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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3206 journals)
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BIOLOGY (1533 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1720 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Biologica Colombiana     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Biologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Biologica Sibirica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biologica Turcica     Open Access  
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Acta Biotheoretica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chiropterologica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
acta ethologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Médica Costarricense     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales     Open Access  
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Acta Parasitologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades Biológicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Health Care Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Studies in Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cell Biology/ Medical Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Environmental Sciences - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Regenerative Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences     Open Access  
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Range & Forage Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AFRREV STECH : An International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Aging Cell     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agrokreatif Jurnal Ilmiah Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat     Open Access  
AJP Cell Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Al-Kauniyah : Jurnal Biologi     Open Access  
Alasbimn Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alces : A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Biology Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
American Fern Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Plant Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Primatology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Malacological Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Naturalist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
Amphibia-Reptilia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Anadol University Journal of Science and Technology B : Theoritical Sciences     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Analytical Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anatomical Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Animal Cells and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annales françaises d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de Pathologie Cervico-faciale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annales Henri Poincaré     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Applied Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Annals of Human Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Biophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Cancer Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Phytopathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anthropological Review     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antibiotics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Antioxidants     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Apidologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Apmis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
APOPTOSIS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biology     Open Access  
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Vegetation Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Aquaculture Environment Interactions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Aquaculture International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Aquaculture Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Aquatic Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aquatic Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aquatic Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aquatic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archiv für Molluskenkunde: International Journal of Malacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Biological Sciences     Open Access  
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Natural History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Oral Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arid Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos do Instituto Biológico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquivos do Museu Dinâmico Interdisciplinar     Open Access  
Arthropod Structure & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Arthropods     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Bioethics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Biological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Nematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Poultry Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti - Classe di Scienze Medico-Biologiche     Open Access  
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Mammalogy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Avian Biology Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Avian Conservation and Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bacteriology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bacteriophage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Batman Üniversitesi Yaşam Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Berita Biologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Between the Species     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bio Tribune Magazine     Hybrid Journal  
BIO Web of Conferences     Open Access  
BIO-Complexity     Open Access  
Bio-Grafía. Escritos sobre la Biología y su enseñanza     Open Access  
Bioanalytical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
BioCentury Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioControl     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biocontrol Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biodemography and Social Biology     Hybrid Journal  
BioDiscovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biodiversidade e Conservação Marinha : Revista CEPSUL     Open Access  
Biodiversitas : Journal of Biological Diversity     Open Access  
Biodiversity Data Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biodiversity Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodiversity Information Science and Standards     Open Access  
Biodiversity: Research and Conservation     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Bioedukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UM Metro     Open Access  
Bioeksperimen : Jurnal Penelitian Biologi     Open Access  
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioelectromagnetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioenergy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bioengineering and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioEssays     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bioethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
BioéthiqueOnline     Open Access  
Biofabrication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biofilms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biogeosciences (BG)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Biogeosciences Discussions (BGD)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 323)
Bioinformatics and Biology Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspiration & Biomimetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biojournal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
BioLink : Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan, Industri, Kesehatan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biologia     Hybrid Journal  
Biologia on-line : Revista de divulgació de la Facultat de Biologia     Open Access  
Biological Bulletin     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Biological Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biological Invasions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last

Journal Cover
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.288
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 7  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1176-2322 - ISSN (Online) 1754-2103
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Validity and Reliability of Upper Limb Functional Assessment Using the
           Microsoft Kinect V2 Sensor

    • Abstract: Objective. To quantify the concurrent accuracy and the test-retest reliability of a Kinect V2-based upper limb functional assessment system. Approach. Ten healthy males performed a series of upper limb movements, which were measured concurrently with Kinect V2 and the Vicon motion capture system (gold standard). Each participant attended two testing sessions, seven days apart. Four tasks were performed including hand to contralateral shoulder, hand to mouth, combing hair, and hand to back pocket. Upper limb kinematics were calculated using our developed kinematic model and the UWA model for Kinect V2 and Vicon. The interdevice coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC) and the root mean squared error (RMSE) were used to evaluate the validity of the kinematic waveforms. Mean absolute bias and Pearson’s correlation were used to evaluate the validity of the angles at the points of target achieved (PTA) and the range of motion (ROM). The intersession CMC and RMSE and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to assess the test-retest reliability of Kinect V2. Main Results. Both validity and reliability are found to be task-dependent and plane-dependent. Kinect V2 had good accuracy in measuring shoulder and elbow flexion/extension angular waveforms (), moderate accuracy of measuring shoulder adduction/abduction angular waveforms (-0.82), and poor accuracy of measuring shoulder internal/external angles (). We also found high test-retest reliability of Kinect V2 in most of the upper limb angular waveforms (-0.99), angles at the PTA (-0.91), and the ROM (-0.96). Significance. Kinect V2 has great potential as a low-cost, easy implemented device for assessing upper limb angular waveforms when performing functional tasks. The system is suitable for assessing relative within-person change in upper limb motions over time, such as disease progression or improvement due to intervention.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Feb 2019 07:05:24 +000
       
  • A Comparative Analysis of Standardised Threads for Use in Implants for
           Direct Skeletal Attachment of Limb Prosthesis: A Finite Element Analysis

    • Abstract: The aim of the research was to determine the optimal thread’s shape to be used in implants for direct skeletal attachment of limb prosthesis. In addition, by testing appropriate parameters’ modification of the suitable thread, an attempt was made to maximise its effectiveness. The analyses included three thread types described in the ISO standards: shallow, symmetrical, and asymmetrical. The obtained results suggest that shallow thread ensures the lowest equivalent and directional stress peaks generated in the bone as well as favourable stress patterns and profiles during implant loading in relation to symmetrical and asymmetrical threads. Moreover, shallow thread ensured the generation of single equivalent and directional stress peaks, while symmetrical and asymmetrical threads provided additional stress peak for equivalent as well as for each of directional peaks. Subsequently, optimisation of the shallow thread’s shape was conducted by changing two relevant thread’s parameters (flank angle and rounding arc) which influence the generated stress distribution. The highest reduction of stress peaks was obtained while reducing the rounding arc by 0.2 mm. Therefore, it can be stated that the proposed modification of the HA thread can lead to obtaining a higher biomechanical effectiveness of implants for direct skeletal attachment of limb prosthesis.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Feb 2019 09:05:26 +000
       
  • Increased Perceptual and Motor Performance of the Arms of Elite Water Polo
           Players

    • Abstract: Background. It has been stated that long-term participation in sport training can influence the motor asymmetry of the arms with a decreased interlimb difference. However, whether this pattern is observable in different sports and with different variables, like perceptual performance, still needs to be tested. Therefore, we investigated if long-term sports participation might modify the motor and perceptual performance asymmetries of arms in water polo players. It was hypothesized that water polo players would perform with less interlimb asymmetry in comparison to nonathletes. Methods. Right-handed water polo players and nonathletes were tested on motor performance for both arms during a reaching task. Thirteen water polo players and thirteen nonathletes performed reaching movements under two experimental conditions: (a) right arm and (b) left arm. Velocity, accuracy, hand path deviation from linearity, and reaction time were calculated for each trial and for both arms. The potential interlimb differences in movement performance could be assessed by testing. Results. Consistent with the hypothesis, our findings showed that water polo players displayed substantially less asymmetry in the performance of accuracy and reaction time. Conclusions. These findings suggest that performance asymmetries of arms can be altered via intense long-term practice.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Feb 2019 11:05:01 +000
       
  • Research on the Design Method of a Bionic Suspension Workpiece Based on
           the Wing Structure of an Albatross

    • Abstract: An air suspension platform uses air pressure to realize the suspension function during the suspension process, and it has the disadvantage of large air pressure and a small suspension force. In this study, an air suspension platform was built using bionic design to reduce the required air pressure and increase the suspension force. A suspension structure mapping model was established according to the physiological structure characteristics of albatross wings. A bionic model was established by using the theoretical calculation formula and structural size parameters of the structural design. A 3D printer was used to manufacture the physical prototype of the suspended workpiece. Based on this, a suspension test rig was built. Six sets of contrast experiments were designed. The experimental results of the suspension test bench were compared with the theoretical calculation results. The results show that the buoyancy of the suspended workpiece with a V-shaped surface at a 15-degree attack angle was optimal for the same air pressure as the other workpieces. The surface structure of the suspended workpiece was applied to the air static pressure guide rail. By comparing the experimental data, the air pressure of the original air suspension guide rail was reduced by 37%, and the validity of the theory and design method was verified.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Feb 2019 13:05:00 +000
       
  • Development of a Mechanistic Hypothesis Linking Compensatory Biomechanics
           and Stepping Asymmetry during Gait of Transfemoral Amputees

    • Abstract: Objective. Gait asymmetry is a common adaptation observed in lower-extremity amputees, but the underlying mechanisms that explain this gait behavior remain unclear for amputees that use above-knee prostheses. Our objective was to develop a working hypothesis to explain chronic stepping asymmetry in otherwise healthy amputees that use above-knee prostheses. Methods. Two amputees (both through-knee; one with microprocessor knee, one with hydraulic knee) and fourteen control subjects participated. 3D kinematics and kinetics were acquired at normal, fast, and slow walking speeds. Data were analyzed for the push-off and collision limbs during a double support phase. We examined gait parameters to identify the stepping asymmetry then examined the external work rate (centre of mass) and internal (joint) power profiles to formulate a working hypothesis to mechanistically explain the observed stepping asymmetry. Results. Stepping asymmetry at all three gait speeds in amputees was characterized by increased stance phase duration of the intact limb versus relatively normal stance phase duration for the prosthesis limb. The prosthesis limb contributed very little to positive and negative work during the double support phase of gait. To compensate, the intact leg at heel strike first provided aid to the deficient prosthetic ankle/foot during its push-off by doing positive work with the intact knee, which caused a delayed stance phase pattern. The resulting delay in toe-off of the intact limb then facilitated the energy transfer from the more robust intact push-off limb to the weaker colliding prosthesis side. This strategy was observed for both amputees. Conclusions. There is a sound scientific rationale for a mechanistic hypothesis that stepping asymmetry in amputee participants is a result of a motor adaptation that is both facilitating the lower-leg trajectory enforced by the prosthesis while compensating for the lack of work done by the prosthesis, the cost of which is increased energy expenditure of the intact knee and both hips.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Effect of Mechanical Overloading on Surface Roughness of the Coronary
           Arteries

    • Abstract: Background. Surface roughness can be used to identify disease within biological tissues. Quantifying surface roughness in the coronary arteries aids in developing treatments for coronary heart disease. This study investigates the effect of extreme physiological loading on surface roughness, for example, due to a rupture of an artery. Methods. The porcine left anterior descending (LAD) coronary arteries were dissected ex vivo. Mechanical overloading was applied to the arteries in the longitudinal direction to simulate extreme physiological loading. Surface roughness was calculated from three-dimensional reconstructed images. Surface roughness was measured before and after damage and after chemical processing to dehydrate tissue specimens. Results. Control specimens confirmed that dehydration alone results in an increase of surface roughness in the circumferential direction only. No variation was noted between the hydrated healthy and damaged specimens, in both the longitudinal ( and ) and circumferential ( and ) directions. After dehydration, an increase in surface roughness was noted for damaged specimens in both the longitudinal () and circumferential () directions. Conclusions. Mechanical overloading applied in the longitudinal direction did not significantly affect surface roughness. However, when combined with chemical processing, a significant increase in surface roughness was noted in both the circumferential and longitudinal directions. Mechanical overloading causes damage to the internal constituents of the arteries, which is significantly noticeable after dehydration of tissue.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Jan 2019 07:05:28 +000
       
  • A Biomechanical Analysis of Lower Limb Movement on the Backcourt Forehand
           Clear Stroke among Badminton Players of Different Levels

    • Abstract: Most of the previous studies have been focused on the upper limb biomechanical characteristic in the clear stroke among different level badminton players, but research on the lower limb is limited. The aim of this study is to explore the lower limb kinematics and foot pressure in the backcourt forehand clear stroke among badminton players to give theoretical reference in teaching and answer the questions occurring in the process of learning the actions. Ten professional badminton players (PP) and ten amateur players (AP) were recruited in this study. Plantar pressure analyses indicated that both the PP and the AP were in contact with the ground over the forefoot without the midfoot and heel. The work suggests that when designing professional badminton sports shoes, the designers should focus on strengthening footwear resistance in the metatarsal and forefoot area, especially the first metatarsal area, to meet the requirement of the movement demand and take the badminton movement characteristics in different regions of the design. The peak ankle dorsiflexion, eversion, and internal rotation angle levels of the AP are lower than those of the PP. It is important for the AP group to enhance their ankle strength to prevent injury and improve performance.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Jan 2019 13:05:09 +000
       
  • Bionics and Human Biomechanics Applied in Intelligent Crash Tests of Cars

    • PubDate: Tue, 08 Jan 2019 08:05:10 +000
       
  • Measurement of Flexion Angle of the Finger Joint during Cylinder Gripping
           Using a Three-Dimensional Bone Model Built by X-Ray Computed Tomography

    • Abstract: Motion analysis of the thumb and the four fingers during human gripping of a cylindrical object is a prerequisite for designing motion mechanisms in electronic arm prostheses and robotic hands. Conventional measurement methods include the use of angle sensors or multiple video recording of markers. In the present study, we performed X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging on fingers gripping cylinders of three different diameters (10, 60, and 120 mm) and constructed a bone model based on these CT images to directly measure the flexion angle of each finger joint. We then compared the results with the flexion angles of joints measured using other methods. The subjects comprised 10 Japanese men with no hand injuries or diseases. Our results showed that smaller cylinder diameters were associated with significant increases in the flexion angle of all the joints of the four fingers. When focusing on the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP), there was no significant difference between any of the fingers for each of the cylinders, except between the index and middle fingers for the 10 mm-diameter cylinder. When focusing on the 10 mm-diameter cylinder, the flexion angle of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) of each finger was significantly larger than that of the DIP and metacarpophalangeal joint (MP). However, no such significant difference was noted for the 120 mm-diameter cylinder. The coupling ratio (CR), which is the ratio of the flexion angles of the DIP and PIP, was significantly smaller for the 10 mm-diameter cylinder than for the 60 mm-diameter cylinder. However, there were no significant differences in CR between any of the fingers. A comparison of our study results with those derived using other methods indicated quantitative consistency for the DIP and PIP. However, for the MP, we noted differences that may be explained by the difficulty in determining the longitudinal axis of the metacarpal using other methods.
      PubDate: Sun, 06 Jan 2019 13:05:03 +000
       
  • Effect of Low-Frequency Vibration on Muscle Response under Different
           Neurointact Conditions

    • Abstract: Stretch reflex is an important factor that influences the biomechanical response of the human body under whole-body vibration. However, there is a lack of quantitative evaluation at lower frequencies. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vibration on the stretch reflex and, in particular, to explore the quantitative relationship between dynamic muscle responses and low-frequency vibrations. The gastrocnemius muscle of 45 Sprague-Dawley rats was dissected. Sinusoidal vibrations of five discrete frequencies (2~16 Hz) with peak-to-peak amplitudes of 1 mm were applied to the gastrocnemius muscles with 2 mm or 3 mm prelengthening. Variables including dynamic muscle force, vibration acceleration, and displacement were recorded in two conditions, with and without the stretch reflex. Results showed that the dynamic muscle forces decreased by 20% on average for the 2 mm prelengthening group after the stretch reflex was blocked and by 24% for the 3 mm prelengthening group. Statistical analysis indicated that the amplitude of dynamic muscle force in the “with stretch reflex” condition was significantly larger than that in the “without stretch reflex” condition (). The tension-length curve was found to be a nonlinear hysteresis loop that changed with frequency. The phase difference between the dynamic muscle force and the length change was affected significantly by vibration frequency (), and the minimum frequency was 4–8 Hz. Experimental results of this study could benefit musculoskeletal model by providing a theoretical support to build a stretch reflex model for low-frequency vibration.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Jan 2019 08:05:09 +000
       
  • Assessment of Long-Term Badminton Experience on Foot Posture Index and
           Plantar Pressure Distribution

    • Abstract: This study was aimed to analyze the foot posture index and plantar pressure characteristics of fifteen badminton players and fifteen controls. The hypothesis was that people with the habit of playing badminton would be significantly different with nonplaying people in foot posture index, 3D foot surface data, and plantar pressure distribution. Nine regions of plantar pressure were measured by using the EMED force platform, and badminton players showed significantly higher peak pressure in the hallux (), medial heel (), and lateral heel () and force-time integral in the hallux (), medial heel (), and lateral heel (). There is no asymmetrical plantar pressure distribution between the left foot and the right foot of players. The mean foot posture index values of male and female badminton players are 5.2 ± 1.95 and 5.7 ± 1.15, respectively, and comparatively, those values of male and female controls are 1.5 ± 1.73 and 1.7 ± 4.16, respectively. This study shows that significant differences in morphology between people with the habit of playing badminton and people without that habit could be taken as a factor for a future study in locomotion biomechanics characteristics and foot shape of badminton players and in a footwear design in order to reduce injury risks.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Jan 2019 09:50:31 +000
       
  • Presentation of an Approach on Determination of the Natural Frequency of
           Human Lumbar Spine Using Dynamic Finite Element Analysis

    • Abstract: Occurring resonance may negatively affect the health of the human lumbar spine. Hence, vibration generated in working and living environments should be optimized to avoid resonance when identifying the natural frequency of the human lumbar spine. The range of the natural frequency of the human lumbar spine has been investigated, but its specific numerical value has not been determined yet. This study aimed at presenting an approach based on resonance for predicting the specific numerical value of the natural frequency of the human lumbar spine. The changes in the numerical fluctuation amplitudes and the cycles of lumbar mechanical parameters during resonance are greater than those during nonresonant vibration. Given that the range of the natural frequency has been identified, vibrations at different excitation frequencies within this range can be applied in a human lumbar finite element model for dynamic finite element analysis. When the excitation frequency is close to the natural frequency, resonance occurs, causing great changes in the numerical fluctuation amplitudes and the cycles of lumbar mechanical parameters. Therefore, the natural frequency of the lumbar finite element model could be back-calculated. Results showed that the natural frequency of the established model was 3.5 Hz. Meanwhile, the closer the excitation frequency was to the natural frequency, the greater the changes in the numerical fluctuation amplitudes and cycles in the parameters would be. This study presented an approach for predicting the specific numerical value of the natural frequency of the human lumbar spine. Identifying the natural frequency assists in finding preventive measures for lumbar injury caused by vibration and in designing the vibration source in working and living environments to avoid approximating to the natural frequency of the human lumbar spine.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Jan 2019 09:20:44 +000
       
  • Gait-Specific Optimization of Composite Footwear Midsole Systems,
           Facilitated through Dynamic Finite Element Modelling

    • Abstract: Objective. During the last century, running shoes have been subject to drastic changes with incremental however improvements as to injury prevention. This may be, among others, due to the limited insight that experimental methodologies can provide on their 3D in situ response. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of finite element (FE) modelling techniques, in optimizing a midsole system as to the provided cushioning capacity. Methods. A commercial running shoe was scanned by means of micro computed tomography and its gel-based midsole, reverse-engineered to a 200 μm accuracy. The resulting 3D model was subjected to biorealistic loading and boundary conditions, in terms of time-varying plantar pressure distribution and shoe-ground contact constraints. The mesh grid of the FE model was verified as to its conceptual soundness and validated against velocity-driven impact tests. Nonlinear material properties were assigned to all entities and the model subjected to a dynamic FE analysis. An optimization function (based on energy absorption criteria) was employed to determine the optimum gel volume and position, as to accommodate sequential cushioning in the rear-, mid-, and forefoot, of runner during stance phase. Results. The in situ developing stress fields suggest that the shock dissipating properties of the midsole could be significantly improved. Altering the position of the gel pads and varying their volume led to different midsole responses that could be tuned more efficiently to the specific strike and pronation pattern. Conclusions. The results suggest that midsole design can be significantly improved through biorealistic FE modelling, thus providing a new platform for the conceptual redesign and/or optimization of modern footwear.
      PubDate: Sun, 23 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Upper Limb Neuromuscular Activities and Synergies Comparison between Elite
           and Nonelite Athletics in Badminton Overhead Forehand Smash

    • Abstract: This study is aimed at comparing muscle activations and synergies in badminton forehand overhead smash (BFOS) between elite and nonelite players to clarify how the central nervous system (CNS) controls neuromuscular synergy and activation to generate complex overhead movements. EMG of five upper limb muscles was recorded through surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes from twenty players. Athletics is divided into two groups: elite and nonelite. Eventually, nonnegative matrix factorization (NNMF) was utilized to the calculated electromyography signals for muscle synergy comparison. Similarities between elite and nonelite groups were calculated by scalar product method. Results presented that three muscles synergies could sufficiently delineate the found electromyography signals for elite and nonelite players. Individual muscle patterns were moderately to highly similar between elite and nonelite groups (between-group similarity range: 0.52 to 0.90). In addition, high similarities between groups were found for the shape of synergy activation coefficients (range: 0.85 to 0.89). These results indicate that the synergistic organization of muscle coordination during badminton forehand overhead smash is not profoundly affected by expertise.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2018 07:45:11 +000
       
  • Muscle Synergies: Use and Validation in Clinics, Robotics, and Sports

    • PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Biobjective Optimization Algorithms Using Neumann Series Expansion for
           Engineering Design

    • Abstract: In this paper, two novel algorithms are designed for solving biobjective optimization engineering problems. In order to obtain the optimal solutions of the biobjective optimization problems in a fast and accurate manner, the algorithms, which have combined Newton’s method with Neumann series expansion as well as the weighted sum method, are applied to deal with two objectives, and the Pareto optimal front is achieved through adjusting weighted factors. Theoretical analysis and numerical examples demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. Moreover, an effective biobjective optimization strategy, which is based upon the two algorithms and the surrogate model method, is developed for engineering problems. The effectiveness of the optimization strategy is proved by its application to the optimal design of the dummy head structure in the car crash experiments.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Study on Three-Dimensional Digital Expression and Robot Bending Method of
           Orthodontic Archwire

    • Abstract: Malocclusion is the third largest oral disease in the world. At present, the most effective treatment method for malocclusion is the fixed orthodontic technique based on orthodontic archwires. Robotic archwire bending can overcome the shortcomings of manual bending such as low efficiency and low precision. The three-dimensional digital expression and robot bending method of orthodontic archwire are studied to realize the orthodontic archwire bending using a robot. Tooth is identified by the doctors’ common method. The shape, position, and constraint relationship of orthodontic archwire in three-dimensional space are expressed by the Bessel curve. The bending of the archwire curve is realized by transmitting the archwire curve into the alternative lines. The planning method of forming points and the spatial angle planning method are proposed. The archwire bending experiment is carried out with the maxillary information of a patient. The error rate of the experimental and ideal values is between 2.94% and 6.74%. It can meet the physician’s basic requirements after simple modification. Therefore, it can be considered that the method of using discrete Bessel curve to carry out the control point planning and angle planning is suitable for the orthodontic archwire-bending robot system, which has certain feasibility and practicability in clinical treatment.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Systematic Review of Continuum Modeling of Skeletal Muscles: Current
           Trends, Limitations, and Recommendations

    • Abstract: Finite elasticity theory has been commonly used to model skeletal muscle. A very large range of heterogeneous constitutive laws has been proposed. In this review, the most widely used continuum models of skeletal muscles were synthetized and discussed. Trends and limitations of these laws were highlighted to propose new recommendations for future researches. A systematic review process was performed using two reliable search engines as PubMed and ScienceDirect. 40 representative studies (13 passive muscle materials and 27 active muscle materials) were included into this review. Note that exclusion criteria include tendon models, analytical models, 1D geometrical models, supplement papers, and indexed conference papers. Trends of current skeletal muscle modeling relate to 3D accurate muscle representation, parameter identification in passive muscle modeling, and the integration of coupled biophysical phenomena. Parameter identification for active materials, assumed fiber distribution, data assumption, and model validation are current drawbacks. New recommendations deal with the incorporation of multimodal data derived from medical imaging, the integration of more biophysical phenomena, and model reproducibility. Accounting for data uncertainty in skeletal muscle modeling will be also a challenging issue. This review provides, for the first time, a holistic view of current continuum models of skeletal muscles to identify potential gaps of current models according to the physiology of skeletal muscle. This opens new avenues for improving skeletal muscle modeling in the framework of in silico medicine.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Bionic Design of the Bumper Beam Inspired by the Bending and Energy
           Absorption Characteristics of Bamboo

    • Abstract: This study conducted quasistatic three-point bending tests to investigate the effect of bamboo node on the energy absorption, bending, and deformation characteristics of bamboo. Results showed that the node had a reinforcing effect on the energy absorption and bending strength of the bamboo culm subjected to bending load. The experimental results demonstrated that nodal samples (NS) significantly outperform internodal samples without node (INS). Under the three-point bending load, the main failure mode of bamboo is the fracture failure. The node also showed split and fracture prevention function obviously. Based on that, a series of bionic bumper beams were designed inspired by the bamboo node. The FEM results indicated that the performance of bionic bumpers was better than that of a normal bumper with regard to bending strength, energy absorption, and being lightweight. In particular, the bionic bumper beam has the best performance with regard to bending, energy absorption, and being lightweight compared with the normal bumper under pole impact. The characteristic of the bionic bumper beam is higher than that of the normal bumper beam by 12.3% for bending strength, 36.9% for EA, and 31.4% for SEA; moreover, there was a mass reduction of 4.9%, which still needs further optimization.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Development of High-Performance Soft Robotic Fish by Numerical Coupling
           Analysis

    • Abstract: To design a soft robotic fish with high performance by a biomimetic method, we are developing a soft robotic fish using piezoelectric fiber composite (PFC) as a flexible actuator. Compared with the conventional rigid robotic fish, the design and control of a soft robotic fish are difficult due to large deformation of flexible structure and complicated coupling dynamics with fluid. That is why the design and control method of soft robotic fish have not been established and they motivate us to make a further study by considering the interaction between flexible structure and surrounding fluid. In this paper, acoustic fluid-structural coupling analysis is applied to consider the fluid effect and predict the dynamic responses of soft robotic fish in the fluid. Basic governing equations of soft robotic fish in the fluid are firstly described. The numerical coupling analysis is then carried out based on different structural parameters of soft robotic fish. Through the numerical analysis, a new soft robotic fish is finally designed, and experimental evaluation is performed. It is confirmed that the larger swimming velocity and better fish-like swimming performance are obtained from the new soft robotic fish. The new soft robotic fish is developed successfully for high performance.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Nov 2018 04:15:42 +000
       
  • A Muscle-Specific Rehabilitation Training Method Based on Muscle
           Activation and the Optimal Load Orientation Concept

    • Abstract: Training based on muscle-oriented repetitive movements has been shown to be beneficial for the improvement of movement abilities in human limbs in relation to fitness, athletic training, and rehabilitation training. In this paper, a muscle-specific rehabilitation training method based on the optimal load orientation concept (OLOC) was proposed for patients whose motor neurons are injured, but whose muscles and tendons are intact, to implement high-efficiency resistance training for the shoulder muscles, which is one of the most complex joints in the human body. A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model of the human shoulder was used to predict muscle forces experienced during shoulder movements, in which muscles that contributed to shoulder motion were divided into 31 muscle bundles, and the Hill model was used to characterize the force-length properties of the muscle. According to the musculoskeletal model, muscle activation was calculated to represent the muscle force. Thus, training based on OLOC was proposed by maximizing the activation of a specific muscle under each posture of the training process. The analysis indicated that the muscle-specific rehabilitation training method based on the OLOC significantly improved the training efficiency for specific muscles. The method could also be used for trajectory planning, load magnitude planning, and evaluation of training effects.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • On the Reliability and Repeatability of Surface Electromyography
           Factorization by Muscle Synergies in Daily Life Activities

    • Abstract: Muscle synergy theory is a new appealing approach for different research fields. This study is aimed at evaluating the robustness of EMG reconstruction via muscle synergies and the repeatability of muscle synergy parameters as potential neurophysiological indices. Eight healthy subjects performed walking, stepping, running, and ascending and descending stairs’ trials for five repetitions in three sessions. Twelve muscles of the dominant leg were analyzed. The “nonnegative matrix factorization” and “variability account for” were used to extract muscle synergies and to assess EMG goodness reconstruction, respectively. Intraclass correlation was used to quantify methodology reliability. Cosine similarity and coefficient of determination assessed the repeatability of the muscle synergy vectors and the temporal activity patterns, respectively. A 4-synergy model was selected for EMG signal factorization. Intraclass correlation was excellent for the overall reconstruction, while it ranged from fair to excellent for single muscles. The EMG reconstruction was found repeatable across sessions and subjects. Considering the selection of neurophysiological indices, the number of synergies was not repeatable neither within nor between subjects. Conversely, the cosine similarity and coefficient of determination values allow considering the muscle synergy vectors and the temporal activity patterns as potential neurophysiological indices due to their similarity both within and between subjects. More specifically, some synergies in the 4-synergy model reveal themselves as more repeatable than others, suggesting focusing on them when seeking at the neurophysiological index identification.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Development and Validation of Dummies and Human Models Used in Crash Test

    • Abstract: The crash test dummy, an important tool for car crash safety tests, is of great significance to explore the injury biomechanics of the occupants and improve the safety performance of the vehicle. The article mainly consists of four parts: brief introduction of injury mechanism, early experiments for obtaining biomechanical response (animal tests, cadaver tests, and volunteer tests), and development and validation of mechanical dummies and computational models. This study finds that the current crash test dummies are generally designed based on European and American, so they have limitations on the damage prediction of other regions. Further research in the crash test dummy needs the participation of various countries in order to develop a crash test dummy that meets the national conditions of each country. Simultaneously, it is necessary to develop dummies of vulnerable groups, such as the elderly dummy and obese people dummy.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Nov 2018 05:16:11 +000
       
  • Neural Prosthetics:A Review of Empirical vs. Systems Engineering
           Strategies

    • Abstract: Implantable electrical interfaces with the nervous system were first enabled by cardiac pacemaker technology over 50 years ago and have since diverged into almost all of the physiological functions controlled by the nervous system. There have been a few major clinical and commercial successes, many contentious claims, and some outright failures. These tend to be reviewed within each clinical subspecialty, obscuring the many commonalities of neural control, biophysics, interface materials, electronic technologies, and medical device regulation that they share. This review cites a selection of foundational and recent journal articles and reviews for all major applications of neural prosthetic interfaces in clinical use, trials, or development. The hard-won knowledge and experience across all of these fields can now be amalgamated and distilled into more systematic processes for development of clinical products instead of the often empirical (trial and error) approaches to date. These include a frank assessment of a specific clinical problem, the state of its underlying science, the identification of feasible targets, the availability of suitable technologies, and the path to regulatory and reimbursement approval. Increasing commercial interest and investment facilitates this systematic approach, but it also motivates projects and products whose claims are dubious.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Nov 2018 01:20:56 +000
       
  • Active Impedance Control of Bioinspired Motion Robotic Manipulators: An
           Overview

    • Abstract: There are two main categories of force control schemes: hybrid position-force control and impedance control. However, the former does not take into account the dynamic interaction between the robot’s end effector and the environment. In contrast, impedance control includes regulation and stabilization of robot motion by creating a mathematical relationship between the interaction forces and the reference trajectories. It involves an energetic pair of a flow and an effort, instead of controlling a single position or a force. A mass-spring-damper impedance filter is generally used for safe interaction purposes. Tuning the parameters of the impedance filter is important and, if an unsuitable strategy is used, this can lead to unstable contact. Humans, however, have exceptionally effective control systems with advanced biological actuators. An individual can manipulate muscle stiffness to comply with the interaction forces. Accordingly, the parameters of the impedance filter should be time varying rather than value constant in order to match human behavior during interaction tasks. Therefore, this paper presents an overview of impedance control strategies including standard and extended control schemes. Standard controllers cover impedance and admittance architectures. Extended control schemes include admittance control with force tracking, variable impedance control, and impedance control of flexible joints. The categories of impedance control and their features and limitations are well introduced. Attention is paid to variable impedance control while considering the possible control schemes, the performance, stability, and the integration of constant compliant elements with the host robot.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Real-Time Evaluation of the Signal Processing of sEMG Used in Limb
           Exoskeleton Rehabilitation System

    • Abstract: As an important branch of medical robotics, a rehabilitation training robot for the hemiplegic upper limbs is a research hotspot of rehabilitation training. Based on the motion relearning program, rehabilitation technology, human anatomy, mechanics, computer science, robotics, and other fields of technology are covered. Based on an sEMG real-time training system for rehabilitation, the exoskeleton robot still has some problems that need to be solved in this field. Most of the existing rehabilitation exoskeleton robotic systems are heavy, and it is difficult to ensure the accuracy and real-time performance of sEMG signals. In this paper, we design a real-time training system for the upper limb exoskeleton robot based on the EMG signal. It has four main characteristics: light weight, portability, high precision, and low delay. This work includes the structure of the rehabilitation robotic system and the method of signal processing of the sEMG. An experiment on the accuracy and time delay of the sEMG signal processing has been done. In the experimental results, the recognition accuracy of the sEMG is 94%, and the average delay time is 300 ms, which meets the accuracy and real-time requirements.
      PubDate: Sun, 14 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Mechanobiological Analysis of Molar Teeth with Carious Lesions through the
           Finite Element Method

    • Abstract: The analysis of the distribution of stress in dental organs is a poorly studied area. That is why computational mechanobiological analysis at the tissue level using the finite element method is very useful to achieve a better understanding of the biomechanics and the behaviour of dental tissues in various pathologies. This knowledge will allow better diagnoses, customize treatment plans, and establish the basis for the development of better restoration materials. In the present work, through the use of high-fidelity biomodels, computational mechanobiological analyses were performed on four molar models affected with four different degrees of caries, which are subjected to masticatory forces. With the analyses performed, it is possible to observe that the masticatory forces that act on the enamel are not transmitted to the dentin and to the bone and periodontal ligament to protect the nerve, as it happens in a healthy dental organ. With the presence of decay, these forces are transmitted partly to the pulp. The reactions to the external loads on the dental organs depend on the advances of the carious lesion that they present, since the distribution of stresses is different in a healthy tooth.
      PubDate: Sun, 14 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Injury Analysis and Prevention in Vehicle Safety

    • PubDate: Thu, 04 Oct 2018 04:50:02 +000
       
  • Effect of Wing-Wing Interaction on the Propulsive Performance of Two
           Flapping Wings at Biplane Configuration

    • Abstract: The biplane counter-flapping wing is a special type of wing flapping which is inspired from the fish and insect in nature. The propulsive performance is one of the most important considerations for this kind of flapping wing. This paper is aimed at providing a systematic synthesis on the propulsive characteristics of two flapping wings at biplane configuration based on the numerical analysis approach. Firstly, parameters of this special flapping wing are presented. Secondly, the numerical method for simultaneously solving the incompressible flow and counter-flapping motion of the wing is illustrated, and the method is then validated. Thirdly, the effects of phase angle and mean wing spacing on the propulsive characteristics of the biplane counter-flapping wing are analyzed. Finally, the quantification effects of the phase angle and mean wing spacing on the propulsive characteristics of the biplane counter-flapping wing can be obtained. The analysis results in this study will provide useful guidelines to design an effectively propulsive system applying for the flapping micro air or underwater vehicle.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Sep 2018 09:15:14 +000
       
  • The Effects of Selective Muscle Weakness on Muscle Coordination in the
           Human Arm

    • Abstract: Despite the fundamental importance of muscle coordination in daily life, it is currently unclear how muscle coordination adapts when the musculoskeletal system is perturbed. In this study, we quantified the impact of selective muscle weakness on several metrics of muscle coordination. Seven healthy subjects performed 2D and 3D isometric force target matches, while electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from 13 elbow and shoulder muscles. Subsequently, muscle weakness was induced by a motor point block of brachialis muscle. Postblock subjects repeated the force generation tasks. We quantified muscle coordination pre- and postblock using three metrics: tuning curve preferred direction, tuning curve area, and motor modules analysis via nonnegative matrix factorization. For most muscles, the tuning direction for the 2D protocol was not substantially altered postblock, while tuning areas changed more drastically. Typically, five motor modules were identified from the 3D task, and four motor modules were identified in the 2D task; this result held across both pre- and postblock conditions. The composition of one or two motor modules, ones that involved mainly the activation of shoulder muscles, was altered postblock. Our results demonstrate that selective muscle weakness can induce nonintuitive alternations in muscle coordination in the mechanically redundant human arm.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Sep 2018 06:10:36 +000
       
 
 
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