogeneous.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Elastic Modulus of Osteoporotic Mouse Femur Based on Femoral Head
           Compression Test

    • Abstract: A biomechanical test is a good evaluation method that describes the structural, functional, and pathological differences in the bones, such as osteoporosis and fracture. The tensile test, compression test, and bending test are generally performed to evaluate the elastic modulus of the bone using mice. In particular, the femoral head compression test is mainly used for verifying the osteoporosis change of the femoral neck. This study conducted bone mineral density analysis using in vivo microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) to observe changes in osteoporosis over time. It proposed a method of identifying the elastic modulus of the femur in the normal group (CON group) and the osteoporotic group (OVX group) through finite element analysis based on the femoral head compression test and also conducted a comparative analysis of the results. Through the femoral head compression test, it was verified that the CON group’s ultimate and yield loads were significantly higher than those of the OVX group. It was considered that this result was caused by the fact that the bone mineral density change by osteoporosis occurred in the proximal end more often than in the femur diaphysis. However, the elastic modulus derived from the finite element analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Dec 2017 07:27:43 +000
       
  • Kinect V2 Performance Assessment in Daily-Life Gestures: Cohort Study on
           Healthy Subjects for a Reference Database for Automated Instrumental
           Evaluations on Neurological Patients

    • Abstract: Background. The increase of sanitary costs related to poststroke rehabilitation requires new sustainable and cost-effective strategies for promoting autonomous and dehospitalized motor training. In the Riprendo@Home and Future Home for Future Communities research projects, the promising approach of introducing low-cost technologies that promote home rehabilitation is exploited. In order to provide reliable evaluation of patients, a reference database of healthy people’s performances is required and should consider variability related to healthy people performances. Methods. 78 healthy subjects performed several repetitions of daily-life gestures, the reaching movement (RM) and hand-to-mouth (HtMM) movement with both the dominant and nondominant upper limbs. Movements were recorded with a Kinect V2. A synthetic biomechanical protocol based on kinematical, dynamical, and motor control parameters was used to assess motor performance of the healthy people. The investigation was conducted by clustering participants depending on their limb dominancy (right/left), gender (male/female), and age (young/middle/senior) as sources of variability. Results. Results showed that limb dominancy has minor relevance in affecting RM and HtMM; gender has relevance in affecting the HtMM; age has major effect in affecting RM and HtMM. Conclusions. An investigation of healthy subjects’ upper limb performances during daily-life gestures was performed with the Kinect V2 sensor. Findings will be the basis for a database of normative data for neurological patients’ motor evaluation.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Cervical Spine Mechanism for Reproduction of the Biomechanical Behaviours
           of the Human Neck during Rotation-Traction Manipulation

    • Abstract: Rotation-traction (RT) manipulation is a commonly used physical therapy procedure in TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) for cervical spondylosis. This procedure temporarily separates the C3 and C4 cervical vertebrae from each other when a physician applies a jerky action while the neck is voluntarily turned by the patient to a specific position as instructed by the physician, where the cervical vertebrae are twisted and locked. However, a high rate of cervical injury occurs due to inexperienced physician interns who lack sufficient training. Therefore, we developed a cervical spine mechanism that imitates the dynamic behaviours of the human neck during RT manipulation. First, in vivo and in vitro experiments were performed to acquire the biomechanical feature curves of the human neck during RT manipulation. Second, a mass-spring-damper system with an electromagnetic clutch was designed to emulate the entire dynamic response of the human neck. In this system, a spring is designed as rectilinear and nonlinear to capture the viscoelasticity of soft tissues, and an electromagnetic clutch is used to simulate the sudden disengagement of the cervical vertebrae. Test results show that the mechanism can exhibit the desired behaviour when RT manipulation is applied in the same manner as on humans.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Full Step Cycle Kinematic and Kinetic Comparison of Barefoot Walking and a
           Traditional Shoe Walking in Healthy Youth: Insights for Barefoot
           Technology

    • Abstract: Objective. Barefoot technology shoes are becoming increasingly popular, yet modifications are still needed. The present study aims to gain valuable insights by comparing barefoot walking to neutral shoe walking in a healthy youth population. Methods. 28 healthy university students (22 females and 6 males) were recruited to walk on a 10-meter walkway both barefoot and in neutral running shoes at their comfortable walking speed. Full step cycle kinematic and kinetic data were collected using an 8-camera motion capture system. Results. In the early stance phase, the knee extension moment (MK1), the first peak absorbed joint power at the knee joint (PK1), and the flexion angle of knee/dorsiflexion angle of the ankle were significantly reduced when walking in neutral running shoes. However, in the late stance, barefoot walking resulted in decreased hip joint flexion moment (MH2), second peak extension knee moment (MK3), hip flexors absorbed power (PH2), hip flexors generated power (PH3), second peak absorbed power by knee flexors (PK2), and second peak anterior-posterior component of joint force at the hip (APFH2), knee (APFK2), and ankle (APFA2). Conclusions. These results indicate that it should be cautious to discard conventional elements from future running shoe designs and rush to embrace the barefoot technology fashion.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Concept and Design of a 3D Printed Support to Assist Hand Scanning for the
           Realization of Customized Orthosis

    • Abstract: In the rehabilitation field, the use of additive manufacturing techniques to realize customized orthoses is increasingly widespread. Obtaining a 3D model for the 3D printing phase can be done following different methodologies. We consider the creation of personalized upper limb orthoses, also including fingers, starting from the acquisition of the hand geometry through accurate 3D scanning. However, hand scanning procedure presents differences between healthy subjects and patients affected by pathologies that compromise upper limb functionality. In this work, we present the concept and design of a 3D printed support to assist hand scanning of such patients. The device, realized with FDM additive manufacturing techniques in ABS material, allows palmar acquisitions, and its design and test are motivated by the following needs: (1) immobilizing the hand of patients during the palmar scanning to reduce involuntary movements affecting the scanning quality and (2) keeping hands open and in a correct position, especially to contrast the high degree of hypertonicity of spastic subjects. The resulting device can be used indifferently for the right and the left hand; it is provided in four-dimensional sizes and may be also suitable as a palmar support for the acquisition of the dorsal side of the hand.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Nov 2017 06:49:15 +000
       
  • Interaction between Flow Diverter and Parent Artery of Intracranial
           Aneurysm: A Computational Study

    • Abstract: To evaluate the influence of deployment strategy on the mechanical interaction between braided stent and parent artery of intracranial aneurysm (the elasticity of the arterial wall is considered), finite-element analyses are carried out by referring to computational models of flow-diverter device and arterial wall. Two implantation strategies are used to virtually implant the braided stent into the ideal intracranial aneurysm model. One is the noncompacted implantation method, and the other is the implantation method of using push-pull technique. During the process of the implantation, the changes of the arterial shape around the aneurysm and the changes of the wall pressure at the contact area between the braided stent and the inner wall of the artery are analyzed. The results indicate that the average contact pressure in the area of low porosity is 57 mmHg using the push-pull technique, and the average contact pressure of the parent artery is 10.45 mmHg using the non-push-pull technique. The diameter of the parent artery at the aneurismal orifice increased about 0.2 mm when using the push-pull technique, so the elasticity of the vessel should be considered in the mechanical analysis of interaction between stent and vessel.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Oct 2017 10:07:56 +000
       
  • Design and Test Research on Cutting Blade of Corn Harvester Based on
           Bionic Principle

    • Abstract: Existing corn harvester cutting blades have problems associated with large cutting resistance, high energy consumption, and poor cut quality. Using bionics principles, a bionic blade was designed by extracting the cutting tooth profile curve of the B. horsfieldi palate. Using a double-blade cutting device testing system, a single stalk cutting performance contrast test for corn stalks obtained at harvest time was carried out. Results show that bionic blades have superior performance, demonstrated by strong cutting ability and good cut quality. Using statistical analysis of two groups of cutting test data, the average cutting force and cutting energy of bionic blades and ordinary blades were obtained as 480.24 N and 551.31 N and 3.91 J and 4.38 J, respectively. Average maximum cutting force and cutting energy consumption for the bionic blade were reduced by 12.89% and 10.73%, respectively. Variance analysis showed that both blade types had a significant effect on maximum cutting energy and cutting energy required to cut a corn stalk. This demonstrates that bionic blades have better cutting force and energy consumption reduction performance than ordinary blades.
      PubDate: Sun, 22 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Structure and Flexural Properties of Typha Leaves

    • Abstract: The Typha leaf has a structure of lightweight cantilever beam, exhibiting excellent mechanical properties with low density. Especially, the leaf blade evolved high strength and low density with high porosity. In this paper, the structure of Typha leaf was characterized by microcomputed tomography (Micro-CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the relationship with flexural properties was analyzed. The three-point bending test was performed on leaves to examine flexural properties, which indicated that the flexural properties vary from the base to the apex in gradient. The cross-sectional geometry shape of the leaf blade presented a strong influence on the optimized flexural stiffness. The load carrying capacity of the leaf depended on the development level of the epidermal tissue, the vascular bundle, the mechanical tissue, and the geometric properties. The investigation can be the basis for lightweight structure design and the application in the bionic engineering field.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Crashworthiness Design for Bionic Bumper Structures Inspired by Cattail
           and Bamboo

    • Abstract: Many materials in nature exhibit excellent mechanical properties. In this study, we evaluated the bionic bumper structure models by using nonlinear finite element (FE) simulations for their crashworthiness under full-size impact loading. The structure contained the structural characteristics of cattail and bamboo. The results indicated that the bionic design enhances the specific energy absorption (SEA) of the bumper. The numerical results showed that the bionic cross-beam and bionic box of the bionic bumper have a significant effect on the crashworthiness of the structure. The crush deformation of bionic cross-beam and box bumper model was reduced by 33.33%, and the total weight was reduced by 44.44%. As the energy absorption capacity under lateral impact, the bionic design can be used in the future bumper body.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Study on Effects of Titanium Surface Microporous Coatings Containing Zinc
           on Osteoblast Adhesion and Its Antibacterial Activity

    • Abstract: Metal surface structure/biomedical function integration is the current research focus. In previous studies, we have successfully prepared the microporous coatings containing zinc on the pure titanium surface by MAO. In the study, osteoblasts were seeded on the surface of the microporous coatings containing zinc and the adhesion of osteoblasts were evaluated, and the antibacterial activity of the microporous coatings containing zinc is observed through in vitro bacterial experiments. The result indicates that the adhesion ability of osteoblasts on the surface of microporous coatings containing zinc was very good, and the coatings could obviously inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and had good antibacterial activity. In conclusion, the microporous coatings containing zinc on titanium surface have good osteogenic and antibacterial properties and have good application prospect.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Oct 2017 06:26:03 +000
       
  • Using a Bayesian Network to Predict L5/S1 Spinal Compression Force from
           Posture, Hand Load, Anthropometry, and Disc Injury Status

    • Abstract: Stochastic biomechanical modeling has become a useful tool most commonly implemented using Monte Carlo simulation, advanced mean value theorem, or Markov chain modeling. Bayesian networks are a novel method for probabilistic modeling in artificial intelligence, risk modeling, and machine learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of Bayesian networks for biomechanical modeling using a static biomechanical model of spinal forces during lifting. A 20-node Bayesian network model was used to implement a well-established static two-dimensional biomechanical model for predicting L5/S1 compression and shear forces. The model was also implemented as a Monte Carlo simulation in MATLAB. Mean L5/S1 spinal compression force estimates differed by 0.8%, and shear force estimates were the same. The model was extended to incorporate evidence about disc injury, which can modify the prior probability estimates to provide posterior probability estimates of spinal compression force. An example showed that changing disc injury status from false to true increased the estimate of mean L5/S1 compression force by 14.7%. This work shows that Bayesian networks can be used to implement a whole-body biomechanical model used in occupational biomechanics and incorporate disc injury.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Analysis of Drag Reduction Methods and Mechanisms of Turbulent

    • Abstract: Turbulent flow is a difficult issue in fluid dynamics, the rules of which have not been totally revealed up to now. Fluid in turbulent state will result in a greater frictional force, which must consume great energy. Therefore, it is not only an important influence in saving energy and improving energy utilization rate but also an extensive application prospect in many fields, such as ship domain and aerospace. Firstly, bionic drag reduction technology is reviewed and is a hot research issue now, the drag reduction mechanism of body surface structure is analyzed, such as sharks, earthworms, and dolphins. Besides, we make a thorough study of drag reduction characteristics and mechanisms of microgrooved surface and compliant wall. Then, the relevant drag reduction technologies and mechanisms are discussed, focusing on the microbubbles, the vibrant flexible wall, the coating, the polymer drag reduction additives, superhydrophobic surface, jet surface, traveling wave surface drag reduction, and the composite drag reduction methods. Finally, applications and advancements of the drag reduction technology in turbulence are prospected.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Sep 2017 07:10:54 +000
       
  • A Survey of Bioinspired Jumping Robot: Takeoff, Air Posture Adjustment,
           and Landing Buffer

    • Abstract: A bioinspired jumping robot has a strong ability to overcome obstacles. It can be applied to the occasion with complex and changeable environment, such as detection of planet surface, postdisaster relief, and military reconnaissance. So the bioinspired jumping robot has broad application prospect. The jumping process of the robot can be divided into three stages: takeoff, air posture adjustment, and landing buffer. The motivation of this review is to investigate the research results of the most published bioinspired jumping robots for these three stages. Then, the movement performance of the bioinspired jumping robots is analyzed and compared quantitatively. Then, the limitation of the research on bioinspired jumping robots is discussed, such as the research on the mechanism of biological motion is not thorough enough, the research method about structural design, material applications, and control are still traditional, and energy utilization is low, which make the robots far from practical applications. Finally, the development trend is summarized. This review provides a reference for further research of bioinspired jumping robots.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2017 02:02:36 +000
       
  • New Design of a Soft Robotics Wearable Elbow Exoskeleton Based on Shape
           Memory Alloy Wire Actuators

    • Abstract: The elbow joint is a complex articulation composed of the humeroulnar and humeroradial joints (for flexion-extension movement) and the proximal radioulnar articulation (for pronation-supination movement). During the flexion-extension movement of the elbow joint, the rotation center changes and this articulation cannot be truly represented as a simple hinge joint. The main goal of this project is to design and assemble a medical rehabilitation exoskeleton for the elbow with one degree of freedom for flexion-extension, using the rotation center for proper patient elbow joint articulation. Compared with the current solutions, which align the exoskeleton axis with the elbow axis, this offers an ergonomic physical human-robot interface with a comfortable interaction. The exoskeleton is actuated with shape memory alloy wire-based actuators having minimum rigid parts, for guiding the actuators. Thanks to this unusual actuation system, the proposed exoskeleton is lightweight and has low noise in operation with a simple design 3D-printed structure. Using this exoskeleton, these advantages will improve the medical rehabilitation process of patients that suffered stroke and will influence how their lifestyle will change to recover from these diseases and improve their ability with activities of daily living, thanks to brain plasticity. The exoskeleton can also be used to evaluate the real status of a patient, with stroke and even spinal cord injury, thanks to an elbow movement analysis.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Macrodamage Accumulation Model for a Human Femur

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to more fully understand the mechanical behavior of bone tissue that is important to find an alternative material to be used as an implant and to develop an accurate model to predict the fracture of the bone. Predicting and preventing bone failure is an important area in orthopaedics. In this paper, the macrodamage accumulation models in the bone tissue have been investigated. Phenomenological models for bone damage have been discussed in detail. In addition, 3D finite element model of the femur prepared from imaging data with both cortical and trabecular structures is delineated using MIMICS and ANSYS® and simulated as a composite structure. The damage accumulation occurring during cyclic loading was analyzed for fatigue scenario. We found that the damage accumulates sooner in the multiaxial than in the uniaxial loading condition for the same number of cycles, and the failure starts in the cortical bone. The damage accumulation behavior seems to follow a three-stage growth: a primary phase, a secondary phase of damage growth marked by linear damage growth, and a tertiary phase that leads to failure. Finally, the stiffness of the composite bone comprising the cortical and trabecular bone was significantly different as expected.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Prediction of Epileptic Seizure by Analysing Time Series EEG Signal Using
           -NN Classifier

    • Abstract: Electroencephalographic signal is a representative signal that contains information about brain activity, which is used for the detection of epilepsy since epileptic seizures are caused by a disturbance in the electrophysiological activity of the brain. The prediction of epileptic seizure usually requires a detailed and experienced analysis of EEG. In this paper, we have introduced a statistical analysis of EEG signal that is capable of recognizing epileptic seizure with a high degree of accuracy and helps to provide automatic detection of epileptic seizure for different ages of epilepsy. To accomplish the target research, we extract various epileptic features namely approximate entropy (ApEn), standard deviation (SD), standard error (SE), modified mean absolute value (MMAV), roll-off (), and zero crossing (ZC) from the epileptic signal. The -nearest neighbours (-NN) algorithm is used for the classification of epilepsy then regression analysis is used for the prediction of the epilepsy level at different ages of the patients. Using the statistical parameters and regression analysis, a prototype mathematical model is proposed which helps to find the epileptic randomness with respect to the age of different subjects. The accuracy of this prototype equation depends on proper analysis of the dynamic information from the epileptic EEG.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Comparison of Machine Learning Methods for the Arterial Hypertension
           Diagnostics

    • Abstract: The paper presents results of machine learning approach accuracy applied analysis of cardiac activity. The study evaluates the diagnostics possibilities of the arterial hypertension by means of the short-term heart rate variability signals. Two groups were studied: 30 relatively healthy volunteers and 40 patients suffering from the arterial hypertension of II-III degree. The following machine learning approaches were studied: linear and quadratic discriminant analysis, k-nearest neighbors, support vector machine with radial basis, decision trees, and naive Bayes classifier. Moreover, in the study, different methods of feature extraction are analyzed: statistical, spectral, wavelet, and multifractal. All in all, 53 features were investigated. Investigation results show that discriminant analysis achieves the highest classification accuracy. The suggested approach of noncorrelated feature set search achieved higher results than data set based on the principal components.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 09:27:07 +000
       
  • Ankle-Foot Orthosis Made by 3D Printing Technique and Automated Design
           Software

    • Abstract: We described 3D printing technique and automated design software and clinical results after the application of this AFO to a patient with a foot drop. After acquiring a 3D modelling file of a patient’s lower leg with peroneal neuropathy by a 3D scanner, we loaded this file on the automated orthosis software and created the “STL” file. The designed AFO was printed using a fused filament fabrication type 3D printer, and a mechanical stress test was performed. The patient alternated between the 3D-printed and conventional AFOs for 2 months. There was no crack or damage, and the shape and stiffness of the AFO did not change after the durability test. The gait speed increased after wearing the conventional AFO (56.5 cm/sec) and 3D-printed AFO (56.5 cm/sec) compared to that without an AFO (42.2 cm/sec). The patient was more satisfied with the 3D-printed AFO than the conventional AFO in terms of the weight and ease of use. The 3D-printed AFO exhibited similar functionality as the conventional AFO and considerably satisfied the patient in terms of the weight and ease of use. We suggest the possibility of the individualized AFO with 3D printing techniques and automated design software.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
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